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Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos
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Voice accent neutralization_for_tot_angeos

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neutralization of accent

neutralization of accent

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  • 1. Voice & Accent Neutralization
  • 2. Objectives At the end of this program you will Understand aspects of Speech Know about Pronunciation Speak Globally acceptable and understandable English Learn the art of articulating your voice
  • 3. Consonant Sounds Vowel Sounds Intonation Course Outline
  • 4. <ul><li>There are 26 letters in the English Alphabets </li></ul><ul><li>However there are 44 sounds </li></ul><ul><li>24 Consonant Sounds </li></ul><ul><li>20 Vowel Sounds (12 vowels & 8 Diphthongs) </li></ul>Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds Some startling facts:
  • 5. <ul><li>Regional Influence/Mother Tongue </li></ul><ul><li>influence </li></ul><ul><li>Speech Pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Family & Friends factor </li></ul>Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds Factors that affect Pronunciation and intonation are:
  • 6. <ul><li>Very/wary/vary There/dare </li></ul><ul><li>HRYech HR Matter/Mutter </li></ul><ul><li>Friend:Farend want/won’t </li></ul><ul><li>The snacks are in The snakes are in the </li></ul><ul><li>the hall hole </li></ul><ul><li>Thirty: Thiraty </li></ul>Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds Regional Influence/Mother Tongue Influence:
  • 7. <ul><li>The mechanism of speech involves production and </li></ul><ul><li>articulation of the sounds produced. </li></ul><ul><li>Consonant and vowel sounds are an integral part of </li></ul><ul><li>English speech </li></ul><ul><li>Consonant sounds are produced by a blockage or </li></ul><ul><li>obstruction to the exhaled air. </li></ul><ul><li>Vowel sounds are produced without any obstruction to </li></ul><ul><li>the exhaled air. </li></ul>Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds Pronunciation
  • 8. <ul><li>Created by blocking the outgoing breath. </li></ul><ul><li>Grouped in families classified according to the </li></ul><ul><li>obstruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Clarity in speech depends on the way consonants are </li></ul><ul><li>pronounced. </li></ul><ul><li>To pronounce consonants clearly, you need to identify </li></ul><ul><li>the obstruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Consonant sounds in different languages differ in </li></ul><ul><li>quality. </li></ul>Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds Consonant Sounds
  • 9. Organs of Speech The upper extremity of the windpipe (Adam’s apple) which contains and protects the vocal cords Larynx Vocal cords or vocal lips V Food passage FP Windpipe W Epiglottis; this is drawn over the windpipe when swallowing E Back of the tongue, the part opposite the soft palate B Front of the tongue, the part opposite the hard palate F Blade of the tongue, including the tip, the part opposite the teeth ridge BL Pharynx P Uvula, the loose hanging end of the soft palate U Soft palate in lowered position S Hard palate, concave part of the roof of the mouth H Alveolar ridge, convex part of the mouth, immediately behind the teeth TR Teeth TT Lips LL
  • 10. Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds What are consonants? / / / Back-velar / Tip- alveolar /n/ Bilabial /m/ Blade/ front –palato- alveolar / Blade/ front –palato -alveolar / Back-velar /g/ Back-velar /k/ Tip- alveolar /d/ Tip- alveolar /t/ Bilabial /b/ Bilabial /p/ Place Consonants
  • 11. Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds What are consonants? / / / / Front-palatal /j/ Bilabial back-velar /w/ Blade-postalveolar /r/ Tip- alveolar /l/ Glottal /h/ Blade/ front –palato- alveolar / Blade/ front –palato- alveolar / Blade-alveolar /z/ Blade-alveolar /s/ Tip- dental / Tip- dental / Labio- dental /v/ Labio- dental /f/
  • 12. <ul><li>Consonant sounds can be categorized into </li></ul><ul><li>Plosive </li></ul><ul><li>Fricatives </li></ul><ul><li>Affricates </li></ul><ul><li>Nasals </li></ul><ul><li>Laterals </li></ul><ul><li>Approximants </li></ul>Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds What are consonants?
  • 13. Plosive: /b/ /p/ /t/ /d/ /k/ /g/ Fricatives: f/ /v/ /th/ /s/r /z//sh/ /h//zh Affricates: /dj/ /ch/ Nasal: m/n/ng Lateral: /l/ Approximants: r/w/j Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds Consonant Sounds are grouped in the following families:
  • 14. <ul><li>Voiced sounds create a resonant sound in the </li></ul><ul><li>throat. </li></ul><ul><li>Unvoiced sounds are aspirated sounds. </li></ul>Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds Consonant sounds are divided into Voiced and Unvoiced sounds.
