Using Joyent Manta to Scale Event-based Data Collection and Analysis at Wanelo

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Data aggregation and analysis problems become notoriously thorny as traffic scales up: conventional databases break down at scale, and map/reduce frameworks such as Hadoop have a substantial developer and operational complexity burden. Wanelo, an online community for all the world's shopping bringing together stores, products and 10M users all in one social platform, became frustrated that the aggregation and analysis tools used when data was small (venerable Unix data processing utilities like grep, awk, cut, sed, uniq and sort) couldn't be used when data became large. Upon discovering Manta, a new cloud-based object storage system that enables the storing and processing of data simultaneously, Wanelo had a solution that no longer required the need to move data between storage and compute. Building on Manta, Wanelo has developed a system for data analysis that allows the team to tackle big data analysis using Unix utilities, resulting in a cost-effective and scalable solution. In this talk Konstantin discussed Wanelo's experiences building their system on Manta, including their motivations and considered alternatives that led to a Manta-based implementation of fully-parallelized cohort retention analysis in four lines of shell.

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Using Joyent Manta to Scale Event-based Data Collection and Analysis at Wanelo

  1. 1. Proprietary and Presenter: Konstantin Gredeskoul CTO, Wanelo.com Based on work of Atasay Gökkaya and other engineers "It's a Unix System! I know this!" Using Manta to Scale Event-based Data Collection and Analysis @kig @kigster
  2. 2. Proprietary and ■ Wanelo (“Wah-nee-lo” from Want, Need Love) is a global platform for all the world’s shopping
  3. 3. Proprietary and ■ Users find products on online stores ■ They post these products to Wanelo via, a javascript “bookmarklet” ■ Others discover these products on Wanelo via feed, trending, search, etc ■ Users then save products they discovered to their own collections How Wanelo Works
  4. 4. Proprietary and
  5. 5. Proprietary and ■ Users can follow other users. Following is bi-directional, like Twitter, and public ■ Besides following other users, you can follow individual stores on wanelo ■ Result is a personalized shopping feed, much like Twitter’s information feed ■ After seeing a product on Wanelo, users can buy the product on the original site Wanelo is a Social Network
  6. 6. Proprietary and Mobile: iOS + Android 60K ratings
  7. 7. Backend Stack & Key Vendors Proprietary and ■ MRI Ruby 2.0 & Rails 3 ■ PostgreSQL 9.2, solr, redis, memcached, twemproxy, nginx, haproxy ■ Joyent Cloud, SmartOS ZFS, ARC Cache, raw IO performance, SMF, Zones, dTrace ■ Joyent Manta: Analytics and Backups ■ Chef, Opscode Enterprise Full server automation, zero manual installs ■ Images: AWS S3 behind Fastly CDN ■ Circonus, NewRelic, statsd, Boundary
  8. 8. Final word about Wanelo... Proprietary and We are slightly obsessed with cat pictures =)
  9. 9. Recording User Events: Why? Proprietary and ■ Let’s say user saves a product ■ Naturally we create a row in our main data store (PostgreSQL) ■ But we also want to record this event to an append-only log table, for future analysis ■ In the ideal world, this append-only table has every user-generated event of interest
  10. 10. Hey, What’s the Scale Here? Proprietary and ■ 10M users ■ 7M products saved over 1B times ■ 200K+ stores ■ Backend peaks at 200,000 RPMs ■ Generating between 5M and 20M user events per day
  11. 11. Recording Events: Stupidly Proprietary and ■ We are just starting: what’s the simplest thing we can do? Our traffic is still pretty low. ■ Let’s create a database table and append to that. Simple? Yes. ■ Scalable? Hell No. ■ One month after launch, we hit the wall.
  12. 12. Let’s Scale Data Collection Proprietary and ■ OK, so inserting 10M records into PostgreSQL per day is pretty stupid. Even I know that. ■ We looked around for various options. There were many. Flume, Fluentd, Scribe. Meh. ■ We chose rsyslog: clients can buffer records, send cheap UDP packets. ■ More than one log collector for redundancy
  13. 13. Scaling Event Data Collection Proprietary and ■ rsyslog rocks. We are now sending 20M events per day from 40+ hosts ■ rsyslog is dumping them into an ASCII pipe- delimited file ■ logadm rotates the file daily. We get 1GB+ file per day of activity ■ We have solved data collection problem for a long time, and very cheaply.
