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Evolution of Product Design


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  • 1. Evolution of the Camera Diane Kim and Cody Rosen Introduction to Engineering Design Period 7
  • 2. The First Camera (Camera Obscura) • Roger Bacon is said to have invented camera obscura, but it was never accepted by scholars. • Johann Zahn created the first camera that was small and portable enough for practical use. • Abu 'Ali al-Hasan ibn al- Haytham (Alhazen) developed the camera obscura. content/uploads/Camera_Obscura_box1.jpg&imgrefurl= arts-and-crafts/my-cameras-an- essay&usg=__ee2fqKgUOHcaZvAuQGAvMfB5Jn0=&h=648&w=738&sz=37&hl=e n&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=nPLpCNgsPiSS8M:&tbnh=122&tbnw=140&prev=/im ages%3Fq%3Dcamera%2Bobscura%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive %3D530%26tbs %3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=140&ei=38mHTKGjNcWqngeRiKiyDA&o ei=uMmHTPqUK93qnQeVtZm1Dg&esq=6&page=1&ndsp=16&ved=1t:429,r:12,s :0&tx=105&ty=30&safe=active
  • 3. First Photograph • The first photograph was created by French researcher Joseph Nicephore Niepce around 1822. • The photograph was created using paper coated with a chemical. • However, the image was not permanent, and it would disappear after a short while. imgurl= s/Photography/Images/Content/niepce-first-photo-niepce1826- lw.jpg&imgrefurl= &usg=__A2oY7imPlsWYh5tOTZFqDgFNGNw=&h=768&w=1024&sz=191&hl=en&start =1&zoom=1&tbnid=LwL-w9CeixOLTM:&tbnh=113&tbnw=150&prev=/images%3Fq %3Dfirst%2Bphotograph%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26sa%3DN %3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1 imgurl= tp:// XnoO0AkxM5EZwLtqZzgKg=&h=280&w=216&sz=60&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=nFwQcB WfubghCM:&tbnh=129&tbnw=98&prev=/images%3Fq%3Djoseph%2Bnicephore%2Bniepce %26biw%3D1003%26bih%3D530%26tbs %3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=31&ei=LcuHTJzkF4rKnAfgzIi1Dg&oei=LcuHTJzkF4rKnAf gzIi1Dg&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=17&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0&tx=54&ty=68&safe=active First known photograph
  • 4. Photographs contd. • Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre partnered with Joseph Nicephore Niepce in 1829. • Together, they developed the process of creating permanent photographs. • This process of capturing permanent images came to be known as ‘daguerreotype’ imgurl= efurl= Posters/i1345686.html&usg=__1TOnGdH2bBWAwAfibFeK8FP8R6A=&h=450& w=338&sz=35&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=LRfia4hY-x- 9OM:&tbnh=134&tbnw=96&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dlouis%2Bjacques %2Bmande%2Bdaguerre%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26sa %3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=312&ei=hMyHTIHGCaS1nAfX7dAS&o ei=hMyHTIHGCaS1nAfX7dAS&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=19&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0&t x=59&ty=79&safe=active
  • 5. Calotype Process • A slightly more advanced version of the daguerreotype. • Made multiple copies possible using negative and positive method. • Created by William Henry Fox Talbot. • In 1840’s, photographic images were first used in advertisements. imgurl=,_by_John_Moffat, _1864.jpg&imgrefurl=,_by_John_Moffat, _1864.jpg&usg=__wG9jxbcWbMl8sGPh4- 2INlaUrn4=&h=2463&w=1948&sz=1523&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=Gk- EM28hIinSdM:&tbnh=145&tbnw=112&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dwilliam%2Bhenry%2Bfox%2Btalbot%26um %3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=343&ei=qxWJTJKlMYisngf8srS1Dg&oei=qxWJTJKlMYisngf8srS1Dg&es q=1&page=1&ndsp=16&ved=1t:429,r:3,s:0&tx=80&ty=120&safe=active
