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  • 1. If you no longer require this review copy, please return it to Pearson Education and we will donate $1 to Jumpstart for children who need our help.
  • 2. ---l---r_ __ _J,-__ T Preface xxix PART 1 Understanding Marketing Management 2 Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Defining Marketing for the 21 st Century 3 Developing Marketing Strategies and Plans 33 AR 2 Capturing Marketing Insights Chapter 3 Chapter 4 ART Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Connecting with Customers 5 6 7 8 64 Gathering Information and Scanning the Environment 65 Conducting Marketing Research and Forecasting Demand 89 118 Creating Customer Value, Satisfaction, and Loyalty Analyzing Consumer Markets 149 Analyzing Business Markets 181 Identifying Market Segments and Targets 207 119 PART 4 Building Strong Brands Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Creating Brand Equity 235 Crafting the Brand Positioning 267 Dealing with Competition 293 PART 5 Shaping the Market Offerings Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Setting Product Strategy 317 Designing and Managing Services 345 Developing Pricing Strategies and Programs PART 6 Delivering Value Chapter 15 Chapter 16 Designing and Managing Integrated Marketing Managing Retailing, Wholesaling, and Logistics PA T7 Communicating Value Chapter 17 Chapter 18 Designing and Managing Integrated Marketing Communications 469 Managing Mass Communications: Advertising, Sales Promotions, Events and Experiences, and Public Relations 497 Managing Personal Communications: Direct and Interactive Marketing, Word of Mouth, and Personal Selling 531 Chapter 19 234 316 375 408 409 441' 468 PARTS Creating Successful Long-Term Growth Chapter 20 Chapter 21 Chapter 22 Introducing New Market Offerings 565 Tapping into Global Markets 597 Managing a Holistic Marketing Organization Appendix A1 Endnotes E1 Glossary G1 Image Credits C1 Name Index 11 Company, Brand, and Organization Index Subject Index 110 564 625 13 vii
  • 3. Preface xxix PART 1 Understanding Marketing Management Chapter 1 Defining Marketing for the 21st Century The Importance of Marketing The Scope of Marketing 5 2 3 4 What Is Marketing? 5 What Is Marketed? 6 Who Markets? 7 Marketing in Practice 10 Core Marketing Concepts 12 Needs, Wants, and Demands 12 Target Markets, Positioning, and Segmentation Offerings and Brands 13 13 Value and Satisfaction 13 Marketing Channels 14 Supply Chain 14 Competition 14 Marketing Environment 14 The New Marketing Realities 15 Major Societal Forces 15 New Consumer Capabilities 16 New Company Capabilities 17 Company Orientation toward the Marketplace 18 The Production Concept 18 The Product Concept 18 The Selling Concept 19 The Marketing Concept 19 The Holistic Marketing Concept 19 MARKETING MEMO Marketing Right and Wrong Relationship Marketing 20 20 BREAKTHROUGH MARKETING Nike Integrated Marketing 22 Internal Marketing 24 Performance Marketing 26 Marketing Management Tasks 21 28 Developing Marketing Strategies and Plans Capturing Marketing Insights 28 28 MARKETING MEMO Marketers' Frequently Asked Questions 29 Connecting with Customers 29 Building Strong Brands 29 ix
  • 4. E Shaping the Market Offerings Delivering Value 29 29 Communicating Value 30 Creating Long-Term Growth 30 Summary 30 Applications 31 Chapter 2 33 Developing Marketing Strategies and Plans Marketing and Customer Value 34 The Value Delivery Process 34 The Value Chain 35 Core Competencies 36 A Holistic Marketing Orientation and Customer Value The Central Role of Strategic Planning BREAKTHROUGH MARKETING Intel 40 Corporate and Division Strategic Planning Defining the Corporate Mission 38 39 41 41 Establishing Strategic Business Units 43 Assigning Resources to Each SBU25 44 Assessing Growth Opportunities 44 Organization and Organizational Culture Marketing Innovation Business Unit Strategic Planning The Business Mission 48 SWOT Analysis 47 47 48 48 MARKETING INSIGHT Creating Innovative Marketing Goal Formulation MARKETI 49 52 MEMO Checklist for Performing StrengthslWeaknesses Analysis 53 Strategic Formulation 53 Program Formulation and tmplementation 55 MARKETING INSIGHT Marketing's Contribution to Shareholder Value Feedback and Control 56 56 Product Planning: The Nature and Contents of a Marketing Plan 56 MARKETING MEMO Marketing Plan Criteria Summary 63 Applications ;. 63 57
  • 5. PART 2 Capturing Marketing Insights 64 Chapter 3 Gathering Information and Scanning the Environment 65 Components of a Modern Marketing Information System Internal Records and Marketing Intelligence 67 The Order-to-Payment Cycle 67 Sales Information Systems 68 Databases, Data Warehousing, and Data Mining 68 The Markehng Intelligence System 69 MARKETING INSIGHT The Big Dig 66 70 MARKETING MEMO Clicking on the Competition 72 72 Analyzing the Macroenvironment Needs and Trends 72 MARKET NG MEMO Trends Shaping the Business Landscape 73 74 Identifying the Major Forces BREAKTHROUGH MARKETING Google The Demographic Environment Worldwide Population Growth Population Age Mix 76 MARKETING INSIGHT 75 75 75 Friends for Life 76 Ethnic and Other Markets 77 Educational Groups 78 Household Patterns 78 Geographical Shifts in Population 78 Other Major Macroenvironments 79 Economic Environment 79 Social-Cultural Environment 80 Natural Environment 82 MARKETING INSIGHT Green Marketing Technological Environment Political-Legal Environment Summary 87 Applications 87 Chapter 4 83 84 86 Conducting Marketing Research and Forecasting Demand 89 The Marketing Research System 90 The Marketing Research Process 9~ Step 1: Define the Problem, the Decision Alternatives, and the Research Objectives 91 Step 2: Develop the Research Plan 92 xi
  • 6. MARKETING INSIGHT Conducting Informative Focus Groups 95 MARKETING MEMO Questionnaire Dos and Don'ts 96 MARKETING INSIGHT Getting into Consumers' Heads with Qualitative Research 98 MARKETING INSIGHT Understanding Brain Science Step 3: Collect the Information 99 101 MARKETING MEMO Pros and Cons of Online Research Step 4: Analyze the Information 102 Step 5: Present the Findings 103 Step 6: Make the Decision 103 Overcoming Barriers to the Use of Marketing Research BREAKTHROUGH MARKETING IDEO Measuring Marketing Productivity Marketing Metrics 106 Marketing-Mix Modeling 106 Marketing Dashboards 107 MARKETING INSIGHT 102 103 105 106 Marketing Dashboards to Improve Effectiveness and Efficiency 108 Forecasting and Demand Measurement 109 The Measures of Market Demand 110 A Vocabulary for Demand Measurement 111 Estimating Current Demand 113 Estimating Future Demand 115 Summary 117 Applications 117 PART 3 Connecting with Customers Chapter 5 Creating Customer Value, Satisfaction, and Loyalty 118 Building Customer Value, Satisfaction, and loyalty Customer Perceived Value 121 Total Customer Satisfaction 124 Monitoring Satisfaction 125 MARKETING INSIGHT 120 Net Promoter and Customer Satisfaction 127 Product and Service Quality xli 119 129
  • 7. Maximizing Customer Lifetime Value 130 130 Customer Profitability 132 Measuring Customer Lifetime Value ARKETI G MEMO Calculating Customer Lifetime Value Cultivating Customer Relationships 132 133 133 Customer Relationship Management MARKETING INSIGHT Company Response to Customer Empowerment 134 136 Attracting and Retaining Customers Building Loyalty 138 MA KETI G MEMO Creating Customer Evangelists 142 Win-Backs Customer Databases and Database Marketing 142 143 Customer Databases Data Warehouses and Datamining 143 BREAKTHROUGH MARKETING Tesco 144 The Downside of Database Marketing and CRM Summary 139 145 147 147 Applications Chapter 6 Analyzing Consumer Markets 149 What Influences Consumer Behavior? Cultura! Factors 150 150 MARKETING INSIGHT The Future of American Hyperconsumption 152 MARKETING INSIGHT Marketing to Cultural Market Segments 153 154 Personal Factors 156 Social Factors MARKETING MEMO The Average U.s. Consumer Quiz Key Psychological Processes 160 BREAKTHROUGH MARKETING Ikea Motivation: Freud, Maslow, Herzberg Perception 157 161 161 163 Learning 164 Memory 165 The Buying Decision Process: The Five-Stage Model Problem Reco9nition Information Search 167 168 168 xlii
  • 8. Evaluation of Alternatives 169 Purchase Decision 172 Postpurchase Behavior 173 Other Theories of Consumer Decision Making 174 Level of Consumer Involvement 174 Decision Heuristics and Biases 175 MARKETING INSIGHT How Consumers Really Make Decisions 176 MARKETING MEMO Decision Traps Mental Accounting 177 177 Profiling the Customer Buying-Decision Process Summary 178 Applications 179 Chapter 7 Analyzing Business Markets 178 181 What Is Organizational Buying? 182 The Business Market versus the Consumer Market 182 MARKETING INSIGHT Big Sales to Small Business Buying Situations 185 Systems Buying and Selling 184 186 MARKETING MEMO Maximizing Customer References Participants in the Business Buying Process The Buying Center 188 Buying Center Influences 188 Buying Center Targeting 190 The Purchasing/Procurement Process 188 191 Purchasing Department Perceptions 191 Purchasing Organization and Administration Stages in the Buying 'Process 192 Problem Recognition 187 192 193 General Need Description and Product Specification Supplier Search 193 193 Proposal Solicitation 194 Supplier Selection 194 MARKETING MEMO Developing Compelling Customer Value Propositions 196 Order-Routine Specification 197 Performance Review 198 Managing Business-to-Business Customer Relationships The Benefits of Vertical Coordination 198 BREAKTHROUGH MARKETING General Electric 199 198
