Group 6 Chapter Presentation PowerpointPresentation Transcript
Group 6 CHAPTER PRESENTATION BY: KIMBERLY COOPER, NOEMI GUERRA, ARLYN PINO, JACQUELINE SIGLER, VERONICA FISHER, AND NAOMI SAMOLE-PRAGER
The issue of how to define learning disabilities has received considerable attention in the field since 1963, when Samuel Kirk suggested the term specific learning disabilities at the organizational meeting of the Learning Disabilities Association of America (LDA).
Specific learning disabilities –
Represents a heterogeneous group of students who, despite adequate cognitive functioning and the ability to learn some skills and strategies relatively quickly and easily, have great difficulty learning other skills and strategies.
A student is not regarded as having specific learning disabilities if the deficit is primarily the result of any of the following:
Visual, hearing, or motor disability
Environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage
Lack of appropriate instruction in reading
DEFINITIONS AND TYPES OF LEARNING DISABILITIES
The term children with specific learning disabilities means those children who have a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that many manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations.
The major components of this definition include the following:
Difficulty with academic and learning task
Discrepancy between expected and actual achievement that can be documented through low response to intervention
Disorder in basic psychological processing
Exclusion of other causes
CHILDREN WITH SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITIES
Determining that students have a learning disability has always been a difficult and somewhat controversial task. This is largely because it is difficult to distinguish between a learning problem and a learning disability.
IQ- Achievement Discrepancy: These studies included measures of behavior, academic achievement, and cognitive abilities. These studies found little relationship between IQ and word reading.
IDEIA 2004 includes the use of response to intervention (RTI) as an alternative to the traditional aptitude-achievement discrepancy approaches to identifying students with learning disabilities.
RTI provides a validated intervention to students in the instructional area of need before determining their qualifications for special education. Students who respond adequately to the intervention and are able to make appropriate progress in the classroom are unlikely to require special education. Students whose response to the intervention is low are very likely to require special education.
Joseph Blankenship’s ideas about learning disabilities are that initially these students may not seem different from other students, because they participate in classroom discussions and may appear to understand the content covered. But as assignments are submitted and tests are given, he realizes that students with LD have difficulties with reading, writing, math, studying, and organizing their time.
RTI neither creates nor fixes learning disabilities. However, models such as 3-Tier Reading provided a safety net for students who might end up in special education.
DIAGNOSING STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES
Students with LD often have difficulties with attention and in some cases, hyperactivity.
Learning disabilities represent a group of disorders that causes students to have learning and academic difficulties.
Dyslexia refers to severe difficulty in learning to read, particularly as it relates to decoding and spelling
Dysgraphia refers to severe difficulty in learning to write, including handwriting.
Dyscalculia refers to severe difficulty in learning mathematical concepts and computations.
Phonemic Awareness: The ability to blend, segment, and manipulate speech sounds (for example, trash has 4 speech sounds or phonemes: t-r-a-s-h).
Alphabetic Principle: Learning how speech maps to print or learning letter-sounds relationships. Understanding letter-sound relationships allows students to decode unknown words by making the speech sounds associated with letters and then blending them together to make a word ( c-a-t is cat ).
Rapid Naming entails having children quickly name familiar objects, letters, or numbers. These skills are important in building reading frequency.
Students with LD, even those who read fairly well, may have problems with written language. These difficulties can occur in handwriting, spelling, productivity, writing mechanics, organization, and composition.
CHARACTERISITICS OF STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES
Signals for learning disabilities are characteristics of students with learning disabilities. Because these students are a heterogeneous group, only certain signals will apply to any one student:
Has trouble understanding and following directions
Has a short attention span; is easily distracted
Is overactive and impulsive
Has difficulty with handwriting and fine motor activities
Has difficulty with visual or auditory sequential memory
Has difficulty memorizing words or basic math facts
Has difficulty allocating time and organizing work
Is unmotivated toward tasks that are difficult
Has difficulty segmenting words into sounds and blending sounds
Confuses similar letters and words, such as b and d , and was and saw
Listens and speaks well but decodes poorly when reading
Has difficulty with tasks that require rapid naming of pictures, words, and numbers
Is not efficient or effective in using learning strategies
SIGNALS FOR POSSIBLE LEARNING DISABILITIES
Today, more students are identified as having specific learning disabilities than any other type of learning disability.
