Understanding Data

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Data is an increasingly common term used on the assumption that its meaning is commonly understood. This presentation seeks to drill down into the very specifics of what data is all about.

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  • I totally agree with Kingsley, anything we perceive or observe is data. As for humans our kind of observation are stored, interpreted and reuse by the brain. The question is how can this be reuse. Think about how languages began. We started naming objects base on what we've observed e.g. animals, place or things. Anything that cannot be observed it's simply not a data (you either have something or nothing). If you observed something or know something, it means it exist. If don't observe something or know something it means it doesn't exist. Another example, if I know you, it means you exist in my mind (brain), but if I don't know you, it means you do not exist in my mind (brain). Another example is when you're searching for a data, if the data is found, the interpretation is that it exist, and what about if the data is not found thus it means it doesn't exist in the database. Secondly, observation occurs in different form e.g. sight, sound, touch, smell, taste, and the sixth one are thoughts (The ability to imagine something you haven't seen, heard, smell, taste nor touch and yet you were able to describe it.). Data is how we receive and express observation in a reusable form. Whatever you observe could be described or translated verbally or in writing could become reusable. Finally, whatever you are describing are always structured beginning from the combination of signs, words, sentences, paragraphs, pages, chapters and books e.t.c. This is also the reason I support or interested in LOD cloud thus it enables us to be observed, discovered and shared (reused) as a data..
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  • @undefined you said 'I do not agree that the data is how we express observation in reusable form. Then the archive without re usability is not considered a data.'

    then you said:
    'I think data is a structured result of our observation'

    Where's the disagreement? Reusability is what makes the Data what it is, in regards to observation capture, dissemination, consumption etc..

    BTW - An archive by definition is reusable otherwise it cannot be an archive :-)
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  • I do not agree that the data is how we express observation in reusable form. Then the archive without re usability is not considered a data. I think data is a structured result of our observation. 2. Observation is not just an perception of the relationships. It is perceptions of an entities itself. Meaning of entities and relations creates new meaning, new complex data. 3. To understand, every subjective view creates new entities. What is entity for you, can be a non-entity for me. Entities mutate, merges and split thru time. 4. Relations: does 'specific role' = 'unique role in the relationship'? 5. Thou you are presenting 'Understanding Data' mostly you talk about specific architecture
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  • Thanks for posting such an excellent piece, Kingsley! :-) Precisely what I’ve also said in «twitterspace» → https://twitter.com/quiet_listening/status/463055752895414272
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  • LOL
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  • Title previously read “Data Access Challenge”
  • Previously read: A WebID that denotes a Person Entity
    Typo in word organization
  • Previously read:
    Uniform Resource (Data) Locator (URL)
    http://kingsley.idehen.net/dataspace/person/kidehen – denotes an HTTP accessible Document comprised of structured data
    ODBC Data Source Name
    DSN=CRM;HOST=crm.example.org;SVT=Oracle;DATABASE=CRM;TABLE=CUSTOMER – denotes an ODBC accessible Table
    JDBC Data Source URL
    jdbc:openlink://crm.example.org/SVT=Oracle/DATABASE=CRM/TABLE=CUSTOMER – denotes a JDBC accessible Table
  • Previously read:
    Linked data principles
    “Refer To” (Name or Denote) Entities unambiguously using URIs.
    Use resolvable URIs (e.g., HTTP URIs) so that Entity Names resolve to Entity Description Documents (Descriptors).
    Use Structured Data to enhance the content of Entity Description Documents.
    Expand the Web by referring to other entities using their HTTP URIs.
  • Previously read:
    Understanding HTTP URI Duality
    Duality endowed Identifiers that denote (“Refer To”) an entity while also resolving to its description, over an HTTP Network.
  • Please check over colour keyed words
    Deleted:
    Words play Subject, Predicate, or Object roles in Sentences.