  • 9. MARKETING INSIGHT Establishing Corporate Trust and Credibility 200 Business Relationships: Risks and Opportunism Institutional and Government Markets 202 201 A KETt G MEMO Selling Tech to the Government 204 Summary 205 Applications 205 Chapter 8 Identifying Market Segments and Targets Levels of Market Segmentation Segment Marketing 208 lIiche Marketing 209 Local Marketing 210 Individual Marketing 210 207 208 MARKETING INSIGHT Chasing the Long Tall BREAKTHROUGH MARKETING HSBC 212 Bases for Segmenting Consumer Markets Geographic Segmentation 213 Demographic Segmentation 215 211 213 MARKETING INSIGHT Trading Up (and Down): The New Consumer 219 MARKETING INSIGHT Marketing to Generation Y 220 MARKETING M MO Cheat Sheet for 20-Somethin'gs Psychographic Segmentation 221 Behavioral Segmentation 223 Bases for Segmenting Business Markets 226 Market Targeting 227 Effective Segmentation Criteria 227 Evaluating and Selecting the Market Segments Additional Considerations 230 Summary 232 Applications 233 PART 4 Building Strong Brands Chapter 9 Creating Brand Equity 221 228 234 235 What Is Brand Equity? 236 The Role of Brands 237 The Scope of Branding 238 Defining Brand Equity 238 xv
  • 10. r " T BREAKTHROUGH MARKETING Procter & Gamble MARKETING INSIGHT 239 Brand Cooking with Jamie Oliver 240 Brand Equity as a Bridge 242 Brand Equity Models 243 Building Brand Equity 245 Choosing Brand Elements 246 Designing Holistic Marketing Activities 247 Leveraging Secondary Associations 250 Measuring Brand Equity 251 MARKETING INSIGHT The Brand Value Chain 252 Brand Valuation 253 Managing Brand Equity 253 Brand Reinforcement 253 MARKETING INSIGHT What Is a Brand Worth? Brand Revitalization 255 Devising a Branding Strategy Branding Decisions 2'57 Brand Extensions 258 Brand Portfolios 261 Customer Equity 263 254 256 MARKETING MEMO Twenty-First-Century Branding 263 Summary 264 Applications 265 Chapter 10 Crafting the Brand Positioning 267 Developing and Communicating a Positioning Strategy Competitive Frame of Reference 269 Points-of-Difference and Points-of-Parity 269 BREAKTHROUGH MARKETING UPS Establishing Category Membership Choosing POPs and PODs 274 Creating POPs and PODs 274 270 271 MARKET1NG MEMO Writing a Positioning Statement Differentiation Strategies 276 MARKETING MEMO How to Derive Fresh Consumer Insights to Differentiate Products and Services 277 xvi 268 275
  • 11. " I Product Life-Cycle Marketing Strategies Product Life Cycles 278 Style, Fashion, and Fad Life Cycles 278 279 Marketing Strategies: Introduction Stage and the Pioneer Advantage 280 Marketing Strategies: Growth Stage 282 Marketing Strategies: Maturity Stage 283 MARKETING INSIGHT Competitive Category Dynamics Marketing Strategies: Decline Stage 286 Evidence on the Product Life-Cycle Concept Critique of the Product Life-Cycle Concept Market Evolution 288 284 287 287 MARKETI G MEMO How to Build a Breakaway Brand 289 Summary 290 Applications 291 Chapter 11 Dealing with Competition Competitive Forces 293 294 Identifying Competitors 295 Analyzing Competitors 296 Strategies 296 MARKETING INSIGHT High Growth Through Value Innovation Objectives 297 297 Strengths and Weaknesses 299 Selecting Competitors 299 MARKETING MEM Benchmarking to Improve Competitive Performance 300 Selecting Customers 300 Competitive Strategies for Market Leaders BREAKTHROUGH MARKETING Accenture 301 302 MARKETING INSIGHT When your Competitor Delivers More for Less 303 Expanding the Total Market 303 Defending Market Share 305 Expanding Market Share 307 Other Competitive Strategies 308 Market-Challenger Strategies 308 Market-Follower Strategies 310 xvii
  • 12. MARKETING MEMO Making Smailer Better Market-Nicher Strategies 311 312 MARKETING MEMO Niche Specialist Roles 313 Balancing Customer and Competitor Orientations 314 Competitor-Centered Companies 314 Customer-Centered Companies 314 Summary 315 Applications PARTS 315 Shaping the Market Offerings Chapter 12 Setting Product Strategy 316 317 Product Characteristics and Classifications 318 Product Levels: The Customer-Value Hierarchy MARKETING INSIGHT Product Classifications Differentiation 321 Product Differentiation Metamarkets and Metamediaries 321 324 326 Product and Brand Relationships The Product Hierarchy 328 Product Systems and Mixes Product-Line Analysis 329 Product-Line Length 331 328 328 MARKETING INSIGHT When Less Is More Product-Mix Pricing 332 335 Co-Branding and Ingredient Branding 337 MARKETING MEMO Making Ingredient Branding Work Packaging, Labeling, Warranties, and Guarantees Packaging 339 Labeling 340 Warranties and Guarantees Summary 342 Applications xviii 343 319 319 BREAKTHROUGH MARKETING Toyota Design 325 Services Differentiation 318 341 339 339
  • 13. Chapter 13 Designing and Managing Services The Nature of Services 346 Service Industries Are Everywhere 345 346 Categories of Service Mix 347 Distinctive Characteristics of Services 349 Marketing Strategies for Service Firms 352 A Shifting Customer Relationship 352 MARKETING MEMO Recommendations for Improving Service Quality 353 BREAKTHROUGH MARKETING Southwest Airlines Holistic Marketing for Services 355 356 Managing Service Quality 359 Customer Expectations 359 MARKETING INSIGHT The Role of Expectations in Service­ Quality Perceptions 361 MARKETING MEMO Assessing E-Service Quality 362 362 Best Practices of Service-Quality Management MARKETING INSIGHT Developing Customer Interface Systems 364 Managing Service Brands 367 Differentiating Services 367 Developing Brand Strategies for Services 368 Managing Product-Support Servkes 370 Identifying and Satisfying Customer Needs Postsale Service Strategy 371 370 Summary 373 Applications 373 Chapter 14 Developing Pricing Strategies and Programs Understanding Pricing 375 376 A Changing Pricing Environment How Companies Price 377 MARKETING INSIGHT 376 Giving It All Away Consumer Psychology and Pricing Setting the Price 383 378 379 Step 1: Selecting the Pricing Objective Step 2: Determining Demand 385 383 xix
  • 14. r Step 3: Estimating Costs 388 Step 4: Analyzing Competitors' Costs, Prices, and Offers Step 5: Selecting a Pricing Method 390 BREAKTHROUGH MARKETING Ebay Step 6: Selecting the Final Price 394 395 MARKETING INSIGHT Stealth Price Increases Adapting the Price 389 396 397 Geographical Pricing (Cash, Countertrade, Barter) Price Discounts and Allowances 398 Promotional Pricing 399 Differentiated Pricing 400 Initiating and Responding to Price Changes 397 402 Initiating Price Cuts 402 Initiating Price Increases 403 Responding to Competitors' Price Changes 404 MARKETING ME:MO How to Fight Low-Cost Rivals 405 Summary 406 Applications 407 PART 6 Delivering Value 408 Chapter 15 Designing and Managing Integrated Marketing Channels Marketing Channels and Value Networks The Importance of Channels 410 Channel Development 411 Hybrid Channels 412 Understanding Customer Needs 409 410 413 Value Networks 414 The Role of Marketing Channels 414 Channel Functions and Flows 415 Channel Levels 416 Service Sector Channels Channel-Design Decisions 417 417 Analyzing Customers' Desired Service Output Leve~s Establishing Objectives and Constraints 418 Identifying and Evaluating Major Channel Alternatives 417 418 MARKETING INSIGHT How CarMax Is Transforming the Auto Business 420 Evaluating the Major Alternatives xx 421
  • 15. Channel-Management Decisions 423 Selecting Channel Members 423 Training and Motivating Channel Members 423 Evaluating Channel Members 424 Modifying Channel Design and Arrangements Channel Integration and Systems 426 Vertical Marketing Systems 425 426 MARKETING INSIGHT The Importance of Channel Stewards 427 Horizontal Marketing Systems 428 Integrating Multichannel Marketing Systems TI MEM 428 Multichannel Shopping Checklist Conflict, Cooperation, and Competition Types of Conflict and Competition Causes of Channel Conflict 431 Managing Channel Conflict 431 430 431 Dilution and Cannibalization 433 Legal and Ethical Issues in Channel Relations E-Commerce Marketing Practices 434 Pure-Click Companies 433 434 BREAKTHROUGH: MARKETING Brick-and-Click Companies M-Commerce 437 Summary 435 437 438 Applications 439 Chapter 16 Managing Retailing, Wholesaling, and Logistics Retailing 429 441 442 Types of Retailers 442 The New Retail Environment Marketing Decisions 446 448 MARKETING INSIGHT Making Labels Smarter 451 BREAKTHROUGH MARKETING Target M RKETING ME Private Labels 453 0 Helping Stores to Sell 454 456 Role of Private Labels 456 The Private-Label Threat 457 MARKETING MEMO How to Compete Against Store Brands 458 xxi
  • 16. • Wholesaling 458 Trends in Wholesaling Market Logistics 459 461 Integrated Logistics Systems Market-Logistics Objectives Market-Logistics Decisions Organizational Lessons Summary 462 462 464 466 467 467 Applications PART 7 Communicating Value 468 Chapter 17 Designing and Managing Integrated Marketing Communications 469 The Role of Marketing Communications 470 The Changing Marketing Communication Environment Marketing Communications, Brand Equity, and Sales the Communications Process Models 474 Developing Effective Communications 470 471 476 Identify the Target Audience 476 Determi,ne the Communications Objectives Design the Communications 477 477 MARKETING INSIGHT Celebrity Endorsements as a Strategy 480 481 Establish the Total Marketing Communications Budget 484 Deciding on the Marketing Communications Mix 486 Characteristics of the Marketing Communications Mix 486 Select the Communications Channels BREAKTHROUGH MARKETING Ocean Spray 486 Factors in Setting the Marketing Communications Mix 491 Managing the Integrated Marketing Communications Process 491 Coordinating Media 492 Implementing IMC 493 Measuring Communication Results MARKETING MEMO How Integrated Is Your IMC Program? Summary 494 Applications 495 494 489
