No surrender ulster and home rule


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No surrender ulster and home rule

  1. 1. From yesterday •Complete question A of task 5 on pg. 20
  2. 2. No Surrender! Ulster and home rule
  3. 3. Irish nationalism and Ulster •A significant proportion of the Irish people already opposed nationalistic feelings. •Most of this opposition was towards the idea of Home Rule. •Official of the Orange Order: “if Home Rule became law there would be a civil war.”
  4. 4. First Home Rule Bill •When the first bill failed, protestants and Catholics engaged in sectarian violence in the city of Belfast. •The army was sent in, but did not prevent 32 deaths and hundreds of injuries.
  5. 5. Why did ulster resist •Ulster was somewhat isolated from the other territories by a belt. •This caused a distinction between the Ulster north and the rest of Ireland. •Alongside this, Ulster's location, near Scotland, caused the forming of more pro-British relationships.
  6. 6. Economic differences • Ulster, since the 17th century, had been the most prosperous. • Its agriculture was more varied and efficient, and tenant farmers had better conditions and higher incomes. • Ulster also developed an important industrial base. Featuring ship building and textiles. • Belfast became a part of the northern English industrial cities.
  7. 7. Economics of Home Rule • The Ulster economy relived more heavily on Britain than the rest of Ireland. • If Home Rule passed, the new Irish parliament would focus on the rural aspects of Ireland and impose tariffs on British imports. • This would make ulster manufactured goods more expensive and restrict British trade.
  8. 8. Religious make up of Ireland •In the south of Ireland, only one in every twenty persons was protestant. •In the nine counties that make up Ulster, an average of twelve out of twenty were protestant. •Throughout Ireland as a whole Catholics outnumbered protestants by nine to one.
  9. 9. Religion and Home Rule • When the Church of Ireland (protestant) was disestablished in 1868, a protestant minister Stated: • “We will fight as men alone can fight who have the bible in one hand and a sword in the other … and this will be our dying cry, echoed from one end of Ulster to the other: No Papacy, no Surrender.”
  10. 10. Religion and Home Rule •If an Irish parliament was established, the protestants feared they would be at the mercy of the catholic majority. •There was the belief that the catholic majority would legislate to destroy the Protestant way of life. •“Home Rule means Rome Rule.”
  11. 11. Ulster religious change • In 1780s, Belfast had a reputation for tolerance. • Protestants gave money to help build Belfasts first catholic church. • But in the next hundred years, the catholic percentage grew from 5% to a third. • Sectarian violence was becoming commonplace. Supported by the double minority ideal.
  12. 12. A changing Ulster • Because of the changes in the land laws which gave tenant farmers more power and the ability to buy land, a high paying catholic wave moved into the Ulster regions. • Due to its prosperity, Belfast's population doubled between 1871 and 1911. • There was a growing belief was that catholic employment would affect protestant wages.
  13. 13. Religious-residential segregation • The Protestant monopolised the higher paying jobs, leaving the catholics to take lower wage work. • The city was also spilt along residential areas, the Catholics in Falls road and the protestants in Shankill road. • Employers took advantage of an disagreeing working class to manipulate wages and conditions.
  14. 14. Ulster as a symbol • Many catholic Irish saw Ulster as the representation of British interference. Lead by a protestant ascendency who took what was rightfully catholic. • The ulster populace saw themselves as a garrison of economic prosperity and keeper of the true religion, surround by Catholics constantly on the verge of rebellion.
  15. 15. The Ulster Resistance • Two major groups: the Unionists and the Order of Orange. • The Irish loyal and political Union party opposed Home Rule, supported the act of Union and elected parliament members who supported this. • The British conservative party supported this group due to political advantage. Randolph Churchill stated “Ulster will fight and Ulster will be right.”
  16. 16. Ulster and the Conservatives • Both parties believed the protestants would suffer under a catholic government and Home Rule is a betrayal of the act of Union. • Home Rule was seen as the first step towards a completely independent Ireland. This could cause a chain reaction in other parts of the empire. • Although the first two bills had failed, by 1912 the barriers had be weakened and home rule looked closer than ever and unionist fears grew.
  17. 17. Activities • Glossary entries for: • Gaelic • Protestant • Catholic • Tithes • Tenant Farmer • Nationalism • Fenians • Home Rule • Gaelic Revival • Sectarian Violence • Ulster • Unionist
  18. 18. Activities •complete task one of the Things to do on pg. 23