ContentsABOUT THIS BOOK ................................5THE WORDS.............................................7WORD ANALYSIS ...............................103IDIOM AND USAGE ............................117
About This BookEnglish offers perhaps the richest vocabulary of all languages, inpart because its words are culled from so many languages. It is ashame that we do not tap this rich source more often in our dailyconversation to express ourselves more clearly and precisely. There are of course thesauruses but they mainly list commonwords. Other vocabulary books list difficult, esoteric words that wequickly forget or feel self-conscious using. However, there is abounty of choice words between the common and the esoteric thatoften seem be just on the tip of our tongue. Vocabulary 4000 bringsthese words to the fore. Whenever possible, one-word definitions are used. Althoughthis makes a definition less precise, it also makes it easier toremember. Many common words appear in the list of words, butwith their less common meanings. For example, the commonmeaning of champion is “winner.” A less common meaning forchampion is to support or fight for someone else. (Think of thephrase “to champion a cause.”) This is the meaning that would beused in the list. As you read through the list of words, mark any that you do notknow with a check mark. Then when you read through the list again,mark any that you do not remember with two checks. Continue inthis manner until you have learned the words. There are four types of quizzes interspersed in the word list:Matching, Antonyms, Analogies, and Sentence Completions. TheMatching quizzes, review words that were just introduced. All theother quizzes contain words from any part of the list.
The Words 9A abominable detestable aboriginal indigenous, nativea cappella without accompaniment abortive unsuccessfulà la carte priced separately abound be plentifula priori reasoning based on generalprinciples abreast side-by-sideaback unexpected, surprised abridge shortenabacus counting device abroad overseasabandon desert, forsake abrogate cancelabase degrade abrupt ending suddenlyabash humiliate, embarrass abscess infected and inflamed tissueabate lessen, subside abscond to run away (secretly)abatement alleviation absolve acquit, free from blameabbey monastery abstain refrainabbreviate shorten abstract theoretical, intangibleabdicate relinquish power or abstruse difficult to understandposition abut touch, border onabdomen belly abysmal deficient, sub parabduct kidnap abyss chasmaberrant abnormal academy schoolabet aid, encourage (typically ofcrime) accede yield, agreeabeyance postponement accentuate emphasizeabhor detest accession attainment of rankabide submit, endure accessory attachment, accompliceabject wretched acclaim recognition, fame acclimate accustom oneself to aabjure renounce climate, adjustablate cut away acclivity ascent, inclineablution cleansing accolade applause, tributeabode home accommodate adapt, assist, houseabolish annul, eliminate
10 Vocabulary 4000accomplice one who aids a adduce offer as examplelawbreaker adept skillfulaccord agreement adhere stick toaccost to approach and speak tosomeone aggressively adherent supporteraccouter equip, clothe adieu farewellaccredit authorize adipose fattyaccrete grow larger adjacent next toaccrue accumulate adjourn suspend, discontinueaccumulate amass adjudicate judgeacerbic caustic, bitter (of speech) adjunct additionacme summit, zenith administer manageacolyte assistant (usually to clergy) admissible allowableacoustic pertaining to sound admonish warn gentlyacquaint familiarize ado fuss, commotionacquiesce agree passively Adonis a beautiful manacquit free from blame adroit skillfulacrid pungent, caustic, choking adulation applause, worshipacrimonious caustic, resentful adulterate contaminate, corruptacrophobia fear of heights adumbration overshadowactuate induce, start advent arrival of something importantacumen insight adventitious accidental, extrinsicacute sharp, intense adversary opponentad nauseam to a ridiculous degree adverse unfavorable, opposingad-lib improvise adversity hardshipadage proverb advise give counseladamant insistent advocate urge, supportadapt adjust to changing conditions aegis that which protects, sponsorshipadaptable pliable aerial pertaining to the airaddendum appendix, supplement aerobics exercise
The Words 11 Quiz 1 (Matching)Match each word in the first column with its definition in the second column.Answers are on page 101.1. ABASE A. applause2. ABSTAIN B. caustic3. ACOLYTE C. shorten4. ABEYANCE D. applause5. ABRIDGE E. assistant6. ACCOLADE F. postponement7. ACRIMONIOUS G. refrain8. ADDUCE H. exercise9. ADULATION I. degrade10. AEROBICS J. offer as exampleaesthetic pleasing to the senses, agent provocateur agitatorbeautiful aggrandize exaggerateaffable friendly aggravate worsenaffect influence aggregate total, collectaffectation pretense, showing off aggressor attackeraffidavit sworn written statement aggrieve mistreataffiliate associate aggrieved unjustly injuredaffiliation connection, association aghast horrifiedaffinity fondness agile nimbleaffix fasten agitate stir upaffliction illness agnate related on the father’s sideaffluent abundant, wealthy agnostic not knowing whether Godaffray brawl existsaffront insult agrarian pertaining to farmingaficionado devotee, ardent follower agronomy science of crop productionafoul entangled, in trouble air discuss, broadcastaft rear airs pretensionaftermath consequence akimbo with hands on hipsagape wonder akin relatedagenda plan, timetable al fresco outdoors
12 Vocabulary 4000alacrity swiftness amass collectalbatross large sea bird ambient surrounding, environmentalbino lacking pigmentation ambiguous unclearalcove recess, niche ambivalence conflicting emotionsalias assumed name ambulatory able to walkalibi excuse ameliorate improvealienate estrange, antagonize amenable agreeablealight land, descend, to happen to amend correctfind a place to rest amenities courtesies, comfortsallay to reassure amenity pleasantnessallege assert without proof amiable friendlyallegiance loyalty amid amongallegory fable amiss wrong, out of placeallegro fast amity friendship, good willalleviate lessen, assuage amnesty pardonalliteration repetition of the samesound amoral without moralsallocate distribute amorous loving, sexualallot allocate, ration amorphous shapelessallude refer to indirectly amortize pay by installments amphibious able to operate in waterally unite for a purpose and landalmanac calendar with additionalinformation amphitheater oval-shaped theateralms charity amuck murderous frenzyaloof arrogant, detached amulet charm, talismanaltercation argument amuse entertain anachronistic out of historical orderaltitude height anaerobic without oxygenalto low female voice anagram a word formed byaltruism benevolence, generosity rearranging the letters of another wordamalgamation mixture analgesic pain-soother
The Words 13 Quiz 2 (Antonyms)Directions: Choose the word most opposite in meaning to the capitalized word.Answers are on page 101.1. GRATUITOUS: (A) voluntary (B) arduous (C) solicitous (D) righteous (E) befitting2. FALLOW: (A) fatuous (B) productive (C) bountiful (D) pertinacious (E) opprobrious3. METTLE: (A) ad hoc (B) perdition (C) woe (D) trepidation (E) apathy4. SAVANT: (A) dolt (B) sage (C) attaché (D) apropos comment (E) state of confusion5. RIFE: (A) multitudinous (B) blemished (C) sturdy (D) counterfeit (E) sparse6. ABRIDGE: (A) distend (B) assail (C) unfetter (D) enfeeble (E) prove7. PRODIGAL: (A) bountiful (B) dependent (C) provident (D) superfluous (E) profligate8. REQUIEM: (A) humility (B) prerequisite (C) resolution (D) reign (E) hiatus9. METE: (A) indict (B) convoke (C) hamper (D) disseminate (E) deviate10. SEVERANCE: (A) continuation (B) dichotomy (C) astringency (D) disclosure (E) remonstranceanalogous similar animadversion critical remarkanalogy point by point comparison animated exuberantanarchist terrorist, nihilist animosity dislikeanarchy absence of government, chaos animus hateanathema curse, abomination annals historical recordsanecdote story annex to attach, to take possession ofaneurysm bulging in a blood vessel annihilate destroyangst anxiety, dread annotate to add explanatory notes
14 Vocabulary 4000annul cancel apocryphal of doubtful authenticityannular ring-shaped apoplexy strokeanodyne pain soothing apostate one who abandons one’s faithanoint consecrate, apply ointment apotheosis deificationanomalous abnormal appall horrifyanonymity state of beinganonymous apparition phantomantagonistic hostile appease pacifyantagonize harass appellation titleantechamber waiting room append affixantediluvian ancient, obsolete apposite aptanthology collection apprehensive anxious, worriedanthrax disease, bacterium apprise informantic caper, prank approbation approvalantipathy repulsion, hated apropos appropriateantipodal exactly opposite apt suitableantiquated outdated, obsolete aptitude abilityantiquity ancient times aquatic pertaining to waterantithesis direct opposite arbiter judgeapartheid racial segregation arbitrament final judgmentapathetic unconcerned, uninterested arbitrary tyrannical, capriciousapathy indifference arcane secret, difficult to understandape mimic archaic antiquatedaperture opening archetype original model, epitomeapex highest point archipelago group of islandaphasia speechless archives public recordsaphorism maxim ardent passionateaplomb poise ardor passionapocalyptic ominous, doomed arduous hard
The Words 15argonauts gold-seekers, adventurers aspirant contestantargot specialized vocabulary, jargon aspiration ambitionaria operatic song assail attackarid dry, dull assassin murdereraristocrat nobleman assent agreearmada fleet of ships assert affirmarmistice truce assess appraisearraign indict assiduous hard-workingarray arrangement assimilate absorb, integratearrears in debt assonance partial rhymearrogate seize without right assuage lessen (pain)arroyo gully astral pertaining to starsarsenal supply, stockpile of weapons astringent causing contraction, severeartful skillful, cunning astute wisearticulate well-spoken asunder apart, into separate partsartifice trick asylum place of refugeartless naive, simple asymmetric unevenascend rise atavistic exhibiting the characteristicsascendancy powerful state of one’s forebearsascertain discover atelier workshopascetic self-denying atoll reefascribe to attribute atomize vaporizeaseptic sterile atone make amendsashen pale atrophy the wasting away of muscleasinine stupid attenuate weaken, assuageaskance to view with suspicion attest testifyaskew crooked attire dressaspersion slander attribute ascribeasphyxiate suffocate attrition deterioration, reduction
16 Vocabulary 4000 Quiz 3 (Matching)Match each word in the first column with its definition in the second column.Answers are on page 101.1. ANATHEMA A. hard2. ANNIHILATE B. curse3. ANOMALOUS C. gully4. APATHETIC D. suffocate5. ARCHAIC E. antiquated6. ARDUOUS F. destroy7. ARROYO G. abnormal8. ASPHYXIATE H. unconcerned9. ASTRINGENT I. make amends10. ATONE J. causing contractionatypical abnormal averse loath, reluctantau courant well informed, chic avert turn awayaudacity boldness avian pertaining to birdsaudient listening, attentive avid enthusiasticaudition tryout avocation hobbyaugment increase, supplement avouch attest, guaranteeaugur predict avow declareaugust noble, majestic avuncular like an uncleaura atmosphere, emanation awry crookedauspices patronage, protection axiom self-evident truthauspicious favorable aye affirmative voteaustere harsh, Spartan azure sky blueauthorize grant, sanctionautomaton robot Bautonomous self-governing babbittry smugnessauxiliary secondary, supportive bacchanal orgy, drunken celebrationavail assistance badger pesteravant garde vanguard badinage banteravarice greed bagatelle nonentity, trifleavatar incarnation
The Words 17bailiwick area of concern or business beget produce, procreatebaleen whalebone begrudge resent, envybaleful hostile, malignant beguile deceive, seducebalk hesitate behemoth monsterbalky hesitant behest commandballad song beholden in debt, obligedballast counterbalance belabor assail verbally, dwell onballistics study of projectiles belated delayed, overduebalm soothing ointment beleaguer besiegebanal trite belfry bell towerbandy exchange belie misrepresent, disprovebane poison, nuisance belittle disparagebarbarian savage bellicose warlikebard poet belligerent combativebaroque ornate bellow shoutbarrister lawyer bellwether leader, guidebask take pleasure in, sun bemoan lamentbasso low male voice bemused bewilderedbastion fort benchmark standardbathos sentimentality benediction blessingbatten fasten, board up benefactor patronbattery physical attack benevolent kindbauble trinket benign harmlessbeatify sanctify bent determinedbeatitude state of bliss bequeath willbeckon lure bequest gift, endowmentbecoming proper berate scoldbedlam uproar bereave to rob, to deprive somebody of a love one, especially through deathbefit to be suitable
18 Vocabulary 4000 Quiz 4 (Antonyms)Directions: Choose the word most opposite in meaning to the capitalized word.Answers are on page 101.1. HYPOCRITICAL: (A) forthright (B) judicious (C) circumspect (D) puritanical (E) unorthodox2. VOLUMINOUS: (A) obscure (B) cantankerous (C) unsubstantial (D) tenacious (E) opprobrious3. FANATICISM: (A) delusion (B) fascism (C) remorse (D) cynicism (E) indifference4. INTERMINABLE: (A) finite (B) jejune (C) tranquil (D) incessant (E) imprudent5. ORNATE: (A) Spartan (B) blemished (C) sturdy (D) counterfeit (E) temporary6. MUTABILITY: (A) simplicity (B) apprehension (C) frailty (D) maverick (E) tenacity7. VIRULENT: (A) benign (B) intrepid (C) malignant (D) hyperbolic (E) tentative8. ABSTEMIOUS: (A) timely (B) immoderate (C) bellicose (D) servile (E) irreligious9. VERBOSE: (A) subliminal (B) myopic (C) pithy (D) dauntless (E) ubiquitous10. VISCID: (A) subtle (B) faint (C) slick (D) vicious (E) difficultbereft deprived of bestow offer, grantberserk crazed with anger betrothed engagedbeseech implore, beg bevy groupbeset harass, encircle bibliography list of sources of informationbesiege beleaguer, surround bicameral having two legislativebesmirch slander, sully branchesbespeak attest bicker quarrelbestial beast-like, brutal biennial occurring every two years
The Words 19bilateral two-sided booty loot, stolen goodsbilious ill-tempered botch bunglebilk swindle bourgeois middle classbiodegradable naturally decaying bovine cow-likebiopsy removing tissue for boycott abstain in protestexamination bracing refreshingbiped two-footed animal brackish saltybistro tavern, cafe brandish display menacinglybivouac encampment bravado feigned braveryblandish flatter, grovel bravura technically difficult, brilliantblasé bored with life brawn strengthblasphemy insulting God brevity shortness of expressionbleak cheerless, forlorn brigand robberblight decay brink edge, thresholdbliss happiness broach bring up a topic forblithe joyous conversationbloated swollen bromide clichébode portend brook toleratebogus forged, false browbeat to bullybogy bugbear brusque curtboisterous noisy bucolic rusticbolt move quickly and suddenly buffet blow, pummelbombast pompous speech buffoon fool, jokerbon vivant gourmet, epicure bulwark fortificationbona fide made in good faith buncombe empty, showy talkbonanza a stroke of luck buoyant floatable, cheerfulboon payoff, windfall burgeon sproutboor vulgar person burlesque farcebootless unavailing burly husky
20 Vocabulary 4000buttress support cantankerous peevish cantata musical compositionC canvass survey capacious spaciouscabal a group of conspirators capillary thin tubecabaret night club capital most significant, pertainingcache hiding place to wealthcachet prestige capitol legislative buildingcacophony dissonance, harsh noise capitulate surrendercadaver corpse capricious fickle, impulsivecadaverous haggard caption titlecadence rhythm captious fond of finding fault incadet a student of a military academy otherscadge beg captivate engross, fascinatecadre small group carafe bottlecajole encourage, coax carbine riflecalamity disaster carcinogenic causing cancercalculating scheming carcinoma tumorcaliber ability, character cardinal chief cardiologist one who studies thecallous insensitive heartcallow inexperienced careen swervecalumny slander carrion decaying fleshcamaraderie fellowship cartographer mapmakercanaille rabble cascade waterfallcanard hoax cashmere fine wool from Asiacandid frank, unrehearsed Cassandra unheeded prophetcandor frankness castigate criticizecanine pertaining to dogs castrate remove the testiclescanon rulecant insincere speech
The Words 21 Quiz 5 (Matching)Match each word in the first column with its definition in the second column.Answers are on page 101.1. BESMIRCH A. unheeded prophet2. BICAMERAL B. peevish3. BILATERAL C. pertaining to dogs4. BOOTLESS D. plot5. BRANDISH E. farce6. BURLESQUE F. display menacingly7. CABAL G. unavailing8. CANINE H. two-sided9. CANTANKEROUS I. having two legislative branches10. CASSANDRA J. sullycasuistry specious reasoning censure condemncataclysm catastrophe ceramics potterycatastrophic disastrous cerebral pertaining to the braincategorical absolute, certain cessation a stopingcathartic purgative, purifying chafe abradecatholic universal, worldly chagrin embarrassmentcaucus meeting chalice gobletcause célèbre celebrated legal case champion defendcaustic scathing (of speech) chaperon escortcauterize to sear charade pantomime, shamcavalier disdainful, nonchalant charlatan quack, impostercaveat warning chartreuse greenish yellowcaveat emptor buyer beware chary cautiouscavil quibble chaste pure, virgincavort frolic chasten castigatecede transfer ownership, relinquish chateau castlecelestial heavenly cheeky brass, forwardcelibate abstaining from sex cherub cupidcenotaph empty tomb, monument cherubic sweet, innocentcensorious condemning speech chicanery trickery
22 Vocabulary 4000chide scold clone duplicatechimerical imaginary, dreamlike clout influencecholeric easily angered cloven splitchortle laugh, snort cloy glut, to sicken by excesschronic continual (usually of illness) cloyed jadedchronicle a history, record co-opt preempt, usurpchronology arrangement by time coagulate thickenchurl a boor coalesce combinechutzpah gall coda concluding passageCimmerian dim, unlit coddle pampercipher zero, nobody, a code codicil supplement to a willcirca about (of time) coercion forcecircuitous roundabout coffer strong boxcircumcise remove the foreskin cogent well-put, convincingcircumlocution roundabout cogitate ponderexpression cognate from the same sourcecircumspect cautious cognizant aware, mindfulcircumvent evade, thwart cognomen family namecitadel fortress cohabit live togethercitation summons to appear in court cohere stick togetherclamor noise cohort an associateclan extended family coiffure hairdoclandestine secret collaborate work togetherclaustrophobia fear of enclosedplaces collar seize, arrestcleave split collateral securities for a debtcleft split colloquial informal speechclemency forgiveness colloquy conferenceclique a small group collusion conspiracycloister refuge, monastery colonnade row of columns
The Words 23 Quiz 6 (Antonyms)Directions: Choose the word most opposite in meaning to the capitalized word.Answers are on page 101.1. DERISION: (A) urgency (B) admonishment (C) uniqueness (D) diversity (E) acclaim2. ANTIPATHY: (A) fondness (B) disagreement (C) boorishness (D) provocation (E) opprobrium3. CAJOLE: (A) implore (B) glance at (C) belittle (D) ennoble (E) engender4. CENSURE: (A) prevaricate (B) titillate (C) aggrandize (D) obscure (E) sanction5. ADULATION: (A) immutability (B) reluctance (C) reflection (D) defamation (E) indifference6. NOISOME: (A) salubrious (B) affable (C) multifarious (D) provident (E) officious7. CONSECRATE: (A) curb (B) destroy (C) curse (D) inveigh (E) exculpate8. ILLUSTRIOUS: (A) bellicose (B) ignoble (C) theoretical (D) esoteric (E) immaculate9. DEIGN: (A) inveigh (B) gainsay (C) speculate (D) reject (E) laud10. SUBTERFUGE: (A) bewilderment (B) artlessness (C) deceit (D) felicitation (E) jeopardycomatose stupor commission authorization to perform a taskcombine unite, blend commodious spaciouscommandeer seize for military use commodity productcommemorate observe commodore naval officercommend praise communion fellowshipcommensurate proportionate commutation exchange,commiserate empathize substitutioncommissary food store commute lessen punishment
24 Vocabulary 4000compact covenant concise briefcompassion kindness conclusive convincing, ending doubtcompatible well-matched, harmonious concoct devisecompatriot countryman concomitant accompanying, concurrentcompelling convincing, persuasive concord accordcompendium summary concordat agreementcompensate make up for concourse throng, open space for acompensatory redeeming gatheringcompetence skillfulness concubine mistresscompile collect concur agreecomplacent self-satisfied, oblivious concurrent simultaneousto coming danger condescend patronize, talk down tocompliant submissive, conforming condiment seasoningcomplicity guilt by association condolence commiserationcomport to conduct oneself condone overlook wrong doing,composed cool, self-possessed pardoncompound augment conducive helpingcomprehensive thorough conduit pipecomprise consist of confabulate discuss, give acompulsive obsessive fictitious account of a past eventcompulsory obligatory confection candycompunction remorse confederacy allianceconcatenate link confer bestowconcave curving inward conference meetingconcede yield, grant confidant trusted friendconcerted done together, intensive confide trust another (with secrets)effort confiscate seizeconch spiral shell conflagration large fireconciliatory reconciling, restoring confluence flowing togethergoodwill confound bewilder
