PSY 150 401 Chapter 10 SLIDES

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  • Click to reveal bullets.The drive to survive might seem more obvious, but see if students can guess why the drive to reproduce is listed here. Ralston, after thinking he had no way to survive, had a dream of a one-armed man picking up a young boy. Maybe this stirred up his desire to live to be a father someday. [His first child, Leo, was born in 2010.]
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  • No animation.Humans may have a general nesting “instinct,” but the specific behavior is less predictable. The bird can only build one kind of nest, but humans may decorate a baby’s room in a variety of ways, or use this general “instinct” to simply buy and repair a home.
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  • Click to reveal bullets and picture of kids.It seems that curiosity can be considered a basic need or drive to get to know one’s environment to improve the chances of survival. However, in this model, curiosity is seen as a way of seeking an optimum arousal level.People with ADHD seem to seek stimulation for this reason; it increases dopamine levels almost as well as Ritalin, although the pursuit of such stimulation, even by fidgeting, can be disruptive.It is not clear that the curiosity of scientists, though, serves to increase physiological arousal.
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  • Click to reveal bullets.Instructor: after the third bullet point, you can add that forcing children to try new foods multiple times might make sense. Their first aversion to a food is a biologically protective reaction but it does not predict whether they will eventually like it.
  • Click to reveal bullet points.Instructor: the buffet effect (not an official term; I just made it up here) can be explained in evolutionary terms. See if students can guess or recall from the reading that our ancestors stored fat and nutrients during bountiful times, when more variety was available. For example, humans prepared for possible winter famines in early fall when more kinds of plants were bearing fruit and animals were storing fat.
  • No animation.Instructor: here, you can try to bring the eating topic back to the chapter topic of motivation by showing how complex the idea of “motivation” can be when it comes to the case of a desire to eat a particular food. This may highlight the idea that food addictions and disorders are [now] missing from this chapter, so I’ve added a slide next that fills in a gap and connects to the next topic.
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  • Click to reveal bullets and sidebar bullets.Instructor: if you decide to keep the word “poverty” in the last bullet point on the left, you can prompt students by saying, “and when food is available to people in poverty living in neighborhoods with easy access only to convenient stores, what food is most easily and cheaply available?” This is why people in poverty might be obese but it may not be a sign that they are “spoiled” or do not have a problem with adequate income.
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  • OPTIONAL SLIDE, material not in this edition of the text. Click to reveal text box.Abusive relationships typically undermine our autonomy and our sense of self-efficacy/competence. Ironically, this makes us less likely to leave an abusive relationship.
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  • Click to reveal bullets.Regarding the face-to-face interaction: I suggest pointing out here that something called “Facebook” may have reduced our exposure to both faces and books.
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  • Click to show three boxes and text on the right.Instructor, this definition of emotion may not seem to say much. However, it differentiates an emotion from a mood, which is NOT a response to a situation, and an attitude, which is a predisposition to act in a certain way in a situation. It also differentiates an emotion from one’s affect,which are the outwardly expressive signs, especially facial expression and other nonverbal behaviors, that seem to be related to emotions. Students may need a reminder that “arousal” means a wide range of energetic bodily responses, and not just sexual arousal. As we’ll review later, this arousal refers to activation of the sympathetic nervous system, including pounding heart, increased breathing, energy, sweating, etc.
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  • Click to reveal bullets.Instructor: the last bullet is a preview of the facial feedback hypothesis presented later in this chapter under the topic of expressed emotion.The James–Lange theory is one of the earliest theories of emotion, developed independently by the William James (1842-1910) from the United States and Carl Lange (1834-1900) from Denmark.
  • Click to reveal bullets.Walter Cannon (1871-1945) and Philip Bard (1898-1977) developed their model of emotion in the first half of the 20th century.
  • Click to reveal bullets.Stanley Schachter (1922-1997) and Jerome Singer (d. 2010) developed the “two-factor” theory of emotion in 1962.
  • Click to reveal bullets.Richard Lazarus (1922-2002) notes that some “top-down” cognitive functions such as threat-appraisal can be involved, but these emotional responses can still operate without conscious thought.Joseph LeDoux (b. 1949) and Robert Zajonc (1923-2008) proposed their ideas in the second half of the 20th century.
