Rise Spread Islam


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Rise Spread Islam

  1. 1. Mohammed and the Rise of Islam s 600’s A.D. s loss of much of the Eastern Roman Empire s to a new religious and political power – Islam
  2. 2. Middle East, ca. 600 A.D.
  3. 3. Islam s Bedouin Arab named Mohammed s born ca. 570 A.D. s Merchant family, Hasimites s Qurayshis tribe, who dominate Mecca – controlling much of the religious pilgrim trade s raised by relatives -father and mother died by age six -raised by an impoverished uncle
  4. 4. Mohammed s formal education ?? We don’t know – Normally only the Poets of the Tribes could read and write s commercial agent for a wealthy widow – Khadijah – supervising caravans from Mecca, north to Jerusalem – contact with both Jews and Christians
  5. 5. Mohammed, con’t s He seems to have made an impression on his boss, because of his reputed honesty – married her and retired from commerce – to devote himself to religion – and to making society more fair and equitable
  6. 6. Mohammed, con’t s monogamous until his wife died s eventually married nine wives and had assorted concubines s last marriage at 53 to Aishah, daughter of a friend s wives: widows of friends or political marriages • Women alone is such a world were very vulnerable
  7. 7. Origins of Mohammed’s Teachings s periods of unconsciousness are indicated: explanations – revelations from Allah by holy trances, spoken to by Gabriel – epilepsy or a similar neurological disorder? – mental illness or hallucinations ? s Mohammed’s explanation: – revelations from God – Very unpleasant and painful for him
  8. 8. The Quran s Record of revelations received during visions s Committed to writing c. 650 CE, compiled (Muhammad dies 632) – Under the third Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan s Tradition of Muhammad’s life: hadith
  9. 9. Nature of Revelations s diverse s social, agricultural, medical, military, astronomical, etc.
  10. 10. Historical Origins of His Ideas s Arab polytheism s Hanifism: a belief in one God traced to Abraham, by tradition s Judaism s Christianity: Orthodox, Nestorian, Arianism s Manichaeism: a mixture of Zoroastrianism, Christianity, Judaism, and so forth
  11. 11. Beginning of His Ministry s at about age 40, after a number of revelations s began to preach publicly s continued to receive revelations until death – usually related to current problems or concerns – Religious, political, social, economic
  12. 12. Early religious career s not particularly successful s threatened the social, political, and religious structure, with his doctrine of social equity s threatened the economic basis of Mecca as a center of religious pilgrimage s particularly the Black Rock – sacred to the chief deity of the Arabs s run out of town, or at least encouraged to leave – Went to the desert with his family and lived for about a year
  13. 13. The Hijra s flight from Mecca, to Yathrib (Medina) -tradition: invited by the Jews of Medina s 622 A.D. s beginning of the Islamic calendar s forms the umma (community) s welcomed, then resisted s Mohammed becomes an absolute theocrat
  14. 14. Muhammad’s Return to Mecca s Attack on Mecca, 630 -- jihad s Conversion of Mecca to Islam s Destruction of pagan sites, replaced with mosques – Ka’aba preserved in honor of importance of Mecca – Approved as pilgrimage site
  15. 15. Jihad s holy war against Mecca s ten year blockade s a deal was made
  16. 16. The Deal s Mecca preserved as a holy city and place of pilgrimage – to preserve the economic prosperity s the Ka’aba preserved as the central shrine – idols and icons destroyed – story of its origins emphasized the role of Abraham in its placement – pilgrimage as an act of faith, at least once in your life
  17. 17. The Ka’aba in Mecca
  18. 18. The Religion: the Koran (Qu’ran) s the Koran (Qu’ran): contains much of Mohammed recounting of Allah’s teachings s written down by his followers after his death – from notes and memories, on “stones and parchments” s Short: 114 chapters – arranged from longest to the shortest – not by subject or chronologically – length is the criterion of order for the text
  19. 19. The Koran, con’t s some “Old” and “New” Testaments stories – but sometimes the story seems a bit different to Jews and Christians s parables and fables s political polemic and prophecy s “non-religious” subjects – not dissimilar to Jewish and Christian scriptures in some ways
  20. 20. Five Pillars of Islam s uniqueness of God – ‘There is no god, but God….’ s prayer five times a day s observe the month of Ramadan s give alms to the poor s pilgrimage to Mecca – If possible, once in your life
  21. 21. Additional teachings s dietary laws s no gambling or drinking s no sexual irregularities, as defined by tradition and custom s no faulty weights or usury s no infanticide s elaborate rules concerning inheritance and property s improvement in the status of women and children
  22. 22. Changing Status of Women s Qu’ran improves status of women – Outlawed female infanticide – Brides, not husbands, claim dowries s Yet male dominance preserved – Patrilineal descent – Polygamy permitted, Polyandry forbidden – Veil adopted from ancient Mesopotamian practice
  23. 23. Similarities to Judaism and Christianity s monotheism (defined a bit differently) s insistence on the responsibility of human beings s final judgment and rewards s angels and spirits s practice of virtues: truthfulness, compassion, etc.
  24. 24. Differences s an emphasis on compassion and mercy s alms giving moderate s heaven conceived a bit differently s no priests or sacramental system s easy conversion: the Shahadah – ‘There is no God by Allah, and Mohammed is his prophet.’