The Words 25confront challenge conspire plotconfuse perplex constellation arrangement of starsconfute disprove consternation anxiety, bewildermentcongeal solidify constrained confinedcongenial friendly construe interpretcongenital inborn, existing from birth consummate perfectcongeries pile contagion infectious agentcongruence conformity contemplate meditateconiferous bearing cones contempt disdainconjecture hypothesis, speculation contend struggleconjugal pertaining to marriage contented satisfiedconjure summon contentious argumentativeconnive conspire contiguous adjacent, abuttingconnoisseur an expert, gourmet continence self-controlconsanguineous related by blood contingent conditionalconscientious honorable, upright contort twistconscription draft, enlistment contraband illicit goodsconsecrate make holy contraction shrinkageconsecutive one after another contractual related to a contractconsensus general agreement contrariety oppositionconsidered well thought-out, contrast difference, comparisoncontemplated contravene opposeconsign assign contretemps unfortunate occurrenceconsolation comfort, solice contrite apologeticconsole comfort contrive arrange, artificialconsolidate unite, strengthen controversial subject to disputeconsonant harmonious controvert disputeconsort spouse contumacy disobedienceconsortium cartel contusion bruiseconspicuous obvious
26 Vocabulary 4000 Quiz 7 (Matching)Match each word in the first column with its definition in the second column.Answers are on page 101.1. COMMANDEER A. seize for military use2. COMMUNION B. apologetic3. COMPATRIOT C. perfect4. CONCERTED D. accord5. CONCORD E. done together6. CONFLUENCE F. pile7. CONGERIES G. flowing together8. CONSONANT H. harmonious9. CONSUMMATE I. countryman10. CONTRITE J. fellowshipconundrum puzzle, enigma corporeal of the bodyconvene assemble (a group) corps group of peopleconventional customary, standard corpulent fatconverge come together corroborate confirmconversant familiar cortege processionconverse opposite coruscate sparkleconvex curving outward cosmopolitan worldly, sophisticatedconvey communicate cosset coddleconviction strongly held belief coterie small groupconvivial sociable, festive countenance facial expressionconvocation gathering countermand overruleconvoke convene, summon counterstrike strike backconvoluted twisted, complicated countervail counterbalancecopious abundant coup master stroke, sudden takeovercoquette a flirt coup de grâce final stroke, a blow of mercycordial friendly court-martial military trialcordon bond, chain, barrier courtesan prostitutecornucopia cone-shaped horn filledwith fruit courtier member of the king’s courtcorollary consequence covenant agreement, pactcoronation crowning of a sovereign covert secret
The Words 27covet desire cumulative accumulatecower showing fear cupidity greedcrass crude curb restrain, blockcrave desire curmudgeon boor, bad-temperedcraven cowardly curriculum course of studycredence belief curry seek favor by flatterycredenza buffet cursory hastycredulity gullibility curt abrupt, rudecredulous believing curtail shortencreed belief cyclone stormcrescendo becoming louder cynical scornful of the motives or sincerity of otherscrestfallen dejected cynosure celebrity, center of attentioncrevice crack czar Russian emperorcringe cowercriterion a standard used in judgingcritique examination, criticism Dcroon sing dab touch lightlycruet bottle dais platformcrux gist, key dally procrastinate, lingercryptic mysterious, puzzling dank cold and dampcubism a style of painting dauntless courageouscudgel club de facto actual, in effectculinary pertaining to cooking de jure legallycull pick out, select de rigueur very formal, compulsoryculminate climax deadpan expressionlessculpable blameworthy dearth scarcityculprit offender debacle a rout, defeatculvert drain debase degradecumbersome unwieldy debauch corrupt
The Words 29decommission take a ship out of deity a godservice delectable deliciousdecorous seemly, dignified delegate authorizedecorum protocol, etiquette delete removedecree official order deleterious harmfuldecrepitude enfeeblement deliberate ponderdecry castigate delineate draw a line around, describededuce conclude delinquent negligent, culpablededuct subtract delirium mental confusion, ecstasydeem judge delude deceivedeface mar, disfigure deluge a flooddefamation (noun) slander delve dig, explore (of ideas)defame (verb) slander demagogue a politician who appealsdefeatist one who is resigned to to base instinctsdefeat demean degradedefer postpone demeanor behaviordeference courteously yielding to demented derangedanother demise deathdeficit shortage demobilize disbanddefile pollute, corrupt demography study of humandefinitive conclusive, final populationsdeflect turn aside demoralize disheartendeflower despoil demote lower in rankdefraud swindle demur take (mild) exception, balkdefray pay demure sedate, reserveddeft skillful denigrate defamedefunct extinct denizen dwellerdegrade demean denomination class, sectdehydrate dry out denote signify, stand fordeign condescend denouement resolution
30 Vocabulary 4000denounce condemn desuetude disusedenude strip bare desultory without direction in lifedepart leave detached emotionally removeddepict portray detain confinedeplete exhaust détente trucedeplore condemn detention confinementdeploy arrange forces deter discourage, preventdeportment behavior, posture deterrent hindrance, disincentivedeposition testimony detract lessen, underminedepravity immorality, wickedness detractor one who criticizesdeprecate belittle detrimental harmfuldepredation preying on, plunder detritus debrisdeprive take away devastate lay wastederacinate uproot deviate turn away fromderelict negligent devise planderide ridicule devoid emptyderisive mocking devotee enthusiast, followerderogatory degrading devout piousderrick crane diabolical devilishdesecrate profane, defile dialectic pertaining to debatedesiccate dehydrate diaphanous sheer, translucentdesignate appoint diatribe long denunciationdesist stop dicey risky dichotomy a division into two partsdesolate forsaken dictate commanddespicable contemptible dictum sayingdespise loathe didactic instructionaldespondent depressed diffident shydespot tyrant digress rambledestitute poor
The Words 31 Quiz 9 (Matching)Match each word in the first column with its definition in the second column.Answers are on page 101.1. DEBUNK A. decode2. DECIPHER B. refute3. DEDUCE C. conclusive4. DEFINITIVE D. conclude5. DEFUNCT E. to draw a line around6. DELINEATE F. extinct7. DENOMINATION G. belittle8. DEPRECATE H. sect9. DESOLATE I. pertaining to debate10. DIALECTIC J. forsakendilapidated neglected disconsolate inconsolabledilate enlarge discord lack of harmonydilatory procrastinating discourse conversationdilemma a difficult choice discreet prudentdilettante amateur, dabbler discrepancy difference, disagreementdiligent hard-working discrete separatediminution reduction discretion prudence, the ability to make well-reasoned decisionsdiocese district discriminating able to see differencesdire dreadful discursive ramblingdirigible airship, blimp disdain contemptdisabuse correct disengage release, detachdisaffect alienate disfigure mar, ruindisarray disorder disgruntled disappointeddisavow deny, disown dishevel m u s sdisband disperse disinclination unwillingnessdisburse pay out disingenuous deceptive, insincerediscernible visible disinter unearthdiscerning observant disinterested impartialdisclaim renounce disjointed disconnected, incoherentdisconcert confuse
32 Vocabulary 4000dismal gloomy distortion misinterpret, liedismantle take apart distract divertdismay dread distrait preoccupied, absent-mindeddisparage belittle distraught distresseddisparate various distrust suspectdisparity difference, inequality dither move without purposedispassionate impartial diurnal dailydispatch send diva prima donnadispel cause to banish diverge branch offdisperse scatter diverse varyingdispirit discourage diversion pastimedisposition attitude, temper diversity varietydispossess take away possessions divest strip, deprivedisputatious fond of arguing dividend distributed profitsdispute debate divine foretelldisquietude anxiety divisive causing conflictdisquisition elaborate treatise divulge disclosedisrepute disgrace docile domesticated, traineddissemble pretend, hide true beliefs dock curtaildisseminate distribute doctrinaire dogmaticdissent disagree with the majority document verifydissertation lecture dodder trembledissidence disagreement dogged persistentdissipate scatter, squander doggerel poor versedissolute profligate, immoral dogmatic certain, unchanging in opiniondissolution disintegration dolce sweetly and gentlydissonance discord doldrums dullnessdissuade deter doleful sorrowfuldistend swell
The Words 33 Quiz 10 (Antonyms)Directions: Choose the word most opposite in meaning to the capitalized word.Answers are on page 101.1. CURB: (A) bridle (B) encourage (C) reproach (D) ameliorate (E) perjure2. DOCUMENT: (A) copy (B) implement (C) gainsay (D) blanch (E) rant3. FLUID: (A) radiant (B) smooth (C) solid (D) balky (E) craggy4. BOLT: (A) linger (B) refrain from (C) subdue (D) strip (E) transgress5. TABLE: (A) palliate (B) acclimate (C) garner (D) propound (E) expedite6. HARBOR: (A) provide shelter (B) banish (C) acquiesce (D) extol (E) capitulate8. STEEP: (A) desiccate (B) intensify (C) pontificate (D) whet (E) hamper9. RENT: (A) reserved (B) restored (C) razed (D) busy (E) kinetic10. EXACT: (A) extract (B) starve (C) lecture (D) menace (E) condonedolorous gloomy doughty resolute, unafraiddomicile home dour sullendominion area of authority dowager widowdon assume, put on doyen dean of a groupdonor contributor draconian harshdormant asleep dregs residue, riffraffdossier file drivel inane speechdotage senility droll amusingdoting attending drone speak in a monotonic voicedouble-entendre having two dubious doubtfulmeanings one of which is sexuallysuggestive ductile stretchable
34 Vocabulary 4000dudgeon resentment, indignant effete worn outhumor efficacious effectiveduenna governess efficacy effectivenessduet twosome effigy likeness, mannequindulcet melodious effloresce to bloomdupe one who is easily trick, victim effrontery insolenceduplicity deceit, treachery effulgent brilliantduress coercion effusion pouring forthdynamic energetic egocentric self-centered egregious grossly wrongE egress exitebb recede ejaculate exclaimebullient exuberant eke supplement with great effort, straineccentric odd, weird elaboration detailed explanationecclesiastical churchly elate raise spiritsechelon degree, rank electorate voterséclat brilliance eleemosynary pertaining to charityeclectic from many sources elegant refined, exquisiteectoderm top layer of skin elegiac sadecumenical universal, promoting elephantine largeunity elicit provokeedict order elide omitedifice building elite upper-classedify instruct ellipsis omission of wordseditorialize express an opinion eloquent well-spokeneduce draw forth, evoke elucidate make clear, explainefface obliterate elude evadeeffeminate unmanly elusive evasiveeffervescence exuberance emaciated underfed, gaunt
The Words 35emancipate liberate encompass contain, encircleemasculate castrate, dispirit encore additional performanceembargo restriction encroach trespassembellish exaggerate, adorn encumber burdenembezzlement theft encyclopedic comprehensiveemblazon imprint, brand endear enamorembody personify endeavor attempt, striveembrace accept, adopt endemic peculiar to a particular regionembrangle embroil endocrinologist one who studies glands of internal secretionembroil involve with trouble endoderm within the skinembryonic rudimentary, nascent endorse approveemend correct endowment property, giftemergent appearing endure to suffer without giving upemeritus retired, but retaining title enervate weakeneminent distinguished, famous enfranchise liberate, grant the rightemissary messenger to voteemote to display exaggerated engaging enchanting, charmingemotion engender generate, promptempathy compassion, sympathy engrave carve into a materialemploy make use of engross captivateempower enable, grant engulf overwhelmemulate imitate enhance improveenact decree, ordain enigmatic puzzlingenamored charmed, captivated enjoin urge, order, forbidenate related on the mother’s side enlighten informencapsulate condense enlist j o i nenchant charm enmity hostility, hatredenclave area enclosed within anotherregion ennoble exaltencomium praise ennui boredom, world-weariness
36 Vocabulary 4000 Quiz 11 (Matching)Match each word in the first column with its definition in the second column.Answers are on page 101.1. DORMANT A. exuberant2. DOUGHTY B. puzzling3. DUET C. comprehensive4. EBULLIENT D. asleep5. EFFEMINATE E. omission of words6. ELLIPSIS F. unmanly7. EMANCIPATE G. charm8. ENCHANT H. liberate9. ENCYCLOPEDIC I. twosome10. ENIGMATIC J. resoluteenormity large, tragic epic majestic, a long narrative poemensemble musical group epicure gourmetenshroud cover, obscure epidemic spreading rapidlyensnare trap, lure epidemiology study of the spread of diseaseensue follow immediately epigram sayingentail involve, necessitate episode incidententerprise undertaking epistemology the branch ofenthrall mesmerize philosophy dealing with knowledgeentice lure epithet name, appellationentomology the study of insects epoch eraentourage assemblage, staff epoxy glueentreat plead equable even-temperedentrench fortify equanimity composure, poiseentrepreneur businessman equine pertaining to horsesenumerate count equitable fairenviable desirable equivocate make intentionally ambiguousenvision imagine, visualize era period of timeenvoy messenger eradicate abolisheon long period of timeephemeral short-lived ergo therefore
The Words 37erode wear away evade avoiderr mistake, misjudge evanescent fleeting, very brieferrant wandering evangelical proselytizingerratic constantly changing evasive elusiveerroneous mistaken eventful momentousersatz artificial eventual ultimate, comingerudite learned eventuate bring abouterupt burst forth evidential pertaining to evidenceescalate intensify evince attest, demonstrateescapade adventure eviscerate disembowelescarpment a steep slope evoke draw fortheschew avoid evolution gradual changeesoteric known by only a few ewe female sheepesplanade boardwalk ex officio by virtue of positionespouse advocate exacerbate worsenesteem respect exact use authority to force paymentesthetic artistic exacting demanding, difficultestimable meritorious exalt glorifyestrange alienate exasperate irritateeternal endless excerpt selection, extractethereal light, airy excision removalethical conforming to accepted exclaim shoutstandards of behavior exclude shut outethos beliefs of a group exclusive prohibitiveetiquette manners excommunicate expeletymology study of words excruciate tortureeuphemism genteel expression execrable abominableeuphoria elation execute put into effecteuthanasia mercy-killing exegesis interpretation
38 Vocabulary 4000 Quiz 12 (Antonyms)Directions: Choose the word most opposite in meaning to the capitalized word.Answers are on page 101.1. DISCORD: (A) agreement (B) supposition (C) strife (D) scrutiny (E) antithesis2. KEEN: (A) concentrated (B) languid (C) rash (D) caustic (E) voracious3. IRRELEVANT: (A) moot (B) onerous (C) impertinent (D) germane (E) true4. FACILITATE: (A) appease (B) expedite (C) extol (D) foil (E) precipitate5. FEND: (A) absorb (B) disperse (C) intensify (D) reflect (E) halt6. PORTLY: (A) ill (B) thin (C) dull (D) rotund (E) insipid7. DEPLETE: (A) tax (B) annotate (C) replenish (D) lecture (E) vanquish8. INCESSANT: (A) intermittent (B) continual (C) increasing (D) enclosing (E) expanding9. PERJURE: (A) absolve (B) forswear (C) impeach (D) authenticate (E) mortify10. PLETHORA: (A) dishonor (B) paucity (C) glut (D) resolve (E) delugeexemplary outstanding exiguous scantyexempt excuse exile banishexhaustive thorough exodus departure, migrationexhibitionist one who draws exonerate free from blameattention to himself exorbitant expensiveexhort strongly urge exorcise expelexhume uncover expanse extent of landexigency urgency expansive sweeping
The Words 39expedient advantageous extroverted outgoingexpedite hasten extrude force outexpel drive out exuberant joyousexpertise knowledge, ability exude emitexpiate atone exult rejoiceexpletive curse, invectiveexpliate atone Fexplicate explain fabrication a lieexplicit definite, clear facade mask, front of a buildingexploit utilize, milk facet aspectexpose divulge, reveal facetious joking, sarcasticexpostulate protest facile easyexpound explain facilitate make easierexpropriate dispossess, confiscate facility skillexpunge erase facsimile duplicateexquisite beautifully made faction clique, sectextant existing factious causing disagreementextemporize improvise factitious artificialextent scope factotum handymanextenuate mitigate fallacious falseextirpate seek out and destroy fallacy false beliefextol praise highly fallow unproductive, unplowedextort obtain under duress falsetto high male voiceextract to pull out, exact falter waverextradite deport, deliver fanaticism excessive zealextraneous not essential fane templeextrapolate infer fanfare publicityextremity farthest point, boundary farcical absurd, ridiculousextricate disentangle farrago mixture
40 Vocabulary 4000fascism totalitarianism, extreme fete to honor with an eventnationalism fetid stinkingfastidious meticulous fetters shacklesfatal resulting in death fey eccentric, whimsicalfathom understand fiasco debaclefatuity foolishness fiat decreefatuous inane, stupid fickle always changing one’s mindfauna animals fictitious invented, imaginaryfaux pas false step, mistake fidelity loyaltyfealty loyalty figment falsehood, fantasyfeasible likely to succeed filch stealfeat deed, remarkable achievement filial sonfebrile feverish, delirious filibuster long speechfeckless incompetent fillip stimulusfecund fertile finale conclusionfeign pretend finesse skillfelicity happiness firebrand agitatorfelonious criminal firmament skyfemme fatale a woman who leadsmen to their destruction fiscal monetaryfend ward off fitful starting and stopping irregularlyferal untamed, wild fjord coastal inletferment turmoil flabbergasted amazed, bumdfoundedferret rummage through flagellate w h i pfertile fruitful flagrant outrageous, blatant flail whip, to thrash something aroundfervor intensity uncontrollably and menacinglyfester decay, to make someone fledgling just beginning, strugglingincreasingly bitter flippant pert, glib, dismissivefestive joyous florid ruddy, ornatefestoon decorate
The Words 41 Quiz 13 (Matching)Match each word in the first column with its definition in the second column.Answers are on page 101.1. EXHORT A. free from blame2. EXONERATE B. strongly urge3. EXPOSTULATE C. agitator4. EXTRADITE D. untamed5. EXULT E. debacle6. FACTITIOUS F. inane7. FATUOUS G. artificial8. FERAL H. deport9. FIASCO I. rejoice10. FIREBRAND J. protestflout to show disregard for the law or forthright frankrules forthwith immediatelyfluctuate waver, vary fortify strengthenfoible weakness, minor fault fortitude resilience, couragefoil defeat, thwart fortuitous luckyfoist palm off a fake foster encourage, cultivatefoment instigate founder sink. failfont source, fountainhead, set of type fracas noisy fightforage search for food fragile easily brokenforay raid fragmented broken into fragmentsforbear abstain, restrain oneself fraternity brotherhoodforce majeure superior force fraught filledforeboding ominous frenetic harried, neuroticforeclose exclude fret worryforensic pertaining to debate fritter squanderforesight ability to predict thefuture frivolity playfulnessforestall thwart, preempt frolic romp, playforgo relinquish (usually voluntarily) frond bending treeforsake abandon frugal thriftyforswear deny fruitful productive
42 Vocabulary 4000fruition realization, completion genteel elegant, refinedfruitless unprofitable, barren genuflect kneel in reverencefulminate denounce, menace genuine authentic, sincerefulsome excessive, insincere geriatrics pertaining to old agefuming angry germane relevantfurlough leave of absence ghastly horriblefuror commotion gibe hecklefurtive stealthy gingivitis inflammation of the gumsfusillade bombardment gist essence (of an argument)futile hopeless glabrous without hair glaucoma disorder of the eyeG glean gather glib insincere mannergaffe embarrassing mistake glower stare angrilygainful profitable glut surplus, excessgainsay contradict glutton one who eats too muchgalvanize excite to action gnarl deformgambit plot, strategy gnome dwarf-like beinggamut range, scope goad encourage, provokegargantuan large googol a very large numbergarner gather gorge stuff, satiategarnish decorate gorgon ugly persongarrote stranglehold gormandize eat voraciouslygarrulous talkative gory bloodygauche awkward gossamer thin and flimsygenealogy ancestry Gothic medieval style of architecturegeneric general gouge overchargegenesis beginning gracious kindness, politenessgenetics study of heredity gradient incline, rising by degreesgenre kind, category