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  • Click to reveal bullets.Instructor: the labels “approach” and “withdrawal” are not from this text, but are included here to help make sense of the correlation. The left hemisphere is good for analyzing details (up close, approaching) and the right hemisphere is good for understanding the big picture.
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  • Click to reveal bullets.Instructor: another term for expressed emotion (the emotional signs of emotion that we can detect in others) is “affect” (pronounced with the first syllable stressed).
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  • Click to reveal bullets.Instructor: you can challenge students by asking them to make quicker judgments about similar images. “Which one in the first row is closer to “joy”? [left is happy, right is surprise]. Which one in the second row is “sad”? [left is sad, right is afraid]Which one in the last row is “angry”? [left is anger, right is disgust]. See if students can see the differences in the nose and eyes in the image on the right.
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  • Click to reveal bullets.Instructor: here are some introductory comments before the bullets appear. We seem biologically ready for emotional experience (sadness) to trigger a related facial expression (drooping eyes, frown).How connected are these feelings and expressive behaviors? Does the connection work in the other direction? Will frowning make me sad?(The images from the book have labels removed. You can remind students of the bandages/rubber band placement.)Exercise you can do with students: with a box of straws, have students alternately 1) hold the end of the straw pursed in their lips only, head tipped down, and 2) hold the straw sideways in their mouths, in gritted teeth, pushed back so that lips are stretched and pushed back, head held back. In each case, ask them to think about a person 1) who lives in the room/house next door, and 2) who lives across the hall/street. Take a poll to see if people felt more negatively about 2) and more positively about 1).About the man at the top feeling happier, you can ask your students: was this because of the facial feedback effect, or because the guy at the bottom was more uncomfortable? 

Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 10 Motivation and Emotion PowerPoint® Presentation by Jim Foley
  • 2. Overview Motivation:  Theories of Motivation: Drives, Arousal, Heirarchy of Motives Some Motivations in Depth:  Hunger  Belonging  Achievement     Emotion: The roles of Arousal, Behavior, and Cognition Embodied Emotion: What’s going on in the body during emotions Expressed and Experienced Emotion The influence of culture and gender
  • 3. Basic Motivation Concepts, Hunger, and Belonging Topics you might be driven to learn about Models of Motivation:  Instincts and Evolutionary Psychology  Drives and Incentives  Seeking Optimum Arousal levels  A Hierarchy of Motives
  • 4. Motivation Motivation: a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it towards a goal. For example, Aron Ralston found the motivation to cut off his own arm when trapped on a cliff in Utah in 2003. What motivated him to do this? Hunger? The drive to survive? The drive to reproduce?
  • 5. Perspectives on Motivation Instinct Theory  Evolutionary Perspective Hierarchy of Needs/Motives There are different ways of thinking of the way motivation works, all of which relate to the “push” of biological processes and the “pull” of culture, social forces, and ideals. Arousal [Optimization] Theory DriveReduction Theory
  • 6. Do Instincts Direct Human Behavior? An instinct is a fixed (rigid and predictable) pattern of behavior that is not acquired by learning and is likely to be rooted in genes and the body. Human “nesting” behavior Instinctual nesting
  • 7. Instincts  Evolutionary Perspective Other species have genetically programmed instincts “motivating” their actions. Do humans?  Human babies show certain reflexes, but in general, our behavior is less prescribed by genetics than other animals.  We may, however, have general patterns of behavior which can be explained as emerging through natural selection.  Instinct theory has given way to evolutionary theory in explaining human behavior.
  • 8. Drive Reduction  A drive is an aroused/tense state related to a physical need such as hunger or thirst.  Drive-reduction theory refers to the idea that humans are motivated to reduce these drives, such as eating to reduce the feeling of hunger. This restores homeostasis, a steady internal state.
  • 9. Seeking Optimum Arousal  Some behavior seems driven by a need to either increase or decrease our physiological arousal level.  Curiosity, as with kids and these monkeys, may seek stimulation to reach an optimum arousal level.  A hunger for stimulation, novelty, makes humans infovores, seekers of knowledge.