According to the Twenty-Seventh Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, approximately 9% of school-age children were identified as having disabilities.
Just over 47% of this group, or approximately 4% of the school-age population, were identified as having specific learning disabilities.
During the last three decades, the number of students classified as having LD has increased substantially – more than doubling.
The percentage of school-age children identified as having a learning disabilities varies by state from 1.5% to 5.2%.
PREVALENCE OF LEARNING DISABILITIES
Growing public awareness of LD
Greater social acceptance
Limited alternatives for other students at risk
Social and cultural influences on central nervous system integrity
Increasing needs for literacy at work and in daily life
WHY DOES THE PERCENTAGE OF STUDENTS WITH LD CONTINUE TO INCREASE?
Most students with LD are identified because of difficulties with academic achievement.
Teachers are usually the first professionals to notice learning strengths and weaknesses.
Of all of the members of a pre-referral team, classroom teachers and parents have the most experience with a student.
One of the most important things to do to ensure you are appropriately referring a student for learning disabilities is to ask yourself the following questions:
Have you provided effective instruction?
Have you given the student additional support and modifications?
Is this student a distinctly different learner than others?
Are there other explanations for this student’s learning problems?
IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT OF CHILDREN WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES
No one approach or technique is appropriate for all students with LD.
Effective classroom teachers must use their “best teaching practices” to teach students with LD.
Several common practices associated with academic success of students with LD include:
Controlling task difficulty
Teaching in small interactive groups of 6 of fewer students
Using graphic organizers and other visual displays to illustrate key concepts
Providing modeling and “think alouds” to demonstrate strategies and learning practices
Teaching students to self-regulate and self-monitor their learning and to “fix-up” when they have learning problems.
Providing opportunities for extended practice with feedback
INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES & ACCOMMODATIONS FOR STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES
Research on the use of advance organizers, or activities that orient students to the task and the materials, suggests that this is even more important for students with LD, learning problems, or limited background knowledge for the task being taught.
A 1983 study found that when content-area teachers in middle and high schools used advance organizers, students with LD could experience significant improvements in both the quality and quantity of learning.
Three important factors:
Students with LD are taught how to listen for and use the advance organizers.
After using the advance organizer, the teacher and students must discuss it’s effectiveness.
Third, before an advance organizer is presented, the teacher must cue the students that it is going to be used.
USING ADVANCE ORGANIZERS
Students are most successful when they have an idea of where they are going.
PROVIDING A FRAMEWORK FOR LEARNING: STEPS IN USING AN ADVANCE ORGANIZER
One key to success for students with LD is to make the learning visible.
Instead of asking repeatedly, “What is the main idea of the story?” until students come up with the correct answer, have the students model and discuss the thinking processes, or cognitive strategies, they use to find the main idea of the story.
Teachers and students can use thinking aloud to comment on or make visible their thought processes as they are doing cognitive tasks, such as finding the main idea.
Teachers can use discussions, referred to as instructional conversations, to make visible the thinking processes needed for understanding.
STEPS IN USING THINKING ALOUD & INSTRUCTIONAL CONVERSATIONS
Students with LD need extended practice and additional opportunities to apply their learning to ensure continued mastery.
Several instructional principals that are important for students with learning disabilities are helpful for many students include the following:
Using learning tools and aids
Adjusting workload and time
Presenting and having students demonstrate their learning in multiple ways
Teaching students to use memory strategies
PROVIDING EXTENDED PRACTICE AND APPLICATION
With new technology and its increasing availability, more students with reading, writing and math disabilities are able to overcome their academic problems through the use of technologically based learning tools.
Teachers are better able to organize their classrooms and use technology to facilitate effective cooperative learning activities.
Computers offer a number of tools for students.
Some examples are:
Students with handwriting and spelling disabilities have been helped by word processing programs with built-in spell check.
Through speech synthesizers and software, students with reading and writing difficulties have had the opportunity to hear what they write and then to read along with the computer.
Other learning tools that are recommended for students with LD include calculators, spell checkers, tape recorders, and handheld computers.
USING LEARNING TOOLS & AIDS
Workload adjustments may include:
Reducing the amount of work
Dividing the work into smaller sections or tasks
It is important to present information in multiple ways when instructing children with learning disabilities.
Students with learning disabilities may have difficulty processing information when it is presented in only one way.
ADJUSTING WORKLOAD AND TIME
Research has consistently demonstrated that students with LD are less effective at employing memory strategies than their peers.