The Words 43 Quiz 14 (Antonyms)Directions: Choose the word most opposite in meaning to the capitalized word.Answers are on page 101.1. ASSIMILATE: (A) strive (B) adapt (C) synchronize (D) estrange (E) officiate2. INADVERTENT: (A) accidental (B) disingenuous (C) forthright (D) inconsiderate (E) calculated3. ABSCOND: (A) pilfer (B) replace (C) glean (D) substitute (E) surrender4. FOMENT: (A) exhort (B) dissuade (C) cower (D) abet (E) fixate5. EXTENUATE: (A) alleviate (B) preclude (C) worsen (D) subdue (E) justify6. NONPAREIL: (A) consummate (B) juvenile (C) dutiful (D) ordinary (E) choice7. REPUDIATE: (A) denounce (B) deceive (C) embrace (D) fib (E) generalize8. NOXIOUS: (A) diffuse (B) latent (C) beneficial (D) unique (E) unjust9. SUFFRAGE: (A) absence of charity (B) absence of franchise (C) absence of pain (D) absence of success (E) absence of malice10. GLEAN: (A) gaffe (B) furor (C) gather (D) frolic (E) foistgradual by degrees, changing slowly gravamen the essential part of an accusationgrandiose impressive, large gravity seriousnessgranular grainy gregarious sociablegrapple struggle grievous tragic, heinousgratis free grimace expression of disgust or paingratitude thankfulness grisly gruesomegratuitous unwarranted, uncalled for grovel crawl, obey, beggratuity tip
44 Vocabulary 4000grudging reluctant haughty arrogantguffaw laughter haven refugeguile deceit havoc destruction, chaosgullible easily deceived hearsay gossipgusto great enjoyment hedonism the pursuit of pleasure in lifeguttural throaty heed follow advicegyrate whirl heedless careless hegemony authority, dominationH hegira a journey to a more pleasant placehabitat natural environment heinous vile, atrocioushabituate accustom heliocentric having the sun as ahackneyed trite centerhaggard gaunt helix a spiralhalcyon serene helots slaveshale healthy herald harbingerhallucination delusion herbivorous feeding on plantshamper obstruct Herculean powerful, largehapless unlucky hermetic airtight, sealedharangue tirade hermit one who lives in solitudeharass torment herpetologist one who studiesharbinger forerunner reptiles heterodox departing form establishedharbor give shelter, conceal doctrineshardy healthy heuristic teaching device or methodharlequin clown hew cutharp complain incessantly heyday glory days, primeharridan hag hiatus interruptionharrowing distressing hibernal wintryharry harass hidalgo nobleman
The Words 45hidebound prejudiced, provincial hygienic sanitaryhideous horrible hymeneal pertaining to marriagehie to hasten hymn religious songhighbrow intellectual hyperactive overactivehirsute bearded hyperbole exaggerationhistrionic overly dramatic hypertension elevated blood pressureholograph written entirely by hand hypocritical deceiving, two-facedhomage respect hypoglycemic low blood sugarhomely plain hypothermia low body temperaturehomily sermonhomogeneous uniformhomonym words that are identical in Ispelling and pronunciation ibidem in the same placehone sharpen ichthyology study of fishhorde group iconoclast one who rails againsthortatory inspiring good deeds sacred institutionshospice shelter idiosyncrasy peculiarityhovel shanty, cabin idyllic natural, picturesquehoyden tomboy ignoble dishonorablehubris arrogance ilk class, clanhue color illicit unlawfulhumane compassionate illimitable limitlesshumanities languages and literature illusory fleeting, deceptivehumility humbleness illustrious famoushummock knoll, mound imbibe drinkhumus soil imbue infusehusbandry management immaculate spotlessly cleanhybrid crossbreed immaterial irrelevanthydrophobia fear of water immense huge
46 Vocabulary 4000 Quiz 15 (Matching)Match each word in the first column with its definition in the second column.Answers are on page 101.1. GRANDIOSE A. drink2. GRIEVOUS B. pertaining to marriage3. HALCYON C. arrogance4. HARLEQUIN D. prejudiced5. HEDONISM E. teaching device or method6. HEURISTIC F. the pursuit of pleasure in life7. HIDEBOUND G. clown8. HUBRIS H. serene9. HYMENEAL I. heinous10. IMBIBE J. impressiveimmerse bathe, engross impending approaching, imminentimminent about to happen imperative vital, pressingimmobile still imperceptible slight, intangibleimmolate sacrifice (especially by fire) imperialism colonialismimmunity exemption from imperil endangerprosecution imperious domineeringimmure build a wall around impertinent insolentimmutable unchangeable, absolute imperturbable calm, unflappableimpair injure impervious impenetrable, unreceptiveimpale pierce impetuous impulsiveimpartial not biased impetus stimulus, sparkimpasse deadlock impinge encroach, touchimpassioned fiery, emotional implant instillimpassive calm implausible unlikely, improbableimpeach accuse, charge implement carry out, executeimpeccable faultless implicate incriminateimpecunious indigent implicit impliedimpede hinder implore entreatimpediment obstacle implosion bursting inwardimpel urge, force impolitic unwise, inappropriate
The Words 47imponderable difficult to estimate inaugurate induct (with a ceremony)import meaning, significance inborn innateimportune urgent request incalculable immeasurableimposing intimidating, stately incandescent brilliantimposition intrusion, burden incantation chantimpotent powerless incapacitate disableimpound seize incarcerate imprisonimprecation curse, inculcate incarnate embody, personifyimpregnable invincible incendiary inflammatoryimpresario promoter incense enrageimpressionable susceptible, easily incentive stimulus, inducementinfluenced incessant unceasingimpressionism a style of painting incest sex among family membersimprimatur sanction inchoate just begunimpromptu spontaneous incidental insignificant, minorimprovise invent incinerate burnimpudence insolence incipient beginningimpugn criticize, accuse incision cutimpulse inclination, sudden desire incisive keen, penetratingimpulsive to act suddenly incite foment, provokeimpunity exemption from harm incivility rudenessimpute charge inclement harsh, stormyin toto in full, entirely inclusive comprehensiveinadvertent unintentional incognito disguisedinadvisable not recommended incommunicado unable toinalienable that which cannot be communicate with otherstaken away incomparable peerlessinane vacuous, stupid incompatibility inability to liveinanimate inorganic, lifeless in harmonyinaudible cannot be heard
50 Vocabulary 4000ingenious clever, resourceful insidious treacherous, sinisteringrate ungrateful person insignia emblemsingratiate pleasing, flattering, insinuate alludeendearing insipid flat, dullingress entering insolent insultinginherent innate, inborn insolvent bankruptinhibit restrain insouciant nonchalantinimical adverse, hostile installment portion, paymentinimitable peerless instant at onceiniquitous unjust, wicked instigate inciteiniquity sin, injustice insubordinate disobedientinitiate begin insufferable unbearableinitiation induction ceremony insular narrow-mindedinjunction command insuperable insurmountableinkling hint insurgent rebelliousinnate inborn insurrection uprisinginnervate invigorate intangible not perceptible by touchinnocuous harmless integral essentialinnovative new, useful idea integrate make wholeinnuendo insinuation integration unificationinopportune untimely integument a coveringinordinate excessive intelligentsia the intellectual eliteinquest investigation of societyinquisition interrogation intensive extreme, concentratedinquisitive curious inter buryinsatiable gluttonous intercede plead on behalf of anotherinscribe engrave intercept prevent, cut offinscrutable cannot be fully interdict prohibitunderstood interject interruptinsensate without feeling
The Words 51 Quiz 17 (Matching)Match each word in the first column with its definition in the second column.Answers are on page 101.1. INCONGRUOUS A. harden2. INCONSPICUOUS B. relentless3. INDECOROUS C. hostile4. INDIGNANT D. cannot be fully understood5. INDURATE E. out of place, absurd6. INEXORABLE F. not noticeable7. INIMICAL G. unseemly8. INSCRUTABLE H. resentment of injustice9. INSOUCIANT I. nonchalant10. INSUPERABLE J. insurmountableinterloper intruder introspection self-analysisinterlude intermission inundate floodinterminable unending inure accustom, habituate, hardeninternecine mutually destructive invalidate disprove, nullifyinterpolate insert invective verbal insultinterpose insert inveigh to rail againstinterregnum interval between two inveigle lure, wheedlesuccessive reigns inventive cleaver, resourcefulinterrogate question inverse directly oppositeintersperse scatter inveterate habitual, chronicinterstate between states invidious incurring ill-willintervene interfere, mediate invincible cannot be defeatedintestate leaving no will inviolate sacred, unchangeableintimate allude to, hint invocation calling on Godintractable unmanageable irascible irritableintransigent unyielding irate angryintrepid fearless ironic oddly contrary to what isintricate complex expectedintrigue plot, mystery irrational illogicalintrinsic inherent irrelevant unrelated, immaterial
52 Vocabulary 4000irreparable cannot be repaired jurisdiction domainirresolute hesitant, uncertain jurisprudence lawirrevocable cannot be rescinded justify excuse, mitigateisosceles having two equal sides juvenescent making young, growingitinerant wandering out of infancy and into childhooditinerary route juxtapose to place side by sideJ K kaleidoscope series of changingjabberwocky nonsense eventsjaded spent, bored with one’s keen of sharp mindsituation ken purview, range of comprehensionjargon specialized vocabulary kindle arouse, inspirejaundiced biased, embittered kindred similar, related by bloodjeer mock kinetic pertaining to motionjejune barren, unsophisticated kismet fate, the will of Allahjest joke kite bad checkjilt reject, end a relationship promptly kitsch trashy artjingoistic nationalistic, warmongering kleptomania impulse to stealjocular humorous knave con manjostle push, brush against knead massage, to fold, press, andjourneyman reliable worker stretch a substance into a uniform massjoust combat between knights on knell sound of a bellhorses Koran holy book of Islamjubilant in high spirits kowtow behave obsequiouslyjudicious prudent kudos acclaimjuggernaut unstoppable forcejugular throatjuncture pivotal point in time Ljunoesque stately beauty labyrinth mazejunta small ruling group lacerate tear, cut
54 Vocabulary 4000lagniappe bonus levee embankment, damlaity laymen leviathan a monsterlambent softly radiant levity frivolitylament mourn liable legally responsiblelamina layer liaison relationship, affairlampoon satirize libertarian one who believes in complete freedomlanguish weaken libertine roué, rakelanyard short rope libidinous lustfullarceny theft licentious lewd, immorallargess generous donation lien financial claimlascivious lustful lieutenant one who acts in place oflassitude lethargy anotherlatent potential, dormant ligature bondlaudatory commendable ligneous woodlikelaurels fame, success Lilliputian very smalllave wash limerick poemlavish extravagant limn portray, describelax loose, careless limpid transparent, clearly understoodlaxity carelessness linchpin something that islayman nonprofessional indispensablelectern reading desk lineage ancestryleery cautious, doubtful linguistics study of languagelegacy bequest liquidate eliminatelegerdemain trickery lissome agile, supplelegible readable listless lacking spirit or interestlegislate make laws litany listlegitimate lawful lithe supplelenient forgiving litigate contest with a lawsuitlethargic drowsy, sluggish
The Words 55litotes two negative statement that Machiavellian politically crafty,cancel to make a positive statement cunningliturgy ceremony machination plotlivid enraged macrobiosis longevityloath reluctant macroscopic visibly largeloathe abhor, dislike maelstrom whirlpoollofty high magisterial arbitrary, dictatoriallogistics means of supplying troops magnanimous generous, kindheartedlogo symbol magnate a powerful, successful person (especially of business)logy sluggish magnitude sizeloquacious talkative magnum opus masterpiecelothario rake, womanizer maim injure, disfigurelout goon, hoodlum maladjusted disturbedlucid clearly understood maladroit clumsylucrative profitable malady illnesslucre money, profit malaise uneasiness, wearinessludicrous absurd malapropism comical misuse of alugubrious extremely sad wordluminous bright malcontent one who is forever dissatisfiedlupine wolf-like malediction curselure entice malefactor evildoerlurid ghastly, sensational malevolence bad intent, maliceluster gloss,sheen malfeasance wrong doing (especiallyluxuriant lush, lavish by an official of government)lynch to execute by hanging without a malice spitetrial malign defame malignant virulent, perniciousM malinger shirkmacabre gruesome malleable moldable, tractable
56 Vocabulary 4000 Quiz 19 (Matching)Match each word in the first column with its definition in the second column.Answers are on page 101.1. LACHRYMOSE A. trickery2. LAGGARD B. roué3. LASCIVIOUS C. very small4. LEGERDEMAIN D. tearful5. LIBERTINE E. loafer6. LILLIPUTIAN F. lustful7. LOQUACIOUS G. talkative8. MACHIAVELLIAN H. comical misuse of a word9. MAGISTERIAL I. arbitrary, dictatorial10. MALAPROPISM J. politically crafty, cunningmalodorous fetid martial warlikemammoth huge martinet disciplinarianmanacle shackle martyr sacrifice, symbolmandate command masochist one who enjoys painmandatory obligatory masticate chewmandrill baboon mastiff large dogmania madness, obsession mastodon extinct elephantmanifest obvious, evident maternal motherlymanifesto proclamation maternity motherhoodmanifold multiple, diverse matriarch matronmanslaughter killing another matriculate enroll (usually in school)person without malice matrix arraymanumit set free matutinal early, morningmanuscript unpublished book maudlin weepy, sentimentalmar damage maul rough upmarauder plunderer mausoleum tombmarginal insignificant maverick a rebel, individualistmarionette puppet mawkish sickeningly sentimentalmaroon abandon mayhem mutilation, chaosmarshal array, mobilize mea culpa my fault
The Words 57meager scanty metier occupationmeander roam, ramble metonymy the substitution of a phrase for the name itselfmedian middle mettle courage, capacity for braverymediocre average miasma toxin fumesmedley mixture mien appearance, bearingmegalith ancient stone monument migrate travelmelancholy reflective, gloomy milieu environmentmelee riot militant combative, activistmellifluous sweet sounding militate work againstmelodious melodic milk extractmemento souvenir millennium thousand-year periodmemoir autobiography minatory threateningmemorabilia things worthremembering mince chop, moderatememorandum note minion subordinatemenagerie zoo minstrel troubadourmendacity untruth minuscule smallmendicant beggar minute very smallmenial humble, degrading minutiae triviamentor teacher mirage illusionmercantile commercial mire marsh, a situation that is difficult to escape frommercenary calculating, venal mirth jollitymercurial changeable, volatile misanthrope hater of mankindmetamorphosis a change in form misappropriation use dishonestlymete distribute misbegotten illegitimate, obtainedmeteoric swift, dazzling by dishonest meansmeteorology science of weather miscarry abortmethodical systematic, careful miscegenation intermarriage betweenmeticulous extremely careful, racesprecise
The Words 59misshapen deformed morsel bite, piecemissive letter mortify humiliatemitigate lessen the severity mosque templemnemonics that which aids the mote speckmemory motif artistic thememobilize assemble for action motive reason for doing somethingmobocracy rule by mob motley diversemodicum pittance mottled spottedmodish chic motto slogan, sayingmodule unit mountebank charlatanmogul powerful person mousy drab, colorlessmolest bother, sexually assault muckraker reformermollify appease muffle stifle, quietmolten melted mulct defraudmomentous of great importance multifarious diverse, many-sidedmonocle eyeglass multitude throngmonolithic large and uniform mundane ordinarymonologue long speech munificent generousmonstrosity distorted, abnormalform murmur mutter, mumblemoot disputable, no longer relevant muse pondermoral ethical muster to gather one’s forcesmorale spirit, confidence mutability able to changemorass swamp, difficult situation mute silentmoratorium postponement mutilate m a i mmordant biting, sarcastic mutiny rebellionmores moral standards mutter murmur, grumblemoribund near death muzzle restrain, stiflemorose sullen myopic narrow-mindedmorphine painkilling drug myriad innumerable
60 Vocabulary 4000myrmidons loyal followers nexus a link between two or more people or thingsmystique mystery, aura nicety euphemismmythical fictitious niche nook, an activity that well suits a person’s talentsN niggardly stingynadir lowest point nimble spry nirvana bliss, the attainment ofnarcissism self-love spiritual enlightenmentnarrate tell, recount noctambulism sleepwalkingnascent incipient nocturnal pertaining to nightnatal related to birth nocturne serenadenativity the process of birth noisome harmful, disgustingnaturalize grant citizenship nomad wandererne’er-do-well loafer, idler nomenclature terminologynebulous indistinct nominal slight, in name onlynecromancy sorcery nominate propose, recommendnefarious evil somebody for a positionnegate cancel nominee candidatenegligible insignificant nonchalant casual noncommittal neutral, circumspectnemesis implacable foe nondescript lacking distinctiveneologism newly coined expression featuresneonatal newborn nonentity person of no significanceneophyte beginner nonesuch paragon, one in a thousandnepotism favoritism nonpareil unequaled, peerlessnervy brash nonpartisan neutral, uncommittednether under nonplus confound, befuddlenettle irritate notable remarkable, noteworthyneurotic disturbed noted famousneutralize offset, nullify notorious wicked, widely known nouveau riche newly rich
The Words 61 Quiz 21 (Matching)Match each word in the first column with its definition in the second column.Answers are on page 101.1. MISCELLANY A. peerless2. MISSIVE B. to gather one’s forces3. MOOT C. newly coined expression4. MOUNTEBANK D. self-love5. MULTIFARIOUS E. loyal followers6. MUSTER F. letter7. MYRMIDONS G. diverse8. NARCISSISM H. charlatan9. NEOLOGISM I. disputable10. NONPAREIL J. mixture of itemsnova bright star obese fatnovel new, unique obfuscate bewilder, muddlenovice beginner obituary eulogynoxious toxic objective (adj.) unbiasednuance shade, subtlety objective (noun) goalnub crux, crucial point objectivity impartialitynubile marriageable oblation offering, sacrificenugatory useless, worthless obligatory required, compulsorynuisance annoyance oblige compelnullify void obliging accommodating, consideratenullity nothingness oblique indirectnumismatics coin collecting obliquity perversitynurture nourish, foster obliterate destroynymph goddess oblong elliptical, oval obloquy slanderO obscure vague, unclear obsequious fawning, servileoaf awkward person obsequy funeral ceremonyobdurate unyielding, hardhearted observant watchfulobeisance homage, deference obsolete outdatedobelisk tall column, monument
62 Vocabulary 4000obstinate stubborn omniscient all-knowingobstreperous noisy, unruly onerous burdensomeobtain gain possession onslaught powerful attackobtrusive forward, meddlesome ontology the study of the nature of existenceobtuse stupid onus burdenobviate make unnecessary opaque nontransparentOccident the West operative workingocclude block operetta musical comedyoccult mystical, secret, relating tothe supernatural or witchcraft opiate narcoticoctogenarian person in her eighties opine think, express an opinionocular optic, visual opportune well-timed, appropriateode poem oppress persecuteodious despicable oppressive burdensomeodoriferous pleasant odor opprobrious abusive, scornfulodyssey journey opprobrium disgraceoffal inedible parts of a butchered oppugn assailanimal opt decide, chooseoffertory church collection optimum best conditionofficiate supervise optional electiveofficious forward, obtrusive opulence wealthoffset counterbalance opus literary work or musicalogle flirt compositionogre monster, demon oracle prophetoleaginous oily oration speecholigarchy aristocracy orator speakerolio medley orb sphereominous threatening orchestrate organizeomnibus collection, compilation ordain appointomnipotent all-powerful
64 Vocabulary 4000ornithology study of birds pagan heathen, ungodlyorthodox conventional page attendantoscillate waver, swing pageant exhibition, showossify harden pains great effort, attention to detailostensible apparent, seeming painstaking taking great care, thoroughostentatious pretentious palatial grand, splendidostracize banish, shun palaver babble, nonsenseotherworldly spiritual Paleolithic stone ageotiose idle paleontologist one who studies fossilsouster ejection pall to become dull or wearyoutmoded out-of-date palliate assuageoutré eccentric pallid pale, sallowoutset beginning palpable touchableovation applause palpitate beat, throboverrule disallow palsy paralysisoverture advance, proposal paltry scarceoverweening arrogant, forward pan criticizeoverwhelm overpower panacea cure-alloverwrought overworked, high-strung panache flamboyanceovum egg, cell pandemic widespread, plague pandemonium din, commotionP pander cater to people’s baser instinctspachyderm elephant panegyric praisepacifist one who opposes all pang short sharp painviolence panoply full suit of armorpacify appease panorama vistapact agreement pant gasp, puffpaean a song of praise pantomime mime
