Clarity in speech depends on the way consonants are
To pronounce consonants clearly, you need to identify
Consonant sounds in different languages differ in
Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds Consonant Sounds
Organs of Speech The upper extremity of the windpipe (Adam’s apple) which contains and protects the vocal cords Larynx Vocal cords or vocal lips V Food passage FP Windpipe W Epiglottis; this is drawn over the windpipe when swallowing E Back of the tongue, the part opposite the soft palate B Front of the tongue, the part opposite the hard palate F Blade of the tongue, including the tip, the part opposite the teeth ridge BL Pharynx P Uvula, the loose hanging end of the soft palate U Soft palate in lowered position S Hard palate, concave part of the roof of the mouth H Alveolar ridge, convex part of the mouth, immediately behind the teeth TR Teeth TT Lips LL
Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds What are consonants? / / / Back-velar / Tip- alveolar /n/ Bilabial /m/ Blade/ front –palato- alveolar / Blade/ front –palato -alveolar / Back-velar /g/ Back-velar /k/ Tip- alveolar /d/ Tip- alveolar /t/ Bilabial /b/ Bilabial /p/ Place Consonants
Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds What are consonants? / / / / Front-palatal /j/ Bilabial back-velar /w/ Blade-postalveolar /r/ Tip- alveolar /l/ Glottal /h/ Blade/ front –palato- alveolar / Blade/ front –palato- alveolar / Blade-alveolar /z/ Blade-alveolar /s/ Tip- dental / Tip- dental / Labio- dental /v/ Labio- dental /f/
Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds Consonant sounds are divided into Voiced and Unvoiced sounds.
Unvoiced Voiced CH J (Dj) S Z SH ZH K G T D Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds
Unvoiced Voiced TH (Thanks) TH (That) F V P B W M N Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds
Unvoiced Voiced L R H NG Y Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds
/p/ path /b/ bath /t/ time /d/ dime /k/ came /g/game /f/ fan /v/ van /th/ think /th/them /s/ price z/prize /sh/shoe /zh/usual /ch/chin /dj/gin Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds Practice: Unvoiced Sounds Voiced Sounds
This is an unvoiced aspirated sound. It is pronounced like ‘ph’ with distinct breath coming out. Example : Problem - Phraablem Past - Phaest Promise- Phraamis Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds The ‘P’ sound
My parents made the payment for Patricia’s picnic.
Politicians are publicizing the polished policemen’s work.
The patient ran in panic for no particular reason
Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds Practice Exercise The ‘P’ sound
Examples: Color- Khalar Contribute- Khantribute Customer- Khustomer Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds The ‘K’ sound This is an aspirated sound. It has to be pronounced like ‘kh’ with a puff of air thrown out:
I was coming back home after my coaching classes. On my way I saw a cute girl clinging and cringing on the branch of a tree. She was crying at the top of her voice. I called out for her and asked her to calm down. She requested me to help her come down the tree. I feared that my clothes will get soiled. But I somehow gathered the courage to climb the tree. Just when I was a little short of clutching her arm, my leg slipped and I came crashing down the road. The cream color of my collar became black and I got a cut on my right knee. I quickly contained my anxiety and made quick steps towards the cocoon of my home. Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds Practice Exercise (emphasize on the ‘k’ sound’)
Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds Voiced ‘TH’ Sound This sound is created by placing the tongue behind your teeth touching the upper palate of your mouth. The voiced ‘th’ usually occurs in function words or pronouns and words that end with ‘the’.
I thought I heard thunder. Thank you very much for
doing a thorough job.
Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds Exercise:
In some words ‘th’ is pronounced as ‘t’. These words are usually proper nouns. Examples: Thomas Thailand Thames Esther . Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds Exceptions:
Practice these words: Third Without Theatre Fourth Author Thought Fifth Nothing Thursday Eighth Thirsty Three Eleventh Theme Thelma Twelfth Month Dorothy Thirteenth Birthday Elizabeth Twentieth Through Samantha Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds Exercise:
This is a voiced sound. To produce the ‘v’ sound allow your upper teeth to rest on your lower lip and push the sound through the slit. Bite the lower lip and feel the vibration. Examples: Verify, Discover, Voice Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds The ’V’ Sound
Read these words with the correct ‘v’ sound. Valid Divide Above Invest Victim Heavy Love Velocity Video Save Leave Vegetables Vote Valentine Festival Vanessa Vinegar Vast Virtue Vice Evoke Arrive Victor Visit Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds Practice Exercise
This is a voiced sound. To produce the ‘w’ sound, make your lips rounded and the tongue drawn back as in the position of ‘u’. Your lips should form a soft circle.
Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds The ‘W’ sound
Read out these words with the correct ‘w sound. Twenty Wish Sandwich Sweet One Winter Weather Wait Water Wave Wallet Watch Walnut Wine Weed Weigh Weave Wander Wonder Walk Wash Wane Weep Win Weight Wise Railway Swim Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds Practice Exercise
The dj Sound This is a voiced sound which is made by the lower jaw touching the palate
Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds The sh sound This is a voiced sound. Produce the ‘sh’ sound by pursing your lips in an oval shape resting your upper teeth straight on your lower teeth and blowing the air through the slit between the teeth. The sh sound
This sound is produced in the same ways as sh. The only difference is that of a strong vibration in the throat:
Pleasure Measure Treasure
Seizure Leisure Azure
The Zh sound
Introduction to Consonant and Vowel Sounds This is a voiced sound. It is produced by placing your tongue between the upper ridge of your teeth and gives a buzzing effect: Zebra, Zeal, Zoo, Zip, Zest The Z sound
Vowel Sounds A diphthong is a combination of two vowel sounds Vowels are sound carriers.
Vowel Sounds 20 Simple Vowels Complex Vowels or Diphthongs 12 8 English Vowel Sounds a e i o u
Vowel Sounds h o t f a r u p c a t h or se b ir d aft e r t e n b oo t b oo k s i t sl ee p
They are also called pure vowels or monopthongs.
A vowel is a sound without detectable change in quality from beginning to end.
It results from changing the shape and the position of the tongue and lips.
Vowel Sounds h ow h igh b ear g o b oy f ewer s a y b ee r
COMPLEX VOWELS (DIPHTHONGS)
Have continually moving tongue shape and changing sound quality
they are represented by two vowel symbols but counted as one unit
the two symbols represent the beginning and the end of the sound quality
the jaw, tongue and lips make a gliding movement from the first element of the diphthong to the second
the first part is much stronger than the second part
can be classified as either closing or centering
Vowel Sounds Last Lost Lust Quiet Quite Quit Accept Expect Except How would you say these words: Short vowels Long vowels
Vowel Sounds Practice exercise: Read out the following sentences: Martha’s car won’t start. Did Sean fall off the wall? Sue is wearing brown shoes Louis took the cookbook Who has the boy’s toy How do you get downtown? Jennifer needs the airfare
Intonation n What is intonation “ Rise and fall in pitch is intonation” It can also be defined as “Speech Music”
Intonation Intonation is the rise and fall in pitch . It conveys personal intentions and emotions such as surprise, anxiety, excitement. Pitch is the number of vibrations per second. Changes in pitch determine the TONE of speech.
