PSY 239 401 Chapter 10 SLIDES
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  • Key ideas of psychoanalysis: psychic determinism, internal structure, psychic conflict, and mental energy <br /> Activity 10-1. Freud’s impact on popular culture <br />
  • Left Austria when Hitler came to power: Freud was Jewish. <br /> Became a psychiatrist: noticed that patients who simply talked about their problems often improved <br />
  • Free association: patient says whatever came to mind; to get people to talk about difficult topics <br /> Talking cure: makes thoughts and fears explicit so the conscious, rational mind can deal with them; therapist can provide emotional support as patient tries to figure out what is going on <br /> Influenced by his patients: well-to-do women who often reported sexual abuse by their fathers <br />
  • Activity 10-2. Psychic determinism <br /> Definition: Everything that happens in a person’s mind, including everything a person thinks and does, has a specific cause. <br /> Things that look like contradictions of thoughts and behavior can be resolved, usually by looking at the unconscious part of the mind. <br /> Leads to idea of the unconscious: areas and processes of the mind of which a person is not aware <br />
  • Definition of mind: the psychological result of what the brain and the rest of the body do <br /> Modern research: The mind is not neatly divided into three parts; different structures of the mind work independently and can process different thoughts and motivations at the same time . <br /> Activity 10-3. Id versus ego versus superego demonstration <br />
  • Psychic conflict: the phenomenon of one part of the mind being at cross-purposes with another part of the mind <br /> Compromise formation: finding a compromise among the different structures of the mind and the different things the individual wants <br /> The middle ground: conscious thought and behavior <br />
  • Assumption that the psychological part of the mind needs energy <br /> Libido: the mental or psychic energy used by the mind <br /> Expression of anger: Freud thought that if anger was not expressed, it would build up over time; research shows that expressing anger usually makes people more angry, not less. <br />
  • Moral (Victorians) <br /> Scientific (current): Theory is unscientific because it deals with things that cannot be seen or proven. <br />
  • Two fundamental motives: are always present and competing <br /> Libido: the life drive or sexual drive <br /> Thanatos: drive toward death; based on belief in duality of nature, or that everything contains its own opposite; similar to the concept of entropy (basic universal force toward randomness and disorder) <br />
  • The doctrine of opposites: Everything implies, and even requires, its opposite. <br /> Example: Some emotion is normal; no emotion makes people unable to love, and too much emotion makes people unable to work <br />
  • Physical focus: where energy is concentrated and gratification is obtained <br /> Psychological theme: related to the physical focus and the demands from the outside world <br /> Adult character type: associated with being fixated, or not resolving the psychological issues, in a stage <br /> Regression: when under stress, the retreat to a stage on which the person fixated <br />
  • Dependency: everything must be provided by someone else <br /> needs are not fulfilled: and basic mistrust is developed <br /> needs are fulfilled instantly and automatically: and anxiety is common for issues involving dependency, passivity, and activity <br /> Adult character type: too independent (refuse help from anyone) vs. passive (spend more time thinking about what they want than how to get it) <br />
  • Self-control: of emotions, behavior (following orders, inappropriate urges), and toilet training; Freud focused too much on literal defecation and not enough on other demands being made during this stage. <br />
  • Development of the ego: to find compromises between what is wanted and what is possible <br /> Two ways things can go wrong: These don’t allow the child to figure out how to control the self and when to be controlled by those in authority. <br /> Overcontrolled: obsessive, compulsive, stingy, orderly, rigid, subservient to authority, unable to tolerate disorganization or ambiguity <br /> Undercontrolled: unable to do anything on time, chaotic, disorganized, compulsive need to defy authority <br />
  • Oedipus complex: fall in love with opposite-sex parent, fear of same-sex parent (castration anxiety for boys), leading to identification with same-sex parent; not supported by research <br />
  • Gender identity and sexuality: figure out what it means to be a boy or girl; develop a self-image as masculine or feminine <br /> Identification: taking on many of the same-sex parent’s attitudes, values, and ways of relating to the opposite sex <br /> Development of morality, conscience, and the superego: by-product of identification; superego passes moral judgments on the id and ego <br />
  • Attainment of this stage: having a mature attitude about sexuality and aspects of adulthood <br /> Creation and enhancement of life: not limited to children, also intellectual, artistic, or scientific contributions <br />
