Chapter 16:Personality Processes:
Perception, Thought,
Motivation, and Emotion
The Personality Puzzle
Sixth Edition
by Dav...
Objectives
• Discuss the history of research on personality
processes
• Discuss perception, thought, motivation, and
emoti...
Personality Processes
• Includes perception, thought, motivation, and
emotion
• Understanding these will help us understan...
The Historical Roots of Research Into
Personality Processes
• Learning: but ignoring cognition is too limited
• Social lea...
The Historical Roots of Research Into
Personality Processes
• Psychoanalysis: levels of consciousness and
the need for com...
Perception
• People are predisposed to perceive the world
in different ways
• Priming and chronic accessibility
– Part of ...
Perception
• Rejection sensitivity
– Affects interpretation of ambiguous signals
– Often creates a self-fulfilling prophec...
Perception
• Perceptual defense
– Similar to psychoanalytic defense mechanisms
– People can have physiological reactions t...
Thought
• Determines many, but not all, actions
• Not all thinking is conscious
• Consciousness: whatever the individual h...
Thought: Consciousness
• STM and thinking
– Chunking can work with ideas
– Funder’s Fifth Law: the purpose of education is...
Thought: Unconscious Thoughts
• People can do things without knowing why,
know things without knowing that they know,
and ...
Thought: Two Ways of Thinking
• Dual-process models
– Conscious thought is slower
– Freud’s theory: rational and irrationa...
Thought: Two Ways of Thinking
• Cognitive-experiential self-theory (CEST)
– Seeks to explain unconscious processing and th...
14
© 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Thought: Two Ways of Thinking
• CEST
– Different systems may generate different
decisions.
– The systems interact.

15
© 2...
Motivation
• What do you want? How will you try to get it?
• Goals
– Drive behavior by influencing what you attend to,
thi...
Motivation: Goals
• Short-term and long-term goals
• Idiographic goals
– Current concerns
– Personal projects
– Personal s...
Motivation: Goals
• Properties of idiographic goals
– Conscious at least some of the time
– Describe thoughts and behavior...
Motivation: Goals
• Nomothetic goals
– Number of goals
• McClelland’s three primary motivations: needs for
achievement, af...
Motivation: Goals
• Nomothetic goals
– The goals
circumplex
– Useful for seeing
the similarities
and differences
among goa...
Motivation: Goals
• Nomothetic goals
– Judgment goals and development goals
• Can change over time and across situations
•...
Motivation: Goals Across the Life
Span
• Young: preparation for the future
• Old (70+): emotional well-being
• What are yo...
Motivation: Strategies
• Definition
• Strategies and traits
– Traits can produce characteristic adaptations, or
generalize...
Motivation: Strategies
• Defensive pessimism (vs. optimism)
– Coping, performance, and success are similar to
optimists
– ...
Emotion
• A type of procedural knowledge
• A set of mental and physical procedures

25
© 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Emotion: Experience
• Basic stages: appraisal, physical responses,
facial expressions, nonverbal behavior,
motives
• Stage...
Emotion: Varieties of Emotions
• Core emotions: happiness, sadness, anger,
fear, surprise, disgust
• Some emotions may be ...
Emotion: An Emotions Circumplex

28
29
Emotion: Individual Differences in
Emotional Life
• These are core aspects of personality
• Emotional experience
• Affect ...
Emotion: Happiness
• Three components
– Overall satisfaction with life
– Satisfaction with particular life domains
– Gener...
Emotion: Sources of Happiness
• Activity

32
© 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Emotion: Sources of Happiness

33
Emotion: Happiness
• Happiness may also be a cause of important
outcomes.
• Happiness may have a dark side.
• Happiness is...
Think About It
• Does the concept of personality processes
constitute a “basic approach” like the
approaches considered in...
Clicker Question #1
Which of the following statements about
perception is true?
a)Everyone perceives the world in the same...
Clicker Question #2
Conscious thought
a)is more important than unconscious thought.
b)can happen at the same time as uncon...
Clicker Question #3
People are motivated
a) to achieve their goals.
b) by the same things across the life span.
c) to alwa...
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PSY 239 401 Chapter 16 SLIDES

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PSY 239 401 Chapter 16 SLIDES