Intonation Let us look at examples: 1 . I didn’t say he stole the money 2. I didn’t say he stole the money 3. I didn’t say he stole the money 4. I didn’t say he stole the money 5. I didn’t say he stole the money 6. I didn’t say he stole the money 7. I didn’t say he stole the money
Intonation 1 . I didn’t say he stole the money - someone else did 2. I didn’t say he stole the money- that’s not true at all 3. I didn’t say he stole the money- I only suggested it 4. I didn’t say he stole the money- someone else took it 5. I didn’t say he stole the money- he may have borrowed 6. I didn’t say he stole the money- but rather some other money 7. I didn’t say he stole the money- He may have taken jewelry Let us look at the sentences again:
Intonation Rules of Intonation STATEMENTS-QUESTIONS Typically, statements end with a downward drop. This pattern signals the listener that the thought is complete. It may be the listener’s turn to talk or the speaker may have more to say but it marks the end of an idea. The students are from the national science academy. He’s capable of maintaining excellent health. My boss decided to hire the five finalists. The judge and jury joked about the arrangement. Questions which cannot be answered with "yes" or "no" are sometimes called “wh” questions because they often contain “where, when, who, or why.” They have a rhythm that usually ends with a downward drop. Which teacher’s signature is on the check? What American customs do visitors find annoying? Is her degree in psychology or psychiatry? Who wrote the script for the story?
Intonation Rules of Intonation STATEMENTS-QUESTIONS Questions that can be answered with "yes" or "no" usually end with an upward slide. This rhythm signals the listener that it is his turn to respond. Did the stock split? Will they finish the film before February first? Is Jim eligible for the job in geology? Was testing of the space station successful? Does the chart at the end of the text make sense?
Intonation Rules of Intonation Set the cake on the left side of the table, okay? (final upward inflection) Set the cake on the left side of the table, okay? (final downward inflection) Cindy lives in a very distant city, doesn’t she? (final upward inflection) Cindy lives in a very distant city, doesn’t she? (final downward inflection) ITEMS IN A SERIES When items are presented in sequence, you will notice upward inflection with each one until the final item, where there is usually a downward step. All kinds of data are on the charts, tables, and graphs. Desks were covered with computers, manuals, and papers. Prepositions include “across,” “until,” “among,” and “of.” The last three letters of the alphabet are X, Y, Z. Add flour, sugar, and butter to the batter.
In English, we do not say each syllable with the same force or strength. In one word, we accentuate ONE syllable. We say one syllable very loudly (big, strong, important) and all the other syllables very quietly. Let's take 3 words: photograph, photographer and photographic. Do they sound the same when spoken? No. Because we accentuate (stress) ONE syllable in each word. And it is not always the same syllable. So the shape of each word is different. PHO TO GRAPH PHO TO GRAPH ER PHO TO GRAPH IC What is Word Stress?
Word Stress There are two very important rules about word stress: One word, one stress. (One word cannot have two stresses. So if you hear two stresses, you have heard two words, not one word.) The stress is always on a vowel.
Sentence stress is the music of spoken English. Like word stress, sentence stress can help you to understand spoken English, especially when spoken fast.
Sentence stress is what gives English its rhythm or "beat". You remember that word stress is accent on one syllable within a word. Sentence stress is accent on certain words within a sentence.
Most sentences have two types of word:
Content words are the key words of a sentence. They are the important words that carry the meaning or sense.
Sentence Stress in English Imagine that you receive this telegram message: This sentence is not complete. It is not a "grammatically correct" sentence. But you probably understand it. These 4 words communicate very well. Somebody wants you to sell their car for them because they have gone to France . We can add a few words: The new words do not really add any more information. But they make the message more correct grammatically. We can add even more words to make one complete, grammatically correct sentence. But the information is basically the same : In our sentence, the 4 key words (sell, car, gone, France) are accentuated or stressed . Structure Words FRANCE. to GONE I've because CAR my SELL you Will Content Words FRANCE to GONE I'm because CAR me SELL you Will FRANCE to GONE I've because CAR my SELL you Will
Sentence Stress in English Rules for Sentence Stress in English The basic rules of sentence stress are: content words are stressed structure words are unstressed the time between stressed words is always the same
Sentence Stress in English Rules for Sentence Stress in English Content words - stressed Structure words - unstressed DON'T, AREN'T, CAN'T negative auxiliaries QUICKLY, LOUDLY, NEVER adverbs RED, BIG, INTERESTING adjectives CAR, MUSIC, MARY nouns SELL, GIVE, EMPLOY main verbs Example Words carrying the meaning a, an, the articles on, at, into prepositions he, we, they pronouns Example Words for correct grammar