PSY 150 403 Chapter 11 SLIDES


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  • Click to reveal bullets. The answer to the slide question will develop over the course of the this section. However, what we’re looking for here is student’s ability to separate the factors, to see that the stressor (whatever’s on his laptop) could be addressed, or his appraisal and other parts of his stress reaction could be changed.
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  • Click to reveal bullets.Instructor: the fourth category refers to the daily challenge of managing poverty, powerlessness, being a persistent target for injustice, discrimination, bullying, other low social/economic freedom, or facing oppression as a society or as a subgroup. For example, some readers of this text live under regimes or with competing groups that monitor and control their lives, lacking freedom and risking unexpected violence.
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  • Click to reveal text boxes.Instructor: here again is a more complete list of the proposed fourth category, which has been combined with “Daily Hassles” to become “Chronic Daily Difficulties.” The fourth category refers to the daily challenge of managing poverty, powerlessness, being a persistent target for injustice, facing oppression as a society or as a subgroup, discrimination, bullying, or other low social/economic freedom.
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  • No animation.Stress exposure has also been found to delay the healing of wounds.
  • Click to reveal bullets.By next edition of this text, there will probably also be a slide about stress and neurological decline; research in 2011 and 2012 shows an impact of stress on factors related to Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease.Implication of the relationship between stress and AIDS: reducing fearful avoidance of people with AIDS and discrimination against populations seen as being at risk of AIDS might reduce the stress of these populations and prevent or slow the progression of the disease. This is something to consider when one’s fearful or discriminatory impulses kick in, for those people not part of these populations.
  • Click to reveal sidebar bullets.Stress increases the risk of heart disease over decades and causes immediate heart attacks. However, stress can also increase cholesterol levels and artery clogging factors in the space of weeks (the accountant study in the text) and prevent the liver from filtering cholesterol and fat from the blood.
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  • Click to show text boxes.Suppressing negative emotions only worsens the risk of heart disease. Reducing risk comes from a genuine change in attitude and treatment of factors related to negative emotions.
  • Click to reveal bullets.The role of this intervening variable may explain why increasing levels of Omega-3 fatty acids seems in some reports to have an impact on the incidence of both depression and heart disease.
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  • Click to reveal bullets.Instructor: this can serve as an overview of the rest of the chapter, though the topics coming up won’t always tie this well to the theme of promoting health. One section, on optimism, does not have its own slide; this is because the section does not offer new material except for some correlational studies that don’t provide evidence that improving optimism causes improvements in health.
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  • Click to reveal examples. In each row, they appear one at a time: Pessimism, then Optimism, then Realism.
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  • Click to reveal bullets and text box.Instructor: if you are not familiar with the sport of “Ultimate,” here’s a two-sentence summary. You and up to six teammates make passes (with a disc, usually not a “Frisbee” brand) to each other down a field to score by catching the disc in an end zone. Any incomplete pass is a turnover and the defense instantly picks up the disc and becomes the offense, making passes to move the disc toward the other end zone.Another comment to make about aerobic exercise in Ultimate: you can’t run with the disc, so catching the disc and looking for a teammate to throw to gives you a running break of about two to ten seconds (the time limit for making the next pass).
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  • Click to reveal bullets.Instructor: before clicking to make any bullets appear, you might make an introductory comment to connect to the previous slide, such as “One component of healthy lifestyle modification is spending more time in relaxation.”
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  • No animation.Instructor: the goal of students in the past decade may not ensure their well-being, or at least not their happiness. Evidence seems to show that striving for wealth is less likely to lead to happiness than striving for intimacy, contribution to society, and personal growth (Kasser, 2011, cited by Myers on page 482).You can invite students to interpret this data. Note that it applies to college first-year students. Is it possible that this reflects changing attitudes about what college is about? Maybe in the 1960’s, college students were there as more of a luxury, and were spending time searching for a new set of guidelines for life. Perhaps in the 1980’s, students may have entered college more pragmatically, thinking about how they need to earn enough after graduation to pay for the inflated cost.
