Optical microscope in laboratory


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Optical microscope in laboratory

  1. 1. Optical microscope in laboratory Presenter : Khizra Samad
  2. 2.  The optical microscope, often referred to as the "light microscope“.  It is a type of microscope which uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small samples.  Optical microscopes are the oldest design of microscope and were possibly designed in 17th century.  Basic optical microscopes can be very simple, but there are many complex designs which aim to improve resolution and sample contrast.
  3. 3. Cont..  Historically optical microscopes were easy to develop and are popular because they use visible light so that samples may be directly observed by eye.  The image from an optical microscope can be captured by normal light-sensitive cameras to generate a micrograph.  Originally images were captured by photographic film  Modern developments in CMOS and charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras allow the capture of digital images.  Purely digital microscopes are now available which use CCD camera to examine a sample, showing the resulting image directly on a computer screen without the need for eyepieces.
  4. 4. A modern microscope with a mercury bulb for fluorescence microscopy. The microscope has a digital camera, and is attached to a computer.
  5. 5. Working  1. 2. An optical microscope consists of the following two major basic functions. Creating a Magnified Image of a Specimen (observation optical system) Illuminating a Specimen
  6. 6. Creating a Magnified Image of a Specimen  1. 2. 3. The function to create a magnified image of a specimen consists of three basic functions : Obtaining a clear, sharp image Changing a magnification Bringing into focus". An optical system for implementing these functions is referred to as an observation optical system
  7. 7. Illuminating a Specimen  The function to illuminate a specimen consists of three basic functions : 1. supplying light 2. collecting light 3. changing light intensity An optical system for implementing these functions is referred to as an illumination optical system.  The illumination optical system effectively collects light emitted from the light source and leads the light to a specimen to illuminate it.
  8. 8. Uses  Extensively used in microelectronics, nanophysics, biotechnology, pharmaceutics research, mineralogy and microbiology.  Used for medical diagnosis, when dealing with tissues, or in smear tests on free cells or tissue fragments.  In industrial use, binocular microscopes are common.  In certain applications, long-working-distance or longfocus microscopes[are beneficial. An item may need to be examined behind a window, or industrial subjects may be a hazard to the objective. Such optics resemble telescopes with close-focus capabilities
  9. 9. Reference  http://www.olympus- ims.com/en/microscope/terms/feature10/  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_microscope