Intercultural sensitivity for Asian leadershipPresentation Transcript
Intercultural Sensitivity for Asian Leadership Teng Shentu & Prof. Dr. Hora Tjitra Hangzhou, Dec 1st 2010
1 What is Intercultural Sensitivity? 3 2 What it’s like to be intercultural sensitive? 10 3 How to be intercultural sensitive? 14 4 Reference 17 5 Project Information 20
What is Intercultural Sensitivity?
Intercultural Sensitivity: Definition Intercultural Sensitivity in Leadership Context
The 21st century is an era of globalization of world economy. Cross-national business is facing challenges in cultural differences.
Hofstede(1993) stated that the spread of business onto global stage brings the issue of national and regional differences to the fore.
More and more research try to understand cultural differences is far from achieving leadership effectiveness in cross-cultural contexts (Earley & Ang, 2003; Peterson, 2004; Thomas & Inkson, 2004).
Intercultural Sensitivity (IS) is proved to be a valid predictive factor for intercultural effectiveness (Cui & Van den Berg, 1991) and as an important criteria for expatriate selection and placement (Vulpe, Kealey, Protheroe, & MacDonald, 2001).
Intercultural Sensitivity is defined as the ability to discriminate and experience relevant cultural differences (Hammer, Bennett & Wiseman, 2003).
What’s Intercultural Sensitivity About? “ To be effective in another culture, people must be interested in other cultures, be sensitive enough to notice cultural differences, and then also be willing to modify their behavior as an indication of respect for the people of other cultures ” (Bhawuk and Brislin, 1992) Intercultural Competence Technical knowledge & skill Motivation Stress tolerance Respect for differences Harmony preservation Self Control Awareness of communication symbols Language skill Verbal & non verbal expression Attribution process of information Cultural empathy Intercultural Sensitivity Intercultural Communication Competence
Intercultural Sensitivity Models Intercultural Sensitivity Inventory (ICSI) Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) & Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) Intercultural Sensitivity Index (ISI) Intercultural Sensitivity Scale(ISS) Adjustment Cultural General Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory (CCAI) Intercultural Adjustment Potential Scale (ICAPS) Cultural Specific Chinese Intercultural Sensitivity & Chinese Intercultural Sensitivity Inventory (CISI) Indonesian Intercultural Sensitivity Different Approaches and Different Orientations Different Approach
Chinese Intercultural Sensitivity * Building the Global Competence for Asian Leaders * Based on research Chinese Intercultural Competence and Sensitivity in tourism Industry, Funded by Zhejiang University, China. CIS Behavioral Cognitive Affective Personal Goal Task Objective “ Mian Zi” (Face) Pull Push Philosophy / Education Chinese Culture Value Confucianism Harmony Differences Harmonization Relationship Optimization Change Accommodation Cultures Comprehension Ethno Identification Sunzi Strategics (“Sun Zi Bing Fa”) Favor (“Renqing”) Pragmatism (“Shihui”) Network (“Guanxi”)
Dimensions In Different IS Models
Based on all the different IS models, dimensions that used most are drawn like a tag cloud above. It’s easy to find that open-mindedness is the most important one to be intercultural sensitive.
In seeking extra criteria of global leaders, competencies such as Visioning, EQ (Kets de Vries & Mead, 1992), Understanding culture (Moran & Riesenberger, 1994), Thinking agility (Brake, 1997; Osland, 2008), Respectful (Rosen et al., 2000), Cognitive complexity (De Cieri, 2005; Levy et al., 2007b) are proposed.
The similarity of the findings in two research approaches suggest the close relationship between intercultural sensitivity and global leadership.
The DMIS constitutes a progression of worldview “orientations toward cultural difference” that comprise the potential for increasingly more sophisticated intercultural experiences (Hammer, Bennett & Wiseman, 2003).
Each shifting in worldview generates new and more sophisticated issues to be resolved, and the resolution activates the emergence of the next orientation. In this way, people acquiring greater intercultural sensitivity and the potential for more intercultural competence (Bennett, 2004).
What it’s like to be intercultural sensitive?
