PSY 239 401 Chapter 8 SLIDES
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PSY 239 401 Chapter 8 SLIDES

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  • Dendrites: projections on nerve cells that typically receive stimulation <br /> Axons: pass on stimulation from the nerve cell <br /> Afferent nerves: messages travel along these nerves from the body to the brain <br /> Efferent nerves: messages travel along these nerves from the brain to the body (muscles, glands, organs) <br /> Interneurons: organize and regulate transmission between nerve cells; the biggest bundle of these is the brain <br />
  • Figure 8.1 Personality and the Brain <br /> Hypothalamus – connected to just about everything else; secretes several hormones <br /> Amygdala – important role in emotion (this is discussed more later) <br /> Hippocampus – important in processing memories <br /> Cortex – outer layer of the brain <br /> Neocortex – outermost layer of the cortex – most distinctive part of the human brain <br /> Frontal cortex – large size; crucial for uniquely human aspects of cognition such as planning ahead, anticipating consequences, and emotional experience <br />
  • Brain damage: track problems caused by damage to different parts of the brain <br /> Phineas Gage: more will be said about him later in this chapter <br /> Lesions: mostly on animals <br /> Brain stimulation: stimulate the brain directly to see what happens; this is difficult and rare <br /> People while conscious: stimulating an area deep in the middle of the brain (substantia nigra) of one woman caused an acute episode of depression (Figure 8.2 on p. 252 on next slide) <br /> Transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation: used to create “virtual lesions” by turning off parts of the brain to see how psychological processes are affected <br />
  • Figure 8.2 <br />
  • EEG: electrodes on the scalp pick up electrical signals <br /> MEG: detects magnetic indications of brain activity <br />
  • CT scans: can examine small structures <br /> PET: map brain activity based on blood flow <br /> fMRI: map brain activity based on magnetic impulses generated by oxygen in the blood <br /> Canli article from the reader – Functional Brain Mapping of Extraversion and Neuroticism <br />
  • Blood oxygenation may indicate inhibitory activity, not just excitatory activity (footnote on p. 254) <br /> BOLD signals and perfusion imaging: look at how activation differs from neutral or a control group or across brain regions in individuals <br /> Just because an area of the brain is active in response to a stimulus does not mean the same psychological process occurs every time that area is active (example in book: emotion) <br />
  • Most researchers only look at small areas of the brain: other important areas may be missed <br /> Difficult to detect the neural context effect: activity in one area may depend on what is going on in another area(s) <br /> The technology is difficult to use: for participants and researchers; the statistics used to summarize data are complex, and possibly inaccurate and may lead to misleading or exaggerated results <br />
  • Figure 8.6 graphic summary of data from fMRI scans of participants who viewed happy faces <br />
  • Introverts are chronically overaroused (too much information is let in) and extraverts are underaroused (not enough information is let in) <br /> Lemon juice test: introverts salivated more <br /> Supportive recent research: extraverts had less activity in three areas of the brain while working on a memorization task <br /> Unsupportive research: different parts of the brain can show different levels of arousal (so the ARAS does not control everything) <br />
  • Whitman: had a malignant tumor next to the amygdala, which may have caused his motivation to murder his wife, mother, himself, and 14 others without understanding why he wanted to do this <br /> Discussion question: What if Whitman had survived? Would it have been fair to prosecute him for murder? <br /> Activity 8-2. Charles Whitman’s tumor <br />
  • Word in parentheses indicates which side is more active <br /> Brain asymmetry: the degree to which the two sides of the brain respond differently; may be an individual difference associated with emotional sensitivity <br />
  • Phineas Gage (1848): personality changed in a negative way (fitful, irreverent, impatient, obstinate), less emotional, could not hold a job, made unwise decisions (figure 8.8 on p. 262 on next slide) <br /> Others with brain damage to this area: unable to understand others’ emotions or regulate own impulses and feelings, unable to make appropriate decisions <br /> Somatic marker hypothesis: idea that the bodily (or somatic), emotional component of thought is a necessary part of problem solving and decision making <br />
  • Figure 8.8 <br />
  • Negative emotions and cooperativeness: people prone to negative emotions have an especially high level of activity in the prefrontal cortex; People who are cooperative have high activity when interacting with others <br /> May play a role in self-enhancement: when this area was temporarily shut-off, self-descriptions were less positive than in a control condition <br /> Capgras syndrome: believe loved ones have been replaced; follows injury to right frontal lobe; possible explanation is that people fail to respond emotionally to their loved ones and therefore conclude they must not be the same people <br /> Both (cognition and emotion) are needed for each to function fully <br /> Activity 8-1. Capgras Syndome <br />