  • Click to reveal bullets.Instructor: this graph and its comments can be explained in part by two upcoming concepts, adaptation and relative deprivation. You can add that this pattern of increased wealth not correlating with increased happiness applies when comparing nations as well comparing different time periods.
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  • Click to reveal bullets.Instructor, you could introduce this slide by saying, “If you are stuck in depression, you may need treatment. However, in general, there are steps you can take to maximize your likelihood and degree of feeling content, satisfied, and even having more days of feeling joy.”Brainstorm other ideas for happiness. One omission that might not come up: have an appropriate locus of control, not assuming either powerlessness or total ability to prevent bad things from happening. A related idea, which some students may know as part of the “Serenity Prayer”: know what you’re able to change/influence and focus on what you’re able to do, rather than focusing your attention on roadblocks, limitations, and other factors you can’t change.
  • PSY 150 403 Chapter 11 SLIDES

    1. 1. Chapter 11 Stress, Health, and Human Flourishing PowerPoint® Presentation by Jim Foley
    2. 2. Stress and Health Topics that hopefully won’t become stressors  Stress: a Process of perceiving and responding to stressors  Stressors:  Catastrophes,  Life Changes,  Daily Hassles  The stress response system: General Adaptation Syndrome Psychoneuroimmunology:  Stress and Illness  Stress and AIDS, cancer, Heart Disease  Personality Factors and stress: Type A, pessimism  The role of hormones and inflammation
    3. 3. Health Psychology  Emotions, as well as personality, attitudes, behaviors, and responses to stress, can have an impact on our overall health.  Health psychology studies these impacts, as part of the broader field of behavioral medicine.  Topics of study in health psychology include:  the phases of stress response and adaptation  how stress and health are affected by • appraisal of stressors • severity of stressors • personality types • perceived control • emotion or problem focus • optimism • social support • exercise • relaxation • religious faith and participation
    4. 4. Stress: A Focus of Health Psychology  Many people report being affected by “stress.”  Some terms psychologists use to talk about stress:  a stressor is an event or condition which we view as threatening, challenging, or overwhelming.  Examples include poverty, an explosion, a psychology test, feeling cold, being in a plane, and loud noises.  appraisal refers to deciding whether to view something as a stressor.  stress reaction refers to any emotional and physical responses to the stressor such as rapid Stress refers to the process of appraising and responding to events which we consider threatening or challenging.
    5. 5. Clarifying the Components of Stress  Stress isn’t something that happens to you; it’s a process in which you participate.  The process includes the stressor (event or condition), cognitive appraisal, body response, and coping strategies.  The advantage of breaking “stress” into these components is that we can see options for altering each of these different factors. What could this person do to reduce his level of suffering from stress?
    6. 6. Appraisal: Choosing How to View a Situation Questions to ask yourself when facing a possible stressor: Is this a challenge, and will I tackle it? Is it overwhelming, and will I give up? There are few conditions* that are inherently and universally stressful; we can often choose our appraisal and our responses. *extreme, chronic physical threats or challenges (such as noise or starvation)
    7. 7. Beneficial and Harmful Stress Effects A brief experience of stress can be beneficial:  improving immune system response  motivating action  focusing priorities  feeling engaged, energized, and satisfied  providing challenges that encourage growth, knowledge, and self-esteem Extreme or prolonged stress, causes problems:  mental and physical coping systems become overwhelmed and defeated rather than strengthened  immune functioning and other health factors decline because of damage The key factor is whether there is a chance for recovery and healing.
    8. 8. Stressors There may be a spectrum of levels of intensity and persistence of stressors. We can also see stressors as falling into one of four* categories:  catastrophes.  significant life changes.  chronic daily hassles.  low social status/power. *the text focuses on the first three. Stressors refer to the events and conditions that trigger our stress response, because they are perceived/ appraised as overwhelmingly challenging, threatening, and/ or harmful.
