Fall 2013 PSY 263 401 CHAPTER 8

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  • 1. Chapter 8 Information Processing Theory
  • 2. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8 | 2 Overview • The Information Processing View of Learning • A Model of Information Processing • Metacognition • Technology As an Information-processing Tool
  • 3. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8 | 3 The Information Processing View of Learning • Assumptions  Information is processed in steps or stages  There are limits on how much information can be processed at each stage  The human information processing system is interactive
  • 4. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8 | 4 A Model of Information Processing • The Sensory Register  Capacity – Very large  Duration – 1 to 3 seconds  Contents – Raw sensory data (encoded in same form as perceived)
  • 5. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8 | 5 The Nature of Recognition • The Nature of Recognition  Noting key features of a stimulus and relating them to already stored information • The Impact of Attention  Selective focusing on a portion of the information currently stored in the sensory register  What we attend to is influenced by information in long-term memory
  • 6. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8 | 6 Short-Term Memory • Short-Term Memory  Capacity – 5 to 9 chunks of information  Duration – About 20 seconds  Processes – Called working memory because this is where we encode, organize, and retrieve information  Importance – Working memory capacity related to many academic skills
  • 7. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8 | 7 Rehearsal • Rehearsal  Maintenance Rehearsal (rote rehearsal, repetition): Information is repeated over and over again with no effect on long-term memory storage  Elaborative Rehearsal (elaborative encoding): New information is related to knowledge already stored in long-term memory  See Online Video Case “Cooperative Learning in the Elementary Grades: Jigsaw Model”
  • 8. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8 | 8 A Model of Information Processing - Organization • Organization  Putting interrelated pieces of information into chunks • Meaningfulness  When new material can be related to information in long-term memory • Visual Imagery Encoding  Generating images in your mind of objects, ideas, and actions – Dual coding theory
  • 9. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8 | 9 A Model of Information Processing – Long-Term Memory • Long-Term Memory  Capacity – Unlimited  Duration – Permanent, long-term  Contents – Schemata
  • 10. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8 | 10 Schemata • How Information is Organized in Long-Term Memory  Schemata – Interrelated networks of associated ideas into which new knowledge is assimilated
  • 11. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8 | 11 A Model of Information Processing - Forgetting • Why We Forget  Inadequate Consolidation – Material not well learned in the first place  Non-Meaningful Learning – Unfamiliar information can’t be connected to existing schemes  Few Opportunities for Retrieval – More short tests help stimulate recall
  • 12. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8 | 12 A Model of Information Processing – Forgetting Cont. • Why We Forget (cont’d) Interference From Other Material – Similar material that require different responses  Lack of Retrieval Cues – Words, phrases, images, sounds that are associated with the learned material  See Online Video Case “Using Information-Processing Strategies: A Middle School Science Lesson”
  • 13. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8 | 13 Metacognition • The Nature and Importance of Metacognition  Metacognition is our knowledge about attention, recognition, encoding, storage, and retrieval and how those operations might best be used to achieve a learning goal
  • 14. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8 | 14 Metacognition – Nature and Importance • The Nature and Importance of Metacognition  Declarative Knowledge – Knowledge of person, task, and strategy variables  Conditional Knowledge – Knowledge of when to use certain learning processes  Procedural Knowledge – Knowledge of how to use various cognitive processes
  • 15. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8 | 15 Metacognition – Age Trends • Age Trends in Metacognition  Primary grade children have limited knowledge of: – why some material is more difficult to learn than other material – their memory capability – factors that affect reading comprehension and recall – why some techniques lead to better recall than other techniques – when they have learned something well enough that they can pass a test  Metacognitive knowledge develops with age, experience, and instruction
  • 16. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 8 | 16 Technology as an Information-Processing Tool • Technology Tools for Writing • Technology Tools for Reading • Technology Tools for Science and Math • Technology Tools for Art and Music • Multimedia, Hypermedia, and Virtual Environments