  25. 25. Islamic Law: The Sharia s Codification of Islamic law s Based on Quran, hadith, logical schools of analysis s Extends beyond ritual law to all areas of human activity – This is the basis the idea of an “Islamic republic” for instance
  26. 26. Expansion of Islam s early victories s backsliders (tribes) punished – Apostasy = treason = death s assaults on: – the Byzantine (Roman) empire – the Persian empire
  27. 27. Spread of Islam
  28. 28. Dome of the Rock, Temple Mount Jerusalem
  29. 29. Victories s Syria: 635 A.D. s Palestine: 636 A.D. s Persia: captured in one battle – expansion into India – expansion to the borders of China s Egypt: help by local Christians s North Africa: the Berbers
  30. 30. Expansion, con’t s Spain 711-720 A.D. s Battle of Tours: October 732 A.D. – Charles Martel s Siege of Constantinople: 717-718 A.D. – Leo III – Greek fire s beginnings of Christian reconquest of former Roman/Christian territory
  31. 31. Reasons for success s exhaustion of Rome and Persia – End of a 400 year war s nationalist sentiments in Egypt and Syria s arguments among Christian factions s speed and size of Moslem armies s simplicity and uncomplicated nature of Islam s acceptance of the Old and New Testament – People of the Book
  32. 32. Consequences of Expansion s loss of the oldest and most central lands of Christendom s aided the ascendancy of the bishop of Rome s virtual collapse of Zoroastrianism as a major religion s radically altered the balance of power between the Roman Empire and the East s disruption of the Mediterranean economic community
  33. 33. Early Problems s Succession ? – Mohammed had no surviving male children – Daughter: Fatima – Son-in-law: Ali, child of his uncle s generated a permanent split in the Islamic community – Sunnis – Shi’as
  34. 34. Sunnis s considered themselves the “orthodox” followers of Mohammed s consider the Shi’as to be “dissenters” s issue: who leads after Mohammed ?? s the Caliph (or “leader”) s went successively to followers -Abu Bakr, then Oman -then Uthman and
  35. 35. The Shia s Disagreements over selection of caliphs s Ali passed over for Abu Bakr s Served as caliph 656-661 CE, then assassinated along with most of his followers s Remaining followers organize separate party called “Shia” – Traditionalists: Sunni
  36. 36. Abu Bakr s not particularly popular with the Muslim community s allowed raid, then invasions of Byzantine and Persian territory s subjugated any dissident elements or tribes s disposed of any “new prophets”
  37. 37. Success = strain s success introduced luxury and change – From original caliphs to the Umayyad caliphs s new ideas and new ethnic groups – with their own customs and heritage, to try to assimilate s rise of a sort of “revivalist element” – Islam had strayed from its original path and purity – Muslims were being led back to paganism – caliphs were becoming idle, corrupt, tyrants
  38. 38. Uthman: the third Caliph s murdered: warfare broke out s Ali: cousin and son-in-law of Mohammed s originally passed over as too young s contested the succession s Uthman supported by the Umayyad clan – early enemies of Mohammed – refused to accept Ali’s claims
  39. 39. Umayyeds s successful in the war s Ali assassinated in 661 A.D. – by the Kharijites s beginning of the Umayyed dynasty
  40. 40. Policy toward Conquered Peoples s Favoritism of Arab military rulers causes discontent s Limited social mobility for non-Arab Muslims s Head tax (jizya) on non-Muslims s Umayyad luxurious living causes further decline in moral authority
  41. 41. Sunnis s accepted the legitimacy of early caliphs s “Sunni” : from an Arabic word – “usage” or “custom” – implies: “precedent”
  42. 42. Shi’as s accepted Ali s word means: “party”, “faction”, “following”
  43. 43. Factions s Sunni and Shi’as dominant s originally political – Eventually the differences became dogmatic in emphasis s Shi’as become a party of religious dissent
  44. 44. Perceptions s Sunni: conservative, in favor of the “status quo” – consensus is the guiding principle s Shi’as: defenders of the oppressed, critics of privilege and power – obedience is required only as long as it can be forced, and no longer
  45. 45. Umayyed empire s Atlantic Ocean to India s Syria: center of the Islamic World s eventually displaced by the Abbasids – an Arab family claiming decent from Mohammed
  46. 46. The Abbasid Dynasty (750-1258 CE) s Abu al-Abbas Sunni Arab, allied with Shia, non-Arab Muslims s Seizes control of Persia and Mesopotamia s Defeats Umayyad army in 750 – Invited Umayyads to banquet, then massacred them – Only Spain remains Umayyad – North Africa is disputed territory, ultimately Fatamid
  47. 47. Nature of the Abbasid Dynasty s Diverse nature of administration (i.e. not exclusively Arab) s Militarily competent, but not bent on imperial expansion s Dar al-Islam s Growth through military activity of autonomous Islamic forces
  48. 48. Nature of the Abbasid Dynasty s Diverse nature of administration (i.e. not exclusively Arab) s Militarily competent, but not bent on imperial expansion s Dar al-Islam s Growth through military activity of autonomous Islamic forces
  49. 49. Caliph Harun al-Rashid (786-809 CE) s High point of Abbasid dynasty s Baghdad center of commerce s Great cultural activity
  50. 50. Abbasid Decline s Civil war between sons of Harun al-Rashid s Provincial governers assert regional independence s Dissenting sects, heretical movements s Abbasid caliphs become puppets of Persian nobility s Later, Saljuq Turks influence, Sultan real power behind the throne
  51. 51. Formation of an Islamic Cultural Tradition s Islamic values – Uniformity of Islamic law in dar al-Islam – Establishment of madrasas – Importance of the Hajj s Sufi missionaries – Asceticism, mysticism – Some tension with orthodox Islamic theologians – Wide popularity
  52. 52. Cultural influences on Islam s Persia – Adminstration and governance – literature s India – Mathematics, science, medicine • “Hindi” numbers s Greece – Philosophy, esp. Aristotle – Greek medicine
  53. 53. Cultural Importance of Islam s Development of these received influences s Distribution throughout the Muslim world s Introduction and reintroduction of these ideas to medieval Europe – Through Spain – Spanish Jews