  • 17. _[ 1.-'---_ _ Chapter 18 Managing Mass Communications: Advertising, Sales Promotions, Events and Experiences, and Public Relations 497 498 Developing and Managing an Advertising Program Setting the Objectives 499 Deciding on the Advertising Budget 499 Developing the Advertising Campaign 500 MARKETI G M MO Print Ad Evaluation Criteria Deciding on Media and Measuring Effectiveness Deciding on Reach, Frequency, and Impact Choosing among Major Media Types 506 504 505 505 Alternative Advertising Options 508 Selecting Specific Media Vehicles 510 MARKETING INSIGHT Playing Games with Brands Deciding on Media Timing and Allocation Evaluating Advertising Effectiveness 513 Sales Promotion 514 Objectives 514 Advertising versus Promotion Major Decisions 516 Events and Experiences 520 Events Objectives 521 Major Sponsorship Decisions Creating Experiences Public Relations 523 512 515 521 523 MARKETING INSIGHT Experiential Marketing MARKETING INSIGHT Managing a Brand Crisis Marketing Public Relations 524 525 525 BREAKTHROUGH MARKETING Virgin Group Major Decisions in Marketing PR Summary 511 526 527 529 Applications 529 Chapter 19 Managing Personal Communications: D,i,rect and Interactive Marketing, Word of Mouth, and Personal Selling Direct Marketing 532 The Benefits of Direct Marketing Direct Mail 531 532 534 Catalog Marketing 536 ywiii
  • 18. Telemarketing 537 Other Media for Direct-Response Marketing 538 Public and Ethical Issues in Direct Marketing 538 Interactive Marketing 538 Advantages and Disadvantages of Interactive Marketing BREAKTHROUGH MARKETING Yahoo! Placing Ads and Promotions Online MARKfTI Word of Mouth 538 539 540 MEMO Segmenting Tech Users 542 545 Buzz and Viral Marketing Opinion Leaders 546 548 MARKETING MEMO How to Start a Buzz Fire 548 Blogs 550 Measuring the Effects of Word of Mouth Designing the Sales Force Sales-Force Objectives and Strategy Sales-Force Structure Sales-Force Size 551 551 552 553 554 MARKETING INSIGHT Major Account Management Sales-Force Compensation Managing the Sales Force 555 556 Recruiting and Selecting Representatives 556 Training and Supervising Sales Representatives Sales Rep Productivity 557 Motivating Sales Representatives 558 Evaluating Sales Representatives 559 Principles of Personal Selling The Six Steps 561 561 Relationship Marketing 562 Summary 563 Applicatij)ns 563 PARTS Creating Successful Long-Term Growth Chapter 20 Introducing New Market Offerings New-Product Options Make or Buy 565 566 566 Types of New Products 566 Challenges in New-Product Development The Innovation Imperative New-Product Success New-Product Failure xxiv 564 569 570 567 567 557 555
  • 19. --, I/~-----------~'" Organizational Arrangements 571 Budgeting for New-Product Development 572 Organizing New-Product Development 573 Managing the Development Process: Ideas 574 Idea Generation 574 MARKET! G MEMO Ten Ways to Find Great New-Product Ideas 575 MARKETING INSIGHT MARKETING P&G'S New Connect-and-Develop Approach to Innovation 576 EMO Seven Ways to Draw New Ideas from Your Customers 577 MARKETI G MEMO How to Run a Successful Brainstorming Session 578 Idea Screening 579 Managing the Development Process: Concept to Strategy Concept Development and Testing 581 Marketing Strategy Development 584 Business Analysis 584 Managing the Development Process: Development to Commercialization 586 Product Development 586 Market Testing 587 Commercialization 590 BREAKTHROUGH MARKETING Apple Ipod The Consumer-Adoption Process 592 Stages in the Adoption Process 592 Factors Influencing the Adoption Process Summary 595 Applications 595 Chapter 21 Tapping into Global Markets 591 593 597 Competing on a Global Basis 581 598 BREAKTHROUGH MARKETING Samsung Deciding Whether to Go Abroad 600 Deciding Which Markets to Enter 600 How Many Markets to Enter 600 Developed versus Developing Markets 599 601 MARKETING INSIGHT Spotlight on Key Developing Markets 604 Evaluating Potential Markets 605 xxv
  • 20. ' Deciding How to Enter the Market 606 Indirect and Direct Export 606 Using a Global Web Strategy 607 Licensing 607 Joint Ventures 608 Direct Investment 609 Deciding on the Marketing Program 609 Product 611 MARKETING MEMO The Ten Commandments of Global Branding 612 Communications Price 615 613 MARKETING INSIGHT Unauthorized Sales-Dealing with the Gray Market and Counterfeit Products 617 Distribution Channels 618 Country-of-Origin Effects 619 Building Country Images 619 Consumer Perceptions of Country of Origin 620 MARKETING INSIGHT The Ups and Downs of Brand America 621 Deciding on the Marketing Organization Export Department 622 International Division 622 Global Organization 622 $u.mmary 623 Applications 623 621 Chapter 22 Managing a Holistic Marketing Organization for the Long Run 625 Trends in Marketing Practices 626 Internal Marketing 627 Organizing the Marketing Department 627 MARKET!NG MEMO Characteristics of Company Departments That Are Truly Customer Driven 628 Relations with Other Departments 632 Building a Creative Marketing Organization MARKETING INSIGHT The Marketing CEO 633 633 MARKETING MEMO Fueling Strategic Innovation Socially Responsible Marketing xxvi 634 634
  • 21. BREAKTHROUGH MARKETING Starbucks Corporate Social Responsibility 638 Socially Responsible Business Models Cause-Related Marketing 640 637 640 MARKETING INSIGHT New Views on Corporate Social Responsibility 641 Social Marketing 644 MARK TING MEMO Making a Difference 645 Marketing Implementation 648 Evaluation and Control 649 Annual-Plan Control 649 Profitability Control 652 Efficiency Control 656 Strategic Control 656 The Future of Marketing 657 MARKETING MEMO Major Marketing Weaknesses 660 Summary 661 Applications 662 Appendix A1 Endnotes E1 Glossary G1 Image Credits C1 Name Index 11 Company, Brand, and Organization Index Subject Index 110 13 xxvii
  • 22. Each title in the Pearson One series is part of a collaborative global editorial development process that harnesses the talent and expertise of Pearson authors, editors, and production people from all over the world. And we combine content from many cultures, giving stu­ dents greater insight into what they have in common with the world, and at the same time, we offer material that is locally relevant. : :: Our History Pearson imprints have a rich heritage of academic, business, and professional books. For more than 100 years, we have provided educational tools to more than 100 million people across the globe. Our diverse network of brands encompasses a comprehensive range of solutions in testing, ,assessment, and enterprise software; the very best in online consumer and professional learning; and textbooks written by the most notable authors for higher education around the world. We help teachers teach and students learn across the globe. : :: The First in the Pearson One Series Readers of the U.S. edition will benefit from these local perspectives and expertise through our international case studies, authored by our partners worldwide. These cases will be identified by a marginal note in each chapter linked to relevant content and available through links on our Companion Website. PEARSON rr-­ UItC
  • 23. ,r~---------~---------~ r 1 ::: What Is Marketing Management All About? Marketing Management is the leading marketing text because its content and organization consistently reflect changes in marketing theory and practice, The very first edition of Marketing Management, published in 1967, introduced the concept that companies must be customer-and-market driven, But there was little mention of what have now become funda­ mental topics such as segmentation, targeting, and positioning, Concepts such as brand equity, customer value analysis, database marketing, e-commerce, value networks, hybrid channels, supply chain management, and integrated marketing communications were not even part of the marketing vocabulary then, Marketing Management continues to reflect the changes in the marketing discipline over the past forty years, Firms now sell goods and services through a variety of direct and indirect channels. Mass advertising is not nearly as effective as it was, so marketers are exploring new forms of com­ munication, such as experiential, entertainment, and viral marketing. Customers are telling companies what types of product or services they want and when, where, and how they want to buy them, They are increasingly reporting to other consumers what they think of specific companies and products-using e-mail, blogs, podcasts, and other digital media to do so, Company messages are becoming a smaller fraction of the total "conversation" about prod­ ucts and services, In response, companies have shifted gears from managing product portfolios to manag­ ing customer portfolios, compiling databases on individual customers so they can under­ stand them better and construct individualized offerings and messages, They are doing less product and service standardization and more niching and customization, They are replac­ ing monologues with customer dialogues, They are improving their methods of measuring customer profitability and customer lifetime value. They are intent on measuring the return on their marketing investment and its impact on shareholder value, They are also concerned with the ethical and social implications of their marketing decisions, As companies change, so does their marketing organization. Marketing is no longer a company department charged with a limited number of tasks-it is a company-wide under­ taking, It drives the company's vision, mission, and strategic planning, Marketing indudes decisions like who the company wants as its customers; which of their needs to satisfy; what products and services to offer; what prices to set; what communications to send and receive; what channels of distribution to use; and what partnerships to develop, Marketing succeeds only when all departments work together to achieve goals: when engineering designs the right products, finance furnishes the required funds, purchasing buys high-quality materials, production makes high-quality products on time, and accounting measures the profitability of different customers, products, and areas, To address all these different shifts, good marketers are practicing holistic marketing. Holistic marketing is the development, design, and implementation of marketing programs, processes, and activities that recognize the breadth and interdependencies oftoday's market­ ing environment. Four key dimensions of holistic marketing are: 1. Internal marketing-ensuring everyone in the organization embraces appropriate mar­ keting principles, especially senior management, 2. Integrated marketing-ensuring that multiple means of creating, delivering, and com­ municating value are employed and combined in the best way, 3. Relationship marketing-having rich, multifaceted relationships with customers, chan­ nel members, and other marketing partners, 4. Performance marketing-understanding returns to the business from marketing activi­ ties and programs, as well as addressing broader concerns and their legal, ethical, social, and environmental effects, These four dimensions are woven throughout the book and at times spelled out explicitly, The text specifically addresses the following tasks that constitute modern marketing manage­ ment in the 21st century:
  • 24. /' PREr-~~t::: I 1. Developing marketing strategies and plans 2. Capturing marketing insights and performance 3. 4. 5. 6. Connecting with customers Building strong brands Shaping the market offerings Delivering and communicating value 7. Creating successful long-term growth ••• ••• What Makes Marketing Management the Marketing Leader? Marketing is of interest to everyone, whether they are marketing goods, services, properties, persons, places, events, information, ideas, or organizations. As it has maintained its respected position among students, educators, and businesspeople, Marketing Management has kept up-to-date and contemporary. Students (and instructors) feel that the book is talk­ ing directly to them in terms of both content and delivery. Marketing Management owes its marketplace success to its ability to maximize three di­ mensions that characterize the best marketing texts-depth, breadth, and relevance-as measured by the following criteria: • Depth. Does the book have solid academic grounding? Does it contain important theo­ retical concepts, models, and frameworks? Does it provide conceptual guidance to solve practical problems? • Breadth. Does the book cover all the right topics? Does it provide the proper amount of emphasis on those topics? • Relevance. Does the book engage the reader? Is it interesting to read? Does it have lots of compelling examples? The thirteenth edition builds on the fundamental strengths of past editions that collec­ tively distinguish it from all other marketing management texts: • Managerial Orientation. The book focuses on the major decisions that marketing man­ agers and top management face in their efforts to harmonize the organization's objectives, capabilities, and resources with marketplace needs and opportunities. • Analytical Approach. Marketing Management presents conceptual tools and frame­ works for analyzing recurring problems in marketing management. Cases and examples illustrate effective marketing principles, strategies, and practices. • Multidisciplinary Perspective. The book draws on the rich findings of various scientific disciplines-economics, behavioral science, management theory, and mathematics-for fundamental concepts and tools directly applicable to marketing challenges. • Universal Applications. The book applies strategic thinking to the complete spectrum of marketing: products, services, persons, places, information, ideas and causes; con­ sumer and business markets; profit and nonprofit organizations; domestic and foreign companies; small and large firms; manufacturing and intermediary businesses; and low­ and high-tech industries. • Comprehensive and Balanced Coverage. Marketing Management covers all the topics an informed marketing manager needs to understand to execute strategic, tactical, and administrative marketing. Other features include new concepts, examples, gUidelines, and developments as detailed below. xxx
  • 25. : :: Revision Strategy for the Thirteenth Edition As marketing techl'iques and organization have changed, so has this text. The thirteenth edition is designed not only to preserve the strengths of previous editions, but also to intro­ duce new material and organization to further enhance learning. We retained the key theme of holistic marketing, and the recognition that "everything matters" with marketing and that a broad, integrated perspective is often necessary. This theme is not developed so deeply, however, that it would restrict or inhibit an instructor's flexibility and teaching approach. To provide flexibility in the classroom, we also retained the new modular structure and eight parts corresponding to the eight key marketing management tasks. The thirteenth edition was changed to include the following: • All chapters have brief commentary and new introductory vignettes that set the stage for the chapter material to follow. By covering topical brands or companies, the vignettes serve as great discussion starters. • Breakthrough Marketing boxes replace the Marketing Spotlight boxes from the twelfth edition. Each chapter has one box appearing in an appropriate spot to highlight innova­ tive, insightful marketing accomplishments by leading organizations. • Approximately four Marketing Insight and Marketing Memo boxes are included in each chapter; at least half, on average, are new. Marketing Insight boxes delve into important marketing topics, often highlighting current research findings. Marketing Memo boxes of­ fer practical advice and direction in dealing with various decisions at all stages ofthe mar­ keting management process. • About ten in-text boxes are included in each chapter, with roughly two-thirds new. These in-text boxes provide vivid illustrations of chapter concepts using actual companies and situations. The boxes cover a variety of products, services, and markets, and many have ac­ companying illustrations in the form of ads or product shots. • Chapters are updated throughout, especiaJly in terms of academic references. • At the end of each chapter, the Marketing Applications section has two practical exercises to challenge students: Marketing Debate suggests opposing points of view on an impor­ tant marketing topic from the chapter and asks students to take a side. Marketing Discus­ sion identifies provocative marketing issues and allows for a personal point of view. ::: Chapter-by-Chapter Changes Once again. this edition has been both streamlined and expanded to bring essentials and classic examples into sharper focus, while covering new concepts and ideas in depth. Following is an overview of some of the new or expanded matelial in each chapter: Chapter 1 • Role of Chief Marketing Officer (CMO) • 1Vhat makes a great marketer • Internal marketing and effective marketing departments Chapter 2 • Market sensing and becoming more market-driven • Assigning resources to SBUs • Corporate culture and innovative marketing xxxi
  • 26. l Chapter 3 • • • • Database marketing Important new marketplace trends Generations and cohorts Green marketing Chapter 4 • Ethnographic research • Brain science • Marketing dashboards • Marketing-mix modeling Chapter 5 • Measuring customer satisfaction • Methods to calculate customer lifetime value • The new customer empowerment Chapter 6 • New consumer trends • Consumer decision-making Chapter 7 • Customer references • Lead generation • Customer value proposition Chapter 8 • Niche marketing and the "long tail" • Consumers trading up and down • Brand funnel Chapter 9 Brand equity models • Internal branding • Brand valuation • Customer equity Chapter 10 • Creating new markets and categories • Building a breakaway brand Chapter 11 • Value innovation ("blue ocean thinking") • Selecting customers • Competing with value-based rivals J(J()(lj
  • 27. Chapter 12 • Product returns • Product and product line simplification Chapter 13 Customer empowerment • Coproduction • Customer interface systems • Service strategies for product companies Chapter 14 • The changing pricing environment "Freemium" pricing strategies Price optimization • Strategies to fight low-cost rivals Chapter 15 • Channel stewardship • E-marketing • M-marketing Chapter 16 • The new retail environment • "Fast forward" retailers • RFIDs • Private-label competition Chapter 17 The changing marketing communication environment Interactive marketing Word-of-mouth marketing Chapter 18 • New developments in place advertising • Advergames and Second Life • New developments in marketing events and experiences Chapter 19 • Consumer-generated ads • Types of interactive marketing • Word of mouth, buzz and viral marketing, blogs, and podcasts Chapter 20 • Innovation imperative • "Connect and develop" innovation approaches xxxiii