    9. 9. Catastrophic Events/Conditions  Appraisal is not essential in a catastrophic event. Most people agree that the event is harmful and overwhelming.  Examples include earthquakes, floods, hurricane s, war/combat, and wildfires.  It can be one single event or chronic harmful conditions.  Short-term effects include increased heart attacks on the day of the event.  Long term effects include depression, nightmares, a nxiety, and flashbacks.  Bonding: both the trauma and the recovery are shared with others.
    10. 10. Major Life Events/Changes  Even supposedly “happy” life changes, such as marriage, starting college or a new job, or the birth or adoption of a child, can bring increased challenge and stress.  Change is often challenging.  New roles, new priorities, and new tasks can put a strain on our coping resources.  The challenge, and the negative impact on health, increases when:  the changes are painful, such as a death in family, loss of job, or heart attack.  the changes are in a cluster, and there are too many at once.
    11. 11. Chronic Daily Difficulties Daily difficulties can be caused by facing too many tasks, too little time, and too little control. Daily difficulties can be caused by the lack of social power and freedom:  being bullied  living in poverty  living under oppressive political conditions
    12. 12. The Body’s Stress Response System When encountering a sudden trauma or other stressor, our body acts to increase our resistance to threat and harm. Phase 1: The “fight or flight” sympathetic nervous system responds, reducing pain and increasing the heart rate. The core of the adrenal glands produces norepinephrine and epinephrine (adrenaline). This system, identified by Walter Cannon (18711945), gives us energy to act. Phase 2: The brain sends signals to the outer part of the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other stress hormones. These focus us on planning adaptive coping strategies and resisting defeat by the stressor. Hans Selye (1907-1982) indentified this extended “resistance” phase of the stress response, followed by: Phase 3: Exhaustion.
    13. 13. General Adaptation Syndrome [GAS] (Identified by Hans Selye): Our stress response system defends, then fatigues.
    14. 14. Effects of Prolonged Stress  The General Adaptation Syndrome [GAS] works well for single exposures to stress.  Repeated and prolonged stress, with too much Phase 3 time, leads to various signs of physical deterioration and premature aging:  the production of new neurons declines  neural circuits in the brain break down  DNA telomeres (chromosome tips) shorten,  cells lose ability to divide,  cells die,  tissue stops regenerating,  early aging and death
    15. 15. Female and Male Stress Response  In response to a stressor such as the death of a loved one, women may “tend and befriend”: nurture themselves and others, and bond together.  The bonding hormone oxytocin may play a role in this bonding.  Women show behavioral and neurological signs of becoming more empathetic under stress.  Men under stress are more likely to socially withdraw and numb themselves with alcohol.  Men are also more likely to become aggressive under stress.  In either case, men’s behavior and brains show LESS empathy and less tuning in to others under stress.
    16. 16. Studying the Stress-Illness Relationship  How does stress increase our risk of disease?  This is the subject of a new field of study: psychoneuroimmunology, the study of how interacting psychological, neural, and endocrine processes affect health.  Psychologists no longer use the term “psychosomatic” because it has come to mean an imagined illness.  We now refer to psychophysiological illness, a real illness caused in part by psychological factors such as the experience of stress.
    17. 17. How the immune system works, befor e stress plays a role:
    18. 18. Stressors Stress Increases The Risk of Illness Here we see psychoneuroimmunology in action:  psychological factors, such as appraisal, thoughts, and feelings.  neurological factors, such as brain signals engaging the stress response system.  immunology, such as stress hormone exposure which suppresses the immune system. Appraisal Thoughts Feelings Brain signals Hormonal action Immune suppression Risk of illness
    19. 19. Psychoneuroimmunology Example: The Impact of Stress on Catching a Cold In a group exposed to germs, those experiencing stress were more likely to catch a cold. This tradeoff between stress response and immune response may help our bodies focus energy on managing stress.