The Words 65pantry storeroom parry avert, ward offpapyrus paper parsimonious stingyparable allegory parson clergymanparadigm a model partake share, receive, consumeparagon standard of excellence partial incompleteparameter limit partiality biasparamount chief, foremost parting farewell, severanceparamour lover partisan supporterparanoid obsessively suspicious, partition divisiondemented parvenu newcomer, social climberparanormal supernatural pasquinade satireparapet rampart, defense passé outmodedparaphernalia equipment passim here and thereparaphrase restatement pastel paleparcel package pasteurize disinfectparchment paper pastoral rusticpare peel patent obviousparenthetical in parentheses paternal fatherlypariah outcast pathetic pitifulparish fold, church pathogen agent causing diseaseparity equality pathogenic causing diseaseparlance local speech pathos emotionparlay increase patrician aristocratparley conference patrimony inheritanceparochial provincial patronize condescendparody imitation, ridicule patronymic a name formed form theparole release name of a fatherparoxysm outburst, convulsion patter walk lightlyparrot mimic paucity scarcity
66 Vocabulary 4000 Quiz 23 (Matching)Match each word in the first column with its definition in the second column.Answers are on page 101.1. ORDNANCE A. a model2. ORTHODOX B. local speech3. OUTMODED C. convulsion4. PALAVER D. stingy5. PANEGYRIC E. agent causing disease6. PARADIGM F. artillery7. PARLANCE G. conventional8. PAROXYSM H. out-of-date9. PARSIMONIOUS I. babble10. PATHOGEN J. praisepaunch stomach peevish crankypauper poor person pejorative insultingpavilion tent pell-mell in a confused mannerpawn (noun) tool, stooge pellucid transparentpawn (verb) pledge pen writepax peace penance atonementpeaked wan, pale, haggard penchant inclinationpeal reverberation, outburst pend depend, hangpeccadillo a minor fault pending not decided, awaitingpeculate embezzle penitent repentantpeculiar unusual pensive sadpeculiarity characteristic penurious stingypedagogical pertaining to teaching penury povertypedagogue dull, formal teacher peon common workerpedant pedagogue per se in itselfpedantic bookish perceptive discerningpeddle sell percolate ooze, permeatepedestrian common perdition damnationpedigree genealogy peregrination wanderingpeerage aristocracy peremptory dictatorial
The Words 67perennial enduring, lasting personify embody, exemplifyperfectionist purist, precisionist personnel employeesperfidious treacherous (of a person) perspicacious keenperforate puncture perspicacity discernment, keennessperforce by necessity persuasive convincingperfunctory careless pert flippant, boldperigee point nearest to the earth pertain to relateperilous dangerous pertinacious perseveringperipatetic walking about pertinent relevantperiphery outer boundary perturbation agitationperish die peruse read carefullyperishable decomposable pervade permeateperjury lying pessimist cynic, naysayerpermeate spread throughout pestilence diseasepermutation reordering petite smallpernicious destructive, evil petition a written requestperoration conclusion petrify calcify, shockperpendicular at right angles petrology study of rocksperpetrate commit pettifogger unscrupulous lawyerperpetual continuous, everlasting petty trivial, nigglingperpetuate cause to continue petulant irritable, peevishperpetuity eternity phantasm apparitionperplex puzzle, bewilder phenomena unusual natural eventsperquisite reward, bonus philanthropic charitablepersecute harass philanthropist altruistpersevere persist, endure philatelist stamp collectorpersona social facade philippic invectivepersonable charming, friendly Philistine barbarianpersonage official, dignitary philosophical contemplative
The Words 69picayune trifling pleasantry banter, persiflagepiecemeal one at a time plebeian common, vulgarpied mottled, brindled plebiscite referendumpiety devoutness plenary fullpilfer steal plentiful abundantpillage plunder pleonasm redundancy, verbositypillory punish by ridicule plethora overabundancepine languish, to long for someone pliable flexibleor something pliant supple, flexiblepinnacle highest point plight sad situationpious devout, holy plucky courageouspiquant tart-tasting, spicy plumb measurepique sting, arouse interest plummet sudden shart fallpiscine pertaining to fish plutocrat wealthy personpiteous sorrowful, pathetic plutonium radioactive materialpithy concise poach stealpitiable miserable, wretched podgy fatpittance alms, driblet podium stand, rostrumpittance trifle pogrom massacre, mass murderpivotal crucial poignant pungent, sharp, heartbreakingpixilated eccentric, possessed polemic a controversyplacard poster polity methods of governmentplacate appease poltroon dastardplacid serene polychromatic many-coloredplagiarize pirate, counterfeit polygamist one who has manyplaintive expressing sorrow wivesplatitude trite remark ponder muse, reflectplatonic nonsexual ponderous heavy, bulkyplaudit acclaim pontiff bishop pontificate to speak at length
70 Vocabulary 4000pootroon coward precipitate causeporcine pig-like precipitous steepporous permeable, spongy précis summaryporridge stew precise accurate, detailedportend signify, augur preclude preventportent omen precocious more developed than is expected at a particular ageportly large preconception prejudgment, prejudiceportmanteau suitcase precursor forerunnerposit stipulate predacious plunderingposterior rear, subsequent predecessor one who proceedsposterity future generations predestine foreordainposthaste hastily predicament quandaryposthumous after death predicate to base an opinion onpostulate supposition, premise somethingpotent powerful predilection inclinationpotentate sovereign, king predisposed inclinedpotion brew preeminent supremepotpourri medley preempt commandeerpotter aimlessly busy preen groompragmatic practical prefabricated ready-builtprate babble prefect magistrateprattle chatter preference choicepreamble introduction preferment promotionprecarious dangerous, risky prelate primate, bishopprecedent an act that serves as an preliminary introductoryexample prelude introductionprecept principle, law premeditate plan in advanceprecinct neighborhood premonition warningprecipice cliff prenatal before birth
The Words 71 Quiz 25 (Matching)Match each word in the first column with its definition in the second column.Answers are on page 102.1. PHOENIX A. cliff2. PILLORY B. inclination3. PITTANCE C. warning4. PLAUDIT D. acclaim5. PLETHORA E. overabundance6. POGROM F. after death7. POSTHUMOUS G. massacre8. PRECIPICE H. rebirth9. PREDILECTION I. punish by ridicule10. PREMONITION J. triflepreponderance predominance prevailing common, currentprepossessing appealing, charming prevalent widespreadpreposterous ridiculous prevaricate lieprerequisite requirement prick punctureprerogative right, privilege priggish pedantic, affectedpresage omen prim formal, prudishprescribe urge primal first, beginningpresentable acceptable, well-mannered primate head, masterpreside direct, chair primogeniture first-born childpressing urgent primp groomprestidigitator magician princely regal, generousprestige reputation, renown prismatic many-colored, sparklingpresume assume, deduce pristine pure, unspoiledpresumptuous assuming, privation hardshipoverconfident privy aware of private matterspresuppose assume probe examinepretense affectation, excuse probity integritypretentious affected, inflated problematic uncertain, difficultpreternatural abnormal, supernatural proboscis snoutpretext excuse procedure method, processprevail triumph
The Words 75purported rumored quarry prey, gamepurposeful determined quarter residence, districtpursuant following, according quash put down, suppresspurvey deliver, provide quasi seeming, almostpurview range of understanding, field quaver tremblepusillanimous cowardly quay wharfputative reputed queasy squeamishputrefy decay queer oddputsch a sudden attempt to overthrow quell suppress, allaya government quench extinguish, slakepygmy dwarf querulous complainingpyrotechnics fireworks questionnaire survey, feedbackpyrrhic a battle won withunacceptable losses queue line quibble bickerQ quicken revive, hasten quiddity essence, an unimportant orquack charlatan trifling distinctionquadrennial occurring every four quiescent still, motionlessyears quietus a cessation of activityquadrille square dance quill feather, penquadruped four foot animal quip jokequaff drink quirk eccentricity, a strange andquagmire difficult situation unexpected turn of eventsquail shrink, cower quiver tremblequaint old-fashioned, charming quixotic impractical, romanticqualified limited quizzical odd, questioningqualms misgivings quorum the minimum number peoplequandary dilemma who must be present to hold a meetingquantum quantity, particle quota a share or proportionquarantine detention, confinement quotidian daily
76 Vocabulary 4000 Quiz 27 (Matching)Match each word in the first column with its definition in the second column.Answers are on page 102.1. PROTEAN A. bulge2. PROTUBERANCE B. changing readily3. PROVISIONAL C. steal4. PUNDIT D. majority5. PURLOIN E. temporary6. PURPORT F. a cessation of activity7. QUAVER G. line8. QUEUE H. tremble9. QUIETUS I. claim to be10. QUORUM J. politically astute personR rankle cause bitterness, resentment rant rage, scoldrabble crowd rapacious grasping, avariciousrabid mad, furious rapidity speedracketeer gangster, swindler rapier swordraconteur storyteller rapine plunderradical revolutionary rapport affinity, empathyraffish rowdy, dashing rapprochement reconciliationrail rant, harangue rapture blissraiment clothing rash hasty, brashrake womanizer rasp scraperally assemble ratify approverambunctious boisterous ration allowance, portionramification consequence rationale justificationrampage run amuck ravage plunder, ruinrampant unbridled, raging ravish captivate, charmramrod rod raze destroy or level a buildingrancid rotten realm kingdom, domainrancor resentment realpolitik cynical interpretation ofrandy vulgar politics
The Words 77reap harvest recrimination countercharge, retaliationrebuff reject, snub recruit drafteerebuke criticize, reprimand rectify correct, to make rightrebus picture puzzle recumbent recliningrebuttal reply, counterargument recuperation recoveryrecalcitrant stubbornly resisting theauthority of another recur repeat, revertrecant retract a previous statement redeem buy back, justify, restore yourself to favor or to good opinionrecapitulate restate, summarize redeemer saviorrecede move back redemption salvationreceptacle container redolent fragrantreceptive open to ideas redoubt fortrecidivism habitual criminal activity redoubtable formidable, steadfastrecipient one who receives redress restitution, compensationreciprocal mutual, return in kind redundant repetitiousrecital performance, concert reek smellrecitation recital, lesson reel stagger, to lurch backward asreclusive solitary though struck by a blowrecoil flinch, retreat referendum voterecollect remember refined purified, culturedrecompense repay, compensate reflux ebbreconcile adjust, balance refraction bending, deflectionrecondite mystical, profound refractory obstinate, disobedientreconnaissance surveillance refrain abstainreconnoiter to survey, to scout refurbish remodel, renovate(especially for military purposes) refute disprove, contradictrecount recite regal royalrecoup recover regale entertainrecourse appeal, resort regalia emblemsrecreant cowardly
The Words 79rein curb, restrain renown famereincarnation rebirth rent tear, rupturereiterate repeat, say again reparation amends, atonementrejoice celebrate repartee witty conversationrejoinder answer, retort repatriate to send back to the native landrejuvenate make young again repellent causing aversionrelapse recurrence (of illness) repent atone forrelegate assign to an inferiorposition repercussion consequencerelent soften, yield repertoire stock of worksrelentless unstoppable repine fretrelic antique replenish refillrelinquish release, renounce replete completerelish savor replica copyremedial corrective replicate duplicateremiss negligent repose restremit forgive, send payment reprehensible blameworthyremnant residue, fragment repress suppressremonstrance protest reprieve temporary suspensionremorse guilt reprimand rebukeremuneration compensation reprisal retaliationrenaissance rebirth reprise repetitionrenascent reborn reproach blamerend to tear apart reprobate miscreantrender deliver, provide reprove rebukerendezvous a meeting repudiate disavowrendition version, interpretation repugnant distasteful, revoltingrenege break a promise repulse repelrenounce disown repulsive repugnant
80 Vocabulary 4000repute status, reputation, esteem retainer advance feereputed supposed, presumed, alleged retaliate revengerequiem rest, a mass for the dead retch vomitrequisite necessary reticent reservedrequisition order, formal demand retiring modest, unassumingrequite to return in kind retort quick replyrescind revoke retrench cut back, economizereserve self-control retribution reprisalreside dwell retrieve reclaimresidue remaining part retrograde regressresigned accepting of a situation retrospective reminiscent, displayresilience ability to recover from an revamp recastillness or a setback reveille bugle callresolute determined revel frolic, take joy inresolution determination revelry merrymakingresolve determination revenue incomeresonant reverberating revere honorresort recourse reverent respectfulresound echo reverie daydreamresourceful inventive, skillful revert return to a former staterespectively in that order revile denounce, defamerespire breathe revision new versionrespite rest, temporary delay revive renewresplendent shining, splendid revoke repealrestitution reparation, amends revulsion aversionrestive nervous, uneasy rhapsody ecstasyresurgence revival rhetoric elocution, grandiloquenceresurrection rebirth rheumatism inflammationresuscitate revive ribald coarse, vulgarretain keep
The Words 81 Quiz 29 (Matching)Match each word in the first column with its definition in the second column.Answers are on page 102.1. REGIME A. vulgar2. REJOINDER B. quick reply3. REMUNERATION C. uneasy4. RENDEZVOUS D. necessary5. RENT E. miscreant6. REPROBATE F. rupture7. REQUISITE G. a meeting8. RESTIVE H. compensation9. RETRIBUTION I. retort10. RIBALD J. a governmentrickety shaky, ramshackle roué libertinericochet carom, rebound rouse awaken, provokerife widespread, abundant rout vanquish, cause to retreatriffraff dregs of society rubicund ruddy complexionrifle search through and steal ruck the common herdrift a split, an opening, disagreement rudiment beginning, kernelrighteous upright, moral rue regretrigor harshness, precise and exacting ruffian brutal personrime crust ruminate ponderriposte counterthrust rummage hunt, groperisible laughable runel streamrisqué off-color, racy ruse trickrivet engross rustic ruralrobust vigorousrogue scoundrel Sroister bluster Sabbath day of restromp frolic sabbatical vacationroseate rosy, optimistic saber swordroster list of people sabotage treason, destructionrostrum podium
82 Vocabulary 4000saccharine sugary, overly sweet sanguinary gory, murderoustone sanguine cheerfulsacerdotal priestly sans withoutsack pillage sapid interestingsacrament rite sapient wisesacred cow idol, taboo sarcophagus stone coffinsacrilege blasphemy scornful scornful, sarcasticsacrosanct sacred sartorial pertaining to clothessaddle encumber satanic pertaining to the Devilsadist one who takes pleasure in satchel baghurting others sate satisfy fullysafari expedition satiate satisfy fullysaga story satire ridiculesagacious wise saturate soaksage wise person saturnine gloomysalacious licentious satyr demigod, goat-mansalient prominent saunter strollsaline salty savanna grasslandsallow sickly complected savant scholarsally sortie, attack savoir-faire tact, polishsalutary good, wholesome savor enjoy, relishsalutation salute, greeting savory appetizingsalvation redemption savvy perceptive, shrewdsalve medicinal ointment scabrous difficultsalvo volley, gunfire scant inadequate, meagersanctify consecrate scapegoat one who takes blame forsanctimonious self-righteous otherssanction approval scarify criticizesanctuary refuge scathe injure, denouncesang-froid coolness under fire
84 Vocabulary 4000scoff jeer, dismiss seethe fume, resentscone biscuit seismic pertaining to earthquakesscorn disdain, reject seismology study of earthquakesscoundrel unprincipled person self-effacing modestscour clean by rubbing, search semantics study of word meaningsscourge affliction semblance likenessscruples misgivings seminal fundamental, decisivescrupulous principled, fastidious semper fidelis always loyalscrutinize examine closely senescence old agescurf dandruff senescent agingscurrilous abusive, insulting seniority privilege due to length of servicescurry move quickly sensational outstanding, startlingscuttle to sink (a ship) sensible wise, prudentscythe long, curved blade sensory relating to the sensessear burn sensualist epicuresebaceous like fat sensuous appealing to the senses,secede withdraw enjoying luxurysecluded remote, isolated sententious conciseseclusion solitude sentient conscioussectarian denominational sentinel watchmansecular worldly, nonreligious sepulcher tombsecure make safe sequacious dependentsedation state of calm sequel continuation, epiloguesedentary stationary, inactive sequester segregatesedition treason, inciting rebellion seraphic angelicseduce lure serendipity a knack for making fortunate discoveriessedulous diligent serene peacefulseedy rundown, ramshackle serpentine winding and twistingseemly proper, attractive
The Words 85serried saw-toothed sickle semicircular bladeserum vaccine sidereal pertaining to the starsservile slavish sidle move sideways, slitherservitude forced labor siege blockadesessile permanently attached sierra mountain rangesession meeting sieve strainersettee seat, sofa signatory signersever cut in two signet a sealseverance division silhouette outline, profileshallot onion silo storage towersham pretense, imposter simian monkeyshambles disorder, mess simile figure of speechshard sharp fragment of glass simper smile, smirksheen luster simulacrum vague likenesssheepish shy, embarrassed sinecure position with little responsibilityshibboleth password sinewy fibrous, stringyshirk evade (work) singe burn just the surface ofsliver fragment, shaving somethingshoal reef singly one by one, individuallyshoring supporting singular unique, extraordinaryshortcomings personal deficiencies sinister evil, maliciousshrew virago sinistral left-handedshrewd clever, cunning siphon extract, tapshrill high-pitched sire forefather, to begetshun avoid, spurn siren temptressshunt turn aside site locationshyster unethical lawyer skeptical doubtfulsibilant a hissing sound skinflint misersibling brother or sister skirmish a small battle
86 Vocabulary 4000 Quiz 31 (Matching)Match each word in the first column with its definition in the second column.Answers are on page 102.1. SCRUPLES A. figure of speech2. SCYTHE B. proper, attractive3. SEEMLY C. long, curved blade4. SENTENTIOUS D. left-handed5. SERENDIPITY E. pertaining to the stars6. SHIBBOLETH F. signer7. SIDEREAL G. making fortunate discoveries8. SIGNATORY H. password9. SIMILE I. misgivings10. SINISTRAL J. conciseskittish excitable, wary, jumpy snare trapskulk sneak about snide sarcastic, spitefulskullduggery trickery snippet morsel, small pieceslake quench snivel whine, sniffslander defame snub ignore, slightslate list of candidate snuff extinguishslaver drivel, fawn sobriety composed, abstinent, soberslay kill sobriquet nicknamesleight dexterity, skill socialite one who is prominent in societyslew an abundance sociology study of societyslither slide, slink sodality companionshipslogan motto sodden soakedsloth laziness sojourn trip, stopoverslovenly sloppy solace consolation, comfortsmattering superficial knowledge solder fuse, weldsmelt refine metal solecism ungrammatical constructionsmirk smug look solemn serious, sombersmite strike, afflict solemnity seriousnesssmock apron solicit request