  • 28. E E • Generating ideas from customers Designing brainstorming sessions Chapter 21 • Emerging markets ("BlUeS") • Regionalization • Gray markets and counterfeit products Chapter 22 • New developments in social responsibility • Cause marketing guidelines • Marketing metrics • Marketing creativity and discipline ::: The Teaching and Learning Package Marketing Management is an entire package of materials available to students and instruc­ tors. This edition includes a number of ancillaries designed to make the marketing manage­ ment course an exciting, dynamic. mtewctive experience. CourseSmart CourseSmart is an exciting new chuice tor students looking to save money. As an alternative to purchasing the print textbook, studellts can purchase an electronic version of the same content and save up to 50 percent off the suggested list price of the print text. With a CourseSmart eTextbook, students can search the text, nlake notes online, print out reading assignments tbat incorporate lecture notes, and bookmark important passages for later review. For more infor­ mation, or to purchase access to the CourseSmart eTextbook, visit www.coursesmart.colll. VangoNotes Study on the go with VangoNotes--chapter reviews from your text in downloadable MP3 for­ mat. Now wherever you are--whatever you're doing--you can study by listening to the fol­ lowing for each chapter of your textbook: • Big Ideas: Your "need to know" for each chapter • Key Terms: Audio "flashcards" to help you review key concepts and terms • Rapid Review: A quick drill session--use it right before your test VangoNotes are flexible; download all the material directly to your player, or only the chap­ ters you need. And they're efficient. Use them in your car, at the gym, walking to class, or wherever. So get yours today. And get studying. Marketing Management Cases Prentice Hall Custom Business Resources can provide instructors and students with all the cases and articles needed to enhance and maximize learning in a marketing course. Instructors can create Custom Course Packs or Custom CaseBooks. Resources include top­ tier cases from Darden, Harvard, Ivey, NACRA. and Thunderbird, plus full access to a data­ base of articles. For details on how to order these value-priced packages, colltact your local representative or visit the Prentice Hall Custom Business Resources Web site at W/ xxxiv
  • 29. ( J ------!....-.---~---, Instructor's Resource Manual The Instructor's Resource Manual· includes chapter/summary overviews, key teaching objectives, answers to end-of-chapter materials, Harvard Business School case suggestions, exercises, projects, and detailed lecture outlines. Also included is the feature, "Professors on the Go!" which was created with the busy professor in mind. It brings key material upfront, where an instructor who is short on time can find key points and assignments that can be incorporated into the lecture, without having to page through all the material provided for each chapter. Instructor's Resource Center (lRC) IRC-CD-ROM: New interface and searchable database makes sorting through and locat­ ing specific resources easier than ever before. Includes all the same supplements hosted at our IRC Online; however, the TestGen is only available online. The CD-ROM also con­ tains many images from the textbook, which you may incorporate into your lectures. • IRC-ONLINE: The Prentice Hall catalog at is where instructors can access our complete array of teaching materials. Simply go to the Instructor's Resource page for this text and click on the Instructor link to download the Instructor's Manual, Video Guide, Test Item File, TestGen, PowerPoint slides (Basic only), and more. Please note that the PowerPoint Media Rich set is provided only on the IRC on CD-ROM due to its larger file size and embedded video clips. NOTE: Prentice Hall manuaUy checks evelJlpassword request and verifies each individual's instructor status before issuing a password. Test Item File 1~IAACS[31 The Test Item File contains more than 3,000 multiple-choice, true-false, short-answer, and essay questions, with page reference and difficulty level provided for each question. Please note that an entire section is dedicated to application questions. These real-life situations take students beyond basic chapter concepts and vocabulary and ask them to apply market­ ing skills. The Test Item File supports Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) International Accreditation. Each chapter of the Test Item File was prepared with the AACSB curricula standards in mind. Where appropriate, the answer line of each question' indicates a category within which the question falls. This AACSB reference helps instructors identify those test questions that support that organization's learning goals. 'Please note that not all the questions will offer an AACSB reference. TestGen Prentice Hall's TestGen test-generating software is available for this edition as well. This sup­ plement is available from the IRe Online only ( Please note that the TestGen is NOT included on the Instructor's Resource Center on CD. • PC/Mac compatible and preloaded with all the Test Item file questions. • Manually or randomly view test bank questions and drag-and-drop to create a test. • Add or modify test bank questions using the built-in Question Editor. • Print up to 25 variations of a single test and deliver the test on a local area network using the built-in QuizMaster feature. • Free customer support is available at or call 1-800-6­ PROFESSOR between 8:00 AM and 5:00 PM CST. xxxv
  • 30. PowerPoints When it comes to PowerPoints, Prentice Hall knows one size does not fit all. That's why Marketing Management, thirteenth edition, offers instructors more than one option. PowerPoint BASIC: This simple presentation includes only basic outlines and key points from each chapter. No animation or forms of rich media are integrated, which makes the total file size manageable and easier to share online or via e- mail. BASIC was also designed for instructors who prefer to customize PowerPoints or want to avoid having to strip out animation, embedded files, or other media-rich features. • PowerPoint MEDIA RICH: This media-rich alternative-the best option if you want a complete presentation solution-includes basic outlines and key points from each chap­ ter, plus advertisements and art from the text, discussion questions, Web links, and em­ bedded video snippets from the accompanying video library. Instructors can further customize this presentation using the image library featured on the IRC on CD-ROM. Aside from these two PowerPoint options, a select number of slides, based on the MEDIA RICH version, are also available as overhead transparencies. Marketing Management Video Gallery 2009 Make your classroom "newsworthy." PH has updated the Marketing Management video library for the thirteenth edition. Using today's popular newsmagazine format, students are taken on location and behind closed doors. Each news story profiles a well-known or up­ and-coming company leading the way in its industry. A full library of video segments accom­ pany this edition, covering key topics using leading companies such as American Express, the NFL, Eaton, and Wild Planet. Issue-focused footage includes interviews with top execu­ tives, objective reporting by real news anchors, industry research analysts, and marketing and advertising campaign experts. A full video guide, including synopses, discussion ques­ tions, and teaching suggestions, is available on the IRC (online and on CD-ROM) to accom­ pany the video library. Companion Web Site Available at site offers students valuable resources at no cost. Two quizzes are offered per chapter. The Concept Check Quiz is to be administered prior to reviewing the chapter, in order to assess students' initial understanding. The Concept Challenge Quiz is to be administered after reviewing the chapter. The Marketing Plan Handbook 3rc1 edition with Marketing Plan Pro l l Marketing Plan Pro is a highly rated commercial software program that guides students through the entire marketing plan process. The software is totally interactive and features ten sample marketing plans, step-by-step guides, and customizable charts. Customize your marketing plan to fit your marketing needs by following easy-to-use plan wizards. Follow the clearly outlined steps from strategy to implementation. Click to print, and your text, spread­ sheet, and charts come together to create a powerful marketing plan. The new The Marketing Plan Handbook, by Marian Burk Wood, supplements the in-text marketing plan material with an in-depth guide to what student marketers really need to know. A structured learning process leads to a complete and actionable marketing plan. Also included are timely, real­ world examples that illustrate key points, sample marketing plans, and Internet resources. The Handbook and Marketing Plan Pro software are available as value-pack items at a dis­ counted price. Contact your ,local Prentice Hall representative for more information. xxxvi
  • 31. ..-----------~---------~-" .. he thirteenth edition bears the imprint of many people. From Phil Kotler: My colleagues and associates at the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University continue to have an important impact on my thinking: Nidhi Agrawal, Eric 1. Anderson, James c. Anderson, Robert C. Blattberg, Miguel C. Brend!, Bobby J. Calder, Gregory S. Carpenter, Alex Chernev, Anne T. Coughlan, David Gal, Kent Grayson, Karsten Hansen, Dipak C. Jain, Lakshman Krishnamurti, Angela Lee, Vincent Nijs, Yi Qian, Mohanbir S. Sawhney, Louis W. Stern, Brian Sternthal, Alice M. Tybout, and Andris A. Zoltners. I also want to thank the S. C. Johnson Family for the generous support of my chair at the Kellogg School. Com­ pleting the Northwestern team is my former Dean, Donald P. Jacobs, and my current Dean, Dipak Jain, both of whom have provided generous support for my research and writing. Several former faculty members of the marketing department had a great influence on my thinking when I first joined the Kellogg marketing faculty, specifically Richard M. Clewett, Ralph Westfall, Harper W. Boyd, and Sidney J. Levy. I also want to acknowledge Gary Armstrong for our work on Principles ofMarketing. I am indebted to the following coauthors of international editions of Marketing Manage­ mentand Principles ofMarketing who have taught me a great deal as we worked together to adapt marketing management thinking to the problems of different nations: T • • • • Swee- Hoon Ang and Siew-Meng Leong: National University of Singapore Chin-Tiong Tan: Singapore Management University FriedheIm W. Bliemel: Universitat Kaiserslautern (Germany) Linden Brown; Stewart Adam: Deakin University; Suzan Burton: Macquarie Graduate School of Management; and Sara Denize: University ofWestern Sydney (Australia) • Bernard Dubois: Groupe HEC School of Management (France); and Delphine Manceau: ESCP-EAP European School of Management • John Saunders (Loughborough University) and Veronica Wong (Warwick University, United Kingdom) • Jacob Hornick: Tel Aviv University (Israel) • Walter Giorgio Scott: Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (Italy) • Peggy Cunningham: Queen's University (Canada) I also want to acknowledge how much I have learned from working with coauthors on more specialized marketing subjects: Alan Andreasen, Christer Asplund, Paul N. Bloom, John Bowen, Roberta C. Clarke, Karen Fox, David Gertner, Michael Hamlin, Thomas Hayes, Donald Haider, Hooi Den Hua, Dipak Jain, Somkid Jatusripitak, Hermawan Kartajaya, Neil Kotler, Nancy Lee, Sandra Liu, Suvit Maesincee, James Maken, Waldemar Pfoertsch, Gustave Rath, Irving Rein, Eduardo Roberto, Joanne Scheff, Norman Shawchuck, Joel Shalowitz, Ben Shields, Francois Simon, Robert Stevens, Martin Stoller, Fernando Trias de Bes, Bruce Wrenn, and David Young. My overriding debt continues to be to my lovely wife, Nancy, who provided me with the time, support, and inspiration needed to prepare this edition. It is truly our book. From Kevin Lane Keller: I continually benefit from the wisdom of my colleagues at Tuck­ Scott Neslin, Punam Keller, Kusum Ailawadi, Praveen Kopalle, Koen Pauwels, Petia Petrova, Jackie Luan, Fred Webster, Gert Assmus, and John Farley-as well as the leadership of Dean Paul Danos. I also gratefully acknowledge the invaluable research and teaching contributions from my faculty colleagues and collaborators through the years. lowe a considerable debt of gratitude to Duke University's Jim Bettman and Rick Staelin for helping to get my academic career started and serving as positive role models. I am also appreciative of all that I have learned from working with industry executives who have generously shared their insights and experiences. Finally, I give special thanks to Punam, my wife, and Carolyn and Allison, my daughters, who make it all happen and make it all worthwhile. )(Xxvii
  • 32. ,~ ]L---_ _ We are indebted to the following colleagues at other universities who reviewed this new edition: • Bomero Aguirre, TAMIU • Parimal Bhagat, Indiana University of Pennsylvania • Michael Bruce, Anderson University • Yun Chu, Frostburg State University • Bugh Daubek, Purdue University • Kathleen Dominick, Rider University • Tad Duffy, Golden Gate University • Mohan Dutra, Purdue University • Barbara Dyer, University of North Carolina at Greensboro • Jackie Eastman, Valdosta State University • Steve Edison. University of Arkansas-Little Rock • Barb Finer, Suffolk University • Renee Foster, Delta State University Chic Fojtik, Pepperdine University • Robert Galka, De Paul University • Rashi Glazer, University of California, Berkeley • Lewis Hershey, Fayetteville State University • • • • Thomas Hewett, Kaplan University Mary Higby, University of Detroit-Mercy Michelle Kunz, Morehead State University Even Lanseng, Norwegian School of Management • Michael Lodato, California Lutheran University • Henry Loehr, Pfeiffer University-Charlotte • Susan Mann, Bluefield State College • Charles Martin, Wichita State University • • • • John McKeever, University of Houston Robert Mika, Monmouth University Mark Mitchell, Coastal Carolina University Nnamdi Osakwe, Bryant & Stratton College • Young-Hoon Park, Cornell University • • • • • Koen Pauwels, Dartmouth College Keith Penney, Webster University Patricia Perry, University of Alabama Mike Powell, North Georgia College and State University William Rice, California State University-Fresno • Bill Robinson, Purdue University • Jan Napoleon Saykiewicz, Duquesne University • Larry Schramm, Oakland University • Jim Skertich, Upper Iowa University • Allen Smith, Florida Atlantic University • Joe Spencer, Anderson University • Nancy Stephens, Arizona State University I{xxviii
  • 33. ---=-0_··----~ _ _) __ • Thomas Tellefsen, The College of Staten Island-CUNY • • • • Daniel Turner, University ofWashington Edward Volchok, Stevens Institute of Management OJ. Wasmer, St. Mary-of-the-Woods College Zac Williams, Mississippi State University We would also like to thank colleagues who have reviewed previous editions of Marketing Management: Alan Au, University of Hong Kong Hiram Barksdale, University of Georgia Boris Becker, Oregon State University Sandy Becker, Rutgers University Sunil Bhatia, Case Western Reserve University Frederic BruneI, Boston University John Burnett, University of Denver Lisa Cain, University of California at Berkeley and Mills College Surjit Chhabra, DePaul University Dennis Clayson, University of Northern Iowa Bob Cline, University of Iowa Brent Cunningham, Ph.D., Jacksonville State University John Deighton, University of Chicago Alton Erdem, University of Houston at Clear Lake Elizabeth Evans, Concordia University Ralph Gaedeke, California State University, Sacramento Betsy Gelb, University of Houston at Clear Lake Dennis Gensch, University ofWisconsin, Milwaukee David Georgoff, Florida Atlantic University Bill Gray, Keller Graduate School of Management Barbara Gross, California State University at Northridge Arun Jain, State University of New York, Buffalo Eric Langer, Johns Hopkins University Ron Lennon, Barry University Bart Macchiette, Plymouth University H. Lee Matthews, Ohio State University Paul McDevitt, University of Winois at Springfield Mary Ann McGrath, Loyola University, Chicago Kenneth P. Mead, Central Connecticut State University Henry Metzner, University of Missouri, Rolla Francis Mulhern, Northwestern University Pat Murphy, University of Notre Dame Jim Murrow, Drury College Zhou Nan, University of Hong Kong Nicholas Nugent, Boston College Donald Outland, University of Texas, Austin Albert Page, University ofTJIinois, Chicago Lisa Klein Pearo, Cornell University Hank Pruden, Golden Gate University 'llUell(
  • 34. K LE Christopher Puto, Arizona State University Abe Qstin, Lakeland University Lopo Rego, University of Iowa Richard Rexeisen, University of St. Thomas Scott D. Roberts, Northern Arizona University Robert Roe, University ofWyoming Alex Sharland, Hofstra University Dean Siewers, Rochester Institute of Technology Anusorn Singhapakdi, Old Dominion University Mark Spriggs, University of St. Thomas Michael Swenso, Brigham Young University, Marriott School Sean Valentine, University of Wyoming Ann Veeck, West Michigan University R. Venkatesh, University of Pittsburgh Greg Wood, Canisius College Kevin Zeng Zhou, University of Hong Kong A warm welcome and many thanks to the following people who contributed to the global case studies developed for the thirteenth edition: Mairead Brady, Trinity College John R. Brooks, Jr., Houston Baptist University Sylvain Charlebois, University of Regina Geoffrey da Silva, Temasek Business School Malcolm Goodman, Durham University Torben Hansen, Copenhagen Business School Abraham Koshy, Sanjeev Tripathi, and Abhishek, Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad Peter Ling, Edith Cowan University Marianne Marando, Seneca College Lu Taihong, Sun Yat-Sen University The talented staff at Prentice Hall deserves praise for their role in shaping the thirteenth edi­ tion. We want to thank our Editor Melissa Sabella, for her contribution to this revision. We also want to thank our project manager, Melissa Pellerano, for making sure everything was moving along and falling into place in such a personable way, both vvith regard to the book and supplements. We benefited greatly from the superb editorial help of Elisa Adams, who lent her considerable talents as a development editor to this edition. We thank Nancy Brandwein, who again researched and updated the examples. We also want to acknowledge the fine production work of Judy Leale, the creative design work of Steve Frim, and the edi­ torial assistance of Christine letto. We thank Denise Vaughn for her work on the media pack­ age. We also thank our Marketing Manager, Anne Fahlgren. Philip Kotler s. C. Johnson Distinguished Professor ofInternational Marketing Kellogg School of Management Northwestern University Evanston, Illinois Kevin Lane Keller xl E. B. Osborn Professor of Marketing Tuck School of Business Dartmouth College Hanover, New Hampshire
  • 35. .lN3ltJ397'NVltJ 9N 1.1..3>1 tlV[.tJ 9N 10 NV.lStl30 N n
  • 36. CHAPTER 1 ••• ••• DEFINING MARKETING FOR THE 21ST CENTURY Marketing is everywhere. Formally or informally, people and organi­ zations engage in a vast number of activities that we could call mar­ keting. Good marketing has become an increasingly vital ingredient for business success. And marketing profoundly affects our day-to­ day lives. It is embedded in everything we do-from the clothes we wear, to the Web sites we click on, to the ads we see: [flJ woteenage walk into their local Starbucks, which happens to be in Shanghai. One goes to the crowded counter and waits to hand the barista cards for two free peppermint lattes. The other sits at a table and opens her Lenovo ThinkPad R60 notebook computer. Within a few seconds she connects to the Internet, courtesy of Starbucks' deal with China Mobile to provide its customers with wireless access to HotSpots on the China Mobile Network. Once on the Net, the girl uses Chinese search engine market leader-to search for infor­ mation about the latest online game release from China's Shanda Interactive. In addition to links to various reviews, news sites, and fan pages, Baidu's search results feature a link to a chat room where hundreds of other gamers are discussing the game. The girl enters the chat room to ask whether peo­ ple who have played the game recommend it. The response is overwhelm­ ingly positive, so she clicks on a sponsored link from the results page, which > > > Downtown Silanghai, a Iii e (1811 onslration of the many r res of ma keling today.