    20. 20. Stress, AIDS, and Cancer AIDS = Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Cancer: the stress link is not as clear  Because the stress response  Stress may weaken the suppresses the immune body’s defenses against response, exposure to the replication and stress obviously worsens spread of malignant cells. the development of AIDS in those exposed to HIV.  Reducing stress slows the progression of AIDS. This does NOT mean that stress causes cancer or AIDS.
    21. 21. Stress and Heart Disease In coronary heart/artery disease, the blood vessels that provide oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle itself become clogged, narrowed, and closed. Clogging of the coronary artery Many factors contribute to heart disease.  Biological: genetic predisposition to high blood pressure and high cholesterol  Behavioral: smoking, inactivity, and high-fat diet  Psychological: chronic stress, and personality styles that worsen the experience of stress
    22. 22. Type A PersonalityStressHeart Disease  People with a type A personality are impatient, verbally aggressive, and always pushing themselves and others to achieve.  People with a type B personality are more relaxed and go with the flow.  In one study, heart attacks ONLY struck people with Type A traits.  Accomplishing goals is healthy, but a compulsion to always be working, with little time spent “smelling the flowers,” is not. Also a problem: ANGER. To reduce anger-related stress: defuse anger with exercise, talking, forgiveness, NOT “letting it out” (catharsis) by screaming, punching.
    23. 23. Pessimism and Heart Disease It can be helpful to realistically anticipate negative events that may happen, and to plan how to prevent or cope with them. Pessimism refers to the assumption that negative outcomes will happen, and often facing them by complaining and/or giving up. Men who are generally pessimistic are more likely to develop heart disease within ten years than optimists.
    24. 24. Depression and Heart Disease  Why does depression appear so often with heart disease? Does one cause the other?  One possible answer is that the two problems are both caused by chronic stress.  There may be an intervening variable: excessive inflammation.
    25. 25. Health Consequences of Chronic Stress: The Repeated Release of Stress Hormones  The stress hormone cortisol helps our bodies respond to brief stress.  Chronically high cortisol levels damage the body.
    26. 26. Coping with Stress and Promoting Health How to go from coping to thriving  Problem-focused and emotion-focused coping  Perceived control and learned helplessness  Benefits of Optimism, Social support  Reducing stress effects with Aerobic Exercise  The power of Faith communities  Complementary and Alternative Medicine
    27. 27. Promoting Health Some ways to reduce the health effects of stress include:  address the stressors.  soothe emotions.  increase one’s sense of control over stressors.  exchange optimism for pessimism.  get social support. Ways that help some people to reduce levels of stress, and to improve health:  aerobic exercise  relaxation and meditation  participation in communities of faith  alternative medicine
    28. 28. Coping with Stress Problem-focused coping means reducing the stressors, such as by working out a conflict, or tackling a difficult project.  Risk: magnifying emotional distress, especially if trying to change something that’s difficult to change (e.g. another person’s traits). Emotion-focused coping means reducing the emotional impact of stress by getting support, comfort, and perspective from others.  Risk: ignoring the problem.  We might focus on this style of coping when we perceive the stressor as something we cannot change.
    29. 29. Learned Helplessness vs. Personal Control Experiment by Martin Seligman: Give a dog no chance of escape from repeated shocks. Result: It will give up on trying to escape pain, even when it later has the option to do so. Normally, most creatures try to escape or end a painful situation. But experience can make us lose hope. Learned Helplessness: Declining to help oneself after repeated attempts to do so have failed. Personal Control: When people are given some choices (not too many), they thrive.
    30. 30. Stress factor: Perceived Level of Control Experiment: the left and middle rats below received shocks. The rat on the left was able to turn off the shocks for both rats. Which rat had the worst stress and health problems?  Only the middle, subordinate rat had increased ulcers.  It is not the level of shock, but the level of control over the shock, which created stress.