  • 15. Unvoiced Voiced CH J (Dj) S Z SH ZH K G T D Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds
  • 16. Unvoiced Voiced TH (Thanks) TH (That) F V P B W M N Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds
  • 17. Unvoiced Voiced L R H NG Y Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds
  • 18. /p/ path /b/ bath /t/ time /d/ dime /k/ came /g/game /f/ fan /v/ van /th/ think /th/them /s/ price z/prize /sh/shoe /zh/usual /ch/chin /dj/gin Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds Practice: Unvoiced Sounds Voiced Sounds
  • 19. This is an unvoiced aspirated sound. It is pronounced like ‘ph’ with distinct breath coming out. Example : Problem - Phraablem Past - Phaest Promise- Phraamis Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds The ‘P’ sound
  • 20. <ul><li>Peter had a problem with his project </li></ul><ul><li>Pickles are more expensive than peas. </li></ul><ul><li>My parents made the payment for Patricia’s picnic. </li></ul><ul><li>Politicians are publicizing the polished policemen’s work. </li></ul><ul><li>The patient ran in panic for no particular reason </li></ul>Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds Practice Exercise The ‘P’ sound
  • 21. Examples: Color- Khalar Contribute- Khantribute Customer- Khustomer Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds The ‘K’ sound This is an aspirated sound. It has to be pronounced like ‘kh’ with a puff of air thrown out:
  • 22. I was coming back home after my coaching classes. On my way I saw a cute girl clinging and cringing on the branch of a tree. She was crying at the top of her voice. I called out for her and asked her to calm down. She requested me to help her come down the tree. I feared that my clothes will get soiled. But I somehow gathered the courage to climb the tree. Just when I was a little short of clutching her arm, my leg slipped and I came crashing down the road. The cream color of my collar became black and I got a cut on my right knee. I quickly contained my anxiety and made quick steps towards the cocoon of my home. Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds Practice Exercise (emphasize on the ‘k’ sound’)
  • 23. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>This That These The They </li></ul><ul><li>Breathe Teethe Bathe Sheathe </li></ul><ul><li>Father Brother Mother </li></ul>Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds Voiced ‘TH’ Sound This sound is created by placing the tongue behind your teeth touching the upper palate of your mouth. The voiced ‘th’ usually occurs in function words or pronouns and words that end with ‘the’.
  • 24. <ul><li>The unvoiced ‘TH’ sound usually occurs in content words </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Thud Something With Thousand </li></ul><ul><li>Both South North Thank </li></ul>Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds Unvoiced ‘TH’ Sound The unvoiced ‘TH’ sound is created by placing your tongue between your lips and releasing the air through the slit.
  • 25. <ul><li>Read out these sentences aloud: </li></ul><ul><li>Banana makes me thin. </li></ul><ul><li>Most people think that they have the answer. </li></ul><ul><li>It is time to put on your thinking cap. </li></ul><ul><li>Martha is thick-skinned. </li></ul><ul><li>I thought I heard thunder. Thank you very much for </li></ul><ul><li>doing a thorough job. </li></ul>Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds Exercise:
  • 26. In some words ‘th’ is pronounced as ‘t’. These words are usually proper nouns. Examples: Thomas Thailand Thames Esther . Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds Exceptions:
  • 27. Practice these words: Third Without Theatre Fourth Author Thought Fifth Nothing Thursday Eighth Thirsty Three Eleventh Theme Thelma Twelfth Month Dorothy Thirteenth Birthday Elizabeth Twentieth Through Samantha Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds Exercise:
  • 28. This is a voiced sound. To produce the ‘v’ sound allow your upper teeth to rest on your lower lip and push the sound through the slit. Bite the lower lip and feel the vibration. Examples: Verify, Discover, Voice Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds The ’V’ Sound
  • 29. Read these words with the correct ‘v’ sound. Valid Divide Above Invest Victim Heavy Love Velocity Video Save Leave Vegetables Vote Valentine Festival Vanessa Vinegar Vast Virtue Vice Evoke Arrive Victor Visit Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds Practice Exercise
  • 30. <ul><li>Read out the following sentences: </li></ul><ul><li>Leave the lovely vase in the van </li></ul><ul><li>The executive arrived late for the seventh meeting. </li></ul><ul><li>Vincent advised Vanessa to meet the vice president. </li></ul><ul><li>He was actively working on the velocity of the van. </li></ul>Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds Practice Exercise
  • 31. <ul><li>This is a voiced sound. To produce the ‘w’ sound, make your lips rounded and the tongue drawn back as in the position of ‘u’. Your lips should form a soft circle. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Work </li></ul><ul><li>Wedding </li></ul><ul><li>Wednesday </li></ul>Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds The ‘W’ sound
  • 32. Read out these words with the correct ‘w sound. Twenty Wish Sandwich Sweet One Winter Weather Wait Water Wave Wallet Watch Walnut Wine Weed Weigh Weave Wander Wonder Walk Wash Wane Weep Win Weight Wise Railway Swim Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds Practice Exercise
  • 33. <ul><li>Read out the following sentences: </li></ul><ul><li>William was waiting at the railway station </li></ul><ul><li>Wilma is working on her weight for her wedding </li></ul><ul><li>Winne wanted wine instead of water </li></ul><ul><li>You shouldn’t wear a watch while swimming </li></ul>Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds Practice Exercise
  • 34. Very Wary Verse Worse Wheel Veal West Vest Vie Whale While Vile Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds How will you pronounce these words?