  1. 1. Chapter 16:Personality Processes: Perception, Thought, Motivation, and Emotion The Personality Puzzle Sixth Edition by David C. Funder Slides created by Tera D. Letzring Idaho State University © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 1
  2. 2. Objectives • Discuss the history of research on personality processes • Discuss perception, thought, motivation, and emotion 2 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  3. 3. Personality Processes • Includes perception, thought, motivation, and emotion • Understanding these will help us understand someone’s personality • Personality is a verb 3 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  4. 4. The Historical Roots of Research Into Personality Processes • Learning: but ignoring cognition is too limited • Social learning: focused on cognitive processes • Phenomenology: emphasizes importance of the way an individual thinks about the world 4 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  5. 5. The Historical Roots of Research Into Personality Processes • Psychoanalysis: levels of consciousness and the need for compromise • Biological approach: how representations of the self may be organized in the brain • Trait approach: people have different traits based on different thoughts, feelings, and desires 5 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  6. 6. Perception • People are predisposed to perceive the world in different ways • Priming and chronic accessibility – Part of our personalities – May come from evolution, temperament, or experience – Different people have a predisposition to be primed for certain concepts 6 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  7. 7. Perception • Rejection sensitivity – Affects interpretation of ambiguous signals – Often creates a self-fulfilling prophecy – Can result in seemingly inconsistent behavior • Aggression 7 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  8. 8. Perception • Perceptual defense – Similar to psychoanalytic defense mechanisms – People can have physiological reactions to emotionally charged words before they are consciously aware of them – Implication • Vigilance and defense – Why do some people tend to see exactly what they fear most? 8 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  9. 9. Thought • Determines many, but not all, actions • Not all thinking is conscious • Consciousness: whatever the individual has in mind at the moment – Short-term memory (STM) – Limited capacity: 7 ± 2 chunks 9 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  10. 10. Thought: Consciousness • STM and thinking – Chunking can work with ideas – Funder’s Fifth Law: the purpose of education is to assemble new chunks • Consciousness and psychological health • Constructs, chunks, and consciousness 10 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  11. 11. Thought: Unconscious Thoughts • People can do things without knowing why, know things without knowing that they know, and have thoughts and feelings they do not understand. • The unconscious is important. – We can do many things without thinking. – Consciousness is very small and life is more complicated than that. 11 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  12. 12. Thought: Two Ways of Thinking • Dual-process models – Conscious thought is slower – Freud’s theory: rational and irrational thought – Reflective and impulsive 12 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  13. 13. Thought: Two Ways of Thinking • Cognitive-experiential self-theory (CEST) – Seeks to explain unconscious processing and the seemingly irrational, emotion-driven sectors of the mind – The rational system and the experiential system 13 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  14. 14. 14 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  15. 15. Thought: Two Ways of Thinking • CEST – Different systems may generate different decisions. – The systems interact. 15 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  16. 16. Motivation • What do you want? How will you try to get it? • Goals – Drive behavior by influencing what you attend to, think about, and do • Strategies • People may not always know what they want – Explicit vs. implicit goals 16 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  17. 17. Motivation: Goals • Short-term and long-term goals • Idiographic goals – Current concerns – Personal projects – Personal strivings 17 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  18. 18. Motivation: Goals • Properties of idiographic goals – Conscious at least some of the time – Describe thoughts and behaviors that are aimed at fairly specific outcomes – Can change over time – Goals function independently of each other • Limitation of idiographic goals – Goals are not theoretically organized 18 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  19. 19. Motivation: Goals • Nomothetic goals – Number of goals • McClelland’s three primary motivations: needs for achievement, affiliation, and power • Emmon’s five: enjoyment, self-assertion, esteem, interpersonal success, avoidance of negative affect • Two: work and social interaction 19 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  20. 20. Motivation: Goals • Nomothetic goals – The goals circumplex – Useful for seeing the similarities and differences among goals 20
  21. 21. Motivation: Goals • Nomothetic goals – Judgment goals and development goals • Can change over time and across situations • Lead to different outcomes: mastery orientation and helplessness • Entity theories and incremental theories • Can be influenced by the person himself or by the external situation 21 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  22. 22. Motivation: Goals Across the Life Span • Young: preparation for the future • Old (70+): emotional well-being • What are your current goals? How do these differ from the goals you had 5 years ago? How do you think your goals will change in the next 5 years? 22 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  23. 23. Motivation: Strategies • Definition • Strategies and traits – Traits can produce characteristic adaptations, or generalized scripts. – The same strategy can result in different behavior patterns. – Different traits can lead to the same strategies. 23 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  24. 24. Motivation: Strategies • Defensive pessimism (vs. optimism) – Coping, performance, and success are similar to optimists – Find relief when the worst outcome doesn’t happen – Some consistency – Advantages and disadvantages to both strategies 24 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  25. 25. Emotion • A type of procedural knowledge • A set of mental and physical procedures 25 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  26. 26. Emotion: Experience • Basic stages: appraisal, physical responses, facial expressions, nonverbal behavior, motives • Stages can happen at the same time or in a different order • Complex mixture of thought, physical sensations and motivations • Possible sources: immediate stimuli, classical conditioning, memories, and thoughts 26 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  27. 27. Emotion: Varieties of Emotions • Core emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust • Some emotions may be universal because they were evolutionarily advantageous • It may be advantageous to be able to perceive these emotions accurately in others • Circumplex figure 27 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  28. 28. Emotion: An Emotions Circumplex 28
  29. 29. 29
  30. 30. Emotion: Individual Differences in Emotional Life • These are core aspects of personality • Emotional experience • Affect intensity – Risk factor for bad outcomes • Rate of change • Emotional intelligence – Related to emotional expressiveness, quality of personal relationships, and level of optimism 30 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  31. 31. Emotion: Happiness • Three components – Overall satisfaction with life – Satisfaction with particular life domains – Generally high levels of positive emotion and low levels of negative emotion • The conception can vary with age • Three sources – Individual set point – Objective life circumstances – What the individual does (intentional activity) © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 31
  32. 32. Emotion: Sources of Happiness • Activity 32 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  33. 33. Emotion: Sources of Happiness 33
  34. 34. Emotion: Happiness • Happiness may also be a cause of important outcomes. • Happiness may have a dark side. • Happiness is related to effective functioning in broad areas. 34 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  35. 35. Think About It • Does the concept of personality processes constitute a “basic approach” like the approaches considered in earlier chapters? Is it an amalgamation of these other approaches or is it something else entirely? 35 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  36. 36. Clicker Question #1 Which of the following statements about perception is true? a)Everyone perceives the world in the same way. b)Everyone has the same chronically accessible constructs. c)Aggression is not related to perceptions. d)People who are sensitive to rejection are more likely to think that a partner is rejecting them. 36 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  37. 37. Clicker Question #2 Conscious thought a)is more important than unconscious thought. b)can happen at the same time as unconscious thought. c)works the same way when people are emotional or calm. d)has a large capacity. 37 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  38. 38. Clicker Question #3 People are motivated a) to achieve their goals. b) by the same things across the life span. c) to always think of the best possible outcomes. d) by the same basic goals as everyone else. 38 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
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