Concept of the State Theories of democracy What is the „public‟?
Absolutist or pluralist a)Absolutist- single ruler whose authority is law and power is undivided -hereditary monarchy or totalitarian state. b) Pluralist –power and authority is shared- constitutional monarchy, oligarchy, democracy
People saw the world as both a natural and human creation. People governing themselves. Democracy about limiting the power of the rulers.
PAPPPPAPARTICIPATOR DEMOCRACY (participation)REPRESENTATIVE DIRECT
Direct democracies are ones in which all citizens have the right and responsibility to directly participate in political offices of the State. Origins in the Middle East and moved both West and East. Generally associated with small political entities; village, tribe, city state.
Representative democracies are ones where citizens elect people to represent them through specific purpose assemblies- Parliaments, Congress. Origins. Scale Representation and democracy.
“Monitory democracy is a Post- Westminster form of democracy in which power-monitoring ad power-sharing devices have begun to extend side- ways and downwards through the whole political order.. A brand new historical form” ( Keane p706) With the advent of monitory democracy.. “the architecture of democracy has begun fundamentally to change” ( Keane p706)
Consultation mechanisms and Scrutinisingmehanisms andactivities activitiesCitizens juries and assemblies Anti-corruption bodiesCommunity consultation Human rights organisationsParticipatory budgeting Conflict of interest boardsFocus groups Consumer protection organisationsAdvisory boards On-line petitions and blogsOpen houses Multinational watchdog bodiesPublic consultations Traditional and social media
A new form or a hybrid? Who monitors the „monitors‟ The role of social media; a new form of mass „hysteria? Political timidity and populism?
The public realm-classical The public realm- modern democratic State Public or publics?
Public realm Private realmagora-realm of political activity oikos- realm of the family and the economy
Concepts of the State, democracy , citizenship and „the public‟ change over time. Meaning of monitory democracy. Modern democracies comprise private and State realms with public sphere mediating between the two. Public realm is a regulatory realm in which opinions are formed
Public realm comprises many „publics. The nature of the relationship between public, private and State and whether one accepts that the public sphere is really a sphere of many publics is what underpins the changing views of public administration and how it should be conducted.