  • Important for experiencing emotion; inhibits the amygdala <br /> Charles Whitman (tumor interfered with the anterior cingulate-amygdala circuit) <br /> Possible implications for extraversion and neuroticism: stronger response to positive and neutral words among extraverts than introverts; more activity among neurotics when a stimuli did not match an expectation (mismatches may trigger negative emotions associated with neuroticism) <br />
  • Prefrontal leucotomy: damages small areas of white matter behind each frontal lobe with intention of decreasing pathological levels of agitation and emotional arousal <br /> Lobotomy: remove whole sectors of the frontal lobes <br /> Observations of patients consistent with brain damage: frontal lobes play a role in anticipating the future, including negative outcomes, and in planning and decision making <br /> Replaced with drugs: drugs are now more commonly used to treat similar mental problems <br /> Activity 8-3. The lobotomist <br />
  • “Nearly everything in the brain is connected to everything else”: systems and circuits may be more important than areas <br /> Persistence: two areas of frontal cortex and part of the striatum <br /> C-system: lateral prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, medial temporal lobe, and posterior parietal cortex <br /> Neural context effect: it’s important to look at more than one area of the brain to understand complex processes <br />
  • People differ in average levels of neurotransmitters and enzymes that break them down, and differences are associated with personality traits <br />
  • Figure 8.10 <br />
  • Reward deficiency syndrome: alcoholism, drug abuse, smoking, compulsive overeating, attention deficit disorder (ADD), pathological gambling <br />
  • Behavioral activation: reward seeking; strong BAS related to being energetic and impulsive <br /> Individual difference: more cells related to motivation to seek rewards and enjoy them; related to extraversion (esp. assertive, dominant, and outgoing) <br /> Related to plasticity (combination of extraversion and openness): increases motivation to seek rewards and impulsivity <br />
  • Role in inhibition of behavioral impulses: benefits of avoiding excessive worrying, being too quick to anger, and being oversensitive <br /> Serotonin depletion syndrome: Low serotonin levels <br />
  • About 22 million Americans (or 10%) had taken the drug by 1999 <br /> Positive effects: stops needless worry, decreases sensitivity to minor stresses, increases cheerfulness, increases work productivity <br />
  • Hormone definition: a biological chemical that affects the body in a location different from where the chemical is produced <br /> Epinephrine (mostly in the body) and norepinephrine (mostly in the brain) <br /> creates the fight-or-flight response: the brain is fully alert and concentrated on the threat <br /> Anxiety, neuroticism: this response is a problem if it is too easily triggered; may be the result of an overactive norepinephrine system <br />
  • tend-and-befriend: calm others down and get people to work together to deal with the threat <br /> Importance of oxytocin: promotes nurturant and sociable behaviors, relaxation and reduction of fear <br /> Based on evolutionary theory, women also had to protect their children, so fight-or-flight may not have worked for them <br /> Fight-or-flight and tend-and-befriend are only the initial response to stress <br />
  • Link with aggression is complex: some studies have found that high levels of testosterone (T) are related to aggression and behavioral control problems and criminal behaviors such as assault and drug use, but men with high T are not always aggressive <br /> Related to many other behaviors in men (sociability, self-acceptance, dominance, frustration when things don’t get done, sexual experience) and women (unprovoked violent crime, sexual interest and desire, sociability, impulsivity, lower inhibition and conformity) <br /> Role in control and inhibition of aggression and sexuality (based on steroid users) <br /> Unknown causal direction between T and behavior: T increased among fans of winning soccer team and decreased among fans of losing team; sexual activity may increase T, not the other way around <br /> Dabbs et al. article in the reader – Testosterone differences among college fraternities <br />
  • Released in response to stress (physical or psychological): helps prepare body for action <br /> Chronically high levels in people with severe stress, anxiety, and depression: probably an effect rather than a cause; Increases the risk of heart disease and may make the brain smaller <br /> Low levels: sensation seeking (impulsivity, not following the rules of society); possibly due to abnormal responding to danger signals <br />
  • Definition: using drugs to change personality to something more desirable <br />
  • Also see Figure 8.12 on p. 288 – Regions of the brain associated with the Big Five <br />
  • Correct answer: c <br /> A – highlight the importance of technological advances to studying the brain <br /> B – even with this technology, some findings are still unreliable because of the (over)sensitivity of the technology, based on subjective interpretations of the researchers, and disputed by researchers <br />