  • 6. Further Improvements • First experiments with underwater photography in the 1850’s. • Faster way to capture an image called Collodion process was found in 1851 by Frederick Scott Archer. Reduced time from half an hour to just 2-3 seconds. • Richard Leach Maddox invented the gelatin dry plate silver bromide process. With this invention, the negatives didn’t have to be developed immediately. imgurl= grefurl= Imaging.php&usg=__Y3SJtydr0nnV8qnbZkNEAd6Kcc8=&h=471&w=390&sz=44&hl= en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=6St_QwHOMG6myM:&tbnh=162&tbnw=151&prev=/i mages%3Fq%3Dfirst%2Bunderwater%2Bcamera%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26safe %3D558%26tbs %3Disch:10%2C3&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=315&vpy=216&dur=2855&hovh=24 7&hovw=204&tx=119&ty=193&ei=qBeJTMeFLNSlnQeas4i6Dg&oei=qBeJTMeFLNSln Qeas4i6Dg&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=8&ved=1t:429,r:5,s:0&biw=1020&bih=558&safe =active imgurl= umb/5/57/Dr._Richard_Leach_Maddox.jpg/220px- Dr._Richard_Leach_Maddox.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.rit %3DR._L._Maddox&usg=__MwuUAYmuat9nzUNi39elQMLE ArI=&h=313&w=220&sz=17&hl=en&start=5&zoom=1&tbnid =3Mvud825wso8zM:&tbnh=117&tbnw=82&prev=/images %3Fq%3Drichard%2Bleach%2Bmaddox%26um%3D1%26hl %3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26sa%3DN%26rls %3D558%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1
  • 7. George Eastman • Created Kodak in 1888. • Developed transparent roll film in 1889. • This development led to the invention of the motion picture camera by Thomas Edison in 1891. • From 1935 to 1941, Kodak begins marketing Kodachrome film and launches Kodacolor negative film. hl=en&q=kodachrome&um=1&ie=UTF- 8&source=og&sa=N&tab=wi
  • 8. Color Photography • Autochrome Lumiere was a color photography process patented by the Lumiere brothers in 1903 • Color films were brought to the market in the early 1940’s. • They used the modern technology of dye-coupled colors. • This was a chemical process that connected the three dye layers together to create an apparent color image. The first color photograph imgurl= hPLbexuw=&h=344&w=400&sz=29&hl=en&start=2&zoom=1&tbnid=KdEplq0cWqL2- M:&tbnh=107&tbnw=124&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dthe%2Bfirst%2Bcolor%2Bphoto %26biw%3D1003%26bih%3D558%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1
  • 9. 35mm Film • The 35mm films were originally used for movies, but eventually were developed for use in cameras in the 1920s. • Waterproof 35mm camera was invented in 1957 by Jaques Yves Cousteau. It was named Calypso Phot. imgurl= ~yue/misc/LeicaLTM.html&usg=__LeXGbFRkd5_TmMPQK_FU8L0X5E0=&h=301&w=350&sz=31& hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=fdKhwwt8GqvMxM:&tbnh=141&tbnw=153&prev=/images%3Fq %3Dthe%2Bfirst%2B35mm%2Bcamera%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26rls %3Disch:10%2C3&um=1&itbs=1&biw=1003&bih=558&iact=rc&dur=171&ei=U2eKTMv9FeXenQf nneSaCQ&oei=U2eKTMv9FeXenQfnneSaCQ&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=13&ved=1t:429,r:5,s:0&tx=5 9&ty=82&safe=active Camera with 35mm film %3Fmain_page%3Dask_a_question%26products_id %3D185&usg=__820Av1bFgydXfBGjGbRc37j9suk=&h=480&w=438&sz=29&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=4370ldnBVbCamM:&tbnh =132&tbnw=110&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dfirst%2B35mm%2Bmovie%2Bcamera%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26rls %3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=142&vpy=304&dur=62&hovh=175&hovw=159&tx=85&ty=154&ei=s2eKTParMY3- nAfN7PmFCg&oei=s2eKTParMY3-nAfN7PmFCg&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:10,s:0&safe=active 35mm movie camera