  • 10. Performance and Arousal Level What happen when we succeed at raising our arousal levels? Yerkes-Dodson Law: Arousal levels can help performance but too much arousal can interfere with performance. For taking an exam, moderate arousal might be best. Below: the effect of arousal on performance depends on how comfortable we are with the task.
  • 11. Hierarchy of Needs/Motives Abraham Maslow proposed that humans strive to ensure that basic needs are satisfied; then, they find motivation to pursue goals that are higher on this hierarchy.
  • 12. Violating the Hierarchy?  Do hunger strikers and mystics feel secure enough in meeting their needs that they can do without food temporarily to pursue a higher goal? Soldiers sacrifice safety, but could they be seen as fighting for safety, both indirectly (protecting the country) and directly (defeating the people shooting at them)?
  • 13. Topics you might be hungry to learn about  Hunger:  Body Chemistry and Brain control of Hunger  Cultural and Situational effects on Hunger  Obesity and weight control challenges: Physiology, social factors, food and activity factors
  • 14. A closer look at one need/motive: Hunger Research on hunger is consistent with Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy:  In one study, men whose food intake had been cut in half became obsessed with food.  Hunger even changes our motivations as we plan for the future.
  • 15. Physiology of Hunger  Experiments and other investigations show a complex relationship among the stomach, hormones, and different parts of the brain.  Feeling hungry can include stomach contractions; the feeling can happen even if the stomach is removed or filled with a balloon.
  • 16. The Hypothalamus and Hunger Receptors in the digestive system monitor levels of glucose and send signals to the hypothalamus in the brain. The hypothalamus then can send out appetitestimulating hormones to tell the body: time to eat!
  • 17. The Body Talks Back to the Brain The hypothalamus sends appetite-stimulating hormones, and later, after eating, sends appetitesuppressing hormones. Hormones travel from various organs of the body back to the brain to convey messages that increase or decrease appetite.
  • 18. Regulating Weight  When a person’s weight drops or increases, the body responds by adjusting hunger and energy use to bring weight back to its initial stable amount.  Most mammals, without consciously regulating, have a stable weight to which they keep returning. This is also known as their set point.  A person’s set point might rise with age, or change with economic or cultural conditions. Therefore, this “set point” of stable weight is more of a current but temporary “settling point.”
  • 19. Which foods to eat? Taste Preferences  Some taste preferences are universal. Carbohydrates temporarily raise levels of serotonin, reducing stress and depression.  Other tastes are acquired and become favorites through exposure, culture, and conditioning.  Different cultures encourage different tastes. Some cultures find these foods to be delicious: reindeer fat and berries, or roasted guinea pig.
  • 20. Biology, Evolution, and Taste Preferences Differences in taste preferences are not arbitrary. Personal and cultural experience, influenced by biology, play a role.  We can acquire a food aversion after just one incident of getting sick after tasting a food.  It is adaptive in warm climates to develop a taste for salt and spice, which preserve food.  Disliking new tastes (neophobia) may have helped to protect our ancestors.
  • 21. How much do we eat? Eating depends in part on situational influences.  Social facilitation: the presence of others accentuates our typical eating habits  Unit bias: we may eat only one serving/unit (scoop, plateful, bun-full) of food, but will eat more if the serving size is larger  Buffet effect: we eat more if more options are available
  • 22. Influences on Eating Behavior
  • 23. Do we need to control our hunger?  When we eat enough to noticeably gain weight, we can face discrimination, bullying, and depression.  Standards for body size can vary in different cultures, sometimes creating an unhealthy norm of being overweight or underweight.  Body fat has been seen as a sign of affluence, and thus has been considered attractive.  But at a certain ratio of weight to height, health risks arise.
  • 24. The Physiology of Obesity  Having some body fat is normal and healthy; fat stores energy.  Being mildly overweight is not necessarily a problem if the person is in good physical condition or exercising.  Obesity can lead to health problems, including diabetes, heart disease, cognitive decline, and some cancers.  The physiology of obesity can also make it hard to lose weight, due to set point/metabolism, genetics, appetite, and lifestyle factors.  Obesity, and losing weight, is not just an issue of motivation.