  • Understanding Data

    1. 1. UNDERSTANDING DATA By Kingsley Idehen Founder & CEO, OpenLink Software
    2. 2. Presentation Goals Deconstruct Data Understand Data Representation Understand Data Access Understand Data Integration License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    3. 3. SITUATION ANALYSIS License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    4. 4. EVERY DAY WE HEAR License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International). DATA IS BIG DATA IS OPEN DATA IS LINKED
    5. 5. WE ALMOST NEVERHEAR ABOUT License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International). WHAT DATA ACTUALLY IS HOW DATA IS REPRESENTED HOW DATA IS ACCESSED, SHARED, & INTEGRATED
    6. 6. Why is Data Important? Data is the basis of Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom. WISDOM KNOWLEDGE INFORMATION DATA License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    7. 7. What is Data? Data is how we express Observation in reusable form. License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    8. 8. What is Observation? Observation is the Perception of Relationships between Entities. YOUR OBSERVATIONS PEOPLE, PLACES, MUSIC, DOCUMENTS, CALENDARS, DIARIES, ADDRESS BOOKS & MORE... License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    9. 9. What is an Entity? An Entity is a Distinctly Identifiable Thing License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    10. 10. How is an Entity Identified (Named) ? An Entity is Identified (or named) through the combined effects of Identifier based denotation (signification) and document content based connotation (description). License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    11. 11. How is an Entity Denoted? An Entity is Denoted (Signified) through the use of an Identifier. License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    12. 12. What is an Identifier? An Identifier is a Sign (or Token) that Signifies (Denotes, or “Stands For”) an Entity License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    13. 13. Identifier Types? Quoted Literals such as: “Kingsley Idehen” or ‘Kingsley Idehen’ Absolute References: <http://kingsley.idehen.net/dataspace/person/kidehen#this> Relative References: <#KingsleyIdehen> License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    14. 14. How is an Entity Described? Through entity relationships that are represented in reusable form via document content (sentences and statements). License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    15. 15. What is a Relationship? A Relationship is an Association between two or more Entities, where each has a specific Role. License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    16. 16. What is a Relationship Role? A Relationship Role is a Function performed by an Entity in a Relationship License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    17. 17. Relationship Role Types? • Entity Attribute Value EAV  Entity -- observation focal point  Attribute -- observation attribute name (relationship type determinant)  Value -- observation attribute value • RDF (WC3’s Resource Description Framework)  Subject -- observation focal point  Predicate -- observation attribute name (relationship type determinant)  Object -- observation attribute value License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    18. 18. Relationship Role: Predicate The Relationship Predicate is the Connector that associates an observation focal point (Subject) with something, in the form of an observation value (Object). License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    19. 19. Relationship Role: Subject Actual Entity being Observed License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    20. 20. Relationship Role: Object Value associated with an observation focal point (Subject) via a Relationship Predicate. License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    21. 21. Types of Values? • Untyped Literals (Strings) • Typed Literals  Numbers  Dates  Booleans  Etc. • References (Local and Global Hyperlinks) License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    22. 22. How are Relationships Expressed? Relationships are Expressed using a Language, i.e., a system of signs [for denotation], syntax [arrangement of signs to form sentences], and entity relation semantics [meaning of relationship roles] for encoding and decoding information. Example: Subject, Predicate, Object – Used by W3C’s Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Natural Language. License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    23. 23. How Are Entity Relationships Represented ? Entity Relationships are Represented using notations associated with a specific language. Examples include: • Entity Relationship Model (Network /Graph) Diagrams. • Tables (CSV files, Spreadsheets, and SQL Relational Database Management Systems). • RDF-Turtle, JSON-LD, RDF/XML, HTML+Microdata, HTML+RDFa etc.. License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    24. 24. Entity Relationship Diagram <#hasCapital> License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International). <#PopulatedPlace> “France” <#Paris> <#type> <#hasLabel> <#France>
