PSY 239 401 Chapter 12 SLIDES

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  • Discuss modern theories of psychoanalysis: object relations and attachment theory
    Discuss important elements of several neo-Freudian theories: inferiority and compensation (Adler); collective unconscious, persona, and personality (Jung); feminine psychology and basic anxiety (Horney); psychosocial development (Erikson), object relations theory (Klein and Winnicott)
  • Activity 12-1. Interpretation and truthfulness of quotes
    Clinical practitioners and theorists: Some are minor refinements of the theory to make it make sense in the current context; others are more drastic (less emphasis on sexual and aggressive instincts, more focus on interpersonal aspects of life, concern with early attachments).
  • Neo-Freudian psychology: a general term for the psychoanalytically oriented work of many theorists and researchers who are influenced by Freud’s theory
    Anna Freud (defense mechanisms), Bruno Bettelheim (child psychiatry, parenting), Harry Stack Sullivan (interpersonal relationships, personifications), Henry Murray (refining projective measurement, needs, press). *These neo-Freudians are mentioned but no further information is given in the book on their areas of interest.
  • Used the same methods as Freud (case studies and introspection)
    Reinterpretation of the libido: as a general motivation behind life and creativity
    Ego psychology: focus on the processes driving the perception and conscious comprehension of reality; Loevinger believed the ego’s function is to make sense of everything a person experiences .
  • Thought Freud focused too much on sex: as the ultimate motivator and organizer of thought and behavior
    Organ inferiority: the idea that individuals are motivated to attain equality with or superiority over other people and try to accomplish this to compensate for what they felt in childhood was their weakest aspect
  • Masculine protest: the desire of an adult to act and become powerful, because of feeling inadequate or inferior as a child; a particular kind of compensation
    Also experienced by women: because everyone feels inferior as a child
    Particularly acute for boys: because the most powerful person in their lives is their mother
    Helps explain some universal needs: for power, love, and achievement; because they have their roots in early experience
    Style of life: a particular mode of behavior based on compensations for perceived childhood inferiorities
  • Carl Jung: interested in mystical and spiritual matters
    Collective unconscious: memories and ideas that all humans share, most of which reside in the unconscious, in the form of basic images
    Appear in dreams, fantasies, mythology, and modern literature: often symbolically; example: snakes in a sinister role
  • Persona: the social mask one wears in public
    Everyone’s persona is false to some degree: We all keep some aspects of our real selves private.
    Possible danger: identifying more with the persona than with the real self, which leads to being shallow and having social success as one’s life purpose
    Anima: the idea, or prototype, of the female, as held in the mind of a male
    Animus: the idea, or prototype, of the male as held in the mind of a female
    Shape responses to the other sex: leads to problems if the perception is not accurate
  • Introverts vs. extraverts: psychologically turned inward vs. outward
    Ways of thinking: rational (recognize meaning), feeling (determine the value of things), sensing (establishing what is present in the world), and intuiting (figuring out where something comes from and where it is going)
    People vary in which way predominates, but having a balance is best
    Jung article in the reader—Psychological types
  • Disagreed with “penis envy” and women’s desire to be male: Women envy freedom to pursue interests and ambitions, which is due to the structure of society, not women’s bodies.
    Basic anxiety: fear of being alone and helpless in a hostile world
    Adult behavior is often based on efforts to overcome basic anxiety
    Neurotic needs: needs that people feel but that are neither realistic nor truly desirable (finding a life partner who will solve all your problems; to be loved by everybody and to dominate everybody and to be independent of everybody); can lead to self-defeating behavior and relationship problems because the needs are contradictory
    Horney article in the reader—The distrust between the sexes
  • Basic trust vs. mistrust (0–2 years): corresponds to the oral stage
    Hope: a positive but not arrogant attitude toward life
    Confidence that basic needs will be met
  • Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (3–4 years); corresponds to the anal stage
    Figuring out who is in charge: adults or the child herself?
    Initiative vs. guilt (4–7 years): corresponds to the phallic stage
    Develop a sense of right and wrong: the beginning of adult morality
  • Industry vs. inferiority (8–12 years): corresponds to the latency period
    Identity vs. identity confusion (adolescence): corresponds to the genital stage
  • Intimacy vs. isolation (young adulthood)
    Generativity vs. stagnation (middle age)
    Integrity vs. despair (old age)
    Erikson article in the reader—Eight stages of man
  • Life-span development: Psychological growth is ongoing throughout life.