This is particularly important for students with learning disabilities in a general education classroom.
Students with learning disabilities may not automatically use memory strategies such as rehearsing information they are learning, categorizing the information to make it easier to learn, using visual imagery to “see” the information mentally, and using acronyms to remember lists.
TEACHING STUDENTS TO USE MEMORY STRATEGIES
Controlling task difficulty
Teaching students with LD in a small interactive groups of six or less
Using combination of direct instructions and cognitive strategy instruction
Providing a framework for learning
Modeling process and strategies using thinking aloud and instructional conversations
Teaching self-regulation and self-monitoring
Providing opportunities for extended practice and application
Using learning tools and aids
Adjusting work load and time requirements
Presenting information and having students demonstrate learning in multiple ways
Teaching memory strategies
KEY STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING STUDENTS WITH LD
ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER
Students with hyperactivity disorder have been identified for well over a century (1902), but only recently have we begun to address the educational implications of their disorder in schools. The terms attention deficit disorder (ADD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been used to describe students with this disability. Parent groups, such as Children and Adults with Attention Deficit Disorders (CHADD), have applied pressure at the local, state, and national levels so that appropriate educational services would be developed for their children.
Myths and misunderstandings about ADHD:
ADHD is not a real disorder and was only drummed up by pharmaceutical or psychiatric communities.
Evidence reports that ADHD is a real disorder.
ADHD is only a childhood disorder.
ADHD affects individuals across the lifespan.
ADHD is over-diagnosed and many individuals who are labeled ADHD are not.
Though occasional misdiagnosis is possible with all disabilities, prevalence rates for ADHD vary from 3 to 5% (National Institute of Mental Health)
ADHD is likely to result in overmedicating children.
The increase in medication is likely a result of better diagnosis and treatment across the lifespan.
ADHD is a result of poor parenting.
ADHD is attributable to genetics in the vast of the majority of cases.
DIAGNOSTIC & STATISTICAL MANUAL OF MENTAL DISORDERS AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION (2002)
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), which addresses mental health disorders for children and adults, describes ADHD as a general term and subdivides individuals into three categories:
ADHD, Predominantly Inattentive Type
ADHD, Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type
ADHD, Combined Type
Students who display either or both of these characterizes can be indentified as having ADHD.
Evidence to suggest that ADHD often coexists with other conditions such as depression, anxiety, and learning disabilities.
Inattention refers to consistent (over 6 months) and highly inappropriate levels of at least six of the following behaviors:
Failing to pay close attention to details and making careless mistakes that are inconsistent with the child’s developmental level
Failing to sustain attention to tasks and/or play activities
Failing to listen, even when spoken to directly
Having difficulty with organization
Resisting working on tasks that require sustained attention
Losing materials and objects
Becoming easily distracted
HYPERACTIVITY – IMPULSIVITY
Hyperactivity-impulsivity refers to consistent (over 6 months) and highly inappropriate levels of at least six of the following behaviors:
Fidgeting or squirming
Having a difficult time remaining seated during class, even when other students are able to do so
Running or climbing excessively when it is not appropriate
Having difficulty playing quietly
Acting as though he or she is “driven by a motor”
Talking too much
Blurting out answers
Having difficulty waiting for his or her turn
Interrupting others or butting into activities
These characteristics of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity should be present before the age of 7 and in two or more separate settings (e.g. at school and at home).
THREE TYPES OF ADHD AND THE STUDENT
ADHD, Predominantly Inattentive Type:
Teachers recognize these students as daydreamers who are often forgetful and easily distracted.
ADHD, Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulse Type:
These students have difficulty sitting still, talk out of turn, are the most challenging to parents and teachers, and are more likely to develop oppositional and defiant disorder or conduct disorder in adolescence.
ADHD, Combined Type:
These students have features of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity. It is estimated that 85% of students with ADHD are the combined type.