    31. 31. External vs. Internal Locus of Control Locus of control: Our perception of where the seat of power over our lives is located. Internal locus of control: we feel that we are in charge of ourselves and our circumstances. Too much internal locus of control: We blame ourselves for bad events, or have the illusion that we have the power to prevent bad events. External locus of control: we picture that a force outside of ourselves controls our fate. Too much external locus of control: We lose initiative, lose motivation to achieve, have more anxiety about what might happen to us, don’t bother developing willpower.
    32. 32. Self-Control: Resource, Skill, Trait  The ability to control impulses and delay gratification, sometimes called “willpower”  This is a finite resource, an expenditure of brain energy, which is replenished but can be depleted short-term: People asked to resist eating cookies later gave up sooner on a tedious task  With practice, we can improve our selfcontrol  There seem to be individual differences in this trait in childhood  The Marshmallow study: Kids who resisted the temptation to eat marshmallows later had more success in school and socially
    33. 33. Optimism vs. Pessimism We can be optimistic or pessimistic in various ways:  Prediction: We can expect the best or the worst. At the extremes, we can get ourselves overconfident or simply depressed or anxious about the future.  Focus of attention: We can focus on what we have (half full) or what we don’t have (empty).  Attribution of intent: We can assume that people meant to hurt us or that they were having a bad day.  Valuation: We can assume that we or others are useless, or that we are lovable, valuable.  Potential for change: We can assume that bad things can’t be changed, or have hope.
    34. 34. Excessive Pessimism I can’t do it, might as well forget it. vs. Realism It might be hard; I’d better plan. Excessive Optimism It will be easy, I won’t think about it. I’m trapped, can’t get out of this I want to make changes or get out. Someone will rescue me. That person hates me, he is against me. I should ask what he feels about me, what he wants. I’m sure he just wants what’s best for me, I’ll trust him. Excessive pessimism can leave us depressed, inactive. Excessive optimism can leave us unprepared, unsafe.
    35. 35. Promoting Health: Social Support  Having close relationships is associated with improved health, immune functioning, and longevity.  Social support, including from pets, provides a calming effect that reduces blood pressure and stress hormones.  Confiding in others helps manage painful feelings.  Laughter helps too. “Well, I think you’re wonderful.”
    36. 36. Aerobic Exercise and Health  Aerobic exercise triggers certain Aerobic exercise refers genes to produce proteins which to sustained activity that guard against more than 20 raises heart rate and chronic diseases and conditions. oxygen consumption.  Aerobic exercise reduces the risk of heart disease, cognitive decline and dementia, and early death. Ultimate (Frisbee): you must run often to “get open” for a pass, then run more to cover the other team and block their passes.
    37. 37. Aerobic Exercise and Mental Health  Aerobic exercise reduces depression and anxiety, and improves management of stress. How do we know?  Aerobic exercise is correlated with high confidence, vitality, and energy, and good mood.  Is there causation? Perhaps depression simply reduces exercise.  One study establishing causation: mildly depressed young women randomly assigned to an exercise group showed reduced depression caused by exercise alone.
    38. 38. Lifestyle Modification  In one study, a control group was given diet, medication, and exercise advice.  An experimental group practiced lifestyle modification, a plan to slow down the pace of one’s life, accept imperfection, and renew faith. Result: modifying lifestyle led to reduced heart attack rates.
    39. 39. Relaxation and Meditation  Use of relaxation techniques can reduce headaches, high blood pressure, anxiety, and insomnia, and improve immune functioning.  People who meditate can learn to create a relaxation response: relaxed muscles, lower blood pressure, and slowed heart rate and breathing.  Meditation also increases brain activity associated with positive emotions.  Steps to get the relaxation response: focus attention on breathing, a focus word, and relaxing muscles from toes upward.
    40. 40. Faith Communities and Health While attendance at religious services may not directly save lives, it may make other healthy practices more likely. Religious attendance seems to have results, especially for men, comparable to the benefit of physically healthy lifestyle choices.
    41. 41. Faith Communities and Health: Intervening Factors The health impact of religious involvement may be indirect. Health may improve because of the lifestyle and emotional factors associated with religious involvement, and not [just] the faith.