    25. 25. Turtle Notation Based Entity Relationship Statements <#France> <#Type> <#PopulatedPlace> . <#France> <#hasLabel> ”France” . <#France> <#hasCapital> <#Paris> . <#Paris> <#Type> <#PopulatedPlace> . <#Paris> <#hasLabel> ”Paris” . <#PopulatedPlace> <#Type> <#Place> . License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    26. 26. Entity Relationship Tables Delimiter: e.g., Comma Identifier Quote Character: Double-quotes Relation Header Row: Entity,Attribute,Value Relation Body Example: “Entity”, “Attribute” “Value” “France”, “Type” “PopulatedPlace” “France” , “hasLabel” “France” “France” , “hasCapital” “Paris” License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    27. 27. Statement Representation: Spreadsheet Tables Entity (Subject) Attribute (Predicate) Value (Object) #France #Type #PopulatedPlace #France #hasLabel “France” #France #hasCapital #Paris #Paris #Type #PopulatedPlace #Paris #hasLabel “Paris” #PopulatedPlace #Type #Place License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    28. 28. How are Statements Persisted & Transmitted? • Persistence:  To paper based documents  To digital realm documents (e.g., operating system files, web pages, etc.) • Transmission:  Text oriented serialization formats  Binary serialization formats License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    29. 29. Understanding Data (Recap) • The term “Data” refers to observation expressed in reusable form. • The term “Observation” refers to our perception of Entity Relationships. • Entity Relationships are expressed using a language. • Statements are represented using a variety of notations; persisted to paper or digital documents; and transmissible using a variety of serialization formats. License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    30. 30. DATA ACCESS License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    31. 31. Fundamental Challenge Access to Data Independent of: • Location (File or Database Management System) • Representation Notation • Serialization Format • Transmission Protocol • Host Operating Systems • Consumer Applications License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    32. 32. Critical Components • Identifiers that denote (signify) each entity associated with the following relationship roles:  Entity (Subject)  Attribute (Predicate)  Value (Object) • Identifiers that denote entity description documents (Descriptors) • Identifiers that provide entity naming (identification) via implicit or explicit [denotation]  [description document content] resolution using indirection (i.e., combined effect of denotation & connotation to deliver identification or sense) • Name Resolution Protocols • Document Content Serialization Formats License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    33. 33. Entity Identifiers (Names) Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) <http://kingsley.idehen.net/dataspace/person/kidehen#this> – WebID (i.e., an HTTP URI that denotes an Entity of Type: Agent (Person, Organization, Software, Robot etc) ODBC Data Source Name (DSN) DSN=CRM JDBC Data Source Name (DSN) DSN=CRM License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    34. 34. Entity Description Document Locators • Uniform Resource (Data) Locator (URL) o <http://kingsley.idehen.net/dataspace/person/kidehen> – an HTTP URI that denotes a Document on an HTTP Network • ODBC Data Source Name o DSN=CRM;HOST=crm.example.org;SVT=Oracle;DATABASE=CRM;TABLE=CUSTOMER – denotes an ODBC accessible Table in a SQL RDBMS • JDBC Data Source URL o jdbc:openlink://crm.example.org/SVT=Oracle/DATABASE=CRM/TABLE=CUSTOMER – denotes a JDBC accessible Table in a SQL RDBMS License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    35. 35. ODBC Data Source Name Challenges • SQL Relational Database Specific. • Identifiers are x.500 names that are only understood by operating system locked applications. • Identifiers denote RDBMS specific tables, views, users, and stored procedures. License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    36. 36. JDBC Data Source Name Challenges • SQL Relational Database Specific. • Identifiers are “jdbc:” scheme URIs that are only understood by JDBC compliant applications constrained by Java Virtual Machine (JVM). • Identifiers denote RDBMS specific tables, views, users, and stored procedures. License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    37. 37. HTTP URI based Data Source Name Virtues • Database Engine Independent. • Data Access Protocol Independent. • Data Representation Format Independent. • Identifiers are Literals and/or References (which globalize lookup scope). • Identifiers denote anything, i.e., an kind of entity. • Identifiers are “terms” that resolve to referent description documents, globally. License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    38. 38. Data Source Name Resolution Protocols • Internet based Computer Network – Domain Name Services (DNS) protocol provides Name Resolution for Computers. • World Wide Web Document Network – HTTP provides Name Resolution for Web Documents via HTTP URLs. • World Wide Web Data Network – HTTP provides Name Resolution for Entities via HTTP URIs . License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    39. 39. DNS based Linked Computer Network (Internet) Linked Computer Network (e.g., Internet) 1. Computer (DNS CNAMES) Names are Data Source Name 2. Actual Data Model and Data Access is Local and Machine OS hosted App. specific. License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International). Internet