The Words 87solicitous considerate, concerned speculate conjecturesoliloquy monologue speleologist one who studies cavessolstice furthest point spew ejectsoluble dissolvable spindle shaftsolvent financially sound spindly tall and thinsomatic pertaining to the body spinster old maidsomber gloomy, solemn spire pinnaclesomnambulist sleepwalker spirited livelysomnolent sleepy spirituous alcohol, intoxicatingsonnet short poem spite malice, grudgesonorous resonant, majestic spittle spitsop morsel, compensation, offering splay spread apartsophistry specious reasoning spleen resentment, wrathsoporific sleep inducing splenetic peevishsoprano high female voice splurge indulgesordid foul, ignoble spontaneous extemporaneoussorority sisterhood sporadic occurring irregularlysoubrette actress, ingenue sportive playfulsouse a drunk spry nimblesovereign monarch spume foam, frothspar fight spurious false, counterfeitspasmodic intermittent, fitful spurn to reject a person with scornspate sudden outpouring squalid filthyspawn produce squall rain stormspecimen sample squander wastespecious false but plausible reasoning squelch crush, stiflespectacle public display stagnant stale, motionlessspectral ghostly staid demure, sedatespectrum range, gamut
The Words 89startle surprise stratagem trick, military tacticstately impressive, noble stratify form into layersstatic inactive, immobile stratum layerstatue regulation striate to mark with stripesstaunch loyal stricture censure, restrictionstave ward off strife conflictsteadfast loyal striking impressive, attractivestealth secrecy, covertness stringent severe, strictsteeped soaked, infused strive endeavorstenography shorthand studious diligentstentorian loud or declamatory in tone stultify inhibit, enfeeblesterling high quality stunted arrested developmentstern strict stupefy deaden, dumfoundstevedore longshoreman stupendous astoundingstifle suppress stupor lethargystigma mark of disgrace stylize formalize, artificial artisticstiletto dagger stylestilted formal, stiff stymie hinder, thwartstimulate excite suave smooth, charmingstint limit, assignment sub rosa in secretstipend payment subcutaneous beneath the skinstipulate specify, arrange subdue conquerstodgy stuffy, pompous subjugate suppressstoic indifferent to pain or pleasure sublet subcontractstoke prod, fuel sublimate to redirect forbidden impulses (usually sexual) into sociallystole long scarf accepted activitiesstolid impassive sublime lofty, excellentstout stocky sublunary earthlystrait distress submit yield, acquiesce
90 Vocabulary 4000subordinate lower in rank superimpose cover, place on top ofsubsequent succeeding, following superintend supervisesubservient servile, submissive superlative superiorsubside diminish supernumerary subordinatesubsidiary subordinate supersede supplantsubsidize financial assistance supervene ensue, followsubstantiate verify supervise overseesubstantive substantial supine lying on the backsubterfuge cunning, ruse supplant replacesubterranean underground supplication prayersubvert undermine suppress subduesuccor help, comfort surfeit overabundancesucculent juicy, delicious surly rude, crasssuccumb yield, submit surmise to guesssuffice adequate surmount overcomesuffrage vote surname family namesuffuse pervade, permeate surpass exceed, excelsuggestive thought-provoking, risqué surreal dreamlikesullen sulky, sour surreptitious secretivesully stain surrogate substitutesultry sweltering surveillance close watchsummon call for, arraign susceptible vulnerablesumptuous opulent, luscious suspend stop temporarilysunder split sustenance foodsundry various susurrant whisperingsuperb excellent suture surgical stitchsupercilious arrogant svelte slendersupererogatory wanton, superfluous swank fashionablesuperfluous overabundant swarthy dark (as in complexion)
The Words 91 Quiz 33 (Matching)Match each word in the first column with its definition in the second column.Answers are on page 102.1. STAVE A. distress2. STEVEDORE B. diligent3. STRAIT C. ward off4. STUDIOUS D. longshoreman5. SUBJUGATE E. various6. SUBTERFUGE F. overabundant7. SUNDRY G. suppress8. SUPERFLUOUS H. cunning9. SUPINE I. dreamlike10. SURREAL J. lying on the backswatch strip of fabric systole heart contractionsweltering hotswivel a pivot T tabernacle templesybarite pleasure-seeker table postponesycophant flatterer, flunkysyllabicate divide into syllables tableau scene, backdropsyllabus schedule taboo prohibitionsylph a slim, graceful girl tabulate arrange tacit understood without being spokensylvan rusticsymbiotic cooperative, working in taciturn untalkativeclose association tactful sensitivesymmetry harmony, congruence tactics strategysymposium panel (discussion) tactile tangiblesymptomatic indicative taint pollutesynagogue temple talion punishmentsyndicate cartel tally countsyndrome set of symptoms talon clawsynod council tandem two or more things togethersynopsis brief summary tang strong tastesynthesis combination tangential peripheral
92 Vocabulary 4000tangible touchable tentative provisionaltantalize tease tenuous thin, insubstantialtantamount equivalent tenure status given after a period of timetaper candle tepid lukewarmtariff tax on imported or exportedgoods terminal finaltarn small lake terminology nomenclaturetarnish taint ternary tripletarry linger terpsichorean related to dancetaurine bull-like terrain the feature of landtaut tight terrapin turtletautological repetitious terrestrial earthlytawdry gaudy terse concisetechnology body of knowledge testament covenanttedious boring, tiring testy petulantteem swarm, abound tether tie downtemerity boldness theatrics histrionicstemperate moderate theologian one who studies religiontempest storm thesaurus book of synonymstempestuous agitated thesis proposition, topictempo speed thespian actortemporal pertaining to time thews musclestempt entice thorny difficulttenable defensible, valid thrall slavetenacious persistent threadbare tatteredtendentious biased thrive prospertenement decaying apartment building throes anguish throng crowdtenet doctrine throttle choketensile stretchable thwart to foil
The Words 93 Quiz 34 (Matching)Match each word in the first column with its definition in the second column.Answers are on page 102.1. SWATCH A. to foil2. SYNOD B. anguish3. TACIT C. concise4. TALON D. provisional5. TAURINE E. agitated6. TEMPESTUOUS F. bull-like7. TENTATIVE G. claw8. TERSE H. understood without being spoken9. THROES I. council10. THWART J. strip of fabrictiara crown topography science of map makingtidings news, information torment harasstiff fight torpid lethargic, inactivetimbre tonal quality, resonance torrid scorching, passionatetimorous fearful, timid torsion twistingtincture trace, vestige, tint torus doughnut shaped objecttinsel tawdriness totter staggertirade scolding speech touchstone standardtitan accomplished person tousled disheveledtitanic huge tout praise, bragtiter laugh nervously toxicologist one who studies poisonstithe donate one-tenth tractable docile, manageabletitian auburn traduce slandertitillate arouse tranquilize calm, anesthetizetitular in name only, figurehead transcribe write a copytoady fawner, sycophant transfigure transform, exalttocsin alarm bell, signal transfix impaletoil drudgery transfuse insert, infusetome large book transgression trespass, offensetonal pertaining to sound transient fleeting, temporary
94 Vocabulary 4000transitory fleeting tumefy swelltranslucent clear, lucid tumult commotiontranspire happen turbid muddy, cloudedtranspose interchange turgid swollentrauma injury turpitude depravitytravail work, drudgery tussle fighttraverse cross tussock cluster of glasstravesty caricature, farce tutelage guardianshiptreatise book, dissertation twain t w otrek journey twinge paintrenchant incisive, penetrating tyrannical dictatorialtrepidation fear tyranny oppressiontriad group of three tyro beginnertribunal courttributary river Utrite commonplace, insincere ubiquitous omnipresent, pervasivetroglodyte cave dweller ulterior hidden, coverttrollop harlot ultimatum demandtroublous disturbed ululate howl, wailtrounce thrash umbrage resentmenttroupe group of actors unabashed shameless, brazentruckle yield unabated ceaselesstruculent fierce, savage unaffected natural, sinceretrudge march, slog unanimity agreementtruism self-evident truth unassuming modesttruncate shorten unavailing useless, futiletruncheon club unawares suddenly, unexpectedlytryst meeting, rendezvous unbecoming unfittingtumbler drinking glass unbridled unrestrained
The Words 95 Quiz 35 (Matching)Match each word in the first column with its definition in the second column.Answers are on page 102.1. TIDINGS A. incisive2. TITER B. omnipresent3. TITULAR C. lethargic4. TORPID D. figurehead5. TRADUCE E. unrestrained6. TRENCHANT F. news7. UBIQUITOUS G. laugh nervously8. ULULATE H. ceaseless9. UNABATED I. wail10. UNBRIDLED J. slanderuncanny mysterious, inexplicable unflappable not easily upsetunconscionable unscrupulous unfrock dischargeuncouth uncultured, crude unfurl open up, spread outunctuous insincere ungainly awkwardundermine weaken uniformity samenessunderpin support unilateral action taken by only one partyunderscore emphasize unimpeachable exemplaryunderstudy a stand-in unison togetherunderworld criminal worldunderwrite agree to finance, unkempt disheveledguarantee unmitigated complete, harshundue unjust, excessive unmoved firm, steadfastundulate surge, fluctuate unprecedented without previous occurrenceunduly excessive unremitting relentlessunequivocal unambiguous,categorical unsavory distasteful, offensiveunexceptionable beyond criticism unscathed unhurtunfailing steadfast, unfaltering unseat displaceunfathomable puzzling, unseemly unbecoming, improperincomprehensible unstinting generousunflagging untiring, unrelenting
96 Vocabulary 4000unsullied spotless, pure vanquish conquerunsung neglected, not receiving just vapid vacuous, insipidrecognition variance discrepancyuntenable cannot be achieved vassal subject, subordinateuntoward perverse, unseemly vaunt bragunwarranted unjustified vehement adamantunwieldy awkward venal mercenary, for the sake ofunwitting unintentional moneyupshot result vendetta grudge, feudurbane refined, worldly veneer false front, facadeursine bear-like venerable reveredusurp seize, to appropriate venial excusableusury lending money at high rates venom poison, spiteutilitarian pragmatic, useful venture risk, speculateutopia paradise venturesome bold, riskyutter complete venue locationuxorious a doting husband veracity truthfulness veranda porchV verbatim word for word, literalvacillate waver verbose wordyvacuous inane, empty verdant green, lushvagary whim verdict decision, judgmentvain unsuccessful vernacular common speechvainglorious conceited vertigo dizziness vestige trace, remnantvalediction farewell speech veto rejectvaliant bravevalidate affirm, authenticate vex annoyvalor bravery viable capable of surviving, feasiblevanguard leading position viaduct waterway
The Words 97 Quiz 36 (Matching)Match each word in the first column with its definition in the second column.Answers are on page 102.1. UNCOUTH A. disheveled2. UNDULY B. capable of surviving3. UNFLAGGING C. awkward4. UNKEMPT D. uncultured5. UNSTINTING E. truthfulness6. UNTENABLE F. whim7. UNWIELDY G. unrelenting8. VAGARY H. cannot be achieved9. VERACITY I. generous10. VIABLE J. excessiveviand food vitiate spoil, ruinvicious evil, cruel vitreous glassyvicissitude changing fortunes vitriolic scathingvictuals food vituperative abusive, critical languagevie compete vivacious lively, high-spiritedvigil watch, sentry duty vivid lifelike, clearvigilant on guard vivisection experimentation on animals, dissectionvignette scene vocation occupationvigor vitality vociferous adamant, clamoringvilify defame, malign vogue fashion, chicvindicate free from blame volant agilevindictive revengeful volatile unstable, precariousvirile manly, strong volition free willvirtuoso highly skilled artist voluble talkativevirulent deadly, poisonous, infectious voluminous bulky, extensivevisage facial expression voracious hungryviscid thick, gummy votary fan, aficionadovisitation a formal visit vouchsafe confer, bestowvital necessary vulgarity obscenity
98 Vocabulary 4000vulnerable susceptible winnow separatevulpine fox-like, cunning winsome charmingly innocent wistful sad yearning, melancholyW wither shrivel wizened shriveledwager bet woe anguish, despairwaggish playful wont custom, habitwaive forego woo court, seek favorwallow indulge wraith ghostwan pale, pallid, listless wrath anger, furywane dissipate, wither wreak to inflict something violentwant need, poverty, lack of wrest snatchwanton lewd, abandoned, gratuitous wretched miserablewarrant justification writ summons, court orderwary guarded, cautious writhe contort, thrash aboutwastrel spendthrift wry twisted, ironic sense of humorwaylay ambush, accostwean remove from nursing, break ahabit Xweir dam xenophillic attraction to strangerswelter confusion, hodgepodge xenophobia fear of foreignerswheedle to coax with flattery xylophone musical percussionwhet stimulate instrumentwhiffle vacillatewhimsical capricious, playful Ywield exercise control yarn story, talewillful deliberate, wanton yearn desire stronglywily shrewd, crafty yen desire, yearningwince cringe yore long agowindfall bonus, boon Young Turks reformers
The Words 99Zzeal earnestness, passionzealot fanaticzenith summitzephyr gentle breeze Quiz 37 (Sentence Completions)Complete each sentence with the best available word. Answers are on page 102.1. Though most explicitly sexist ___________ words have been replaced by 4. Despite all its , a gender-neutral terms, sexism stint in the diplomatic core is ___________ invariably an uplifting experience. thrives in the of (A) merits many words. (B) compensation (A) indistinctness (C) effectiveness (B) similitude (D) rigors (C) loquacity (E) mediocrity (D) implications (E) obscurity 5. Robert Williams’ style of writ-ing ___________ has an air of : just2. The aspiring candidate’s per- when you think the story line is formance in the debate all but predictable, he suddenly takes a ___________ any hope he may have different direction. Although this had of winning the election. is often the mark of a beginner, Williams pulls it off masterfully. (A) nullifies (B) encourages (A) ineptness (C) guarantees (B) indignation (D) accentuates (C) reserve (E) contains (D) jollity (E) capriciousness ___________3. She is the most person I 6. Liharev talks about being both a have ever met, seemingly with an nihilist and an atheist during his endless reserve of energy. life, yet he never does ___________ (A) jejune faith in God. (B) vivacious (A) affirm (C) solicitous (B) lose (D) impudent (C) scorn (E) indolent (D) aver (E) supplicate
100 Vocabulary 40006. Though a small man, J Egar 9. This argues well that Erikson Hover appeared to be much larger exercised less free will than behind his desk; for, having Warner; for even though Erikson skillfully designed his office, he was aware that he was misdirected, ___________ he was still unable to was by the ___________ perspective. free will. (A) augmented (A) defer (B) comforted (B) facilitate (C) apprehended (C) proscribe (D) lessened (D) prevent (E) disconcerted (E) exert7. Existentialism can be used to 10. Man has no choice but to seek rationalize evil: if one does not truth, he is made uncomfortable like the rules of society and has and frustrated without truth—thus, no conscience, he may use the quest for truth is part of what existentialism as a means of ___________ ___________ makes us . a set of beliefs (A) noble that are advantageous to him but (B) different injurious to others. (C) human (A) thwarting (D) intelligent (B) proving (E) aggressive (C) promoting (D) justifying (E) impugning8. These categories amply point out the fundamental desire that people have to express themselves and the cleverness they display in that expression; who would have believed that the drab, mundane DMV would become the ___________ such creativity? (A) catalyst for (B) inhibitor of (C) disabler of (D) referee of (E) censor of
The Words 101 Answers to QuizzesQuiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Quiz 5 Quiz 6 Quiz 7 Quiz 81. I 1. E 1. B 1. A 1. J 1. E 1. A 1. E2. G 2. B 2. F 2. C 2. I 2. A 2. J 2. B3. E 3. D 3. G 3. E 3. H 3. C 3. I 3. D4. F 4. A 4. H 4. A 4. G 4. E 4. E 4. E5. C 5. E 5. E 5. A 5. F 5. D 5. D 5. E6. D 6. A 6. A 6. E 6. E 6. A 6. G 6 E7. B 7. C 7. C 7. A 7. D 7. C 7. F 7. C8. J 8. D 8. D 8. B 8. C 8. B 8. H 8. E9. A 9. B 9. J 9. C 9. B 9. E 9. C 9. D10. H 10. A 10. I 10. C 10. A 10. B 10. B 10. C Quiz Quiz Quiz Quiz Quiz Quiz Quiz Quiz 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 161. B 1. B 1. D 1. A 1. B 1. D 1. J 1. B2. A 2. C 2. J 2. B 2. A 2. E 2. I 2. E3. D 3. D 3. I 3. D 3. J 3. B 3. H 3. A4. C 4. A 4. A 4. D 4. H 4. B 4. G 4. E5. F 5. E 5. F 5. A 5. I 5. C 5. F 5. D6. E 6. B 6. E 6. B 6. G 6. D 6. E 6. A7. H 7. C 7. H 7. C 7. F 7. C 7. D 7. E8. G 8. A 8. G 8. A 8. D 8. C 8. C 8. B9. J 9. B 9. C 9. D 9. E 9. B 9. B 9. D10. I 10. E 10. B 10. B 10. C 10. C 10. A 10. C Quiz Quiz Quiz Quiz Quiz Quiz Quiz Quiz 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 241. E 1. D 1. D 1. A 1. J 1. E 1. F 1. A2. F 2. B 2. E 2. D 2. F 2. E 2. G 2. E3. G 3. E 3. F 3. D 3. I 3. C 3. H 3. E4. H 4. C 4. A 4. C 4. H 4. B 4. I 4. A5. A 5. A 5. B 5. B 5. G 5. E 5. J 5. A6. B 6. B 6. C 6. A 6. B 6. E 6. A 6. D7. C 7. E 7. G 7. C 7. E 7. A 7. B 7. D8. D 8. A 8. J 8. B 8. D 8. C 8. C 8. D9. I 9. A 9. I 9. C 9. C 9. D 9. D 9. B10. J 10. E 10. H 10. E 10. A 10. C 10. E 10. E
102 Vocabulary 4000 Quiz Quiz Quiz Quiz Quiz Quiz Quiz Quiz 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 321. H 1. C 1. B 1. A 1. J 1. E 1. I 1. E2. I 2. B 2. A 2. D 2. I 2. B 2. C 2. B3. J 3. E 3. E 3. E 3. H 3. E 3. B 3. D4. D 4. A 4. J 4. E 4. G 4. B 4. J 4. E5. E 5. D 5. C 5. B 5. F 5. C 5. G 5. D6. G 6. E 6. I 6. C 6. E 6. D 6. H 6. B7. F 7. B 7. H 7. A 7. D 7. C 7. E 7. D8. A 8. E 8. G 8. C 8. C 8. E 8. F 8. A9. B 9. C 9. F 9. C 9. B 9. D 9. A 9. D10. C 10. A 10. D 10. D 10. A 10. A 10. D 10. E Quiz Quiz Quiz Quiz Quiz 33 34 35 36 371. C 1. J 1. F 1. D 1. D2. D 2. I 2. G 2. J 2. A3. A 3. H 3. D 3. G 3. B4. B 4. G 4. C 4. A 4. D5. G 5. F 5. J 5. I 5. E6. H 6. E 6. A 6. H 6. A7. E 7. D 7. B 7. C 7. D8. F 8. C 8. I 8. F 8. A9. J 9. B 9. H 9. E 9. E10. I 10. A 10. E 10. B 10. C
Word AnalysisWord analysis (etymology) is the process of separating a word intoits parts and then using the meanings of those parts to deduce themeaning of the original word. Take, for example, the wordINTERMINABLE. It is made up of three parts: a prefix IN (not), aroot TERMIN (stop), and a suffix ABLE (can do). Therefore, byword analysis, INTERMINABLE means “not able to stop.” Thisis not the literal meaning of INTERMINABLE (endless), but it isclose enough. For another example, consider the wordRETROSPECT. It is made up of the prefix RETRO (back) and theroot SPECT (to look). Hence, RETROSPECT means “to look back(in time), to contemplate.” Word analysis is very effective in decoding the meaning ofwords. However, you must be careful in its application since wordsdo not always have the same meaning as the sum of the meanings oftheir parts. In fact, on occasion words can have the oppositemeaning of their parts. For example, by word analysis the wordAWFUL should mean “full of awe,” or awe-inspiring. But over theyears it has come to mean just the opposite—terrible. In spite of theshortcomings, word analysis gives the correct meaning of a word (orat least a hint of it) far more often than not and therefore is a usefultool.Examples: INDEFATIGABLE Analysis: IN (not); DE (thoroughly); FATIG (fatigue); ABLE (can do) Meaning: cannot be fatigued, tireless CIRCUMSPECT Analysis: CIRCUM (around); SPECT (to look) Meaning: to look around, that is, to be cautious ANTIPATHY Analysis: ANTI (against); PATH (to feel); Y (noun suffix) Meaning: to feel strongly against something, to hate OMNISCIENT Analysis: OMNI (all); SCI (to know); ENT (noun suffix) Meaning: all-knowing
104 Vocabulary 4000Following are some of the most useful prefixes, roots, and suffixes. Prefixes1. ab from aberration2. ad—also ac, af, ag, al, to adequate an, ap, ar, as, at3. ambi both ambidextrous4. an—also a without anarchy5. anti against antipathetic6. ante before antecedent7. b e throughout belie8. b i two bilateral9. cata down catacomb10. circum around circumscribe11. com—also con, col, together confluence cor, cog, co12. contra against contravene13. de down (negative) debase14. deca ten decathlon15. decem ten decimal16. di two digraph17. dia through, between dialectic18. dis apart (negative) disparity19. du two duplicate20. dys abnormal dysphoria21. epi upon epicenter22. equi equal equitable23. e x out extricate24. extra beyond extraterrestrial25. fore in front of foreword26. hemi half hemisphere27. hyper excessive hyperbole28. hypo too little hypothermia
Word Analysis 10529. in— a l s o ig, il, im, ir not inefficient30. in—also il, im, ir in, very invite, inflammable31. inter between interloper32. intro—also intra inside introspective33. kilo one thousand kilogram34. meta changing metaphysics35. micro small microcosm36. mili—also milli one thousand millipede37. m i s bad, hate misanthrope38. mono one monopoly39. multi many multifarious40. neo new neophyte41. nil—also nihil nothing nihilism42. non not nonentity43. ob—also oc, of, op against obstinate44. pan all panegyric45. para beside paranormal46. per throughout permeate47. peri around periscope48. poly many polyglot49. post after posterity50. pre before predecessor51. prim first primitive52. pro forward procession53. quad four quadruple54. re again reiterate55. retro backward retrograde56. semi half semiliterate57. sub—also suc, suf, under succumb sug, sup, sus58. super—also supra above superannuated59. syn—also sym, syl together synthesis60. trans across transgression