  • 37. generatesasliver'of.paid7search revenue/or Baidu and takes her to Shanda's offi­ ,cial site! ~/.l~re sh.e'sets'yp,.an. Nqwh~r friencJ'has ff?tLJrneljwithl(;ltfesi[1,hand. She's eager to show off her parents~ Nev,/,Year;'s giftto Iier~ifhot pink Motorola RAZR cell,phane created bya .tearnof;young~bicago-based designers after;months of market ,research and con" sumertests: ihe~twogirls'are admiring the slender phone when it receives a text ~d anno_uncin.g the,a.vaU~bJlitYo.rShanda'sJates.i,garne·for rrlobi/~ doV(n/oad. The girls:turn to, the, laptop so; they can gauge theon/ilie buzzf6r,the mobile version of the game. Good marketin5;)is no accident, but a result of careful planning and execution. It is both, an art and',a science-there's a constant tension between its· f()rmu­ lated sideCind its c;~eative,~side; It's easi~r to leCll"n the formulated side, which will occupy most ofcour'attention in this book, but Newill also describe how real creativity and. passion operate in.many companies. In this c;hapter" we lay the foundation for· our- stud'yby. reviewin'g, a number of important marketing' ~oncepts, tools, frameworks, :and issues; • po. ""'I!!I : :: The Importance of Marketing Financial success often depends on marketing ability. Finance, operations, accounting, and other business functions 'Will not really matter if there isn't sufficient demand for products and services so the company can make a profit. There must be a top line for there to be a bottom line. Many companies have now created a Chief Marketing Officer, or CMO, position to put marketing on a more equal footing with other C-Ievel executives, such as the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and Chief Financial Officer (CFO). Press releases from organizations of all kinds-from consumer goods makers to health care insurers and from nonprofit organizations to industrial product manufacturers-trumpet their latest marketing achieve­ ments on their Web sites. In the business press, countless articles are devoted to marketing strategies and tactics. In stating their business priorities, CEOs acknowledge the importance of marketing. One survey of the top 10 challenges CEOs face around the world in 2006 revealed that among the top 5 were both "sustained and steady top line growth" and "customer loyalty/retention," challenges whose achievement depends heavily on marketing. l CEOs also recognize the importance of marketing to building brands and a loyal customer base, intangible assets that make up a large percentage of the value of a firm. Marketing is tricky, however, and it has been the Achilles' heel of many formerly prosper­ ous companies. Sears, Levi's, General Motors, Kodak, Sony, and Xerox all have confronted newly empowered customers and new competitors and have had to rethink their business models. Even market leaders such as Intel, Microsoft, and Wal-Mart recognize that they cannot afford to relax as their leadership is challenged. Jack Welch, GE's former CEO, repeatedly warned his company: "Change or die."
  • 38. DEFI ING MARKETING FOR THE 21ST CENTURY XEROX • Xerox has had to become more than just a copier company. Now the blue-chip icon with the name that became a verb sports the broadest array of imaging products in the world and dominates the market for high­ end printing systems. And it's making a huge product-line transition as it moves away from the old-line "light lens" technology to digital systems. Xerox is preparing for a world that is no longer black and white, and in which most pages are printed in color (which, not incidentally, generates five times the revenue of black and white). In addition to revamping its machines, Xerox is beefing up sales by providing annuity-like products and services that are ordered again and again: document management, ink, and toners. Having been slow at one time to respond to the emergence of Canon and the small copier market, Xerox is doing everything it can to stay ahead of the game. 2 Making the right decisions about change isn't always easy. Marketing managers must decide what features to design into a new product, what prices to offer customers, where to sell products, and how much to spend on advertising, sales, or the Internet. They must also decide on details such as the exact wording or color for new packaging. The companies at greatest risk are those that fail to carefully monitor their customers and competitors and to continuously improve their value offerings. They take a short-term, sales-driven view of their business and ultimately they fail to satisfy their stockholders, employees, suppliers, and channel partners. Skillful marketing is a never-ending pursuit. ::: The Scope of Marketing To prepare to be a marketer, you need to understand what marketing is, how it works, what is marketed, and who does the marketing. What 15 Marketing? Marketing is about identifying and meeting human and social needs. One of the shortest good definitions of marketing is "meeting needs profitably." When eBay recognized that peo­ ple were unable to locate some of the items they desired most, it created an online auction clearinghouse. When IKEA noticed that people wanted good furniture at a substantially lower price, it created knockdown furniture. These two firms demonstrated marketing savvy and turned a private or social need into a profitable business opportunity. The American Marketing Association offers the following formal definition: Marketing is an organizational function and a set ofprocesses for creating, communicating, and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organi­ zation and its stakeholders. 3 Coping with these exchange processes calls for a considerable amount of work and skill. Marketing management takes place when at least one party to a potential exchange thinks about the means of achieving desired responses from other par­ ties. Thus we see marketing management as the art and science of choosing target markets and getting, keeping, and growing customers through creating, delivering, and communicat­ ing superior customer value. We can distinguish between a social and a managerial definition of marketing. A social definition shows the role marketing plays in society; for example, one marketer has said that marketing's role is to "deliver a higher standard of living." Here is a social definition that serves our purpose: Marketing is a societal process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating, offering, and freely exchanging products and ser­ vices ofvalue with others. Managers sometimes think of marketing as "the art of selling products," but many people are surprised when they hear that selling is not the most important part of marketing! Selling is only the tip of the marketing iceberg. Peter Drucker, a leading management theorist, puts it this way: There will always, one can assume, be need for some selling. But the aim of market­ ing is to make selling superfluous. The aim of marketing is to know and understand the customer so well that the product or service fits him and sells itself. Ideally, marketing should result in a customer who is ready to buy. All that should be needed then is to make the product or service available. 4 CHAPTER 1 5
  • 39. 6 PART 1 UNDERSTANDING MARKE.TING MANAGEMENT t ! ~~ , I L. . When Sony designed its Play Station 3 game system, when Apple launched its iPod Nano digital music player. and when Toyota intro­ duced its Prius hybrid automobile, these manu­ facturers were swamped with orders because they had designed the "right" product. based on doing careful marketing homework. , What Is Marketed? ~ ) Marketing people market 10 types of enti­ ties: goods, services. events. experiences. persons. places. properties, organizations. information. and ideas. Let's take a quick look at these categories. GOODS Physical goods constitute the bulk of A successful new product is tile result of careful marketing Ilomework most countries' production and marketing ef­ forts. Each year, U.S. companies alone market billions of fresh. canned. bagged, and frozen food products and millions of cars, refrigera­ tors. television sets, machines, and various other mainstays of a modern economy. Not only do companies market their goods, but thanks in part to the Internet, even individuals can effectively market goods. RUBBER CHICKEN CARDS A struggling actor who made ends meet by waiting tables, landing bit parts in TV series, teaching high • school, and managing an office, Steve Rotblatt found a way to keep his acting dream alive by running a prof­ itable small business out of his home. Rubber Chicken Cards ( is a Santa Monica company that's generating online buzz with electronic greeting cards that combine voice-over acting-by Rotblatt and partner Richard Zobel-with irreverent humor. It didn't hurt that selected the company to develop a lighthearted card to help its 40 million members reconnect with old friends, or that the social networking site chose Rubber Chicken over dozens of competing vendors to create an electronic birthday card for its members. Founded in 2000. the company expected annual sales to reach $300,000 in 2006, up 60% from the prior year. Rotblatt and Zobel's business strategy: use our talents and spend as little as possible. 5 SERVICES As economies advance, a growing proportion of their activities focuses on the production of services. The U.S. economy today consists of a 70-30 services-to-goods mix. Services include the work of airlines, hotels, car rental firms, barbers and beauticians. main­ tenance and repair people, and accountants, bankers, lawyers, engineers. doctors, software programmers, and management consultants. Many market offerings consist ofa variable mix of goods and services. At a fast-food restaurant, for example, the customer consumes both a product and a service. EVENTS Marketers promote time-based events, such as major trade shows, artistic perfor­ mances, and company anniversaries. Global sporting events such as the Olympics and the World Cup are promoted aggressively to both companies and fans. EXPERIENCES By orchestrating several services and goods, a firm can create, stage. and market experiences. Walt Disney World's Magic Kingdom represents this kind of experiential marketing. allowjng customers to visit a fairy kingdom, a pirate ship, or a haunted house. There is also a market for customized experiences. such as spending a week at a baseball camp playing wjth retired baseball greats, conducting the Chicago Symphony Orchestra for five minutes, or climbing Mount Everest. 6