  • Based on the idea that the most important part of life is probably relationships and that the superego is built from childhood identifications with important people
    Objects: emotionally important people
    Object relations theory: the analysis of interpersonal relationships
    The images do not always match reality: This causes problems.
    Currently the most active area of psychoanalytic thinking
  • The mix of love and hate: important people are sources of pleasure and frustration
    Distinction between parts of the love object and the whole person: breast vs. mother; wealth vs. whole person
  • Play therapy: communicating with and diagnosing children through play
    Allows the symbolic expression of emotions: such as hate, anger, love, and fear
    Splitting of love objects into good and bad parts: it is contradictory to love and hate the same person; may use neurotic defenses to ignore the bad (such as idealization of the person)
  • Transitional objects: used to bridge the gap between private fantasy and reality; source of comfort when the adult is not available; help the child face the world alone
    The false self: similar to Jung’s persona; to some degree, this is normal and necessary (basic social etiquette and politeness)
    Prevents exposure of the true self, which protects the true self from exploitation or harm
  • To help the client see important people in his life the way they actually are: as whole individuals with both good and bad parts
  • Most research is done by academics: not practicing psychoanalysts
    Some researchers do not realize that what they study is Freudian: topics on this slide are related to Freudian or neo-Freudian theory
    The influence of the past: especially childhood, on current functioning
    The influence of sexual or aggressive wishes: on thought, feeling, and behavior
  • To prevent anxiety: supports the defense mechanism of denial
    Recognition of dirty vs. neutral words: when flashed on a screen, participants do not report recognizing dirty words but do recognize other words; the unconscious mind realized the dirty words were obscene and blocked them from consciousness
    PDP: the mind does many different things at once and only some of this is conscious; conscious thoughts and behavior are a compromise of the unconscious processes
  • Transference: applying old patterns of behavior and emotions to new relationships; focuses on patterns of relationships with others that are consistently repeated with different partners throughout life
    Consistency of attachment styles is empirically supported
  • Based on evolutionary theory: Humans evolved in a risky environment and feared being alone, which motivated the desire for protection from someone else interested in the person’s survival and well-being; desire is especially strong in infancy and early childhood.
    Based on childhood experiences: expectations about attachment relationships are developed, for what the other person will do and for how the self will feel and behave
    Lessons learned by the child from early experiences with adult caregivers: reliability of attachment figure; whether one is the kind of person to whom attachment figures respond in a helpful way
  • Developed the strange situation task: child is briefly separated from, and then reunited with, the mother; look at reactions to mother leaving and returning to determine type of attachment
    Anxious-ambivalent: vigilant about mother’s presence and becomes upset when she leaves
    Adult characteristics: attempt to cling to others drives them away; obsessed with romantic partners; frequent worry that partners don’t really love them; extremely jealous; high rate of relationship failure; highly emotional when under stress
  • Avoidant attachment: not distressed when mother leaves (but there are physiological signs of tension and anxiety) and ignore her when she returns
    Adult characteristics: angry self-reliance and cold, distant attitude toward others; feel uncomfortable being close to others; difficult to trust others completely; uninterested in romantic relationships; like to work alone; withdraw from romantic partners when under stress
    Secure attachment: greet mother happily when she returns
    Adult characteristics: positive attitude toward relationships; finds it easy to get close to others and depend on them; tend to have long and stable relationships; seek out others for emotional support when under stress
  • Attachment patterns are self-fulfilling: learned in childhood, reinforced across young adulthood
    People high in anxiety and avoidance do not pay attention to signs of emotion from others
    Evidence of unconscious priming of attachment figures: people responded faster to names of people with whom they were emotionally attached after a threatening subliminal prime than after a neutral prime; there was not a difference for names of people with whom they were not attached
    The doctrine of opposites: too anxious or too avoidant is bad; the ideal is in the middle
    Edelstein et al. article in the reader—Individual differences in emotional memory
  • It’s difficult to evaluate the theory because there are many different versions.
    Much of mental life is unconscious: explain why sometimes people don’t understand their own behavior
    Events of childhood shape adult personality: especially in styles of social relationships
  • Not everyone believes these conclusions or thinks they are relevant to psychoanalysis.