  • 35. <ul><li>This is an unvoiced aspirated sound: </li></ul><ul><li>Church </li></ul><ul><li>Cherish </li></ul><ul><li>Chant </li></ul><ul><li>Chamber </li></ul>Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds The Ch sound
  • 36. <ul><li>Practice Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Charlie chose the chilly chicken </li></ul><ul><li>Chitra chanced to sit on the Chiming chair. </li></ul><ul><li>Cherry cheered the charming champion. </li></ul><ul><li>Check the cheese before you eat. </li></ul><ul><li>Channel of the chimney was charred. </li></ul>Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds The Ch sound
  • 37. Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds <ul><li>Practice Exercise: </li></ul><ul><li>Gin and tonic water is the gist for success for </li></ul><ul><li>gigantic parties. </li></ul><ul><li>Gillette is the brand of a shaving gadget </li></ul><ul><li>Gauge the height of the hill gingerly. </li></ul><ul><li>Fit the gauge gently. </li></ul>The dj Sound This is a voiced sound which is made by the lower jaw touching the palate
  • 38. Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds The sh sound This is a voiced sound. Produce the ‘sh’ sound by pursing your lips in an oval shape resting your upper teeth straight on your lower teeth and blowing the air through the slit between the teeth. The sh sound
  • 39. Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds <ul><li>Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Shell </li></ul><ul><li>She </li></ul><ul><li>Shoot </li></ul><ul><li>English </li></ul>The sh sound
  • 40. Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds <ul><li>Practice Exercise: </li></ul><ul><li>Chef, Champagne </li></ul><ul><li>Musician ,Ancient </li></ul><ul><li>Tension, Pension </li></ul><ul><li>Russia, Expression </li></ul><ul><li>Sanction, Section </li></ul>The sh sound
  • 41. Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds <ul><li>The S sound is a voiced sound produced by placing the tongue towards the upper ridge of your teeth and passing the air through the slit </li></ul><ul><li>Swim </li></ul><ul><li>State </li></ul><ul><li>Start </li></ul>The S Sound
  • 42. Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds <ul><li>Practice Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Sally Silly Smoke Sam </li></ul><ul><li>Sells Straw s Subway Street </li></ul><ul><li>Station Sandy Study Strong </li></ul><ul><li>Straight Stammer String </li></ul>The S Sound
  • 43. Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds <ul><li>This sound is produced in the same ways as sh. The only difference is that of a strong vibration in the throat: </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasure Measure Treasure </li></ul><ul><li>Seizure Leisure Azure </li></ul>The Zh sound
  • 44. Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds This is a voiced sound. It is produced by placing your tongue between the upper ridge of your teeth and gives a buzzing effect: Zebra, Zeal, Zoo, Zip, Zest The Z sound
  • 45. Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds <ul><li>Practice Exercise: </li></ul><ul><li>Zulu Amaze Graze Crazy </li></ul><ul><li>Blaze Cozy Doze Accuse </li></ul><ul><li>Maze Glaze Praise Daze </li></ul><ul><li>Ease Faze Freeze Buzz </li></ul><ul><li>Lizard Jazzy Lazy Busy </li></ul><ul><li>Zoology Prize Booze Maize </li></ul>The Z sound
  • 46. Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds Kr tr dr St sp Str Clusters
  • 47. Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds Managing Clusters /sp/ Splash /st/ Style /str/ Straight /sts/ Lasts /ss/ Students strike /tr/ Train /dr/ Drive /kr/ Cross Managing Clusters
  • 48. Vowel Sounds OOT OHT AWT AHT AYT EET OOD OHD AWD AHD AYD EED OON OHN AWN AHN AYN EEN OOB OHB AWB AHB AYB EEB OOP OHP AWP AHP AYP EEP OOM OHM AWM AHM AYM EEM OOG OHG AWG AHG AYG EEG Cecily Berry Exercise
  • 49. Vowel Sounds OOF OHF AWF AHF AYF EEF OOV OHV AWV AHV AYV EEV OOS OHS AWS AHS AYS EES OOZ OHZ AWZ AHZ AYZ EEZ OOTH OHTH AWTH AHTH AYTH EETH Cecily Berry Exercise (continued)
  • 50. Vowel Sounds A diphthong is a combination of two vowel sounds Vowels are sound carriers.