  • 10. Polaroid Instant Image Camera • Edwin H. Land found the Polaroid Corporation in 1937. • The corporation’s instant film cameras reached the markets in 1948. imgurl= oid_SX- 70.gif&imgrefurl= eet_tea.php3&usg=__JTV7vuzO- Nc8KaWofoRMepKGICg=&h=299&w=250&sz=60&hl=en&start=30&zoom=1&tbnid= lWj8PO65CDeO2M:&tbnh=135&tbnw=127&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dthe%2Bfirst %2Bpolaroid%2Binstant%2Bfilm%2Bcamera%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26safe %3D558%26tbs %3Disch:10%2C921&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=130&vpy=224&dur=1638&hovh= 239&hovw=200&tx=137&ty=174&ei=42uKTL2wHojDnAeJxPzHDA&oei=VmuKTI3TN MzsnQe- lY2ZCQ&esq=26&page=3&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:10,s:30&biw=1003&bih=558&saf e=active
  • 11. Cameras that Followed • 1957- First Asahi Pentax SLR. 35mm single lens reflex camera that influenced the designs of future 35mm SLRs. • 1959- Nikon F. Completely mechanical and did not require batteries. • 1959- AGFA Optima. The first fully automatic camera. • 1963- Kodak Instimatic. Inexpensive point and shoot camera. content/uploads/2010/04/k1000.jpg Asahi Pentax SLR
  • 12. Digital Imaging • Fairchild Semiconductor Company starts digital imaging in 1973. • They were the first to produce a commercial Charge-coupled device. • The Charge-coupled devices were used as a form of memory or for delaying analog, sampled signals. Charge-coupled device ents/scanner/950d1206005211- charge-coupled-device- 4489898.jpg
  • 13. First Digital Camera • The design for a filmless camera was made by a Texas Instruments engineer named Willis Adcock. It was applied for a patent in 1972. • The first recorded attempt at building a camera was in 1975 by an engineer at eastman kodak named Steven Sasson. • The camera recorded black and white images onto a casette tape and took 23 seconds to capture the image. • It used the solid-state CCD image sensor chips developed by Fairchild Semiconductor digital-camera-ever.jpg
  • 14. Commercially Available Electoric Still Camera • An electronic still camera was commercially available in 1981, created by Sony. • The camera came with a mini disc on which images were recorded and stored. • The images could be printed later or vied on a monitor using a reader device. board/00P/00PhmA-46941784.jpg
  • 15. 1980s • 1985- Digital imaging and processing is introduced by Pixar. • 1986- Disposable single use cameras are created by Fuji. • 1986 to 1987- Kodak begins the use of pixels in digital technology, which allows storing large volumes of pixels to deliver definition print quality. content/uploads/2009/06/Pixar_animation_s tudios_logo.jpg quicksnap.jpg
  • 16. Photo CDs and Digital Cameras • Photo CDs are introduced in 1990 by Kodak. Photographic images could be stored on CDs and viewed on a computer. • In 1991, Kodak introduces a pixel based camera technology now known as the digital camera. • This camera was targeted at professionals and journalists. • Unlike the previous cameras, the digital camera recorded and stored the photos in digital form. The digital data could then be transferred to a computer and processed for printing. anies/nikon/htmls/models/images/ g
  • 17. Home Use Digital Camera • The Apple QuickTake camera is introduced in 1994, a digital camera intended for home use. • This is followed by home use digital cameras from Casio, Kodak and many others during 1995 to 1996. l
  • 18. Many advancements have been made to the camera since it was first created hundreds of years ago. Now the camera is fast, compact, and easy to use. They can be found anywhere in the world, and are used by millions of people. Cameras help us capture images and moments of our lives and keeps us updated on things happening around the world. Conclusion
  • 19. Refrences • Timeline of the camera. (2008-2009). Retrieved from • Bellis, M. (2010). Photography timeline. Retrieved from hy.htm • Haslego, C. (2005, March 6). History of the camera. Retrieved from Camera&id=18736 • Bellis, M. (2010). History of photography. Retrieved from raphy.htm • Leggat, R. (2008, September 23). Niepce, joseph nicephore. Retrieved from