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  1. 2. WHAT IS DEVELOPMENT ? <ul><ul><li>It is about creating an environment in which people, can </li></ul></ul><ul><li>develop their full potential and lead productive, creative </li></ul><ul><li>lives in accord with their needs and interest. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The pattern of movement or change that begins at </li></ul></ul><ul><li>conceptions and continues through the life span. </li></ul>
  2. 3. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: <ul><ul><li>Prof. Amartya Sen ( Prof. in Harvard University) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Suggest, that </li></ul><ul><li>“ HUMAN DEVELOPMENT, as an approach, is concerned with what I take to be the basic development idea: namely, advancing the richness of human life, rather than the richness of the economy in which human beings live, which is only part of it.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Other Words : </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enlarging people's choice and enhancing human capabilities and freedoms. </li></ul>
  3. 4. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: <ul><ul><li>Shares a common vision with human rights, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The goal is human freedom, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pursuing capabilities & realizing rights, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People must exercise their choice and to participate in decision-making that affects their lives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutually reinforcing, helping to secure the well-being and dignity of all people, building self-respect and the respect to others. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. OBJECTIVE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT <ul><ul><li>“ To create an enabling environment for people to enjoy long, healthy and creative lives” </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. PERIODS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT <ul><ul><li>Prenatal Period </li></ul></ul><ul><li>- The time from conception to birth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infancy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>- The developmental period that extends from birth to 18 or 24 </li></ul><ul><li>months of age. </li></ul>
  6. 7. PERIODS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT <ul><ul><li>Early Childhood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>- Extends from the end of infancy about 5 or 6 years. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle and Late Childhood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>- Extends from about 6 to 11 years. </li></ul>
  7. 8. PERIODS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT <ul><ul><li>Adolescence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>- The transition from childhood to adulthood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early Adulthood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>- Begins in the late teens or early 20 and ends in the 30. </li></ul>
  8. 9. PERIODS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT <ul><ul><li>Middle Adulthood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>- Begins at about 35 to 45 years of age and ends at about 55 </li></ul><ul><li>to 65 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Late Adulthood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>- Begins at 60 or 70 and ends last until death </li></ul>
  9. 10. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AS A PROCESS Biological Processes Biological Processes Cognitive Processes Socioemotional Processes
  10. 11. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AS A PROCESS <ul><ul><li>Biological Processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>- process that involve changes in an individual's physical nature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive Processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>- process that involve changes in an individual's thought, intelligence and </li></ul><ul><li>Language. </li></ul>
  11. 12. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AS A PROCESS <ul><ul><li>Socioemotional Processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>- process that involve changes in relationship with other people, changes in </li></ul><ul><li>emotions, and changes in personality. </li></ul>
  12. 13. ISSUES AND THEMES CONCERN MOST CENTRAL TO HUMAN DEVELOPMENT : <ul><ul><li>Social Progress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>- greater access to knowledge, better nutrition and health service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>- the importance of economic growth as a means to reduce inequality and </li></ul><ul><li>improve levels of human development. </li></ul>
  13. 14. ISSUES AND THEMES CONCERN MOST CENTRAL TO HUMAN DEVELOPMENT : <ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>- in terms of resource use and availability. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>- in terms of economic growth and other human development parameters. </li></ul>
  14. 15. ISSUES AND THEMES CONCERN MOST CENTRAL TO HUMAN DEVELOPMENT : <ul><ul><li>Participation and Freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>- particularly empowerment, democratic governance, equality, civil and </li></ul><ul><li>political right and cultural liberty defined by urban-rural, sex, age, religion, </li></ul><ul><li>physical / mental parameters, etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Security </li></ul></ul><ul><li>- Security in daily life against such chronic threats as hunger and abrupt </li></ul><ul><li>disruptions including joblessness, famine, conflict, etc. </li></ul>
  15. 16. STAGES OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT <ul><ul><li>Trust vs. Mistrust – Infancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt- age of 1-4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiative vs. Guilt- age of 4-5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accomplishment and Industry vs. Inferiority- age 6-12 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity vs. Identity Confusion – adolescence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intimacy vs. Isolation – Young Adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generativeness vs. Self Absorption – Adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrity vs. Despair : Mature Adults </li></ul></ul>