PSY 239 401 Chapter 7 SLIDES

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  • Discuss the four research methods used to connect traits and behavior, including examples of findings from each method.
  • Integrity tests: often used by employers; measure responsibility, long-term job commitment, consistency, moral reasoning, etc.
    Less biased than “aptitude” tests: African Americans usually score lower on aptitude tests used for employee selection than whites, but this difference is not seen on tests of conscientiousness (C) and most other personality tests.
    Predicts job performance: supervisor ratings of job performance based on a meta-analysis = .41
    Predicts absenteeism: absenteeism from another meta-analysis = .33
  • Predicts success in college: better than Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) and high school grade point average (GPA)
    Might explain motivation in general: to learn about their employer and acquire skills and knowledge, to seek information before an interview; to acquire new skills; less likely to procrastinate
    Predicts longer life expectancy: avoid risky behaviors such as smoking and overeating and engage in health-promoting behaviors such as exercise
  • Self-monitoring definition: the degree to which inner and outer selves and behaviors are the same or different across situations
    High self-monitors: discrepant selves and behaviors, look for cues in situation that signal how to act and adjust behavior
    Low self-monitors: similar selves and behaviors, are more consistent across situations, more guided by inner personality
    It’s not necessarily better to be high or low: Both poles have positive and negative implications and correlates.
    Correlates with several behaviors: performance in job interviews and willingness to lie to get a date (behaviors are more likely for high self-monitors)
    Try For Yourself 7.1 on p. 203–test of Self-Monitoring
    Activity 7-1. Self-monitoring assessment and discussion
  • Narcissism definition: excessive self-love
    Manipulative, overbearing, vain, etc.: how they are described by others
    Many negative behaviors and attributes: based on research; aggressive when positive self-view is threatened, don’t handle failure well
    Why do they act like this? Attempt to defend unrealistically inflated self-concept; general failure to control impulses and delay gratification
    Try For Yourself 7.2 on p. 208—Narcissistic Personality Inventory
  • 100 personality descriptions: more complex than single-word traits
    Example Q-Set items: is unpredictable and changeable in behavior and attitudes; is vulnerable to real or fancied threat, generally fearful; is a talkative individual
    Activity 7-5. California Q-Set Extreme Items
  • Example of the distribution for the Q-Sort
  • Delay of gratification definition: denying oneself immediate pleasure for long-term gain
    Sex similarities: correlates with planfulness, reflectiveness, reasonableness, and emotional stability
    Sex differences: males delay less than females; delay in girls (ages 3–11) correlates with intelligence, competence, attentiveness, and resourcefulness; in boys of the same age, with shyness, quietness, compliance, and anxiousness
    Ego-control: related to delay in both girls and boys
    Ego-resiliency: related to delay only in girls (difference may be based on societal expectations)
  • Activity 7-2. Assessing delay of gratification with the marshmallow test
  • Drug abuse: Use at age 14 can be predicted by several characteristics rated about 10 years earlier (restless, fidgety, emotionally unstable, etc.)
    Depression: Risk factors for women include overcontrol and being shy and reserved; risk factors for men include undercontrol and being unsocialized and aggressive.
    Political orientation: Conservatives were rated as children as tending to feely guilty, anxious in unpredictable environments, and unable to handle stress well; and liberals were rated as resourceful, independent, self-reliant, and confident (there are several possible interpretations of these findings and generalizability may be limited based on the sample).
    Authoritarianism definition: turn one’s will over to an external authority to avoid having to make personal choices; enjoy giving orders, which they expect to be followed without question
  • Eysenck: also theoretical because he based his model on the idea that important traits should be heritable
    Psychoticism: blend of aggressiveness, creativity, and impulsiveness
    Eysenck and Tellegen are highly similar.
    Cattell: 16 essential traits (friendliness, intelligence, dominance, etc.); recently, people have said this is too many.
  • Lexical hypothesis: Important aspects of life will be labeled with words, and if something is truly important and universal, there will be many words for it in all languages.
  • Can bring order to many research findings: if the findings are consistent with a particular trait
    Some research has identified higher-order factors: stability (agreeableness, conscientiousness, and low neuroticism) and plasticity (extraversion and openness)
    Can be divided into lower-order facets or aspects (Figure 7.4 on p. 226)
    Labels may be oversimplified and potentially misleading.
  • Mate poaching: more likely to have others attempt to steal them away from their romantic partners
    Highly sensitive to rewards and more likely to experience positive emotions
  • Activity 7-3. Big Five Inventory and Discussion
  • Other languages: including Japanese, German, and Hebrew
  • Too broad for conceptual understanding: Trying to characterize other traits (narcissism) as combinations of Big Five traits often leaves out important concepts and the essence of the trait.
  • Instead, sort patterns of traits into types
  • Activity 7-4. Personality types
  • Personality development definition: change in personality over time, including from infancy and childhood to adulthood
    Strong tendency to maintain individual differences throughout life in comparison to others: personality rated by teachers of elementary school students predicted behavior decades later
  • Stability increases with age: .31 in childhood, .54 during college, and .74 between ages 50 and 70
    Cumulative continuity principle: Individual differences become more consistent with age.