  • Correct answer: d – emphasize the important of the frontal lobes for personality and social and cognitive functioning <br />
  • Correct answer: a <br />

PSY 239 401 Chapter 8 SLIDES PSY 239 401 Chapter 8 SLIDES Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 8: The Anatomy and Physiology of Personality The Personality Puzzle Sixth Edition by David C. Funder Slides created by Tera D. Letzring Idaho State University © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 1
  • Objectives • Discuss what the structure, or anatomy, of the brain can tell us about personality • Discuss the degree to which personality is a matter of chemistry • Discuss how this knowledge can be used to improve quality of life © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 2
  • Two Aspects of the Brain That Can be Examined with Technology • Anatomy: functions of parts of brain • Biochemistry: effects of neurotransmitters and hormones on brain processes • Both are related to personality and behavior © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 3
  • The Brain and Personality: Parts and Types of Nerves • • • • • Dendrites Axons Afferent nerves Efferent nerves Interneurons © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 4
  • Personality and the Brain © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 5
  • The Brain and Personality: Research Methods for Studying the Brain • Brain damage – Phineas Gage – Lesions • Brain stimulation – Mostly animals, but also people while conscious – Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 6
  • Depression and Recovery From Brain Stimulation © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 7
  • The Brain and Personality: Research Methods for Studying the Brain • Brain activity and imaging – Used to observe functioning directly – Detect when the brain is working • Electroencephalography (EEG) • Magnetoencephalography (MEG) © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 8
  • The Brain and Personality: Research Methods for Studying the Brain • Brain activity and imaging – Detect what parts of the brain are working • CT scans • Positron emission tomography (PET) • Functional Magnetic Resistance Imaging (fMRI) © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 9
  • The Brain and Personality: Research Methods for Studying the Brain • Difficulties with imaging techniques – May indicate inhibitory activity – All parts of the brain are always active to some degree • Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) imaging signals and perfusion imaging – Brain activity in response to a stimulus does not mean the same psychological process occurs every time that area is active © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 10
  • The Brain and Personality: Research Methods for Studying the Brain • Difficulties with imaging techniques – Most researchers only look at small areas • Difficult to detect the neural context effect – The technology is difficult to use © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 11
  • fMRI Data © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 12
  • The Brain and Personality: Ascending Reticular Activating System (ARAS) • Connected to cerebral cortex and rest of brain • Regulation of balance between arousal and calming by allowing information into the brain – Believed to be the basis for the distinction between extraversion and introversion – Supporting evidence: the lemon juice test – More recent research is contradictory © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 13
  • The Brain and Personality: The Amygdala • Links perceptions and thoughts with emotional meaning • Role is assessing whether a stimulus is threatening or rewarding • Relevant traits: anxiety, fearfulness, sociability, sexuality, optimism • Relevant for motivation – Whitman murders at University of Texas in 1966 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 14
  • The Brain and Personality: Frontal Lobes and Neocortex • Higher cognitive functions • Pleasant emotions (left) and unpleasant emotions (right) • Approach (left) and withdrawal (right) • Inhibition of reactions to unpleasant stimuli (left) • Brain asymmetry © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 15
  • The Brain and Personality: Frontal Lobes and Neocortex • Social understanding and self-control – Phineas Gage (1848) – Others with brain damage • Somatic marker hypothesis © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 16
  • Phineas Gage © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 17
  • The Brain and Personality: Frontal Lobes and Neocortex • Social understanding and self-control – Negative emotions and cooperativeness – Role in self-enhancement • Cognition and emotion – Capgras syndrome – Both are needed for each to function fully © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 18
  • The Brain and Personality: The Anterior Cingulate • Important for experiencing emotion • Controlling emotional responses and behavior impulses – Charles Whitman • Possible implications for extraversion and neuroticism © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 19
  • The Brain and Personality: The Lessons of Psychosurgery • Prefrontal leucotomy (by 1937) • Prefrontal lobotomy—more drastic • Observations of patients consistent with brain damage • Replaced with drugs © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 20