  • Correct answer: c
  • Correct answer: b
  • Correct answer: a

Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 12: Psychoanalysis after Freud: NeoFreudians, Object Relations, and Current Research The Personality Puzzle Sixth Edition by David C. Funder Slides created by Tera D. Letzring Idaho State University © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 1
  • 2. Objectives • Discuss how Freud’s theory has been reinterpreted and altered by neo-Freudians • Discuss important elements of several neo-Freudian theories • Discuss current research on attachment theory • Identify propositions of psychoanalytic theory that have been empirically supported © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 2
  • 3. Developments in Psychoanalysis • Many people are still trying to prove Freud was wrong • Clinical practitioners and theorists © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 3
  • 4. Interpreting Freud • This can be difficult. • He changed his mind about important issues more than once. • Updating the theory to be reasonable today © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 4
  • 5. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists • • • • • Neo-Freudian psychology Anna Freud Bruno Bettelheim Harry Stack Sullivan Henry Murray © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 5
  • 6. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists • Used the same methods as Freud • Common themes in neo-Freudian thought – Less emphasis on and reinterpretation of the libido – Less emphasis on unconscious mental processes and more on conscious thought • Ego psychology – Less emphasis on instinctual drives and mental life as the source of psychological difficulties, and more on interpersonal relationships 6 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  • 7. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists: Inferiority and Compensation • Alfred Adler • Thought Freud focused too much on sex • Social interest: the desire to relate positively and productively with other people – More important than sex • Organ inferiority – Perceptions of weakness are more important than reality © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 7
  • 8. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists: Inferiority and Compensation • Masculine protest – Also experienced by women – Particularly acute for boys • Helps explain some universal needs • Style of life © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 8
  • 9. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists: The Collective Unconscious, Persona, and Personality • Carl Jung • Collective unconscious – Archetypes: core ideas of how people think about the world, both consciously and unconsciously • Earth mother, hero, devil, supreme being • Appear in dreams, fantasies, mythology, and modern literature © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 9
  • 10. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists: The Collective Unconscious, Persona, and Personality • Persona – Everyone’s persona is false to some degree – Possible danger • Anima and animus – Cause a masculine side and feminine side in everyone – Shape responses to the other sex © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 10
  • 11. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists: The Collective Unconscious, Persona, and Personality • Introverts vs. extraverts • Ways of thinking: rational, feeling, sensing, and intuiting – People vary in which way predominates – The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 11
  • 12. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists: Feminine Psychology and Basic Anxiety • Karen Horney • Disagreed with “penis envy” and women’s desire to be male • Basic anxiety – Influences adult behavior – Neurotic needs © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 12
  • 13. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists: Psychosocial Development • Erik Erikson • Many conflicts are conscious and arise at various stages of life • Stages of Erikson’s theory 1. Basic trust vs. mistrust • Learn whether needs will be met, ignored, or overindulged • Development of hope and confidence © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 13
  • 14. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists: Psychosocial Development • Stages of Erikson’s theory 2. Autonomy vs. shame and doubt • Figuring out who is in charge 2. Initiative vs. guilt • Anticipating and fantasizing about life as an adult • Develop a sense of right and wrong © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 14
  • 15. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists: Psychosocial Development • Stages of Erikson’s theory 4. Industry vs. inferiority (8–12 years) • Develop skills and abilities to succeed in the world of work and contribute to society • Must begin to control imagination and unfocused energy 4. Identity vs. identity confusion (adolescence) • Figure out who I am and what is important • Choose consistent, meaningful, and useful values and goals 15 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  • 16. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists: Psychosocial Development • Stages of Erikson’s theory 6. Intimacy vs. isolation • Find an intimate life partner 6. Generativity vs. stagnation • Turn concerns to the next generation or become passive 8. Integrity vs. despair • Brought on by the prospect of death • Based on feelings about one’s life © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 16
  • 17. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists: Psychosocial Development • Major contributions of Erikson’s theory – Psychological development is based on the structure of society and developmental tasks – Life-span development © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 17