    40. 40. HTTP based Linked Document Network (Web 1.0 & 2.0) Linked Document Network (e.g., World Wide Web) 1. Computer (DNS CNAMES) Names become irrelevant. 2. Document Locators / Addresses (HTTP URLs) are Data Source Names (DSNs). 3. One kind of Relation i.e., "LinksTo" is what connects the Documents. 4. To machines: actual Data Model, Entity Relation Semantics, and Representation Notations are indecipherable from content. Internet Web License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    41. 41. HTTP based Linked Data Network (Web 3.0) Linked Data Network (e.g., Linked Open Data Cloud) 1. Entity Names (HTTP URIs) are Data Source Names (DSNs) 2. Computer (DNS CNAMES) & Document Names (HTTP URLs) become irrelevant 3. Actual Data Model and Representation Notations are loosely coupled. License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International). Internet Web Linked Data
    42. 42. LINKED DATA (WEBBY STRUCTURED DATA) License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    43. 43. Linked Data Fundamentals • Denote (“refer to” or name) entities unambiguously using URIs – similar to the role of “words” in natural language. • Use HTTP URIs so that the description of any entity can be looked up using any HTTP user agent – similar to the role of “terms “ in natural language. • Use human and machine readable statements (via open standards e.g., RDF) to create document content that describes entities. • Refer to other entities using their HTTP URI based names in your entity description documents – i.e., – expand the Web! License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    44. 44. Understanding HTTP URI Entity Name and Description Doc Address Duality An HTTP URI is a kind of identifier that denotes (“Refers To”) an entity while also resolving to its description document, over an HTTP Network. License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    45. 45. What is Linked Data? Linked Data is the use of Resolvable URIs to enhance Structured Data Representation. Basically: Representing Entity Relationships using Statements where the relationship role participants [Subject, Predicate, and Object (optionally)] are unambiguously “referred to” using Resolvable URIs. License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    46. 46. What is Linked Open Data? Linked Open Data is the use of HTTP URIs to enhance Structured Data Representation. Basically: Representing Entity Relationships using Statements where the relationship role participants [Subject, Predicate, and Object (optionally)] are unambiguously “referred to” using HTTP URIs. Note: URIs and HTTP are Open Standards License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    47. 47. Why is Linked Open Data Important? • It turns HTTP URIs (Hyperlinks) into Data Source Names. • It moves us from Open Database Connectivity to Open Data Connectivity – that scales from Private Data Spaces to the World Wide Web. • It delivers a powerful mechanism for virtualization of disparate and heterogeneous data sources (big or small) i.e., Data De-Silo-Fication. • It is inherently Platform Agnostic. • It delivers a Linked Open Data Cloud that scales to the World Wide Web. License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    48. 48. What is RDF based Linked Data? RDF-based Linked Data is the use of IRIs and Entity Relationship Type (aka. Relations) Semantics to enhance Structured Data Representation. Basically: Representing Entity Relationships using Statements where the relationship role participants [Subject, Predicate, and Object (optionally)] are unambiguously “referred to” using IRIs. Note: RDF and IRIs are Open Standards License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    49. 49. What is RDF based Linked Open Data? RDF-based Linked Open Data is the use of HTTP URIs & Entity Relationship Type (Relations) Semantics to enhance Structured Data Representation. Basically: Representing Entity Relationships and Relation Semantics using Statements where the relationship role participants [Subject, Predicate, and Object (optionally)] are unambiguously “referred to” using HTTP URIs. Note: RDF, HTTP and URIs are Open Standards License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    50. 50. What is RDF based Linked Data? RDF-based Linked Data is Web-Like Structured Data enhanced with RDF’s *explicit* machine-and human-comprehensible Entity Relationship Semantics. Identifiers, Structured Data Representation, and Logic License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International). Linked Data RDF Predicate Logic (Entity Relationship Semantics)
    51. 51. RDF based Linked Open Data (Semantic Web) Semantically Enhanced Linked Data Network (e.g., Semantic Web of Big Linked Open Data) License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International). Internet Web Linked Data Relation 1. Entity Names (HTTP URIs) are Semantics Data Source Names (DSNs) 2. Computer (DNS CNAMES) & Document Names (HTTP URLs) become irrelevant 3. Actual Data Model and Representation Notations are loosely coupled 4. RDF & RDF Schema Relation Semantics are accessible and comprehendible to humans and machines.