    42. 42. Closer Look at a Particular Emotion: Happiness Happiness is:  a mood.  an attitude.  a social phenomenon.  a cognitive filter.  a way to stay hopeful, motivated, and connected to others. The feel-good, do-good phenomenon: when in a good mood, we do more for others. The reverse is also true: doing good feels good.
    43. 43. A More Positive Psychology  Martin Seligman, who earlier kept dogs from escaping his shocks until they developed learned helplessness.  Developed Positive Psychology, the “scientific study of optimal human functioning,” finding ways to help people thrive.  Focus: building strengths, virtue, emotional wellbeing, resilience, optimism, sens Three e of meaning. pillars of Positive Psychology: 1. Emotions, e.g. engagement 2. Character, e.g. courage 3. Groups, Culture, Institutions
    44. 44. Over the Course of a Week Happiness has its ups and downs. Levels of happiness, as well as other emotions, can vary over the course of a week (we like the weekend), and even over the course of a day (don’t stay awake too long!). Over the Course of a Day
    45. 45. Wealth and Well-Being: A Change in Goals  In the late 1960s, students entering college had a primary goal of developing a meaningful life philosophy.  Since 1977, being very well-off financially has become more of a primary goal for first year students.
    46. 46. Can Money Buy Happiness? Money seems to buy happiness when it lifts people out of extreme poverty. Otherwise, money doesn’t seem to help our mood much. 1. The average level of income (adjusted for inflation) and purchasing power has increased in the United States. 2. The percentage of people feeling very happy, though, has not followed the same trend of improvement.
    47. 47. Adaptation-Level Phenomenon  When we step into the sunshine, it seems very bright at first. Then our senses adapt and we develop a “new normal.” If a cloud covers the sun, it may seem “dark” in comparison.  The “very bright” sensation is temporary.  The adaptation-level phenomenon: when our wealth or other life conditions improve, we are happier compared to our past condition.  However, then we adapt, form a “new normal” level, and most people must get another boost to feel the same satisfaction.
    48. 48. Adapting Attitudes Instead of Circumstances  Because of the adaptation-level phenomenon, our level of contentment does not permanently stay higher when we gain income and wealth; we keep adjusting our expectations.  It is also true that misfortune, disability, and loss do not result in a permanent decrease in happiness.  In both cases, humans tend to adapt.
    49. 49. Relative Deprivation  If the average income has risen by 10 percent in your area, it might be hard to feel great about a 5 percent rise in your income because of  People who were satisfied with their own lives might become less satisfied if other people get more power, recognition, and income.  We can affect our happiness by choosing the people to whom we compare ourselves.  However, the tendency is to compare ourselves to people who are more successful. Relative deprivation: feeling worse off by comparing yourself to people who are doing better.
    50. 50. Correlates of Happiness There are behaviors that seem to go with happiness. Whether they are the cause or the effect of happiness is not clear, but it can’t hurt to try them. Researchers have found that happy people tend to:       Happiness seems not much related to other factors: Have high self-esteem (in individualistic  Age (example: the woman at countries) the laptop in the picture) Be optimistic, outgoing, and agreeable  Gender (women are more Have close friendships or a satisfying often depressed, but also marriage Have work and leisure that engage their more often joyful) skills  Parenthood (having children Have an active religious faith or not) Sleep well and exercise  Physical attractiveness There also may be a genetic basis for a predisposition to happiness. Whether because of genes, culture, or personal history, we each seem to develop a mood “set point,” a level of happiness to which we keep returning.
    51. 51. Possible Ways to Increase Your Chances at Happiness  Look beyond wealth for satisfaction.  Bring your habits in line with your goals; take control of your time.  Smile and act happy.  Find work and leisure that engages your skills.  Exercise, or just move!  Focus on the needs and wishes of others.  Work, rest, …and SLEEP.  Notice what goes well, and express gratitude.  Nurture spirituality, meaning, and community.  Make your close relationships a priority.