  • The Brain and Personality: Brain Systems • “Nearly everything in the brain is connected to everything else” (p. 269) • Neural context effect • Persistence • C-system © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 21
  • Biochemistry and Personality • Galen (Rome, A.D. 130–200) proposed that personality depended on the balance of humors (blood, black bile, yellow bile, phlegm) • The chemistry of the mind – Neurons communicate with neurotransmitters – Hormones stimulate or inhibit neural activity – About 60 chemicals transmit information in the brain and body – People differ in average levels 22 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  • Communications Among Neurons © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 23
  • Biochemistry and Personality: Neurotransmitters • Dopamine – Involved in responding to reward and approaching attractive objects and people – Related to sociability, general activity level, and novelty-seeking – Reward-deficiency syndrome: related to problems with processing dopamine © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 24
  • Biochemistry and Personality: Neurotransmitters • Dopamine – Possible relation with bipolar disorder, extraversion, and impulsivity – Activates the behavioral activation system (BAS) – Individual differences in development of nerve cells that produce and are responsive to dopamine – Related to plasticity © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 25
  • Biochemistry and Personality: Serotonin (and Prozac) • Role in inhibition of behavioral impulses, particularly emotional impulses • Serotonin depletion syndrome – Dangerous criminals, arsonists, and violent, suicidal individuals – Irrational anger, hypersensitivity to rejection, chronic pessimism, obsessive worry, and fear of risk taking © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 26
  • Biochemistry and Personality: Serotonin (and Prozac) • Prozac: a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) – Physical effect: increases serotonin levels – Psychological effects: controversial • Positive effects • Makes negative emotions less severe and doesn’t affect positive emotions © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 27
  • Biochemistry and Personality: Hormones • Hormone definition • Epinephrine and norepinephrine – Released in respond to stress; create the fight-orflight response – Anxiety, neuroticism © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 28
  • Biochemistry and Personality: Epinephrine and Norepinephrine • Females might respond differently to stress – Tend-and-befriend – Importance of oxytocin • Only the initial response to stress © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 29
  • Biochemistry and Personality: Testosterone • About 10 times higher concentration in men • Link with aggression is complex • Related to many other behaviors in men and women • Role in control and inhibition of aggression and sexuality • Unknown causal direction © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 30
  • Biochemistry and Personality: Cortisol • Released in response to stress • Chronically high levels in people with severe stress, anxiety, and depression • Low levels related to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and sensation seeking © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 31
  • Biochemistry and Personality: Oxytocin • Role in mother-child bonding, romantic attachment, and sexual response • Decreases fearfulness © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 32
  • Cosmetic Psychopharmacology • Definition • But personality is not based specifically on chemicals and cannot be precisely adjusted with medications • What do you think of cosmetic psychopharmacology? Is this a good or bad idea? How else might people improve their personalities? • If you could take a pill to improve your personality, would you do it? Would you still be the same person? © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 33
  • Putting It All Together: The Big Five and Personality © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 34
  • Biology: Cause and Effect • “The relationship between the brain and its environment works in both directions” (p. 289) • Understanding the brain can help us understand behavior, but understanding behavior can also help us understand the brain © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 35
  • Clicker Question #1 The research methods used to study the brain: a) are essentially unchanged from methods that were used when people first started studying the brain. b) provide completely reliable, objective, and indisputable evidence about how the brain is related to behavior. c) make it possible to observe which parts of the brain are most active. d) only work with animals. 36 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  • Clicker Question #2 The frontal lobes and neocortex seem to play a role in: a) social understanding and self-control. b) emotions and decision making. c) how people respond to pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. d) All of the above. © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 37
  • Clicker Question #3 The chemical that is released in response to stress and prepares the body for fight-or-flight is: a) epinephrine. b) dopamine. c) testosterone. d) serotonin. © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 38