    Increasing stability may also be the result of psychological maturation.
    Mean level change: Based on longitudinal data, people become more socially dominant, agreeable, conscientiousness, and emotionally stable.
    May be based on changing social roles: Life circumstances may be more important than age.
  • This is from cross-sectional data.
  • Roberts & Mroczek article from the reader—Personality Trait Change in Adulthood
    Mean-level change: “Gains and/or losses in specific personality traits over a prespecified period of time and age in the life course for a population of individuals” (p. 120).
    Individual differences in change: Some people change more or less than the mean-level change.
    Cross-sectional findings: Middle-aged individuals score higher than young adults on A and C and lower on E, N, and O; 60-year-olds score higher on most dimensions than 40-year-olds
    Longitudinal findings: similar to cross-sectional; all traits showed significant mean-level change
    Increases: social dominance/assertiveness (esp. in young adulthood), agreeableness (esp. in old age), conscientiousness (esp. in young adulthood and midlife), emotional stability
    Small increase followed by steady and then small decrease: social vitality/gregariousness, openness
    Most change was between ages 20 and 40 (young adulthood), but continue to change even in old age.
    Most change is positive (maturation).
    Individual differences in change:
    Consider personality change to be an individual difference
    People do change more than is expected due to chance or the unreliability of measurement.
    Possible reasons for change: life and work experiences; social investment in roles tied to career, family, and community
  • Correct answer: a
  • Correct answer: d – reinforce the idea that change can be looked at in different ways and the meaning of each
  • Correct answer: c

Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 7: Using Personality Traits to Understand Behavior The Personality Puzzle Sixth Edition by David C. Funder Slides created by Tera D. Letzring Idaho State University © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 1
  • 2. Objectives • Discuss why it is important to measure or judge traits • Discuss the four research methods used to connect traits and behavior • Discuss how personality develops (and stays the same) over the life span © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 2
  • 3. Who Cares? The Point of Measuring Traits • Traits predict behavior. • Traits can be used to understand behavior. • Why do you think this is important? © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 3
  • 4. Research Methods Used to Connect Traits with Behavior • • • • Single-trait approach Many-trait approach Essential-trait approach Typological approach © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 4
  • 5. The Single-Trait Approach • What do people with a certain personality trait do? – Examine correlations between one trait and many behaviors © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 5
  • 6. The Single-Trait Approach • Conscientiousness – Integrity tests – Used to select employees • Less biased than “aptitude” tests – Predicts job performance and absenteeism © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 6
  • 7. The Single-Trait Approach • Conscientiousness – Predicts success in college – Might explain motivation in general – Predicts longer life expectancy – Positively correlated with years of schooling © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 7
  • 8. The Single-Trait Approach • Self-monitoring – It’s not necessarily better to be high or low. – Actors scored high and mental patients scored low. – Correlates with several behaviors: performance in job interviews and willingness to lie to get a date © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 8
  • 9. The Single-Trait Approach • Narcissism – Charming, make good first impression – Manipulative, overbearing, vain, etc. – Many negative behaviors and attributes – Why do they act like this? © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 9
  • 10. The Many-Trait Approach • Who does that important behavior? – Examine correlations between one behavior and many traits • California Q-Set – 100 personality descriptions – Sort into a forced choice, symmetrical, and normal distribution – Compare characteristics within an individual © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 10
  • 11. Uncharacteristic 1 2 Neutral 3 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 4 5 Characteristic 6 7 8 9 11
  • 12. The Many-Trait Approach • Delay of gratification: – Necessary for achieving many important goals – Sex similarities and differences – Ego control: self-control or inhibition – Ego resiliency: psychological adjustment © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 12
  • 13. © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 13
  • 14. The Many-Trait Approach • Drug abuse • Depression • Political orientation – Authoritarianism © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 14
  • 15. The Essential-Trait Approach • Which traits are the most important? Which traits really matter? • Theoretical approaches to reducing the many to a few – Murray: 20 needs – Block: ego-control and ego-resiliency © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 15
  • 16. The Essential-Trait Approach • Factor analytic approaches to reducing the many to a few – Eysenck: extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism – Tellegen: positive emotionality, negative emotionality, constraint – Cattell: 16 essential traits © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 16
  • 17. The Essential-Trait Approach: The Big Five and Beyond • Discovery of the Big Five – Lexical hypothesis – Look for traits that have the most words and are the most universal – Factor analysis © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 17
  • 18. The Essential-Trait Approach: The Big Five and Beyond • Implications of the Big Five – Traits are orthogonal, or unrelated – Can bring order to many research findings – More complex than they seem at first • Not orthogonal • Higher-order factors • Lower-order factors • Labels are oversimplified © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 18
  • 19. The Essential-Trait Approach: The Big Five and Beyond © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 19
  • 20. The Essential-Trait Approach: The Big Five and Beyond • Conscientiousness (already discussed) © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 20