  • 25. Set Point and Metabolism  For a variety of reasons, a person’s set point, the stable weight the body keeps returning to, drifts from a healthy weight.  Those who becomes overweight develop a new set point that is now hard to shift. Why?  Once the set point has shifted, metabolism shifts to maintain it; resting metabolism slows.  Starving to lose weight slows metabolism further.  Hunger kicks in when weight goes below he new set point.  Because the body works this way: It is thus easier to stay lean than become lean.
  • 26. The Genetics of Obesity  Adopted siblings eating the same meals end up with a BMI/weight resembling biological parents, not people in the same household.  Identical twins have similar weights, even when raised apart with different food.  There seem to be many genes with effects on weight. Lifestyle Factors and Obesity  People who are restless and fidgeting burn off more calories and gain less weight than others.  Inadequate sleep causes weight gain, despite increased active time, because of appetite hormones.  Having an obese friend correlates with becoming obese.  Sedentary lifestyles and fast food may be leading to increased body fat worldwide.
  • 27. Prevalence of Obesity Rates of being overweight BMI (body mass index) >30: Obese Projected  1 billion people worldwide are overweight, 300 million of which are obese (BMI >30).
  • 28. Obesity and Weight Control How does obesity develop, and why is it hard to change?  It was adaptive for our ancestors to crave energy-rich food when available. Problem: energy-rich ‘junk’ food is now easily available, and cheaper than healthy food  It is adaptive to slow down our burning of fat when food is scarce. Problem: in poverty or in crash diets, our body can slow down weight loss
  • 29. Losing Weight: The Challenge Because of the physiological factors and perhaps due to lifestyle and peer issues:  once obese, weight loss is difficult, and permanent weight loss is even harder.  obsessive weight loss attempts can add to shame, anxiety, depression, and disordered eating habits. Losing Weight: The Plan If you decide to move your body’s set point to a lower body weight:  Begin with an understanding of the metabolic challenges you face, so that you blame slow progress on physiology, not poor willpower.  Begin with self-acceptance and a decision to change, rather than feeling shame.  Make gradual and consistent, not drastic and varying, lifestyle changes.  Increase exercise and healthy food choices.  Get support.
  • 30. Another Motivation: “To Belong” What do people need besides food and sex?  Aristotle: social life  Alfred Adler: community  In Middle English, to be wretched [wrecche] means to “be without kin nearby”  Roy Baumeister, Mark Leary, and Abraham Maslow say we need: “To Belong.” Belonging: being connected to others, part of a group or family or community.
  • 31. Why do we have a need to belong? Emotional support to get through crises Keeping children close to caregivers Evolutionary psychology perspective: seeking bonds with others aids survival in many ways Division of labor to allow growing food Mutual protection in a group Cooperation in hunting and sharing food
  • 32. Balancing Bonding with Other Needs  The need to bond with others is so strong that we can feel lost without close relationships.  However, we also seem to need autonomy and a sense of personal competence/efficacy. There a tension between “me” and “us,” but these goals can work together.  Belonging builds self-esteem, and prepares us for confident autonomy.
  • 33. The Need to Belong Leads to: loyalty to friends, teams, groups, and families. However, the need to belong also leads to:  changing our appearance to win acceptance.  staying in abusive relationships.  joining gangs, nationalist groups, and violent organizations.
  • 34. Disrupted Bonds, New Beginnings  Children repeatedly moved away from primary caretakers in childhood may have difficulty forming deep attachments in adulthood.  People losing a loved one or moving away from a hometown can feel grief.  Being ostracized, cut off from social contact or excluded, can lead to real physical pain. And yet people can find resilience and relief from pain by building social connections.