  • 18. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists: Object Relations Theory • Melanie Klein and D. W. Winnicott • Objects • Object relations theory – We relate to others via the images of them in our minds. – The images do not always match reality. © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 18
  • 19. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists: Object Relations Theory • Four principal themes – Every relationship has elements of satisfaction and frustration, or pleasure and pain – The mix of love and hate – Distinction between parts of the love object and the whole person – The psyche is aware of and disturbed by these contradictory feelings © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 19
  • 20. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists: Object Relations Theory • Theories based on work with children • Play therapy – Allows the symbolic expression of emotions • Split of love objects into good and bad parts – Neurotic defenses © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 20
  • 21. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists: Object Relations Theory • Transitional objects – Sentimental objects for adults – Do you know anybody who brought a transitional object to college? What purpose does it serve? Would the person be upset if the object were lost? Why? • The false self: used to please others – Prevents exposure of the true self © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 21
  • 22. Latter-Day Issues and Theorists: Object Relations Theory • Purpose of object relations therapy – Minimize discrepancies between true and false selves – Help the rational resources of the mind work through irrational defenses – To help the client see important people in his life the way they actually are • Must love always be mixed with frustration and resentment? © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 22
  • 23. Current Psychoanalytic Research • Independent and simultaneous mental processes that can conflict • Unconscious mental processes • Compromises among mental processes negotiated outside of consciousness • Self-defensive thoughts and self-deception • The influence of the past • The influence of sexual or aggressive wishes © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 23
  • 24. Current Psychoanalytic Research: Testing Psychoanalytic Hypotheses • The unconscious part of the mind can perceive things without the conscious mind’s awareness. – To prevent anxiety – Recognition of dirty vs. neutral words • Most of what the mind does is unconscious – Parallel distributed processing (PDP) • Traits associated with having an anal or oral character intercorrelate © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 24
  • 25. Current Psychoanalytic Research: Attachment Theory • Based on idea of transference • Consistency of attachment styles is empirically supported © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 25
  • 26. Current Psychoanalytic Research: Attachment Theory • John Bowlby – Saw attachment as the basis of love – Based on evolutionary theory – Desire for protection leads to attachments – Based on childhood experiences – Lessons learned by the child from early experiences with adult caregivers © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 26
  • 27. Current Psychoanalytic Research: Attachment Theory • Mary Ainsworth – Developed the strange situation task • Anxious-ambivalent attachment – Caregivers are inconsistent – Adult characteristics © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 27
  • 28. Current Psychoanalytic Research: Attachment Theory • Avoidant attachment – Caregivers rebuff attempts for contact and reassurance – Adult characteristics • Secure attachment – Easily soothed, actively explore environment – Confident faith in themselves and their caregivers – Adult characteristics © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 28
  • 29. Current Psychoanalytic Research: Attachment Theory • Attachment patterns are self-fulfilling • Moving to two dimensions: anxiety and avoidance • Evidence of unconscious priming of attachment figures • The doctrine of opposites © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 29
  • 30. Psychoanalysis in Perspective • It’s difficult to evaluate the theory. • Five neo-Freudian propositions that are firmly established and supported – Much of mental life is unconscious. – The mind does many things at once and can be in conflict with itself. – Events of childhood shape adult personality. © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 30
  • 31. Psychoanalysis in Perspective • Five neo-Freudian propositions that are firmly established and supported – Relationships formed with significant other people establish patterns that are repeated – Psychological development involves moving from an unregulated, immature, and self-centered state to a more regulated, mature state in which relationships become increasingly important © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 31
  • 32. Clicker Question #1 According to Karen Horney, why do women envy men? a)Men have penises. b)Men do not have the burden of bearing children. c)Men have more freedom to pursue their interests. d)Men do not have basic anxiety. © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 32
  • 33. Clicker Question #2 Erikson’s theory of development , whereas Freud’s theory . a)focuses on childhood; covers the entire lifespan b)focuses on conscious social conflicts; focuses on the location of mental energy c)is based on unconscious conflict; is based on the structure of society d)All of the above. © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 33
  • 34. Clicker Question #3 According to object relations theory, a)interpersonal relationships are very important. b)the objects we form to represent people are always realistic. c)it is possible for a relationship to be entirely good. d)observing a child at play is not a good way to diagnose the child’s problems. © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 34