  • 51. Vowel Sounds 20 Simple Vowels Complex Vowels or Diphthongs 12 8 English Vowel Sounds a e i o u
  • 52. Vowel Sounds h o t f a r u p c a t h or se b ir d aft e r t e n b oo t b oo k s i t sl ee p <ul><li>SIMPLE VOWELS </li></ul><ul><li>They are also called pure vowels or monopthongs. </li></ul><ul><li>A vowel is a sound without detectable change in quality from beginning to end. </li></ul><ul><li>It results from changing the shape and the position of the tongue and lips. </li></ul>
  • 53. Vowel Sounds h ow h igh b ear g o b oy f ewer s a y b ee r     <ul><li>COMPLEX VOWELS (DIPHTHONGS) </li></ul><ul><li>Have continually moving tongue shape and changing sound quality </li></ul><ul><li>they are represented by two vowel symbols but counted as one unit </li></ul><ul><li>the two symbols represent the beginning and the end of the sound quality </li></ul><ul><li>the jaw, tongue and lips make a gliding movement from the first element of the diphthong to the second </li></ul><ul><li>the first part is much stronger than the second part </li></ul><ul><li>can be classified as either closing or centering </li></ul>
  • 54. Vowel Sounds Last Lost Lust Quiet Quite Quit Accept Expect Except How would you say these words: Short vowels Long vowels    
  • 55. Vowel Sounds Practice exercise: Read out the following sentences: Martha’s car won’t start. Did Sean fall off the wall? Sue is wearing brown shoes Louis took the cookbook Who has the boy’s toy How do you get downtown? Jennifer needs the airfare
  • 56. Vowel Sounds <ul><li>Read the following sentences: </li></ul><ul><li>I may go late for my tuition. </li></ul><ul><li>He went down the steps and found the lost coin. </li></ul><ul><li>The fair skinned maiden was standing on the stairs. </li></ul><ul><li>Her tears are a result of sheer agony. </li></ul><ul><li>I left a note close to the table so that you read it before </li></ul><ul><li>you go </li></ul>Practice Exercise:
  • 57. Vowel Sounds <ul><li>Hotel Component Petrol </li></ul><ul><li>Industry Engineer Cassette </li></ul><ul><li>Decade Chaos Development </li></ul>Some Commonly Mispronounced Words
  • 58. Intonation n What is intonation “ Rise and fall in pitch is intonation” It can also be defined as “Speech Music”
  • 59. Intonation Intonation is the rise and fall in pitch . It conveys personal intentions and emotions such as surprise, anxiety, excitement. Pitch is the number of vibrations per second. Changes in pitch determine the TONE of speech.
  • 60. Intonation Let us look at examples: 1 . I didn’t say he stole the money 2. I didn’t say he stole the money 3. I didn’t say he stole the money 4. I didn’t say he stole the money 5. I didn’t say he stole the money 6. I didn’t say he stole the money 7. I didn’t say he stole the money
  • 61. Intonation 1 . I didn’t say he stole the money - someone else did 2. I didn’t say he stole the money- that’s not true at all 3. I didn’t say he stole the money- I only suggested it 4. I didn’t say he stole the money- someone else took it 5. I didn’t say he stole the money- he may have borrowed 6. I didn’t say he stole the money- but rather some other money 7. I didn’t say he stole the money- He may have taken jewelry Let us look at the sentences again:
  • 62. Intonation Rules of Intonation STATEMENTS-QUESTIONS   Typically, statements end with a downward drop. This pattern signals the listener that the thought is complete. It may be the listener’s turn to talk or the speaker may have more to say but it marks the end of an idea.   The students are from the national science academy. He’s capable of maintaining excellent health. My boss decided to hire the five finalists. The judge and jury joked about the arrangement.   Questions which cannot be answered with &quot;yes&quot; or &quot;no&quot; are sometimes called “wh” questions because they often contain “where, when, who, or why.” They have a rhythm that usually ends with a downward drop.   Which teacher’s signature is on the check? What American customs do visitors find annoying? Is her degree in psychology or psychiatry? Who wrote the script for the story?