  • 35. Social Networking = Social Connection? Is our online selfdisclosure honest, and healthy? Is social networking making us more connected, or less?  Do updates and tweets build connection?  Use of social networking can become a compulsion, sacrificing face-to-face interaction and indepth conversation.  Research shows: Portrayal of one’s self online is often close to one’s actual sense of self.  Research shows: Online social networking is associated with  Narcissism/self-centeredness  less connection to neighbors  more connection to people who share our narrow interests and viewpoints
  • 36. Motivation to excel in work What is our motivation to do well in our jobs? Is it just the desire for belonging, and gaining income to meet basic needs? Humans in many cultures seem to have an achievement motivation, a desire for:  accomplishment of goals,  mastery of skills,  meeting of standards,  control of resources. What helps us satisfy our achievement motivation? • Discipline: Sticking to a task despite distractions • 10-year rule: Having enough experience to Develop expertise in a field • Grit: passionate persistence at a goal • Hardiness: Resilience under stress
  • 37. Introduction to Emotion Physiological Arousal:  Comes before emotion (James-Lange theory)  Comes with emotion (Cannon-Bard theory)  Becomes an emotion when cognitive appraisal/label is added (Shacter-Singer two-factor theory) Emotions and the brain: Sometimes cognition is bypassed in emotional reactions Emotions and the body: The Autonomic Nervous system Emotions with different brain and body response patterns
  • 38. Emotion: Arousal, Behavior, and Cognition Someone cuts you off on the road. You may feel the emotion of anger. Emotions are a mix of: Expressive behavior: yelling, accelerating Bodily arousal: sweat, pounding heart Conscious experience: (thoughts, especially the labeling of the emotion) What a bad driver! I am angry, even scared; better calm down. How do these components of emotion interact and relate to each other?  Do our thoughts trigger our emotions, or are they a product of our emotions?  How are the bodily signs triggered?  How do we decide which emotion we’re feeling? An emotion is a full body/mind/behavior response to a situation.
  • 39. Theories of Emotion: The Arousal and Cognition “Chicken and Egg” Debates  Which came first, the chicken or the egg? Or did they evolve together?  Which happens first, the body changes that go with an emotion, or the thoughts (conscious awareness and labeling of an emotion), or do they happen together? James-Lange Theory: • body before thoughts Cannon-Bard Theory: • body with thoughts Singer-Schachter/Twofactor theory: • body plus thoughts/label Zajonc, LeDoux, Lazarus: • body/brain without conscious thoughts
  • 40. James-Lange Theory: Body Before Thoughts William James (1842-1910): “We feel afraid because we tremble, sorry because we cry.” The James-Lange theory states that emotion is our conscious awareness of our physiological responses to stimuli.  Our body arousal happens first, and then the cognitive awareness and label for the feeling: “I’m angry.”  According to this theory, if something makes us smile, we may then feel happy.
  • 41. Cannon-Bard Theory: Simultaneous Body Response and Cognitive Experience The Cannon-Bard theory asserts that we have a conscious/cognitive experience of an emotion at the same time as our body is responding, not afterward.  Human body responses run parallel to the cognitive responses rather than causing them. Adjusting the Cannon-Bard Theory  Emotions are not just a separate mental experience. When our body responses are blocked, emotions do not feel as intense.  Our cognitions influence our emotions in many ways, including our interpretations of stimuli: “Is that a threat? Then I’m afraid.”
  • 42. Schachter-Singer “Two-factor” Theory: Emotion = Body Plus a Cognitive Label The Schachter-Singer “two-factor” theory suggests that emotions do not exist until we add a label to whatever body sensations we are feeling. I face a stranger, and my heart is pounding. Is it fear? Excitement? Anger? Lust? Or did I have too much caffeine? The label completes the emotion. In a study by Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer in 1962, subjects experienced a spillover effect when arousal was caused by injections of what turned out to be adrenaline. The subjects interpreted their agitation to whatever emotion the others in the room appeared to be feeling; the emotional label “spilled over” from others.
  • 43. Robert Zajonc, Joseph LeDoux, and Richard Lazarus: Emotions without Awareness/Cognition Theory: some emotional reactions, especially fears, likes, and dislikes, develop in a “low road” through the brain, skipping conscious thought. In one study, people showed an amygdala response to certain images (above, left) without being aware of the image or their reaction.