  14. 14. Proprietary and
  15. 15. Now What? Proprietary and ■ So now we have 100s of files, closing in on 500GB of data ■ We want to ask some intelligent questions ■ For example: how many people who signed up four weeks ago are still active? (cohort retention) ■ How many products saved does it take for a user to become engaged?
  16. 16. Let’s Dive Deeper Proprietary and ■ Here is an example of our log file (spaces/alignment added for readability) user_id        platform    action_type              object        object_id    secondary_object        sec_obj_id      timestamp -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐ 8524264|ipad      |SaveAction      |Product|5757428|Collection          |29399687|1368341942 7555287|android|SaveAction      |Product|5758908|GiftsCollection|26680024|1368341942 3924118|iphone  |SaveAction      |Product|1979020|Collection          |29463107|1368341942 1285811|ipad      |SessionAction|User      |1285811|                              |                |1368341942 8246365|ipod      |SaveAction      |Product|7930662|Collection          |28523544|1378895196 1233612|desktop|SessionAction|User      |1233612|                              |                |1378895196 9654098|desktop|PostAction      |Product|7962904|Store                    |158163    |1378895197 9654098|desktop|SaveAction      |Product|7962904|GiftsCollection|34407722|1378895197 843456  |iphone  |SessionAction|User      |843456  |                              |                |1378895197 9005146|android|SaveAction      |Product|6389593|GiftsCollection|32117206|1378895197 6721497|desktop|CommentAction|Product|7930418|Comment                |37304732|1378895197
  17. 17. Parsing ASCII files is simple Proprietary and ■ What we get with this file format is simplicity ■ grep,  sort,  uniq,  comp,  awk,  wc   ■ These UNIX tools have been optimized for four decades! I challenge you to write a faster grep!
  18. 18. Have YOU brushed up on your AWK skillz? Proprietary and
  19. 19. Let’s Ask Some Questions Proprietary and cat user_actions_20130626.log | awk -F'|' '{if ($2==“ipad” && $3==“FollowAction” ){ print $1 } }' | sort | uniq | wc -l ■ How many unique users followed someone or something on iPad on 06/26/2013?
  20. 20. What About Registrations? Proprietary and cat user_actions_20130626.log | grep -F -e '|RegisterAction|’ | wc -l ■ How many total user registrations happened across all platforms on the same day 06/26/2013?
  21. 21. How fast is it really? Proprietary and ■ It takes about 10 seconds to grep through a 1.5GB (single day of recorded events) file >  time  gunzip  -­‐c  user_actions.log.20130512.gz  |   >        /usr/bin/grep  SaveAction  |  wc  -­‐l ...... real        0m    9.584s user        0m  12.195s sys          0m    1.672s
  22. 22. Can we go back a whole year? Proprietary and ■ On one hand, we know how to do it... ■ The problem is: 10 seconds x 360 files ■ Sounds like a data warehouse! /run query; /come back the next day ■ Now we are talking hours of parsing!
  23. 23. Map/Reduce Proprietary and ■ Google published this model in 2004 ■ It describes a way to parallelize algorithms across huge data sets
  24. 24. Map/Reduce Proprietary and ■ Decidedly, Map/Reduce requires a new way of thinking ■ Today we have many related projects, such as Hadoop, HDFS, Spark, Hive, Pig ■ Which means that it also requires learning these (somewhat) new tools
  25. 25. On Demand or Permanent? Proprietary and ■ With Hadoop, one practical question is that of infrastructure lifecycle: ■ One can create an “on-demand” Hadoop cluster to run analytics ■ But “on-demand” solution is cheap. Once queried, Hadoop cluster can be killed ■ This requires copying lots of (TBs) of data from storage (typically S3) and takes time
  26. 26. Static Hadoop Cluster Proprietary and ■ With a continuously running Hadoop cluster, the biggest issue is cost ■ It’s very expensive to keep a large cluster around, sitting on top of a copy of a giant dataset
  27. 27. Proprietary and Enter Joyent’s Manta ■ Distributed Object Store, sort of like S3 ■ UNIX-like file system semantics for objects, and supports directories (YES!!!!) ■ Native compute on top of objects! ■ Strongly consistent instead of eventual consistency
  28. 28. Proprietary and Detailed look at Manta later at Surge2013 Mark Cavage and David Pacheco (Joyent) will discuss building Manta in “Scaling the Unix Philosophy to Big Data” talk on Friday @ 10am
  29. 29. Proprietary and User Events → Joyent Manta ■ Instead of saving daily event logs to NFS, we now push them as objects to Manta ■ One object = one file = one day of events ■ Let’s look at an example...