  • 21. The Essential-Trait Approach: The Big Five and Beyond • Extraversion: social, outgoing, active, outspoken, dominant, adventurous – Advantages: higher status, rated as more popular and physically attractive, more positive emotions – Disadvantage: drink more alcohol, higher risk of being overweight, mate poaching – Sensitive to rewards and positive emotions – Life outcomes: happy, grateful, long life, healthy, successful relationships, etc. © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 21
  • 22. The Essential-Trait Approach: The Big Five and Beyond • Neuroticism: emotional instability, negative emotionality – Ineffective problem solving; strong negative reactions to stress – Sensitive to social threats – Anxious and stressed © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 22
  • 23. The Essential-Trait Approach: The Big Five and Beyond • Neuroticism – Negatively correlated with happiness, well-being, and physical health – General tendency toward psychopathology – Life outcomes: problems in family relationships, dissatisfied with jobs, criminal behavior © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 23
  • 24. The Essential-Trait Approach: The Big Five and Beyond • Agreeableness: conformity, friendly compliance, likeability, warmth – Cooperative and easy to get along with – Smoke less – Women tend to be higher than men – Among children, related to less vulnerability of being bullied – Life outcomes: psychologically well adjusted, healthy heart, dating satisfaction © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 24
  • 25. The Essential-Trait Approach: The Big Five and Beyond • Openness to experience/intellect – Most controversial trait • Approach to intellectual matters or basic intelligence • Value of cultural matters • Creativity and perceptiveness • Less replicable across samples and cultures © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 25
  • 26. The Essential-Trait Approach: The Big Five and Beyond • Openness to experience/intellect – Viewed by others as creative, open-minded, and clever – More likely to believe in UFOs, astrology, and ghosts – Life outcomes: drug use, artistic interests © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 26
  • 27. The Essential-Trait Approach: The Big Five and Beyond • Universality of the Big Five – When translated to other languages: four or five of the factors appear – When starting with other languages: some overlap but no one-to-one correspondence – Scores vary by geographic region © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 27
  • 28. The Essential-Trait Approach: The Big Five and Beyond © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 28
  • 29. The Essential-Trait Approach: The Big Five and Beyond • Beyond the Big Five (criticisms) – Not orthogonal – There is more to personality – Too broad for conceptual understanding © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 29
  • 30. Typological Approach to Personality • Based on doubt about whether it is valid to compare people quantitatively on the same trait dimensions • Important differences between people may be qualitative • Challenges – Find the divisions that distinguish different types – Come up with basic types that characterize the whole range of personality 30 © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
  • 31. Typological Approach to Personality • Three replicable types – Well adjusted, maladjusted overcontrolling, maladjusted undercontrolling – But types do not predict behavior beyond what can be predicted with quantitative trait scores © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 31
  • 32. Typological Approach to Personality • Is it useful to think about people in terms of types? – Yes (maybe) – Summary of standing on several traits – Make it easier to think about how traits within a person interact with each other – But don’t add to ability to predict outcomes © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 32
  • 33. Personality Development Over the Life Span • Personality development • Combination of genetic factors and early experience • Strong tendency to maintain individual differences throughout life in comparison to others – Rank-order consistency © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 33
  • 34. Personality Development Over the Life Span • Stability increases with age – Cumulative continuity principle – Psychological maturation • Also evidence of mean level change over time – Most change occurs in young adulthood – May be based on changing social roles © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 34
  • 35. Mean Scores on Big Five Personality Traits Between Ages 10 and 60 for Men (M) and Women (F) © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 35
  • 36. Personality Trait Change in Adulthood • Definitions of change • Mean-level change • Individual differences in change © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 36
  • 37. Thinking About Personality Development • Has your own personality ever changed? Is it changing now? Why or why not? • Can you come up with explanations for how each trait is affected by the way social demands change as one grows older? • What about people whose trait levels are more stable than those described in Figure 7.4, or those that change in opposite ways? How could these outcomes be explained? © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 37
  • 38. Clicker Question #1 A researcher who is interested in the construct of cooperativeness and wants to discover what this trait is able to predict should use the a) single-trait approach. b) many-trait approach. c) essential-trait approach. d) typological approach. © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 38
  • 39. Clicker Question #2 Which of the following statements about personality development is true? a) Personality changes very little after age 30. b) Rank-order stability tends to be high. c) The mean levels of traits change over time. d) Both b and c are correct. © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 39
  • 40. Clicker Question #3 The typological approach is a)not useful because people only differ from each other quantitatively, not qualitatively. b)a combination of the single-trait and manytrait approaches. c)useful because it is a way to summarize many findings. d)based on the importance of quantitative ratings of all people on the same traits. © 2013 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 40