  • 63. Intonation Rules of Intonation STATEMENTS-QUESTIONS   Questions that can be answered with &quot;yes&quot; or &quot;no&quot; usually end with an upward slide. This rhythm signals the listener that it is his turn to respond.   Did the stock split? Will they finish the film before February first? Is Jim eligible for the job in geology? Was testing of the space station successful? Does the chart at the end of the text make sense?
  • 64. Intonation Rules of Intonation Set the cake on the left side of the table, okay? (final upward inflection) Set the cake on the left side of the table, okay? (final downward inflection)   Cindy lives in a very distant city, doesn’t she? (final upward inflection) Cindy lives in a very distant city, doesn’t she? (final downward inflection) ITEMS IN A SERIES   When items are presented in sequence, you will notice upward inflection with each one until the final item, where there is usually a downward step.   All kinds of data are on the charts, tables, and graphs. Desks were covered with computers, manuals, and papers. Prepositions include “across,” “until,” “among,” and “of.” The last three letters of the alphabet are X, Y, Z. Add flour, sugar, and butter to the batter.
  • 65. In English, we do not say each syllable with the same force or strength. In one word, we accentuate ONE syllable. We say one syllable very loudly (big, strong, important) and all the other syllables very quietly. Let's take 3 words: photograph, photographer and photographic. Do they sound the same when spoken? No. Because we accentuate (stress) ONE syllable in each word. And it is not always the same syllable. So the shape of each word is different. PHO TO GRAPH PHO  TO  GRAPH ER PHO TO  GRAPH  IC What is Word Stress?
  • 66. Word Stress There are two very important rules about word stress: One word, one stress. (One word cannot have two stresses. So if you hear two stresses, you have heard two words, not one word.) The stress is always on a vowel.
  • 67. Sentence Stress in English <ul><li>Sentence stress is the music of spoken English. Like word stress, sentence stress can help you to understand spoken English, especially when spoken fast. </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence stress is what gives English its rhythm or &quot;beat&quot;. You remember that word stress is accent on one syllable within a word. Sentence stress is accent on certain words within a sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Most sentences have two types of word: </li></ul><ul><li>content words </li></ul><ul><li>structure words </li></ul><ul><li>Content words are the key words of a sentence. They are the important words that carry the meaning or sense. </li></ul>
  • 68. Sentence Stress in English Imagine that you receive this telegram message: This sentence is not complete. It is not a &quot;grammatically correct&quot; sentence. But you probably understand it. These 4 words communicate very well. Somebody wants you to sell their car for them because they have gone to France . We can add a few words: The new words do not really add any more information. But they make the message more correct grammatically. We can add even more words to make one complete, grammatically correct sentence. But the information is basically the same : In our sentence, the 4 key words (sell, car, gone, France) are accentuated or stressed . Structure Words FRANCE. to GONE I've because CAR my SELL you Will Content Words FRANCE to GONE I'm because CAR me SELL you Will FRANCE to GONE I've because CAR my SELL you Will
  • 69. Sentence Stress in English Rules for Sentence Stress in English The basic rules of sentence stress are: content words are stressed structure words are unstressed the time between stressed words is always the same
  • 70. Sentence Stress in English Rules for Sentence Stress in English Content words - stressed Structure words - unstressed DON'T, AREN'T, CAN'T negative auxiliaries QUICKLY, LOUDLY, NEVER adverbs RED, BIG, INTERESTING adjectives CAR, MUSIC, MARY nouns SELL, GIVE, EMPLOY main verbs Example Words carrying the meaning a, an, the articles on, at, into prepositions he, we, they pronouns Example Words for correct grammar
  • 71. Intonation <ul><li>What happens when we lack intonation while </li></ul><ul><li>conversing? </li></ul><ul><li>Negates the essence of information </li></ul><ul><li>Makes us sound mechanical </li></ul><ul><li>causes miscommunication </li></ul>

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