Characteristic, Identity and Role What does intercultural sensitive person look like Openness facilitate interactions (Buss, 1991) and eventual social alliances with host nationals and other expatriates. Conscientious people tend to be more persistent, encourage them to engaged in intercultural communication (Zeng, 2009). Establish a social network may have a more positive experience. But for performance, individuals too agreeable may be viewed as “pushovers” in some cultures (Caligiuri et al, 2000). Characteristic Generally, IS is negative related with Neuroticism, and positive related with the rest four. Big Five Personality
Characteristic, Identity and Role What does intercultural sensitive person look like For employee, work-related environment make interaction a routine, so respect is missing for engagement. And they only accept those differences that make the communication enjoyable (Peng, 2006). Non-English major students and multinational employees only find such enjoyment event-driven and time-specific (Peng, 2006). Higher ethnic identity was associated with above average achievement and self-esteem and below average levels of depressive symptoms (Costigan, 2010). Individual who is more effective in demonstrating culturally appropriate behavior and communication in intercultural settings, tend to have high identity in both home and host are most, followed by both low, then high in one identity (Lee, 2010). Identity Role
Conflict Management Styles How does intercultural sensitivity influence work Higher levels of intercultural sensitivity tended to use collaboration or solution-oriented strategies to manage organizational conflicts and communicate face-to-face (Mao, 2010) Teacher tend to be Cooperative is more intercultural sensitive. conflict style did predict levels of overall Developmental Score (Mahon, 2009) More sensitive will more likely use integrating and compromising and less likely avoiding and dominating styles (Yu & Chen, 2008). Different preferred negotiation styles were found in 3 ethnic groups in a cross-cultural study of Asian managers in Singapore (Osman-Gani & Tan, 2002).
How to be intercultural sensitive?
Intercultural Exposure Study Abroad and Join Activities
Without the structure of a service program to support their processes of construing meaning from their experiences of difference, they actually became more entrenched in the Denial/Defense stage(Westrick, 2004).
The program may have different affect on different IS aspects (Altshuler et al, 2003).
Mentoringing system is perceived crucial for improving IS (Koskinen & Tossavainen, 2004).
The influence of intercultural exposure to IS is somehow ambiguous. Exposing to different is not necessarily improve IS level. Researches show that study abroad does not benefit all students equally (Fuller, 2007).
Events such as celebration can extended students’ ethnorelative views on Avoidance and Acceptance (Klak, 2003).
Short-term, non-language-based study abroad programs can also have a positive impact on intercultural sensitivity (Anderson et al., 2006).
Curriculum A curriculum on diversity that employs analysis and evaluation is more likely to be associated with improvements in students' levels of intercultural sensitivity than a curriculum that simply employs comprehension of information (Mahoney & Schamber, 2004) . By promoting critical thinking and fostering "open-mindedness" and "different ways of looking at things" By changing students’ perceptions about what can be learned and how this potential learning can contribute to their interactive and continuous growth.
Reference Altshuler L., Sussmanb N., Kachur E. (2003). Assessing changes in intercultural sensitivity among physician trainees using the intercultural development inventory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations , 27, 387–401. Anderson P., Lawton L., Rexeisen R. & Hubbard A. (2006). Short-term study abroad and intercultural sensitivity: A pilot study. International Journal of Intercultural Relations , 30, 457–469. Bennett, M. J. (2004). Becoming interculturally competent. In J. Wurzel (Ed.), Toward multiculturalism: A reader in multicultural education (2 ed., pp. 62-77). Newton, MA: Intercultural Resource Corporation. Bhawuk, D. P. S., & Brislin, R. (1992). The measurement of intercultural sensitivity using the concepts of individualism and collectivism. International Journal of Intercultural Relations , 16(4), 413–436. Caligiuri P. (2000). The, Big Five characteristics as predictors of expatriate’s desire to terminate the assignment and supervisor-rated performance. Personnel Psychology , 53, 67-88. Costigan, C.L., Koryzma, C.M., Hua, J.M., & Chance, L.J. (April, 2010). Ethnic identity, achievement, and psychological adjustment: Examining risk and resilience among youth from immigrant Chinese families in Canada. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology 16(2), 264-273. Cui G and Van den Berg S. (1991). Testing the construct validity of intercultural effectiveness. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 15 , 227–241. Earley, P.C. and Ang, S. (2003). Cultural Intelligence: Individual Interactions Across Cultures. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.. Thomas D.C. and K. Inkson. (2004). Cultural intelligence: People skills for global business, Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco, CA. Fuller T. (2007). Study Abroad Experiences And Intercultural Sensitivity Among Graduate Theological Students: A Preliminary And Exploratory Investigation. Christian Higher Education , 6:321–332. Hammer, M. R., Bennett, M. J., Wiseman R. (2003). Measuring Intercultural Sensitivity: The Intercultural Development Inventory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations , 27, 421-443.