106 Vocabulary 400061. un not unkempt62. uni one unique RootsRoot Meaning Example1. ac bitter, sharp acrid2. agog leader demagogue3. agri—also agrari field agriculture4. ali other alienate5. alt high altostratus6. alter other alternative7. a m love amiable8. anim soul animadversion9. anthrop man, people anthropology10. arch ruler monarch11. aud hear auditory12. auto self autocracy13. belli war bellicose14. ben good benevolence15. biblio book bibliophile16. bio life biosphere17. cap take caprice18. capit head capitulate19. carn flesh incarnate20. ced go accede21. celer swift accelerate22. cent one hundred centurion23. chron time chronology24. cide cut, kill fratricide25. cit to call recite26. civ citizen civility27. cord heart cordial
Word Analysis 10728. corp body corporeal29. cosm universe cosmopolitan30. crat power plutocrat31. cred belief incredulous32. cur to care curable33. deb debt debit34. dem people demagogue35. dic to say Dictaphone36. doc to teach doctorate37. dynam power dynamism38. ego I egocentric39. err to wander errant40. eu good euphemism41. fac—also fic, fec, fect to make affectation42. fall false infallible43. fer to carry fertile44. fid faith confidence45. fin end finish46. fort strong fortitude47. gen race, group genocide48. geo earth geology49. germ vital part germane50. gest carry gesticulate51. gnosi know prognosis52. grad—also gress step transgress53. graph writing calligraphy54. grav heavy gravitate55. greg crowd egregious56. habit to have, live habituate57. hema—also hemo blood hemorrhage58. hetero different heterogeneous59. homo same homogenized
108 Vocabulary 400060. hum earth, man humble61. jac—also jec throw interjection62. jud judge judicious63. junct—also join combine disjunctive64. jus—also jur law, to swear adjure65. leg law legislator66. liber free libertine67. lic permit illicit68. loc place locomotion69. log word logic70. loqu speak soliloquy71. macro large macrobiotics72. magn large magnanimous73. mal bad malevolent74. manu by hand manuscript75. matr mother matriarch76. medi middle medieval77. meter measure perimeter78. mit—also miss send missive79. morph form, structure anthropomorphic80. mut change immutable81. nat—also nasc born nascent82. neg deny renegade83. nomen name nominal84. nov new innovative85. omni all omniscient86. oper—also opus work operative87. pac—also plais please complaisant88. pater—also patr father expatriate89. path disease, feeling pathos90. ped—also pod foot pedestal91. pel—also puls push impulsive
Word Analysis 10992. pen hang appendix93. phil love philanthropic94. pict paint depict95. poli city metropolis96. port carry deportment97. pos—also pon to place posit98. pot power potentate99. put think computer100. rect—also reg straight rectitude101. ridi—also risi laughter derision102. rog beg interrogate103. rupt break interruption104. sanct holy sanctimonious105. sangui blood sanguinary106. sat enough satiate107. sci know conscience108. scrib—also script to write circumscribe109. sequ—also secu follow sequence110. simil—also simul resembling simile111. solv—also solut loosen absolve112. soph wisdom unsophisticated113. spec look circumspect114. spir breathe aspire115. strict—also string bind astringent116. stru build construe117. tact—also tang, tig touch intangible118. techni skill technique119. tempor time temporal120. ten hold tenacious121. term end interminable122. terr earth extraterrestrial123. test to witness testimony
110 Vocabulary 4000124. the god theocracy125. therm heat thermodynamics126. tom cut epitome127. tort—also tors twist distortion128. tract draw, pull abstract129. trib bestow attribute130. trud—also trus push protrude131. tuit—also tut teach intuitive132. ultima last penultimate133. ultra beyond ultraviolet134. urb city urbane135. vac empty vacuous136. val strength, valor valediction137. ven come adventure138. ver true veracity139. verb word verbose140. vest clothe travesty141. vic change vicissitude142. vit—also viv alive vivacious143. voc voice vociferous144. vol wish volition
Word Analysis 111Suffixes determine the part of speech a word belongs to. They arenot as useful for determining a word’s meaning as are roots andprefixes. Nevertheless, there are a few that are helpful. SuffixesSuffix Meaning Example1. able—also ible capable of legible2. acy state of celibacy3. ant full of luxuriant4. ate to make consecrate5. er, or one who censor6. fic making traffic7. i s m belief monotheism8. i s t one who fascist9. ize to make victimize10. oid like steroid11. ology study of biology12. ose full of verbose13. ous full of fatuous14. tude state of rectitude15. ure state of, act primogeniture
112 Vocabulary 4000Exercise:Analyze and define the following words. Answers begin on page 113.Example: RETROGRADE Analysis: retro (backward); grade (step) Meaning: to step backward, to regress1. CIRCUMNAVIGATE Analysis: Meaning:2. MISANTHROPE Analysis: Meaning:3. ANARCHY Analysis: Meaning:4. AUTOBIOGRAPHY Analysis: Meaning:5. INCREDULOUS Analysis: Meaning:6. EGOCENTRIC Analysis: Meaning:7. INFALLIBLE Analysis: Meaning:8. AMORAL Analysis: Meaning:9. INFIDEL Analysis: Meaning:10. NONENTITY Analysis: Meaning:11. CORPULENT Analysis: Meaning:12. IRREPARABLE Analysis: Meaning:
Word Analysis 11313. INTROSPECTIVE Analysis: Meaning:14. IMMORTALITY Analysis: Meaning:15. BENEFACTOR Analysis: Meaning:16. DEGRADATION Analysis: Meaning:17. DISPASSIONATE Analysis: Meaning:18. APATHETIC Analysis: Meaning: Solutions to Exercise1. CIRCUMNAVIGATE Analysis: CIRCUM (around); NAV (to sail); ATE (verb suffix) Meaning: To sail around the world.2. MISANTHROPE Analysis: MIS (bad, hate); ANTHROP (man) Meaning: One who hates all mankind.3. ANARCHY Analysis: AN (without); ARCH (ruler); Y (noun suffix) Meaning: Without rule, chaos.4. AUTOBIOGRAPHY Analysis: AUTO (self); BIO (life); GRAPH (to write); Y (noun suffix) Meaning: One’s written life story.5. INCREDULOUS Analysis: IN (not); CRED (belief); OUS (adjective suffix) Meaning: Doubtful, unbelieving.6. EGOCENTRIC Analysis: EGO (self); CENTR (center); IC (adjective suffix) Meaning: Self-centered.
114 Vocabulary 40007. INFALLIBLE Analysis: IN (not); FALL (false); IBLE (adjective suffix) Meaning: Certain, cannot fail.8. AMORAL Analysis: A (without); MORAL (ethical) Meaning: Without morals. Note: AMORAL does not mean immoral; rather it means neither right nor wrong. Consider the following example: Little Susie, who does not realize that it is wrong to hit other people, hits little Bobby. She has committed an AMORAL act. However, if her mother explains to Susie that it is wrong to hit other people and she understands it but still hits Bobby, then she has committed an immoral act.9. INFIDEL Analysis: IN (not); FID (belief) Meaning: One who does not believe (of religion).10. NONENTITY Analysis: NON (not); ENTITY (thing) Meaning: A person of no significance.11. CORPULENT Analysis: CORP (body); LENT (adjective suffix) Meaning: Obese.12. IRREPARABLE Analysis: IR (not); REPAR (to repair); ABLE (can do) Meaning: Something that cannot be repaired; a wrong so egregious it cannot be righted.13. INTROSPECTIVE Analysis: INTRO (within); SPECT (to look); IVE (adjective suffix) Meaning: To look inward, to analyze oneself.14. IMMORTALITY Analysis: IM (not); MORTAL (subject to death); ITY (noun ending) Meaning: Cannot die, will live forever.15. BENEFACTOR Analysis: BENE (good); FACT (to do); OR (noun suffix [one who]) Meaning: One who does a good deed, a patron.
Word Analysis 11516. DEGRADATION Analysis: DE (down—negative); GRADE (step); TION (noun suffix) Meaning: The act of lowering someone socially or humiliating them.17. DISPASSIONATE Analysis: DIS (away—negative); PASS (to feel) Meaning: Devoid of personal feeling, impartial.18. APATHETIC Analysis: A (without); PATH (to feel); IC (adjective ending) Meaning: Without feeling; to be uninterested. (The apathetic voters.)
Idiom & UsageThe field of grammar is huge and complex—tomes have beenwritten on the subject. This complexity should be no surprise sincegrammar deals with the process of communication. Usage concerns how we choose our words and how we expressour thoughts: in other words, are the connections between the wordsin a sentence logically sound, and are they expressed in a way thatconforms to standard idiom? We will study six major categories: • Pronoun Errors • Subject-Verb Agreement • Misplaced Modifiers • Faulty Parallelism • Faulty Verb Tense • Faulty Idiom
118 Vocabulary 4000PRONOUN ERRORSA pronoun is a word that stands for a noun, known as the antecedentof the pronoun. The key point for the use of pronouns is this:• Pronouns must agree with their antecedents in both number(singular or plural) and person (1st, 2nd, or 3rd). Example: Steve has yet to receive his degree. Here, the pronoun his refers to the noun Steve.Following is a list of the most common pronouns: PRONOUNS Both Singular Singular Plural and Plural I, me we, us any she, her they none he, him them all it these most anyone those more either some who each that which many a both what nothing ourselves you one any another many everything few mine several his, hers others this that
Idiom & Usage 119Reference• A pronoun should be plural when it refers to two nouns joined by and. Example: Jane and Katarina believe they passed the final exam. The plural pronoun they refers to the compound subject Jane and Katarina.• A pronoun should be singular when it refers to two nouns joined by or or nor. Faulty Usage Neither Jane nor Katarina believes they passed the final. Correct Neither Jane nor Katarina believes she passed the final.• A pronoun should refer to one and only one noun or compound noun. This is probably the most common pronoun error. If a pronoun follows two nouns, it is often unclear which of the nouns the pronoun refers to. Faulty Usage The breakup of the Soviet Union has left nuclear weapons in the hands of unstable, nascent countries. It is imperative to world security that they be destroyed. Although one is unlikely to take the sentence to mean that the countries must be destroyed, that interpretation is possible from the structure of the sentence. It is easily corrected: The breakup of the Soviet Union has left nuclear weapons in the hands of unstable, nascent countries. It is imperative to world security that these weapons be destroyed.
120 Vocabulary 4000 Faulty Usage In Somalia, they have become jaded by the constant warfare. This construction is faulty because they does not have an ante- cedent. The sentence can be corrected by replacing they with people: In Somalia, people have become jaded by the constant warfare. Better: The people of Somalia have become jaded by the constant warfare.• In addition to agreeing with its antecedent in number, a pronoun must agree with its antecedent in person. Faulty Usage One enters this world with no responsibilities. Then comes school, then work, then marriage and family. No wonder, you look longingly to retirement. In this sentence, the subject has changed from one (third person) to you (second person). To correct the sentence either replace one with you or vice versa: You enter this world with no responsibilities. Then comes school, then work, then marriage and family. No wonder, you look longingly to retirement. One enters this world with no responsibilities. Then comes school, then work, then marriage and family. No wonder, one looks longingly to retirement.
Idiom & Usage 121 Drill IIn each of the following sentences, part or all of the sentence is underlined. Theanswer-choices offer five ways of phrasing the underlined part. If you think thesentence as written is better than the alternatives, choose A, which merelyrepeats the underlined part; otherwise choose one of the alternatives. Answersbegin on page 142.1. Had the President’s Administration not lost the vote on the budget reduction package, his first year in office would have been rated an A. (A) Had the President’s Administration not lost the vote on the budget reduction package, his first year in office would have been rated an A. (B) If the Administration had not lost the vote on the budget reduction package, his first year in office would have been rated an A. (C) Had the President’s Administration not lost the vote on the budget reduction package, it would have been rated an A. (D) Had the President’s Administration not lost the vote on its budget reduction package, his first year in office would have been rated an A. (E) If the President had not lost the vote on the budget reduction package, the Administration’s first year in office would have been rated an A.2. The new law requires a manufacturer to immediately notify their customers whenever the government is contemplating a forced recall of any of the manufacturer’s products. (A) to immediately notify their customers whenever the government is contemplating a forced recall of any of the manufacturer’s products. (B) to immediately notify customers whenever the government is contemplating a forced recall of their products. (C) to immediately, and without delay, notify its customers whenever the government is contemplating a forced recall of any of the manufac- ture’s products. (D) to immediately notify whenever the government is contemplating a forced recall of any of the manufacturer’s products that the customers may have bought. (E) to immediately notify its customers whenever the government is contemplating a forced recall of any of the manufacturer’s products.3. World War II taught the United States the folly of punishing a vanquished aggressor; so after the war, they enacted the Marshall Plan to rebuild Germany. (A) after the war, they enacted the Marshall Plan to rebuild Germany. (B) after the war, the Marshall Plan was enacted to rebuild Germany. (C) after the war, the Marshall Plan was enacted by the United States to rebuild Germany. (D) after the war, the United States enacted the Marshall Plan to rebuild Germany. (E) after the war, the United States enacted the Marshall Plan in order to rebuild Germany.
122 Vocabulary 40004. In the 1950’s, integration was an anathema to most Americans; now, however, most Americans accept it as desirable. (A) to most Americans; now, however, most Americans accept it as desirable. (B) to most Americans, now, however, most Americans accept it. (C) to most Americans; now, however, most Americans are desirable of it. (D) to most Americans; now, however, most Americans accepted it as desirable. (E) to most Americans. Now, however, most Americans will accept it as desirable.5. Geologists in California have discovered a fault near the famous San Andreas Fault, one that they believe to be a trigger for major quakes on the San Andreas. (A) one that they believe to be a trigger for (B) one they believe to be a trigger for (C) one that they believe triggers (D) that they believe to be a trigger for (E) one they believe acts as a trigger for6. A bite from the tsetse fly invariably paralyzes its victims unless an antidote is administered within two hours. (A) its victims unless an antidote is administered (B) its victims unless an antidote can be administered (C) its victims unless an antidote was administered (D) its victims unless an antidote is administered to the victims (E) its victims unless they receive an antidote
Idiom & Usage 123 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENTWithin a sentence there are certain requirements for the relationshipbetween the subject and the verb.• The subject and verb must agree both in number and person. Example: We have surpassed our sales goal of one million dollars. Here, the first person plural verb have agrees with its first person plural subject we.Note, ironically, third person singular verbs often end in s or es: He seems to be fair.• Intervening phrases and clauses have no effect on subject-verb agreement. Example: Only one of the President’s nominees was confirmed. Here, the singular verb was agrees with its singular subject one. The intervening prepositional phrase of the President’s nominees has no effect on the number or person of the verb.• When the subject and verb are reversed, they still must agree in both number and person. Example: Attached are copies of the contract.Here, the plural verb are attached agrees with its plural subjectcopies. The sentence could be rewritten as Copies of the contract are attached.
124 Vocabulary 4000 Drill II Answers and solutions begin on page 146.1. The rising cost of government bureaucracy have made it all but impossible to reign in the budget deficit. (A) The rising cost (B) Since the rising costs (C) Because of the rising costs (D) The rising costs (E) Rising cost2. In a co-publication agreement, ownership of both the material and its means of distribution are equally shared by the parties. (A) its means of distribution are equally shared by the parties. (B) its means of distribution are shared equally by each of the parties. (C) its means of distribution is equally shared by the parties. (D) their means of distribution is equally shared by the parties. (E) the means of distribution are equally shared by the parties.3. The rise in negative attitudes toward foreigners indicate that the country is becoming less tolerant, and therefore that the opportunities are ripe for extremist groups to exploit the illegal immigration problem. (A) indicate that the country is becoming less tolerant, and therefore that (B) indicates that the country is becoming less tolerant, and therefore (C) indicates that the country is becoming less tolerant, and therefore that (D) indicates that the country is being less tolerant, and therefore (E) indicates that the country is becoming less tolerant of and therefore that4. The harvest of grapes in the local valleys decreased in 1990 for the third straight year but were still at a robust level. (A) The harvest of grapes in the local valleys decreased in 1990 for the third straight year but were (B) The harvest of grapes in the local valleys began to decrease in 1990 for the third straight year but were (C) In 1990, the harvest of grapes in the local valleys decreased for the third straight year but were (D) The harvest of grapes in the local valleys decreased for the third straight year in 1990 but was (E) The harvest of grapes in the local valleys began decreasing in 1990 for the third straight year but was
Idiom & Usage 1255. Each of the book’s protagonists—Mark Streit, Mary Eby, and Dr. Thomas—has a powerful, dynamic personality. (A) Each of the book’s protagonists—Mark Streit, Mary Eby, and Dr. Thomas—has (B) Each of the book’s protagonists—Mark Streit, Mary Eby, and Dr. Thomas—have (C) All the book’s protagonists—Mark Streit, Mary Eby, and Dr. Thomas—has (D) Mark Streit, Mary Eby, and Dr. Thomas—the book’s protagonists— each has (E) Each of the book’s protagonists—Mark Streit, Mary Eby, and Dr. Thomas—could have had MISPLACED MODIFIERS• As a general rule, a modifier should be placed as close as possible to what it modifies. Example: Following are some useful tips for protecting your person and property from the FBI. As written, the sentence implies that the FBI is a threat to your person and property. To correct the sentence put the modifier from the FBI next to the word it modifies, tips: Following are some useful tips from the FBI for protecting your person and property.• When a phrase begins a sentence, make sure that it modifies the subject of the sentence. Example: Coming around the corner, a few moments passed before I could recognize my old home. As worded, the sentence implies that the moments were coming around the corner. The sentence can be corrected as follows:
126 Vocabulary 4000 As I came around the corner, a few moments passed before I could recognize my old home. or Coming around the corner, I paused a few moments before I could recognize my old home. Drill III Answers and solutions begin on page 149.1. By focusing on poverty, the other causes of crime—such as the breakup of the nuclear family, changing morals, the loss of community, etc.—have been overlooked by sociologists. (A) the other causes of crime—such as the breakup of the nuclear family, changing morals, the loss of community, etc.—have been overlooked by sociologists. (B) the other causes of crime have been overlooked by sociologists—such as the breakup of the nuclear family, changing morals, the loss of community, etc. (C) there are other causes of crime that have been overlooked by sociologists—such as the breakup of the nuclear family, changing morals, the loss of community, etc. (D) crimes—such as the breakup of the nuclear family, changing morals, the loss of community, etc.—have been overlooked by sociologists. (E) sociologists have overlooked the other causes of crime—such as the breakup of the nuclear family, changing morals, the loss of community, etc.2. Using the Hubble telescope, previously unknown galaxies are now being charted. (A) Using the Hubble telescope, previously unknown galaxies are now being charted. (B) Previously unknown galaxies are now being charted, using the Hubble telescope. (C) Using the Hubble telescope, previously unknown galaxies are now being charted by astronomers. (D) Using the Hubble telescope, astronomers are now charting previously unknown galaxies. (E) With the aid of the Hubble telescope, previously unknown galaxies are now being charted.
