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  • 1. LEARNING
  • 2. Definition
    Learning can be defined as a relatively permanent change in behaviour or potential behaviour as a result of direct or indirect experience.
    There are two primary elements in definition of learning:
    1. Learning involves change.
    2. The change must be relatively permanent.
  • 3. Significance of Learning
    Learning can mould the behavior of employees to enhance their performance
    Improves the skills of workers and the attitude of a manager
    Helps the employees to work with more efficiency to earn profits
  • 4. Theories of Learning
    Classical Conditioning
    Operant Conditioning
    Cognitive Learning
    Social Learning
  • 5. Classical Conditioning
    This theory was given by Ivan Pavlov
    Classical conditioning is a simple form of learning in which conditioned response is linked with an unconditioned stimulus.
    “A process of learning by temporal association in which two events that repeatedly occur close together in time become fused in a person's mind and produce the same response."
  • 6. Operant Conditioning
    Also known as reinforcement theory
    Theory is associated with the work of B.F. Skinner
    It suggests that behavior is a function of its consequences
    The behavior that results in pleasant consequences are more likely to be repeated, and behavior that results in unpleasant consequences is less likely to be repeated
    Future behavioral choices are affected by the consequences of earlier behaviors. Reinforcement, therefore, strengthens a behavior and increases the likelihood that it will be repeated
  • 7. DEFINITION
    Operant conditioning is a learning process that involve an increase or decrease in the likelihood of some behavior as a result of the consequences.
    The relationship between behavior and consequence is built around two principles:
    Behavior that results in positive rewards tends to be repeated and that results in negative way tends not to be repeated
    Based upon the consequences, behavior can be predicted and controlled
  • 8. Types of Reinforcement
    Managers can use various kinds of reinforcement to affect employee behavior. There are four basic forms of Reinforcement:
    Positive reinforcement
    Avoidance
    Extinction
    Punishment
  • 9. Positive Reinforcement: Positive reinforcement occurs when the likelihood of a certain behavior increases as a result of the presentation of something pleasant after the behavior. 
    Negative Reinforcement: Also known as ‘escape conditioning’ & ‘avoidance learning’. It occurs when the likelihood of a certain behavior increases as the result of removing something unpleasant after the behavior. The employees work hard to avoid repercussion, reprimand and other negative aspects.
  • 10. Extinction : It occurs when a behavior that had previously been reinforced is no longer effective. This method is a suitable form of punishment in the form of with holding the positive enforcement or simply ignoring the undesirable behavior.
    Punishment : The most controversial method of behavior modification and involves delivering an undesirable behavior.
  • 11. Cognitive Theory
    This theory influenced many industrial programs in 1940’s and 1950’s
    Its aim was to strengthen the relationship between cognitive cues (supervisory, job procedures) and workers expectations (monetary rewards)
    It increases the productivity of workers by associating orders or instructions with financial rewards
  • 12. Social Learning Theory
    Integrates the cognitive and operant approaches
    It emphasizes that people acquire new behavior by observing or imitating others in a social setting
    It an also be gained by discipline and self control irrespective of external rewards or consequences
    Learning by others is known as ‘vicarious learning or modelling’,in which another person acts as a role model, whose behavior we tend to imitate