Cause of your mistake: Think about this throughout the lecture for new insights.
Shyness, self-assuredness: Example in text of how shy people can be perceived as cold and aloof. Have students think about another trait, such as self-assuredness, and how this might be perceived by others (rude, conceited, etc.). Climate (warmer emotional attitude of teacher), feedback (more differentiated feedback that depends on whether the response is correct), input (teachers attempt to teach more and more difficult material), output (extra opportunities for students to show what they know) Self-fulfilling prophecy: Behavior is influenced by how others expect us to act (regardless of what we are really like). Snyder, Tanke, & Berscheid (1977): Attractive people were expected to be warm and friendly and people thought to be attractive responded in that way.
Expectancies are likely to be correct: so they magnify or maintain behavioral tendencies
Constructivism definition: The philosophical view that reality, as a concrete entity, does not exist and that only ideas or “constructions” of reality exist. Critical realism definition: The philosophical view that the absence of perfect, infallible criteria for truth does not imply that all interpretations of reality are equally valid.
Convergent validation definition: the process of assembling diverse pieces of information that converge on a common conclusion Interjudge agreement definition: the degree to which two or more judges of the same person provide the same descriptions of personality Behavioral prediction: the degree to which a judgment can predict behavior Activity 6-2. Who is the most accurate judge?
Consensus was better than .30 for extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience based on sitting together without talking Accurate judgments for dominant vs. submissive and sexuality from looking at a person’s face From composite faces of extreme scorers, people could differentiate between low vs. high agreeableness, extraversion, and conscientiousness for male faces, and between low vs. high agreeableness and extraversion for female faces. Activity 6-1. You think you know me
Neatness of bedroom: bed made, neat overall Musical preferences: Inventive, imaginative, tolerant, and liberal people tend to like reflective, complex music; curious, risk-taking, and physically attractive people tend to like aggressive and intense music. Handshakes: Firmness is positively related to extraversion and emotional expressiveness and negatively related to shyness and anxiety.
Definition: variables that change the correlation between a judgment and its criterion
Men vs. women: Findings are mixed; women were better at judging extraversion and positive emotionality at zero acquaintance (sitting around a table together); women were generally accurate in terms of normative accuracy after an interaction.
Good trait example for visibility: talkative vs. ruminative
Sociosexuality: the willingness to engage in sexual relations with minimal acquaintance with, or commitment to and from, one’s partner; self-other agreement was higher for this trait than other traits less directly relevant to reproduction.
Amount of information: judgments by close acquaintances agreed more with self-judgments than those by strangers who had watched a five-minute videotape; acquaintance advantage goes away when judgments are used to predict what the target will do in a situation similar to the videotape shown to the strangers.
Figure 6.3 on p. 189
Stressful or emotionally arousing situations: good way to learn something extra about a person Best situation: What situation would be best for learning about dependability? flexibility? concern for others? Thoughts and feelings vs. daily activities: Watching a person talk about thoughts and feelings resulted in higher agreement with ratings from oneself and close friends. Unstructured vs. structured situations: unstructured results in more accurate judgments
Figure 6.4 on p. 192 Relevance: to the trait being judged Available: in a manner and place that the judge can see it Detection: judge notices the information Utilization: accurately remember and correctly interpret the information Activity 6-3. Detect the jerk
Accurate personality judgment is difficult: All four stages of RAM must be successful. Moderators of accuracy must be the result of something that happens at one (or more) of these four stages: Discuss how one or more of the moderators would result from processes at different stages. Accuracy can be improved in four ways: by improving each stage of RAM