  • 44. When Appraisal Affects Emotion Schachter and Singer highlighted the role of appraisal in labeling emotions: “this agitation is fear.” Richard Lazarus noted “top- down” cognitive appraisal of stimuli (is that a threat, or something I would enjoy?) influences emotion.
  • 45. Summary: Theories of Emotion
  • 46. Theories of Emotion  Emotion can include the appraisal of the stimulus such as, is it a threat or not? Avoiding the highway today without identifying or explaining any fear is an example of the “low road” of emotion.
  • 47. Is Experienced Emotion as Universal as Expressed Emotion? Carroll Izzard suggested that there are ten basic emotions: those evident at birth (seen here) plus contempt, shame, and guilt.
  • 48. Embodied Emotion: The role of the autonomic nervous system  The physiological arousal felt during various emotions is orchestrated by the sympathetic nervous system, which triggers activity and changes in various organs.  Later, the parasympathetic division calms down the body.
  • 49. Embodied Emotion: How Do Emotions Differ in Body Signs?  It is difficult to see differences in emotions from tracking heart rate, breathing, and perspiration.  There is also a large overlap in the patterns of brain activity across emotions.  There are some small differences; for example, fear triggers more amygdala activity than anger. A general brain pattern: hemispheric differences Positive “approach” emotions (joy, love, goalseeking) correlate with left frontal lobe activity. Negative “withdrawal” emotions (disgust, fear, anger, depression) correlate with right hemisphere activity.
  • 50. Expressed and Experienced Emotion See if you can tell what emotions others are feeling, showing, and expressing about these topics:  Detecting emotions in others  Gender, emotion, nonverbal behavior  Culture and expressed emotions  Using context to read emotions  Are there universally recognized emotions?  Do facial expressions affect feelings?
  • 51. Emotional Expression  Are there universal forms of emotional expression seen on human faces across all cultures?  Are there differences by individual, culture, or gender in how emotions are expressed?  What is the relationship between emotional expression and the inner experience of emotion?  What emotion do we see in these faces and body positions?  If these emotions are hard to read, is it because it’s a different culture from your own, or because it’s a performance?
  • 52. Detecting Emotion in Others  People read a great deal of emotional content in the eyes (“the window to the soul”) and the faces.  Introverts are better at detecting emotions; extroverts have emotions that are easier to read.  We are primed to quickly detect negative emotions, and even negative emotion words.  Those who have been abused are biased toward seeing fearful faces as angry, as in the test below.
  • 53. Detecting Lies and Fakes  Polygraphs (detecting physiological arousal) fail sometimes at correctly identifying when people are lying.  Visible signs of lying: eye blinks decrease, and other facial movements change. In which image is Paul Ekman “lying” with a fake smile?  A real smile uses involuntary muscles around the eyes. Brain signs of lying:
  • 54. Gender and Emotional Expression and Detection  Women seem to have greater and more complex emotional expression.  Women are also more skilled at detecting emotions in others.  However, this is an overgeneralization. People tend to attribute women’s emotionality to their dispositions, and attribute men’s emotions to their circumstances. We also see some emotions as being more “male,” changing our perception of a gender-neutral face based on the emotion (below): Male or female? How about now?
  • 55. Culture and Emotional Expression: Are There Universally Recognized Emotions?  There seem to be some universally understood facial expressions.  People of various cultures agree on the emotional labels for the expressions on the faces on the right.  People in other studies did have more accuracy judging emotions from their own culture.
  • 56. Emotion Detection and Context Cues  What emotions do you see below? How can you tell what emotions he is feeling?  Because the faces are exactly the same, our detection of emotion must be based on context: the situation, gestures, and the tears.
  • 57. Linking Emotions and Expressive Behaviors: Facial Feedback  The facial feedback effect: facial position and muscle changes can alter which emotion we feel.  In one study, people whose faces were moved into smiling or frowning positions experienced a change in mood.  Fake a relaxed smile, and you might feel better!  It’s not just about faces. In one experiment, extending a 1) middle finger or 2) thumb while reading led to seeing characters with 1) hostility or 2) positive attitude. The guy at the top, though forced into a smiling position, ended up feeling happier than the other guy.