Idiom & Usage 1273. The bitter cold the Midwest is experiencing is potentially life threatening to stranded motorists unless well-insulated with protective clothing. (A) stranded motorists unless insulated (B) stranded motorists unless being insulated (C) stranded motorists unless they are insulated (D) stranded motorists unless there is insulation (E) the stranded motorist unless insulated4. Traveling across and shooting the vast expanse of the Southwest, in 1945 Ansel Adams began his photographic career. (A) Traveling across and shooting the vast expanse of the Southwest, in 1945 Ansel Adams began his photographic career. (B) Traveling across and shooting the vast expanse of the Southwest, Ansel Adams began his photographic career in 1945. (C) Having traveled across and shooting the vast expanse of the Southwest, in 1945 Ansel Adams began his photographic career. (D) Ansel Adams, in 1945 began his photographic career, traveling across and shooting the vast expanse of the Southwest. (E) In 1945, Ansel Adams began his photographic career, traveling across and shooting the vast expanse of the Southwest. FAULTY PARALLELISM• For a sentence to be parallel, similar elements must be expressed in similar form.• When two adjectives modify the same noun, they should have similar forms. Example: The topology course was both rigorous and a challenge. Since both rigorous and a challenge are modifying course, they should have the same form: The topology course was both rigorous and challenging.
128 Vocabulary 4000• When a series of clauses is listed, the verbs in each clause must have the same form. Example: During his trip to Europe, the President will discuss ways to stimulate trade, offer economic aid, and trying to forge a new coalition with moderate forces in Russia. In this example, the first two verbs, discuss and offer, are active. But the third verb in the series, trying, is passive. The form of the verb should be active: During his trip to Europe, the President will discuss ways to stimulate trade, offer economic aid, and try to forge a new coalition with moderate forces in Russia.• When the first half of a sentence has a certain structure, the second half should preserve that structure. Example: To acknowledge that one is an alcoholic is taking the first and hardest step to recovery. The first half of the above sentence has an infinitive structure, to acknowledge, so the second half must have a similar structure: To acknowledge that one is an alcoholic is to take the first and hardest step to recovery.
Idiom & Usage 129 Drill IV Answers and solutions begin on page 152.1. Common knowledge tells us that sensible exercise and eating properly will result in better health. (A) eating properly will result (B) proper diet resulted (C) dieting will result (D) proper diet results (E) eating properly results2. This century began with war brewing in Europe, the industrial revolution well-established, and a nascent communication age. (A) war brewing in Europe, the industrial revolution well-established, and a nascent communication age. (B) war brewing in Europe, the industrial revolution surging, and a nascent communication age. (C) war in Europe, the industrial revolution well-established, and a nascent communication age. (D) war brewing in Europe, the industrial revolution well-established, and the communication age beginning. (E) war brewing in Europe, the industrial revolution well-established, and saw the birth of the communication age.3. It is often better to try repairing an old car than to junk it. (A) to try repairing an old car than to junk it. (B) to repair an old car than to have it junked. (C) to try repairing an old car than to junking it. (D) to try and repair an old car than to junk it. (E) to try to repair an old car than to junk it.4. Jurassic Park, written by Michael Crichton, and which was first printed in 1988, is a novel about a theme park of the future in which dinosaurs roam free. (A) Jurassic Park, written by Michael Crichton, and which was first printed in 1988, (B) Jurassic Park, written by Michael Crichton and first printed in 1988, (C) Jurassic Park, which was written by Michael Crichton, and which was first printed in 1988, (D) Written by Michael Crichton and first printed in 1988, Jurassic Park (E) Jurassic Park, which was written by Michael Crichton and first printed in 1988,
130 Vocabulary 4000FAULTY VERB TENSEA verb has four principal parts:1. Present Tense a. Used to express present tense. He studies hard. b. Used to express general truths. During a recession, people are cautious about taking on more debt. c. Used with will or shall to express future time. He will take the SAT next year.2. Past Tense a. Used to express past tense. He took the SAT last year.3. Past Participle a. Used to form the present perfect tense, which indicates that an action was started in the past and its effects are continuing in the present. It is formed using have or has and the past participle of the verb. He has prepared thoroughly for the SAT. b. Used to form the past perfect tense, which indicates that an action was completed before another past action. It is formed using had and the past participle of the verb. He had prepared thoroughly before taking the SAT. c. Used to form the future perfect tense, which indicates that an action will be completed before another future action. It is formed using will have or shall have and the past participle of the verb. He will have prepared thoroughly before taking the SAT.
Idiom & Usage 1314. Present Participle (-ing form of the verb) a. Used to form the present progressive tense, which indicates that an action is ongoing. It is formed using is, am, or are and the present participle of the verb. He is preparing thoroughly for the SAT. b. Used to form the past progressive tense, which indicates that an action was in progress in the past. It is formed using was or were and the present participle of the verb. He was preparing for the SAT. c. Used to form the future progressive tense, which indicates that an action will be in progress in the future. It is formed using will be or shall be and the present participle of the verb. He will be preparing thoroughly for the SAT.PASSIVE VOICEThe passive voice removes the subject from the sentence. It isformed with the verb to be and the past participle of the main verb.Passive: The bill was resubmitted by the Senator.Active: The Senator has resubmitted the bill.Unless you want to de-emphasize the doer of an action, you shouldfavor the active voice.
132 Vocabulary 4000 Drill V Answers and solutions begin on page 155.1. In the past few years and to this day, many teachers of math and science had chosen to return to the private sector. (A) had chosen to return to the private sector. (B) having chosen to return to the private sector. (C) chose to return to the private sector. (D) have chosen to return to the private sector. (E) have chosen returning to the private sector.2. Most of the homes that were destroyed in last summer’s brush fires were built with wood-shake roofs. (A) Most of the homes that were destroyed in last summer’s brush fires were (B) Last summer, brush fires destroyed most of the homes that were (C) Most of the homes that were destroyed in last summer’s brush fires had been (D) Most of the homes that the brush fires destroyed last summer’s have been (E) Most of the homes destroyed in last summer’s brush fires were being3. Although World War II ended nearly a half century ago, Russia and Japan still have not signed a formal peace treaty; and both countries have been reticent to develop closer relations. (A) have not signed a formal peace treaty; and both countries have been (B) did not signed a formal peace treaty; and both countries have been (C) have not signed a formal peace treaty; and both countries being (D) have not signed a formal peace treaty; and both countries are (E) are not signing a formal peace treaty; and both countries have been4. The Democrats have accused the Republicans of resorting to dirty tricks by planting a mole on the Democrat’s planning committee and then used the information obtained to sabotage the Democrat’s campaign. (A) used the information obtained to sabotage (B) used the information they had obtained to sabotage (C) of using the information they had obtained to sabotage (D) using the information obtained to sabotage (E) to have used the information obtained to sabotage
Idiom & Usage 133 IDIOM & USAGEAccept/Except:Accept means “to agree to” or “to receive.” Except means “toobject to” or “to leave out.” We will accept (receive) your manuscript for review. No parking is allowed, except (leave out) on holidays.Account for:When explaining something, the correct idiom is account for: We had to account for all the missing money.When receiving blame or credit, the correct idiom is account to: You will have to account to the state for your crimes.Adapted to/for/from:Adapted to means “naturally suited for.” Adapted for means“created to be suited for.” Adapted from means “changed to besuited for.” The polar bear is a d a p t e d t o the subzero temperatures. For any “New Order” to be successful, it must be adapted for the continually changing world power structure. Lucas’ latest release is adapted from the 1950 B-movie “Attack of the Amazons.”Affect/Effect:Effect is a noun meaning “a result.” Increased fighting will be the effect of the failed peace conference.Affect is a verb meaning “to influence.” The rain affected their plans for a picnic.
134 Vocabulary 4000All ready vs. Already: All ready means “everything is ready.” Already means “earlier.”Alot vs. A lot:Alot is nonstandard; a lot is the correct form.Among/Between:Between should be used when referring to two things, and amongshould be used when referring to more than two things. The young lady must choose between two suitors. The fault is spread evenly among the three defendants.Being that vs. Since:Being that is nonstandard and should be replaced by since. (Faulty) Being that darkness was fast approaching, we had to abandon the search. (Better) Since darkness was fast approaching, we had to abandon the search.Beside/Besides:Adding an s to beside completely changes its meaning: Besidemeans “next to.” Besides means “in addition.” We sat beside (next to) the host. Besides (in addition), money was not even an issue in the contract negotiations.Center on vs. Center around:Center around is colloquial. It should not be used in formal writing. (Faulty) The dispute centers around the effects of undocumented workers. (Correct) The dispute centers on the effects of undocumented workers.
Idiom & Usage 135Conform to (not with): Stewart’s writing does not conform to standard literary conventions.Consensus of opinion:Consensus of opinion is redundant: consensus means “generalagreement.”Correspond to/with:Correspond to means “in agreement with”: The penalty does not correspond to the severity of the crime.Correspond with means “to exchange letters”: He corresponded with many of the top European leaders of his time.Different from/Different than:The preferred form is different from. Only in rare cases is differentthan acceptable. The new Cadillacs are very different from the imported luxury cars.Double negatives: (Faulty) Scarcely nothing was learned during the seminar. (Better) Scarcely anything was learned during the seminar.Doubt that vs. Doubt whether:Doubt whether is nonstandard. (Faulty) I doubt whether his new business will succeed. (Correct) I doubt that his new business will succeed.Farther/Further:Use farther when referring to distance, and use further whenreferring to degree.
136 Vocabulary 4000 They went no further (degree) than necking. He threw the discs farther (distance) than the top seated competitor.Fewer/Less:Use fewer when referring to a number of items. Use less whenreferring to a continuous quantity. In the past, we had fewer options. The impact was less than what was expected.Identical with (not to): This bid is identical with the one submitted by you.In contrast to (not of): In contrast to the conservative attitudes of her time, Mae West was quite provocative.Independent of (not from): The judiciary is independent of the other branches of government.Not only … but also:In this construction, but cannot be replaced with and. (Faulty) Peterson is not only the top salesman in the department and also the most proficient. (Correct) Peterson is not only the top salesman in the department but also the most proficient.On account of vs. Because:Because is always better than the circumlocution on account of. (Poor) On account of his poor behavior, he was expelled. (Better) Because he behaved poorly, he was expelled.
Idiom & Usage 137One another/Each other:Each other should be used when referring to two things, and oneanother should be used when referring to more than two things. The members of the basketball team (more than two) congratulated one another on their victory. The business partners (two) congratulated each other on their successful first year.Plus vs. And:Do not use plus as a conjunction meaning and. (Faulty) His contributions to this community are considerable, plus his character is beyond reproach. (Correct) His contributions to this community are considerable, and his character is beyond reproach.Note: Plus can be used to mean and so long as it is not being usedas a conjunction. (Acceptable) His generous financial contribution plus his donated time has made this project a success.In this sentence, plus is being used as a preposition. Note that theverb has is singular because an intervening prepositional phrase(plus his donated time) does not affect subject verb agreement.Regard vs. Regards:Unless you are giving best wishes to someone, you should useregard. (Faulty) In regards to your letter, we would be interested in distributing your product. (Correct) In regard to your letter, we would be interested in distributing your product.
138 Vocabulary 4000Regardless vs. Irregardless:Regardless means “not withstanding.” Hence, the “ir” inirregardless is redundant. Regardless is the correct form.Retroactive to (not from):The correct idiom is retroactive to: The tax increase is retroactive to February.Speak to/with:To speak to someone is to tell them something: We spoke to Jennings about the alleged embezzlement.To speak with someone is to discuss something with them: Steve spoke with his friend Dave for hours yesterday.The reason is because:This structure is redundant. Equally common and doubly redundantis the structure the reason why is because. (Poor) The reason why I could not attend the party is because I had to work. (Better) I could not attend the party because I had to work.Whether vs. As to whether:The circumlocution as to whether should be replaced by whether. (Poor) The United Nations has not decided as to whether to authorize a trade embargo. (Better) The United Nations has not decided whether to authorize a trade embargo.Whether vs. If:Whether introduces a choice; if introduces a condition. A commonmistake is to use if to present a choice. (Faulty) He inquired if we had decided to keep the gift. (Correct) He inquired whether we had decided to keep the gift.
Idiom & Usage 139 Drill VI Answers and solutions begin on page 157.1. Regarding legalization of drugs, I am not concerned so much by its potential impact on middle class America but instead by its potential impact on the inner city. (A) but instead (B) so much as (C) rather (D) but rather (E) as2. Unless you maintain at least a 2.0 GPA, you will not graduate medical school. (A) you will not graduate medical school. (B) you will not be graduated from medical school. (C) you will not be graduating medical school. (D) you will not graduate from medical school. (E) you will graduate medical school.3. The studio’s retrospective art exhibit refers back to a simpler time in American history. (A) The studio’s retrospective art exhibit refers back to (B) The studio’s retrospective art exhibit harkens back to (C) The studio’s retrospective art exhibit refers to (D) The studio’s retrospective art exhibit refers from (E) The studio’s retrospective art exhibit looks back to4. Due to the chemical spill, the commute into the city will be delayed by as much as 2 hours. (A) Due to the chemical spill, the commute into the city will be delayed by as much as 2 hours. (B) The reason that the commute into the city will be delayed by as much as 2 hours is because of the chemical spill. (C) Due to the chemical spill, the commute into the city had been delayed by as much as 2 hours. (D) Because of the chemical spill, the commute into the city will be delayed by as much as 2 hours. (E) The chemical spill will be delaying the commute into the city by as much as 2 hours.
140 Vocabulary 4000 Points to Remember1. A pronoun should be plural when it refers to two nouns joined by and.2. A pronoun should be singular when it refers to two nouns joined by or or nor.3. A pronoun should refer to one and only one noun or compound noun.4. A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in both number and person.5. The subject and verb must agree both in number and person.6. Intervening phrases and clauses have no effect on subject-verb agreement.7. When the subject and verb are reversed, they still must agree in both number and person.8. As a general rule, a modifier should be placed as close as pos- sible to what it modifies.9. When a phrase begins a sentence, make sure that it modifies the subject of the sentence.10. For a sentence to be parallel, similar elements must be expressed in similar form.11. When two adjectives modify the same noun, they should have similar forms.12. When a series of clauses is listed, the verbs must be in the same form.13. When the first half of a sentence has a certain structure, the second half should preserve that structure.
Idiom & Usage 14114. A verb has four principal parts: I. Present Tense a. Used to express present tense. b. Used to express general truths. c. Used with will or shall to express future time. II. Past Tense a. Used to express past tense. III. Past Participle a. Used to form the present perfect tense, which indi- cates that an action was started in the past and its effects are continuing in the present. It is formed using have or has and the past participle of the verb. b. Used to form the past perfect tense, which indicates that an action was completed before another past action. It is formed using had and the past participle of the verb. c. Used to form the future perfect tense, which indicates that an action will be completed before another future action. It is formed using will have or shall have and the past participle of the verb. IV. Present Participle (-ing form of the verb) a. Used to form the present progressive tense, which indicates that an action is ongoing. It is formed using is, am, or are and the present participle of the verb. b. Used to form the past progressive tense, which indi- cates that an action was in progress in the past. It is formed using was or were and the present participle of the verb. c. Used to form the future progressive tense, which indicates that an action will be in progress in the future. It is formed using will be or shall be and the present participle of the verb.15. Unless you want to de-emphasize the doer of an action, you should favor the active voice.
142 Vocabulary 4000 Solutions to Drill I1. Had the President’s Administration not lost the vote on the budget reduction package, his first year in office would have been rated an A. (A) Had the President’s Administration not lost the vote on the budget reduction package, his first year in office would have been rated an A. (B) If the Administration had not lost the vote on the budget reduction package, his first year in office would have been rated an A. (C) Had the President’s Administration not lost the vote on the budget reduction package, it would have been rated an A. (D) Had the President’s Administration not lost the vote on its budget reduction package, his first year in office would have been rated an A. (E) If the President had not lost the vote on the budget reduction package, the Administration’s first year in office would have been rated an A.Choice (A) is incorrect because his appears to refer to the President,but the subject of the subordinate clause is the President’sAdministration, not the President. Choice (B) changes the structure of the sentence, but retains thesame flawed reference. In choice (C), it can refer to either the President’sAdministration or the budget reduction package. Thus, the refer-ence is ambiguous. Choice (D) adds another pronoun, its, but still retains the sameflawed reference. Choice (E) corrects the flawed reference by removing allpronouns. The answer is (E).2. The new law requires a manufacturer to immediately notify their customers whenever the government is contemplating a forced recall of any of the manufacturer’s products. (A) to immediately notify their customers whenever the government is contemplating a forced recall of any of the manufacturer’s products. (B) to immediately notify customers whenever the government is contemplating a forced recall of their products. (C) to immediately, and without delay, notify its customers whenever the government is contemplating a forced recall of any of the manufacture’s products. (D) to immediately notify whenever the government is contemplating a forced recall of any of the manufacturer’s products that the customers may have bought. (E) to immediately notify its customers whenever the government is contemplating a forced recall of any of the manufacturer’s products.
Idiom & Usage 143Choice (A) is incorrect because the plural pronoun their cannot havethe singular noun a manufacturer as its antecedent. Although choice (B) corrects the given false reference, itintroduces another one. Their can now refer to either customers orgovernment, neither of which would make sense in this context. Choice (C) also corrects the false reference, but it introduces aredundancy: immediately means “without delay.” Choice (D) corrects the false reference, but its structure is veryawkward. The direct object of a verb should be as close to the verbas possible. In this case, the verb notify is separated from its directobject c u s t o m e r s by the clause “that the government iscontemplating a forced recall of any of the manufacturer’s productsthat.” Choice (E) is correct because the singular pronoun its has thesingular noun a manufacturer as its antecedent. The answer is (E).3. World War II taught the United States the folly of punishing a vanquished aggressor; so after the war, they enacted the Marshall Plan to rebuild Germany. (A) after the war, they enacted the Marshall Plan to rebuild Germany. (B) after the war, the Marshall Plan was enacted to rebuild Germany. (C) after the war, the Marshall Plan was enacted by the United States to rebuild Germany. (D) after the war, the United States enacted the Marshall Plan to rebuild Germany. (E) after the war, the United States enacted the Marshall Plan in order to rebuild Germany.Choice (A) is incorrect. Since United States is denoting thecollective country, it is singular and therefore cannot be correctlyreferred to by the plural pronoun they. Choice (B) is not technically incorrect, but it lacks precisionsince it does not state who enacted the Marshall Plan. Further, ituses a passive construction: “was enacted.” Choice (C) states who enacted the Marshall Plan, but it retainsthe passive construction “was enacted.” Choice (E) is second-best. The phrase “in order” isunnecessary. Choice (D) corrects the false reference by replacing they withthe United States. Further, it uses the active verb enacted instead ofthe passive verb was enacted. The answer is (D).
144 Vocabulary 40004. In the 1950’s, integration was an anathema to most Americans; now, however, most Americans accept it as desirable. (A) to most Americans; now, however, most Americans accept it as desirable. (B) to most Americans, now, however, most Americans accept it. (C) to most Americans; now, however, most Americans are desirable of it. (D) to most Americans; now, however, most Americans accepted it as desirable. (E) to most Americans. Now, however, most Americans will accept it as desirable.The sentence is not incorrect as written. Hence, the answer is choice(A). Choice (B) creates a run-on sentence by replacing thesemicolon with a comma. Without a connecting word—and, or, but,etc.—two independent clauses must be joined by a semicolon orwritten as two separate sentences. Also, deleting “as desirable”changes the meaning of the sentence. Choice (C) uses a very awkward construction: are desirable ofit. Choice (D) contains an error in tense. The sentence progressesfrom the past to the present, so the verb in the second clause shouldbe accept, not accepted. Choice (E) writes the two clauses as separate sentences, whichis allowable, but it also changes the tense of the second clause to thefuture: will accept.5. Geologists in California have discovered a fault near the famous San Andreas Fault, one that they believe to be a trigger for major quakes on the San Andreas. (A) one that they believe to be a trigger for (B) one they believe to be a trigger for (C) one that they believe triggers (D) that they believe to be a trigger for (E) one they believe acts as a trigger forChoice (A) is incorrect since the relative pronoun that is redundant:the pronoun one, which refers to the newly discovered fault, issufficient. Although choice (C) reads more smoothly, it still contains thedouble pronouns.