  30. 30. Proprietary and Uploading and Downloading  >  mput  -­‐f  user_actions.20130911        /wanelo/stor/user_actions/20130911  >  mget        /wanelo/stor/user_actions/20130911  >      user_actions.20130911  >  mmkdir  /wanelo/stor/user_actions
  31. 31. Proprietary and Listing Uploaded User Events >  mls  /wanelo/stor/user_actions    ....    20130909    20130910    20130911    20130912
  32. 32. Proprietary and Beyond Object Store ■ What makes Manta unique is native compute on top of our objects ■ We submit a compute job to Manta ■ Manta creates many virtual instances in seconds (or even milliseconds) ■ We even get root access! ■ We parse our event objects in parallel
  33. 33. Proprietary and Manta’s “Map/Reduce” ■ Streams objects into initial phase ■ Pipes output of initial phase into the input of the next phase (like UNIX!) ■ Each phase is either one-to-one (map phase), or many-to-one (reduce)
  34. 34. Proprietary and Manta’s “Map/Reduce” input object filtered object combined resultinput object filtered object input object filtered object map phase 1 map phase 2 reduce phase It’s very familiar, because it’s so similar to piping on a single machine
  35. 35. Proprietary and Real Example ■ Let’s ask a more computationally expensive question: ■ How many times a store was followed in the last three months?
  36. 36. Proprietary and Aggegating Store Follows ■ Map phase: ■ Reduce phase (sum up all the numbers): grep -F -e '|FollowAction|’ | grep -F -e '|Store|’ | wc -l awk ' { total += $1 } END { print total } '
  37. 37. Proprietary and Cohort Retention Analysis ■ We can save output of map/reduce jobs in another stored object ■ “Cohort” is a set of unique users sharing a particular property ■ Let’s save a unique set of users who registered between 21 and 28 days ago into a temporary object
  38. 38. Proprietary and Cohort Retention Analysis, ctd awk -F '|' '{ if ($3 == “RegisterAction”) { print $1 } }' ■ Map Phase runs only on 7 days for the given week ■ Reduce phase saves the result into a temporary object sort | uniq | mtee /wanelo/stor/tmp/cohort_user_ids
  39. 39. Proprietary and Cohort Retention Analysis, ctd ■ Now we just need to get unique users active this week, and intersect them with the temporary object awk -F'|' '{ print $1 }'   sort | uniq > period_uniq_ids && comm -12 period_uniq_ids /assets/wanelo/stor/tmp/cohort_user_ids | wc -l ■ Map Phase runs on last 7 days ■ Reduce phase intersects
  40. 40. Proprietary and Other Uses of Manta @ Wanelo ■ We can migrate user images to Manta instead of S3, and serve them via CDN ■ If we need to create new image format, we submit a job to use CLI tools to generate new format, or thumbnail size ■ We can (and do!) push database backups and PostgreSQL archive logs to Manta
  41. 41. Proprietary and Conclusion ■ We were able to create a very cost-efficient way to store massive amount of events ■ Manta allows us to perform complex algebraic queries on our event data, very fast and also cheap
  42. 42. Proprietary and And we are just scratching the surface of what’s possible with Manta...
  43. 43. Thanks! apidocs.joyent.com/manta github.com/wanelo github.com/wanelo-chef Wanelo’s technical blog: building.wanelo.com Proprietary and @kig @kig @kigster

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