  • How the id thinks <br /> Condensation: Several ideas are compressed into one. <br /> Symbolization: One thing stands for another; Freud originally thought symbols were universal, but later realized they differ across individuals. <br />
  • Rarely directly conscious <br /> Can leak out in slips of the tongue, accidents, and memory lapses <br />
  • Conscious mind: the part of mental functioning you can observe <br /> Preconscious: ideas you are not currently aware of but that can be brought into awareness <br /> Unconscious: those areas and processes of the mind of which a person is not aware <br /> Freud article from the reader—Lecture XXXI: The dissection of the psychical personality <br />
  • Figure 10.4 Freud’s diagram showing the relationship between consciousness and id, ego, and superego <br />
  • Clues: based on free association, slips of the tongue, and dreams <br />
  • Takes time and can be painful (must be dealt with logically and emotionally) <br /> Patients must be comforted and guided through this process by a therapist with whom they have an emotional bond (therapeutic alliance) <br /> Transference: the tendency to bring ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving that developed in response to one important relationship into a relationship with a different person (the therapist) <br />
  • Criticism: Recent research showed that long-term psychotherapy is more effective that shorter treatments. <br /> Steinem article from the reader: Womb envy, testyria, and breast castration anxiety <br />
  • Correct answer: d (opposite explanations are possible) <br />
  • Correct answer: b <br />
  • Correct answer: b <br />

PSY 239 401 Chapter 10 SLIDES PSY 239 401 Chapter 10 SLIDES Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 10: Basics of Psychoanalysis The Personality Puzzle Sixth Edition by David C. Funder Slides created by Tera D. Letzring Idaho State University © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 1
  • Objectives • Discuss the key ideas of psychoanalysis • Discuss Freud’s theory of psychological development • Discuss Freud’s idea of how the mind is structured • Discuss implications for psychotherapy and modern life © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 2
  • Freud Himself • Medical doctor • Left Austria when Hitler came to power • Believed war proved that people are aggressive and destructive • Became a psychiatrist © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 3
  • Freud Himself • Used free association – The talking cure • Self-analysis • Influenced by his patients © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 4
  • The Key Ideas of Psychoanalysis: Psychic Determinism • Definition • Free will and random accidents do not exist • Contradictions of thoughts and behavior can be resolved • Leads to idea of the unconscious – Supported by modern research © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 5
  • The Key Ideas of Psychoanalysis: Internal Structure • The mind is made of separate parts that function independently and can conflict with each other. • Id: irrational and emotional • Ego: rational • Superego: moral • Modern research © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 6
  • The Key Ideas of Psychoanalysis: Psychic Conflict and Compromise • The mind can conflict with itself • Compromise formation – The ego’s main job – The middle ground – Used in modern psychoanalytic thought © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 7
  • The Key Ideas of Psychoanalysis: Mental Energy • • • • Assumption Libido The amount of energy is fixed and finite Some implications not supported by research: expression of anger • Modern thought: information-processing capacity is limited © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 8
  • The Key Ideas of Psychoanalysis: Controversy • Moral: do not like emphasis on sex and sexual energy • Scientific: theory is unscientific • Personal level: People do not want to be told why they really did something, especially when you are correct. © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 9
  • © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 10
  • Psychoanalysis, Life, and Death • Two fundamental motives • Libido – Creation, protection, and enjoyment of life – Creativity, productivity, and growth • Thanatos – Introduced later to account for destructive activity such as war and the fact that everyone dies – Opposites and entropy © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 11
  • Psychoanalysis, Life, and Death • The doctrine of opposites – Life and death, happiness and sadness – “Extremes on any scale may be more similar to each other than either extreme is to the middle.” (p. 353) – Example: emotionality © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 12
  • Psychological Development • Focus on where the psychic energy is and how it is used • Stage theory of development • Aspects of each stage – Physical focus – Psychological theme – Adult character type • Fixation and regression © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 13