Idiom & Usage 145 Choice (D) is incorrect. Generally, relative pronouns such asthat refer to whole ideas in previous clauses or sentences. Since thesecond sentence is about the fault and not its discovery, the pronounthat is appropriate. Choice (E) is very tempting. It actually reads better than choice(A), but it contains a subtle flaw. One is the direct object of the verbbelieves and therefore cannot be the subject of the verb acts. Sincethey clearly is not the subject, the verb acts is without a subject. Choice (B) has both the correct pronoun and the correct verbform. The answer is (B).6. A bite from the tsetse fly invariably paralyzes its victims unless an antidote is administered within two hours. (A) its victims unless an antidote is administered (B) its victims unless an antidote can be administered (C) its victims unless an antidote was administered (D) its victims unless an antidote is administered to the victims (E) its victims unless they receive an antidoteChoice (A) is incorrect since it is unclear whether the victim or thefly should receive the antidote. Choice (B) is incorrect since is is more direct than can be. Choice (C) is incorrect. A statement of fact should beexpressed in the present tense, not the past tense. Choice (D) is wordy. A pronoun should be used for the phrasethe victims. Choice (E) is the answer since they correctly identifies whoshould receive the antidote.
146 Vocabulary 4000 Solutions to Drill II1. The rising cost of government bureaucracy have made it all but impossible to reign in the budget deficit. (A) The rising cost (B) Since the rising costs (C) Because of the rising costs (D) The rising costs (E) Rising costChoice (A) is incorrect because the plural verb have does not agreewith its singular subject the rising cost. Both (B) and (C) are incorrect because they turn the sentenceinto a fragment. Choice (E) is incorrect because rising cost is still singular. Choice (D) is the correct answer since now the plural verb haveagrees with its plural subject the rising costs.2. In a co-publication agreement, ownership of both the material and its means of distribution are equally shared by the parties. (A) its means of distribution are equally shared by the parties. (B) its means of distribution are shared equally by each of the parties. (C) its means of distribution is equally shared by the parties. (D) their means of distribution is equally shared by the parties. (E) the means of distribution are equally shared by the parties.Choice (A) is incorrect. Recall that intervening phrases have noeffect on subject-verb agreement. In this sentence, the subjectownership is singular, but the verb are is plural. Dropping theintervening phrase clearly shows that the sentence is ungrammatical: In a co-publication, agreement ownership are equally shared by the parties. Choice (B) is incorrect. Neither adding each of nor inter-changing shared and equally addresses the issue of subject-verbagreement. Choice (D) contains a faulty pronoun reference. The antecedentof the plural pronoun their would be the singular noun material. Choice (E) is incorrect since it still contains the plural verb are.The answer is choice (C).
Idiom & Usage 1473. The rise in negative attitudes toward foreigners indicate that the country is becoming less tolerant, and therefore that the opportunities are ripe for extremist groups to exploit the illegal immigration problem. (A) indicate that the country is becoming less tolerant, and therefore that (B) indicates that the country is becoming less tolerant, and therefore (C) indicates that the country is becoming less tolerant, and therefore that (D) indicates that the country is being less tolerant, and therefore (E) indicates that the country is becoming less tolerant of and therefore thatChoice (A) has two flaws. First, the subject of the sentence the riseis singular, and therefore the verb indicate should not be plural.Second, the comma indicates that the sentence is made up of twoindependent clauses, but the relative pronoun that immediatelyfollowing therefore forms a subordinate clause. Choice (C) corrects the number of the verb, but retains thesubordinating relative pronoun that. Choice (D) corrects the number of the verb and eliminates thesubordinating relative pronoun that. However, the verb being is lessdescriptive than the verb becoming: As negative attitudes towardforeigners increase, the country becomes correspondingly lesstolerant. Being does not capture this notion of change. Choice (E) corrects the verb’s number, and by dropping thecomma, makes the subordination allowable. However, it introducesthe preposition of which does not have an object: less tolerant ofwhat? Choice (B) both corrects the verb’s number and removes thesubordinating relative pronoun that. The answer is (B).4. The harvest of grapes in the local valleys decreased in 1990 for the third straight year but were still at a robust level. (A) The harvest of grapes in the local valleys decreased in 1990 for the third straight year but were (B) The harvest of grapes in the local valleys began to decrease in 1990 for the third straight year but were (C) In 1990, the harvest of grapes in the local valleys decreased for the third straight year but were (D) The harvest of grapes in the local valleys decreased for the third straight year in 1990 but was (E) The harvest of grapes in the local valleys began decreasing in 1990 for the third straight year but was
148 Vocabulary 4000Choice (A) is incorrect since the singular subject the harvestrequires a singular verb, not the plural verb were. Choice (B) is illogical since it states that the harvest began todecrease in 1990 and then it states that it was the third straight yearof decrease. In choice (C) the plural verb were still does not agree with itssingular subject the harvest. Choice (E) contains the same flaw as choice (B). Choice (D) has the singular verb was agreeing with its singularsubject the harvest. Further, it places the phrase in 1990 morenaturally. The answer is (D).5. Each of the book’s protagonists—Mark Streit, Mary Eby, and Dr. Thomas—has a powerful, dynamic personality. (A) Each of the book’s protagonists—Mark Streit, Mary Eby, and Dr. Thomas—has (B) Each of the book’s protagonists—Mark Streit, Mary Eby, and Dr. Thomas—have (C) All the book’s protagonists—Mark Streit, Mary Eby, and Dr. Thomas—has (D) Mark Streit, Mary Eby, and Dr. Thomas—the book’s protagonists— each has (E) Each of the book’s protagonists—Mark Streit, Mary Eby, and Dr. Thomas—could have hadThe sentence is grammatical as written. The answer is (A). When each, every, or many a precedes two or more subjectslinked by and, they separate the subjects and the verb is singular.Hence, in choice (B) the plural verb have is incorrect. Choice (C) is incorrect since the singular verb has does notagree with the plural subject all. When each follows a plural subject it does not separate thesubjects and the verb remains plural. Hence, in choice (D) thesingular verb has is incorrect. Choice (E) also changes the meaning of the original sentence,which states that the protagonist do have powerful, dynamicpersonalities.
Idiom & Usage 149 Solutions to Drill III1. By focusing on poverty, the other causes of crime—such as the breakup of the nuclear family, changing morals, the loss of community, etc.—have been overlooked by sociologists. (A) the other causes of crime—such as the breakup of the nuclear family, changing morals, the loss of community, etc.—have been overlooked by sociologists. (B) the other causes of crime have been overlooked by sociologists—such as the breakup of the nuclear family, changing morals, the loss of community, etc. (C) there are other causes of crime that have been overlooked by sociologists—such as the breakup of the nuclear family, changing morals, the loss of community, etc. (D) crimes—such as the breakup of the nuclear family, changing morals, the loss of community, etc.—have been overlooked by sociologists. (E) sociologists have overlooked the other causes of crime—such as the breakup of the nuclear family, changing morals, the loss of community, etc.Choice (A) is incorrect since it implies that the other causes of crimeare doing the focusing. Choice (B) has the same flaw. Choice (C) is incorrect. The phrase by focusing on povertymust modify the subject of the sentence, but there cannot be thesubject since the construction there are is used to introduce asubject. Choice (D) implies that crimes are focusing on poverty. Choice (E) puts the subject of the sentence sociologists imme-diately next to its modifying phrase by focusing on poverty. Theanswer is (E).2. Using the Hubble telescope, previously unknown galaxies are now being charted. (A) Using the Hubble telescope, previously unknown galaxies are now being charted. (B) Previously unknown galaxies are now being charted, using the Hubble telescope. (C) Using the Hubble telescope, previously unknown galaxies are now being charted by astronomers. (D) Using the Hubble telescope, astronomers are now charting previously unknown galaxies. (E) With the aid of the Hubble telescope, previously unknown galaxies are now being charted.
150 Vocabulary 4000Choice (A) is incorrect because the phrase using the Hubbletelescope does not have a noun to modify. Choice (B) is incorrect because the phrase using the Hubbletelescope still does not have a noun to modify. Choice (C) offers a noun, astronomers, but it is too far from thephrase using the Hubble telescope. In choice (E), the phrase with the aid of the Hubble telescopedoes not have a noun to modify. Choice (D) offers a noun, astronomers, and places it immedi-ately after the modifying phrase using the Hubble telescope. Theanswer is (D).3. The bitter cold the Midwest is experiencing is potentially life threatening to stranded motorists unless well-insulated with protective clothing. (A) stranded motorists unless insulated (B) stranded motorists unless being insulated (C) stranded motorists unless they are insulated (D) stranded motorists unless there is insulation (E) the stranded motorist unless insulatedChoice (A) is incorrect. As worded, the sentence implies that thecold should be well insulated. Choice (B) is awkward; besides, it still implies that the coldshould be well insulated. Choice (D) does not indicate what should be insulated. Choice (E), like choices (A) and (B), implies that the coldshould be well insulated. Choice (C) is the answer since it correctly implies that thestranded motorists should be well insulated with protective clothing.
Idiom & Usage 1514. Traveling across and shooting the vast expanse of the Southwest, in 1945 Ansel Adams began his photographic career. (A) Traveling across and shooting the vast expanse of the Southwest, in 1945 Ansel Adams began his photographic career. (B) In 1945, Ansel Adams began his photographic career, traveling across and shooting the vast expanse of the Southwest. (C) Having traveled across and shooting the vast expanse of the Southwest, in 1945 Ansel Adams began his photographic career. (D) Ansel Adams, in 1945 began his photographic career, traveling across and shooting the vast expanse of the Southwest. (E) Traveling across and shooting the vast expanse of the Southwest, Ansel Adams began his photographic career in 1945.Choice (A) has two flaws. First, the introductory phrase is too long.Second, the subject Ansel Adams should immediately follow theintroductory phrase since it was Ansel Adams—not the year 1945—who was traveling and shooting the Southwest. Choice (B) is incorrect because the phrase “traveling across…Southwest” is too far from its subject Ansel Adams. As written, thesentence seems to imply that the photographic career was travelingacross and shooting the Southwest. Choice (C) is inconsistent in verb tense. Further, it implies thatAdams began his photographic career after he traveled across theSouthwest. Choice (D) is awkward. The best answer is choice (E).
152 Vocabulary 4000 Solutions to Drill IV1. Common knowledge tells us that sensible exercise and eating properly will result in better health. (A) eating properly will result (B) proper diet resulted (C) dieting will result (D) proper diet results (E) eating properly resultsChoice (A) is incorrect since eating properly (verb-adverb) is notparallel to sensible exercise (adjective-noun). Choice (B) offers two parallel nouns, exercise and diet.However, a general truth should be expressed in the present tense,not in the past tense. Choice (C) is not parallel since it pairs the noun exercise withthe gerund (a verb acting as a noun) dieting. Choice (E) makes the same mistake as choice (A). Choice (D) offers two parallel nouns—exercise and diet—andtwo parallel verbs—tells and results. The answer is (D).2. This century began with war brewing in Europe, the industrial revolution well-established, and a nascent communication age. (A) war brewing in Europe, the industrial revolution well-established, and a nascent communication age. (B) war brewing in Europe, the industrial revolution surging, and a nascent communication age. (C) war in Europe, the industrial revolution well-established, and a nascent communication age. (D) war brewing in Europe, the industrial revolution well-established, and the communication age beginning. (E) war brewing in Europe, the industrial revolution well-established, and saw the birth of the communication age.Choice (A) is incorrect. Although the first two phrases, warbrewing in Europe and the industrial revolution well-established,have different structures, the thoughts are parallel. However, thethird phrase, and a nascent communication age, is not parallel to thefirst two. Choice (B) does not make the third phrase parallel to the firsttwo.
Idiom & Usage 153 Choice (C) changes the meaning of the sentence: the newformulation states that war already existed in Europe while theoriginal sentence states that war was only developing. Choice (E) is not parallel since the first two phrases in the seriesare noun phrases, but saw the birth of the communication age is averb phrase. When a word introduces a series, each element of theseries must agree with the introductory word. You can test thecorrectness of a phrase in a series by dropping the other phrases andchecking whether the remaining phrase agrees with the introductoryword. In this series, each phrase must be the object of thepreposition with: This century began with war brewing in Europe This century began with the industrial revolution well-established This century began with saw the birth of the communication ageIn this form, it is clear the verb saw cannot be the object of thepreposition with. Choice (D) offers three phrases in parallel form. The answer is(D).3. It is often better to try repairing an old car than to junk it. (A) to try repairing an old car than to junk it. (B) to repair an old car than to have it junked. (C) to try repairing an old car than to junking it. (D) to try and repair an old car than to junk it. (E) to try to repair an old car than to junk it.Choice (A) is incorrect since the verb repairing is not parallel to theverb junk. In choice (B), the construction have it junked is awkward.Further, it changes the original construction from active to passive. Choice (C) offers a parallel construction (repairing/junking),but it is awkward. Choice (D) also offers a parallel construction (repair/junk), butthe construction try and is not idiomatic. Choice (E) offers a parallel construction (repair/junk), and thecorrect idiom—try to. The answer is (E).
154 Vocabulary 40004. Jurassic Park, written by Michael Crichton, and which was first printed in 1988, is a novel about a theme park of the future in which dinosaurs roam free. (A) Jurassic Park, written by Michael Crichton, and which was first printed in 1988, (B) Jurassic Park, written by Michael Crichton and first printed in 1988, (C) Jurassic Park, which was written by Michael Crichton, and which was first printed in 1988, (D) Written by Michael Crichton and first printed in 1988, Jurassic Park (E) Jurassic Park, which was written by Michael Crichton and first printed in 1988,Choice (A) is incorrect since the verb written is not parallel to theconstruction which was … printed. Choice (B) is the correct answer since the sentence is conciseand the verb written is parallel to the verb printed. Choice (C) does offer a parallel structure (which waswritten/which was printed); however, choice (B) is more concise. Choice (D) rambles. The introduction Written by … 1988 istoo long. Choice (E) also offers a parallel structure (which waswritten/[which was] printed); however, choice (B) again is moreconcise. Note that which was need not be repeated for the sentenceto be parallel.
Idiom & Usage 155 Solutions to Drill V1. In the past few years and to this day, many teachers of math and science had chosen to return to the private sector. (A) had chosen to return to the private sector. (B) having chosen to return to the private sector. (C) chose to return to the private sector. (D) have chosen to return to the private sector. (E) have chosen returning to the private sector.Choice (A) is incorrect because it uses the past perfect had chosen,which describes an event that has been completed before anotherevent. But the sentence implies that teachers have and are continuingto return to the private sector. Hence, the present perfect tenseshould be used. Choice (B) is incorrect because it uses the present progressivetense having chosen, which describes an ongoing event. Althoughthis is the case, it does not capture the fact that the event began in thepast. Choice (C) is incorrect because it uses the simple past chose,which describes a past event. But again, the sentence implies that theteachers are continuing to opt for the private sector. Choice (D) is the correct answer because it uses the presentperfect have chosen to describe an event that occurred in the past andis continuing into the present. Choice (E) is incorrect because it leaves the thought in thesentence uncompleted.2. Most of the homes that were destroyed in last summer’s brush fires were built with wood-shake roofs. (A) Most of the homes that were destroyed in last summer’s brush fires were (B) Last summer, brush fires destroyed most of the homes that were (C) Most of the homes that were destroyed in last summer’s brush fires had been (D) Most of the homes that the brush fires destroyed last summer’s have been (E) Most of the homes destroyed in last summer’s brush fires were beingChoice (A) is incorrect because the simple past were does notexpress the fact that the homes had been built before the firedestroyed them.
156 Vocabulary 4000 Choice (B) merely rearranges the wording while retaining thesimple past were. Choice (C) is the correct answer because it uses the past perfecthad been to indicate that the homes were completely built beforethey were destroyed by the fires. Choice (D) is incorrect because it uses the present perfect havebeen, which implies that the homes were destroyed before beingbuilt. Choice (E) is incorrect. Although dropping the phrase thatwere makes the sentence more concise, the past progressive werebeing implies that the homes were destroyed while being built.3. Although World War II ended nearly a half century ago, Russia and Japan still have not signed a formal peace treaty; and both countries have been reticent to develop closer relations. (A) have not signed a formal peace treaty; and both countries have been (B) did not signed a formal peace treaty; and both countries have been (C) have not signed a formal peace treaty; and both countries being (D) have not signed a formal peace treaty; and both countries are (E) are not signing a formal peace treaty; and both countries have beenThe sentence is grammatical as written. The present perfect verbhave … signed correctly indicates that they have not signed a peacetreaty and are not on the verge of signing one. Further, the presentperfect verb have been correctly indicates that in the past bothcountries have been reluctant to develop closer relations and are stillreluctant. The answer is (A). In choice (B), the simple past did does not capture the fact thatthey did not sign a peace treaty immediately after the war and stillhave not signed one. Choice (C) is very awkward, and the present progressive beingdoes not capture the fact that the countries have been reluctant tothaw relations since after the war up through the present. In choice (D), the present tense are leaves open the possibilitythat in the past the countries may have desired closer relations butnow no longer do. In choice (E), the present progressive tense are … signing, as inchoice (D), leaves open the possibility that in the past the countriesmay have desired closer relations but now no longer do.
Idiom & Usage 1574. The Democrats have accused the Republicans of resorting to dirty tricks by planting a mole on the Democrat’s planning committee and then used the information obtained to sabotage the Democrat’s campaign. (A) used the information obtained to sabotage (B) used the information they had obtained to sabotage (C) of using the information they had obtained to sabotage (D) using the information obtained to sabotage (E) to have used the information obtained to sabotageChoice (A) is incorrect because the simple past obtained does notexpress the fact that the information was gotten before another pastaction—the sabotage. Choice (B) is incorrect because used is not parallel to ofresorting. Choice (C) is correct because the phrase of using is parallel tothe phrase of resorting. Further, the past perfect had obtainedcorrectly expresses that a past action—the spying—was completedbefore another past action—the sabotage. Choice (D) is incorrect because using is not parallel to ofresorting and the past perfect is not used. Choice (E) is incorrect because to have used is not parallel to ofresorting and the past perfect is not used. Solutions to Drill VI1. Regarding legalization of drugs, I am not concerned so much by its potential impact on middle class America but instead by its potential impact on the inner city. (A) but instead (B) so much as (C) rather (D) but rather (E) asThe correct structure for this type of sentence is not so much by_____ as by _____. The answer is (E).
158 Vocabulary 40002. Unless you maintain at least a 2.0 GPA, you will not graduate medical school. (A) you will not graduate medical school. (B) you will not be graduated from medical school. (C) you will not be graduating medical school. (D) you will not graduate from medical school. (E) you will graduate medical school.Choice (A) is incorrect. In this context, graduate requires the wordfrom: “you will not graduate from medical school.” The use of the passive voice in choices (B) and (C) weakens thesentence. Choice (D) is the answer since it uses the correct idiomgraduate from. Choice (E) changes the meaning of the sentence and does notcorrect the faulty idiom.3. The studio’s retrospective art exhibit refers back to a simpler time in American history. (A) The studio’s retrospective art exhibit refers back to (B) The studio’s retrospective art exhibit harkens back to (C) The studio’s retrospective art exhibit refers to (D) The studio’s retrospective art exhibit refers from (E) The studio’s retrospective art exhibit looks back toChoice (A) is incorrect. Retrospective means looking back on thepast. Hence, in the phrase refers back, the word back is redundant. Choice (B) is incorrect because harkens back is also redundant. Choice (C) is correct. Dropping the word back eliminates theredundancy. Choice (D) is incorrect because the preposition from is non-idiomatic. Choice (E) is incorrect because looks back is also redundant.
Idiom & Usage 1594. Due to the chemical spill, the commute into the city will be delayed by as much as 2 hours. (A) Due to the chemical spill, the commute into the city will be delayed by as much as 2 hours. (B) The reason that the commute into the city will be delayed by as much as 2 hours is because of the chemical spill. (C) Due to the chemical spill, the commute into the city had been delayed by as much as 2 hours. (D) Because of the chemical spill, the commute into the city will be delayed by as much as 2 hours. (E) The chemical spill will be delaying the commute into the city by as much as 2 hours.Choice (A) is incorrect. Although many educated writers andspeakers begin sentences with due to, it is almost always incorrect. Choice (B) is incorrect: it is both redundant and awkward. Choice (C) is incorrect. The past perfect had been delayedimplies the delay no longer exists. Hence, the meaning of thesentence has been changed. Choice (D) is correct. In general, due to should not be used asa substitute for because of, owing to, by reason of, etc. Choice (E) is incorrect. The future progressive will be delayingis unnecessary and ponderous. Had choice (E) used the simplefuture will delay, it would have been better that choice (D) becausethen it would be more direct and active.