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INATTENTIVE & HYPERACTIVE-IMPULSIVE TYPES OF ADHD Trait Hyperactive-Impulsive Type Inattentive Type Decision Making Impulsive Sluggish Boundaries Intrusive, rebellious Honors boundaries, polite, obedient Assertion Bossy, irritating Under assertive, overly polite, docile Attention Seeking Shows off, egotistical, best at worst Modest, shy, socially withdrawn Popularity Attracts new friends but doesn’t bond Bonds but doesn’t attract Most common diagnosis Oppositional defiant, conduct disorder Depression, energy focused in
CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDENTS WITH ADHD
Blurting out answers
Rarely completing tasks
Jumping from task to task
Difficulty regulating activity
Poor self control
Little rule-governed behavior
Little executive functioning (ability to regulate thinking and behavior using working memory, inner speech, and controlling emotions, analyzing problems, and communicating solutions to peers)
10 THINGS TEENS WITH ADHD WANT TEACHERS TO KNOW
I am not stupid. I may need help, even when I do not ask.
I need help to organize my work. I may complete work and loose it.
ADHD is not an excuse, I do struggle.
Sometimes I really do forget things. I’m not trying to be difficult.
Talk to me about my behavior in private, do not embarrass me in class.
I need help to control my impulsive behavior.
I enjoy cooperative learning to help me make and keep friends.
I like to stick to a routine.
Include me in planning and decision-making. I have feelings.
Learn about ADHD, so that you can help me as best as you can and understand what I go through everyday.
These tips can be found on Page 165 in “Tips for Teachers” 6.6
PREVALENCE OF ADHD
Difficult to determine exact number because students are not recorded under IDEIA.
Estimated prevalence rate at 3% to 5%.
Higher rate of males than females (3 to 1).
This may be because of the way ADHD is tested and manifested in the sexes. Girls are less likely to have the hyperactivity part of ADHD.
Testing for ADHD is based on the way it is presented in boys who are usually more aggressive and hyperactive than girls, making girls less likely to be diagnosed.
29.3% of girls have a subtype of inattentive ADHD.
IDENTIFICATION & ASSESSMENT OF STUDENTS WITH ADHD
Diagnosis involves medical evaluation from a pediatrician, psychologist or psychiatrist
Rating scale used by teachers and parents to rate behavior. Included in rating scale are: distractibility, restlessness, always up, excitability, impulsiveness, excessively demining, if unaccepted by peers, no sense of fair game, failure to finish tasks
Rated on presence of behavior and frequency of occurrence
Used for children aged 6 to 18
Teachers must be culturally sensitive, as some cultures may manifest more body movement, gesture and expression than others. These may seem to be behaviors related to ADHD, but it may be based on the students culture and upbringing and not merit an ADHD diagnosis.
FAPE : Free and Appropriate Public Education
Two federal laws that guarantee a FAPE to children with ADHD are:
Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA)
Provides a special education for those students who meet the eligibility criteria for one or more disability and whose disability adversely affects their educational performance.
Mandates procedures for identifying students with disabilities and how services should be provided and monitored.
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Section 504)
A civil rights statute which requires that schools do not discriminate against children with disabilities and that they provide children with reasonable accommodations.
Focuses on equity and access in all areas of life but does not detail how services will be provided.
ELIGIBILITY FOR ADHD SERVICES & SPECIAL EDUCATION LAW
Teachers who are effective with students with ADHD possess the following characteristics:
Positive attitudes toward inclusion of students with ADHD.
Ability to collaborate as a member of an interdisciplinary team.
Knowledge of behavior management procedures.
Educational interventions for students with ADHD:
Use novelty in instruction and directions.
Maintain a schedule.
Prepare students for transitions and provide support in completing transitions.
Emphasize time limits.
Provide organizational assistance.
Provide rewards consistently and often.
Be brief and clear.
Arrange the environment to facilitate attention.
Provide optimal stimulation.
Allow for movement and postures other than sitting.
Promote active participation through effective questioning techniques.
INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDELINES & ACCOMMODATIONS FOR ADHD STUDENTS
Professionals like pediatricians, psychologists, and/or psychiatrists may recommend that the student be given medication as one aspect of treatment for ADHD.
Stimulant medication is most typical type of medication, which includes Ritalin.
Other approved drugs:
70% to 80% of children with ADHD respond positively to stimulant medications.
MEDICATION FOR ADHD STUDENTS
Please click on the link below to test your knowledge on the information presented in the earlier slides.
Chapter 6 Quiz
CHAPTER 6 - QUIZ
The National Center for Learning Disabilities’ (NCLD) mission is to ensure success for all individuals with learning disabilities in school, at work and in life.
Connects parents and others with resources, guidance and support so they can advocate effectively for their children.
Delivers evidence-based tools, resources and professional development to educators to improve student outcomes.
Develops policies and engages advocates to strengthen educational rights and opportunities.