India 2011


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India 2011

  2. 2. 2011 (Saka 1932)55th Edition© Research, Reference and Training Division ISBN : 978-81-230-1674-0 REF-ENG-OP-045-2010-11Price : < 345.00Published by the Additional Director General (Incharge),Publications Division,Ministry of Information and Broadcasting,Government of India, Soochna Bhawan, CGO ComplexLodhi Road, New Delhi-110 003Website : www.publicationsdivision.nic.inPublications Division Research, Reference and Training DivisionEditing : Compilation and CoordinationS. Manjula S. M. KhanDayawanti Srivastava L.R. VishwanathNitima Shiv Charan A.K. SrivastavaR. Anuradha Simmi KumarCover Design : Asha SaxenaProduction : J. K. ChandraSales Centres : l Soochna Bhavan, C.G.O. Complex, Lodhi Road, New Delhi Delhi-110003 l Hall No. 196, Old Secretariat, Delhi Delhi-110054 l 701, B-Wing, KendriyaSadan, Belapur, Navi Mumbai Mumbai-400614 l 8, Esplanade East, Kolkata Kolkata-700069 l ‘A’Wing, Rajaji Bhawan, Besant Nagar, Chennai Chennai-600090 l Press Road, Near Govt.Press, Thiruvananthapuram Thiruvananthapuram-695001 l Block 4, 1st Floor, Gruhakalpa Complex, M.G.Road, Nampally Hyderabad Hyderabad-500001 l 1st Floor, ‘F’ Wing, Kendriya Sadan,Koramangala, Bangaluru Bangaluru-560034 l Bihar State Co-operative Bank Building, AshokaRajpath, Patna Patna-800004 l Hall No. 1, 2nd Floor, Kendriya Bhawan, Sector-H, Aliganj,Lucknow-226024 l Ambica Complex, 1st Floor, Paldi, AhmedabadLucknow Ahmedabad-380007 l HouseNo. 7, New Colony, Cheni Kuthi, KKB Road Guwahati Guwahati-781003.Typesetter : Quick Prints, Naraina, New Delhi-110 028.Printed at : Tan Prints (India) Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi
  3. 3. Contents 1. Land and the People 1 2. National Symbols 22 3. The Polity 26 4. Agriculture 66 5. Culture and Tourism 116 6. Basic Economic Data 137 7. Commerce 164 8. Communications and Information Technology 182 9. Defence 22010. Education 24311. Energy 27812. Environment 31813. Finance 34614. Corporate Affairs 43015. Food and Civil Supplies 44016. Health and Family Welfare 47617. Housing 52718. India and the World 54519. Industry 59320. Justice and Law 67321. Labour 69522. Mass Communication 72123. Planning 76424. Rural and Urban Development 79825. Scientific and Technological Developments 83326. Transport 92527. Water Resources 95428. Welfare 98229. Youth Affairs and Sports 103530. States and Union Territories 106031. Diary of National Events 117032. General Information 1173 Appendices
  4. 4. iv Blank
  5. 5. Land and the People 11 Land and the People"INDIA is the cradle of the human race, the birthplace of human speech, the mother ofhistory, the grandmother of legend and the great grandmother of tradition. Our mostvaluable and most instructive materials in the history of man are treasured up inIndia only."—Mark TwainIndia has a unique culture and is one of the oldest and greatest civilizations of theworld. It stretches from the snow-capped Himalayas in the North to sun drenchedcoastal villages of the South, the humid tropical forests on the south-west coast, thefertile Brahamputra valley on its East to the Thar desert in the West. It covers an areaof 32,87,263 sq. km. It has achieved all-round socio-economic progress during thelast 63 years of its Independence. India is the seventh largest country in the worldand ranks second in population. The country stands apart from the rest of Asia,marked off as it is by mountains and the sea, which give her a distinct geographicalentity. Bounded by the Great Himalayas in the north, it stretches southwards and atthe Tropic of Cancer, tapers off into the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal onthe east and the Arabian Sea on the west. Lying entirely in the northern hemisphere, the mainland extends betweenlatitudes 8°4 and 37°6 north, longitudes 68°7 and 97°25 east and measures about3,214 km from north to south between the extreme latitudes and about 2,933 km fromeast to west between the extreme longitudes. It has a land frontier of about 15,200 km.The total length of the coastline of the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands andAndaman & Nicobar Islands is 7,516.6 km.PHYSICAL BACKGROUNDCountries having a common border with India are Afghanistan and Pakistan to thenorth-west, China, Bhutan and Nepal to the north, Myanmar to the far east andBangladesh to the east of West Bengal. Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrowchannel of sea formed by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar. The country can bedivided into six zones mainly North, South, East, West, Central and North-east zone.It has 28 states and seven union territories.PHYSICAL FEATURESThe mainland comprises four regions, namely, the great mountain zone, plains of theGanga and the Indus, the desert region and the southern peninsula. The Himalayas comprise three almost parallel ranges interspersed with largeplateaus and valleys, some of which, like the Kashmir and Kullu valleys, are fertile,extensive and of great scenic beauty. Some of the highest peaks in the world are foundin these ranges. The high altitudes admit travel only to a few passes, notably the JelepLa and Nathu La on the main Indo-Tibet trade route through the Chumbi Valley,north-east of Darjeeling and Shipki La in the Satluj valley, north-east of Kalpa(Kinnaur). The mountain wall extends over a distance of about 2,400 km with avarying depth of 240 to 320 km. In the east, between India and Myanmar and Indiaand Bangladesh, hill ranges are much lower. Garo, Khasi, Jaintia and Naga Hills,1 Provisional as on 31 March 1982
  6. 6. 2 India 2011running almost east-west, join the chain to Mizo and Rkhine Hills running north-south. The plains of the Ganga and the Indus, about 2,400 km long and 240 to 320 kmbroad, are formed by basins of three distinct river systems - the Indus, the Ganga andthe Brahmaputra. They are one of the world’s greatest stretches of flat alluvium andalso one of the most densely populated