  • Psychological Development: Oral Stage • • • • • Timing: birth to 18 months Physical focus: mouth, lips, and tongue Psychological theme: dependency Only the id exists Two ways things can go wrong: needs are not fulfilled or needs are fulfilled instantly and automatically • Adult character type: too independent vs. passive 14 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  • Psychological Development: Anal Stage • Timing: about 18 months to 3 years • Physical focus: anus and organs of elimination • Psychological theme: self-control and obedience © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 15
  • Psychological Development: Anal Stage • Development of the ego • Two ways things can go wrong: unreasonable expectations and never demanding control of urges • Adult character type: overcontrolled vs. undercontrolled © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 16
  • Psychological Development: Phallic Stage • Timing: about 3 ½ to 7 years • Physical focus: sexual organs • Basic task: coming to terms with sex differences and their implications • Oedipal crisis © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 17
  • Psychological Development: Phallic Stage • Psychological themes – Gender identity and sexuality • Identification – Love, fear, and jealousy • Development of morality, conscience, and the superego • Adult character type: rigid moral code (asexual) vs. lack of moral code (promiscuous) © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 18
  • Psychological Development: Latency • Timing: about 7 years to puberty • A break from development • Concentrate on learning the tasks of childhood © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 19
  • Psychological Development: Genital Stage • Timing: puberty on – This stage is not passed through, but attained • Physical focus: genitals, sexuality in the context of a mature relationship • Focus on creation and enhancement of life • Psychological theme: maturity • Achievement: well-adjusted and balanced – Mental health: the ability “to love and to work” © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 20
  • Think About It • Can you think of any oral, anal, phallic, or genital characters among the people you know? Without naming names, what are they like? How do you think they got this way? © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 21
  • Thinking and Consciousness: Secondary Process Thinking • • • • • Conscious thought Rational and practical Able to delay or redirect gratification How the conscious part of the ego thinks Develops second; less important role © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 22
  • Thinking and Consciousness: Primary Process Thinking • • • • • The way the unconscious mind operates Does not contain the idea of “no” Goal is immediate gratification Condensation Symbolization © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 23
  • Thinking and Consciousness: Primary Process Thinking • Seen in very young children, during delirium and dreams, and sometimes in psychotics • Can leak out © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 24
  • Thinking and Consciousness: Three Levels of Consciousness • Topographical model • Conscious mind – Least important – Some of the ego • Preconscious • Unconscious – All of the id and superego and some of the ego – Most important © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 25
  • © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 26
  • Psychoanalysis as a Therapy and as a Route Toward Understanding • Unconscious conflicts are what make people anxious and unhappy – Use clues to reveal the contents of the unconscious © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 27
  • Psychoanalysis as a Therapy and as a Route Toward Understanding • Resolve problems by bringing unconscious conflicts to the surface so ego can deal with them – Takes time and can be painful – May increase anxiety in the beginning – Patients must be comforted and guided through this process • Therapeutic alliance, with power through transference © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 28
  • Psychoanalysis as a Therapy and as a Route Toward Understanding • Criticisms: low cure rate and length of treatment • Recent research • Rather than a therapy, psychoanalysis can be thought of as a tool for understanding human nature and culture – Do you agree with this idea? © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 29
  • Think About It • Has anything happened recently in the news or in your own life that seems best explained from a psychoanalytic perspective? • If you had a psychological problem, would you go to a psychoanalyst? Why or why not? © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 30
  • Clicker Question #1 If psychic determinism is true, then a possible explanation for forgetting a person’s name could be that you a) have a bad memory. b) do not like the person. c)are in love with the person but don’t want to admit it to yourself. d) both b and c © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 31
  • Clicker Question #2 During which stage of psychological development do people learn how to appropriately control their urges and what decisions are up to them or to an authority figure? a) oral b) anal c) latency d) phallic © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 32
  • Clicker Question #3 According to psychoanalytic theory, is more important than . a)secondary process thought; primary process thought b)unconscious thought; conscious thought c)the oral stage; the phallic stage d)work; love © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 33