Reference Klak T. & Martin P. (2003). Do university-sponsored international cultural events help students to appreciate ‘‘difference’’?. International Journal of Intercultural Relations , 27, 445–465. Koskinen L. & Tossavainen K. (2004). Study abroad as a process of learning intercultural competence in nursing. International Journal of Nursing Practice , 10, 111–120. Lee Y. (2010). Home Versus Host — Identifying With Either, Both, or Neither? The Relationship between Dual Cultural Identities and Intercultural Effectiveness. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management 10(1), 55-76. Mahon J. (2009). Conflict style and cultural understanding among teachers in the western United States: Exploring relationships. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 33, 46–56. Mahoney S. & Schamber J. (2004). Exploring The Application Of A Developmental Model Of Intercultural Sensitivity To A General Education Curriculum On Diversity. The Journal of General Education , Vol. 53, No. 3/4, pp. 311-334. Mao Y. (2010). Relating Intercultural Communication Sensitivity to Conflict Management Styles, Technology Use, and Organizational Communication Satisfaction in Multinationals in China. Ohio University. Osman-Gani A. & Tan J. (2002). Influence of Culture on Negotiation Styles of Asian Managers: An Empirical Study of Major Cultural/Ethnic Groups in Singapore. Thunderbird International Business Review , Vol. 44(6) 819–839. Peng, S. (2006). A comparative perspective of intercultural sensitivity between college students and multinational employees in China. Multicultural Perspectives , 8(3), 38-45. Vulpe T., Kealey D.J., Protheroe D. and MacDonald D. (2001): A profile of the interculturally effective person, Centre for Intercultural Learning, Canadian Foreign Service Institute, Hull, Canada 2001. Westrick J. (2004). The influence of service-learning on intercultural sensitivity: A quantitative study. Journal of Research in International Education 3(3), 277–299. Yu T. & Chen G. (2008). Intercultural Sensitivity and Conflict Management Styles in Cross-Cultural Organizational Situations. Intercultural Communication Studies XVII: 2. Zeng B. (2009). A study on Status and Relevant Factors of Chinese Intercultural Sensitivity. East China Normal University.
Global Competence for Asian Leaders
An applied research collaboration supported by the Human Capital Leadership Institute (Singapore) with the objective to derive a model for Asian leaders, which will lead to systematic global leadership development programs with Asian characteristics.
Built on our previous researches on Chinese and Indonesian intercultural sensitivity, we continue in this study by elaborating the cross-cultural experiences of the Chinese, Indonesian and Singaporean international assignees and their respective local co-workers in China and Indonesia. Intercultural sensitivity has been widely accepted as one of the most significant element of global competencies and one of the strongest predictor for global leaders and managers accomplishments.
The principal investigators of the project are Dr. Hora Tjitra, Dr. Hana Panggabean, and the research team of the the Zhejiang University (Hangzhou, China), Zhejiang University of Technology (Hangzhou, China) and the Atma Jaya Indonesia Catholic University (Jakarta, Indonesia).
Hora Tjitra Hana Panggabean Juliana Murniati Quan HE Jiewei ZHENG Chaohui ZHANG Teng SHENTU Jia ZHOU Xiaojuan WANG Dan ZHAO Xixie ZHANG Sebastian Partogi Yuanbo LIU Tayyibah Mushtaq Research Partners: Funding Partner: Zhejiang University China www.zju.edu.cn Zhejiang University of Technology China www.zjut.edu.cn Atma Jaya Catholic University Indonesia www.atmajaya.ac.id Human Capital Leadership Institute Singapore www.smu.edu.sg
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