    52. 52. Local Linked Data (Inaccessible) Entity (Subject) Attribute (Predicate) Value (Object) urn:data:object:id:France urn:data:object:id:Type urn:data:object:id:Popula tedPlace urn:data:object:id:France urn:data:object:id:hasLabel “France” urn:data:object:id:France urn:data:object:id:hasCapital urn:data:object:id:Paris urn:data:object:id:Paris urn:data:object:id:Type urn:data:object:id:Popula tedPlace urn:data:object:id:Paris urn:data:object:id:hasLabel “Paris” urn:data:object:id:Populate dPlace urn:data:object:id:Type urn:data:object:id:Place License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    53. 53. Linked Data (Accessible Webby Data) Entity (Subject) Attribute (Predicate) Value (Object) http://dbpedia.org/resource/France http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax- ns#type http://dbpedia.org/ontology/Popula tedPlace http://dbpedia.org/resource/France http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema# label “France” http://dbpedia.org/resource/France http://dbpedia.org/ontology/capital http://dbpedia.org/resource/Paris http://dbpedia.org/resource/Paris http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax- ns#type http://dbpedia.org/ontology/Popula tedPlace http://dbpedia.org/resource/Paris http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema# label “Paris” http://dbpedia.org/ontology/Popula tedPlace http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema# subClassOf http://dbpedia.org/ontology/Place License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    54. 54. Massive Linked Open Data Cloud License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    55. 55. NATURAL LANGUAGE & DATA “Natural Languages are the most sophisticated systems of communication ever developed.” – John F. Sowa “Once you have a truly massive amount of information integrated as knowledge, then the human-software system will be superhuman, in the same sense that mankind with writing is superhuman compared to mankind before writing.” – Douglas Lenat License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    56. 56. Natural Language & Data • A Word or Phrase is an identifier that names an Entity (thing) via implicit [denotation][referent description document content] resolution • A Term is a Word or Phrase that names an Entity via explicit, [denotation][referent description document content] resolution, using indirection. • A Sentence is a syntax rules constrained arrangement of Words and Phrases that represent types of Entity Relationships. • A Statement is a kind of Sentence constructed from Terms. License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    57. 57. Data (Recap) • A IRI is an Internationalized Identifier that has the entity naming characteristics of a Word or Phrase. • An HTTP URI is a kind of IRI that has the entity naming characteristics of a Term i.e., denotation (signification) and connotation (description) reference duality. • RDF enables digital sentence construction where IRIs are used to name Entities participating in the Subject, Predicate, and Object relationship roles. • RDF based Linked Data enables digital statement construction where HTTP URIs are used to denote Entities participating in the Subject, Predicate, and Object relationship roles. License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    58. 58. Natural Language & Data Connection • An RDF triple represents a “Datum” – a Sentence compromised of Words or Phrases. • An RDF based Linked Open Data Triple represents a “Webby Datum” – a Statement comprised of Terms. • RDF triple collections represent Data – Sentences. • RDF based Linked Open Data triple collections represent “Webby Data” – Statements. License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    59. 59. Live Additional Information Links An Glossary of terms, in Linked Data form: • Data • Big Data • Open Data • Public Open Data • Linked Data • Linked Open Data • Semantic Web • Resource Description Framework (RDF) License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    60. 60. References • The Role of Logic and Ontology in Language and Reasoning --- John F. Sowa • Blogic – Pat Hayes • Unified View of Data – Peter Chen • Levels of Abstraction: Net, Web, Graph – Tim Berners- Lee • What is Data? What is a Datum – Ontolog Forum Thread • Data & Relations – Ontolog Forum Thread. License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).
    61. 61. Additional Information Web Sites OpenLink Software YouID – Digital Identity Card (Certificate) Generator OpenLink Data Spaces – Semantically enhanced Personal & Enterprise Data Spaces & Collaboration Platform OpenLink Virtuoso - Hybrid Data Management, Integration, Application, and Identity Server Universal Data Access Drivers - High-Performance ODBC, JDBC, ADO.NET, and OLE-DB Drivers Social Media Data spaces http://kidehen.blogspot.com (weblog) http://www.openlinksw.com/blog/~kidehen/ (weblog) https://plus.google.com/112399767740508618350/posts (Google+) https://twitter.com/#!/kidehen (Twitter) Hashtag: #LinkedData (Anywhere). License CC-BY-SA 4.0 (International).

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