  • 40. DEFINING MJl.RKETIN 1 FOR THE 2'!ST CENTURY PERSONS Celebrity marketing is a major business. Artists, musicians, CEOs, physicians, high-profile lavvyers and financiers, and other professionals all get help from celebrity mar­ keters. 7 Some people have done a masterful job of marketing themselves-think of David Beckham, Oprah Winfrey, and the Rolling Stones. Management consultant Tom Peters, him­ self a master at self-branding, has advised each person to become a "brand." PLACES Cities, states, regions, and whole nations compete actively to attract tourists, facto­ ries, company headquarters, and new residents. G Place marketers include economic develop­ ment specialists, real estate agents, commercial banks, local business associations, and advertising and public relations agencies. The Las Vegas Convention & Tourism Authority spent about $80 million on a provocative ad campaign, "What Happens Here, Stays Here." Re­ turning to its roots as an "adult playground," Las Vegas hoped the campaign would lead to an increase from 37.4 million visitors in 2004 to 43 million visitors by 2009.~J PROPERTIES Properties are intangible rights of ownership of either real property (real es­ tate) or financial property (stocks and bonds). Properties are bought and sold, and these ex­ changes require marketing. Real estate agents work for property owners or sellers, or they buy and sell residential or commercial real estate. Investment companies and banks market se­ curities to both institutional and individual investors. ORGANIZATIONS Organizations actively work to build a strong, favorable, and unique im­ age in the minds of their target publics. In the United Kingdom, Tesco's "Every Little Helps" marketing program reflects the food marketer's attention to detail in everything it does, within as well as outside the store in the community and the environment. The campaign has vaulted Tesco to the top of the UK supermarket chain industry. Universities, museums, performing arts organizations, and nonprofits all use marketing to boost their public images and to com­ pete for audiences and funds. Corporate identity campaigns are the result of intensive market research programs. This is certainly the case with Philips "Sense and Simplicity" campaign. ROYAL PHILIPS Philips researchers asked 1,650 consumers and 180 customers in dozens of in-depth and quantitative interviews and focus groups what was most important to them in using technology. Respondents from the UK, United States, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Hong Kong, China, and Brazil agreed on one thing: they wanted the benefits of technology without the hassles. With its "Sense and Simplicity" advertising campaign and focus, Philips believes, • "our brand now reflects our belief that simplicity can be a goal of technology. It just makes sense." The campaign consists of print, online, and television advertising directed by five experts from the worlds of health care, lifestyle, and technology whose role is to provide "additional outside perspectives on the journey to simplicity. "10 INFORMATION Information is essentially what books, schools, and universities produce, mar­ ket, and distribute at a price to parents, students, and communities. Magazines such as Road and Track, PC World, and Vogue supply information about the car, computer, and fashion worlds, re­ spectively. The production, packaging, and distribution of information are some of our society's major industries. I I Even companies that sell physical products attempt to add value through the use of information. For example, the CEO of Siemens Medical Systems, Tom McCausland, says, "Iour product] is not necessarily an X-ray or an MRI, but information. Our business is really health care information technology, and our end product is really an electronic patient record: information on lab tests, pathology, and drugs as weB as voice dictation."12 IDEAS Every market offering includes a basic idea. Charles Revson of RevIon once Observed: "In the factory, we make cosmetics; in the store we sell hope." Products and services are plat­ forms for delivering some idea or benefit. Social marketers are busy promoting such ideas as "Friends Don't Let Friends Drive Drunk" and "A Mind Is a Terrible Thing to Waste." Who Markets? MARKETERS AND PROSPECTS A marketer is someone who seeks a response-attention, a purchase, a vote, a donation-from another party, called the prospect. If two parties are seeking to sell something to each other, we call them both marketers. CHAPTER 1
  • 41. a PART 1 arl~eling can UNDERSTAriDING MARKETING MANAGEMENT !lelp to promote powen ul ideas I:tII ~, UNCF h~lps thousands of d~!,ming students. But we h~"Il to turn away thousands more. So ~~aS>l give 10 the Unlilld N~IOCOllege Fund. Your donation will make adIHer~f)l. ~lSrt un:;[crg (fcall 1·300-332·9623. ~ UNITE. D NEGRO Co - p- J un LLEGE liND '"'' """"" • ""b"· "tn, 'ow.... , Marketers are indeed skilled at stimulating demand for their company's products, but that's too limited a view of the tasks they perform. Just as production and logistics profes­ sionals are responsible for supply management, marketers are responsible for demand man­ agement. Marketing managers seek to influence the level, timing, and composition of demand to meet the organization's objectives. Eight demand states are possible: 1. Negative demand-Consumers dislike the product and may even pay a price to avoid it. 2. Nonexistent demand-Consumers may be unaware of or uninterested in the product. 3. Latent demand-Consumers may share a strong need that cannot be satisfied by an existing product. 4. Declining demand-Consumers begin to buy the product less frequently or not at all. 5. Irregular demand-Consumer purchases vary on a seasonal, monthly, weekly, daily, or even hourly basis. 6. Full demand-Consumers are adequately buying all products put into the marketplace. 7. Overfull demand-More consumers would like to buy the product than can be satisfied. 8. Unwholesome demand-Consumers may be attracted to products that have undesir­ able social consequences. In each case, marketers must identify the underlying causers) of the demand state and then determine a plan of action to shift the demand to a more desired state. MARKETS Traditionally, a "market" was a physical place where buyers and sellers gathered to buy and sell goods. Economists describe a market as a collection of buyers and sellers who transact over a particular product or product class (such as the housing market or the grain market). Modern economies abound in such markets.
  • 42. DEFINING MARKETING FOR THE 21ST CENTURY Resources - - Money • Taxes, goods Taxes Consumer markets Services Services, money I Taxes, goods Money Goods and services S!IlIl'IIJlr. nf Rows in a Morlern bcl131lJ6 Economy money ~ G"""m,m • markets Manufacturer markets FIG. 1.1 Money S'"i"~ Taxes, goods Services, money Resources I~' Resource markets Money t CHAPTER 1 Intermediary markets Goods and services Five basic markets and their connecting flows are shown in Figure 1.1. Manufacturers go to resource markets (raw material markets, labor markets, money markets), buy resources and turn them into goods and services, and then sell finished products to intermediaries, who sell them to consumers. Consumers sell their labor and receive money with which they pay for goods and services. The government collects tax revenues to buy goods from resource, manufacturer, and intermediary markets and uses these goods and services to proVide public services. Each nation's economy, and the global economy, consists of com­ plex interacting sets of markets linked through exchange processes. Marketers often use the term market to cover various groupings of customers. They view sellers as constituting the industry and buyers as constituting the market. They talk about need markets (the diet-seeking market), product markets (the shoe market), demographic markets (the youth market), and geographic markets (the French market); or they extend the concept to cover other markets, such as voter markets, labor markets, and donor markets. Figure 1.2 shows the relationship betvreen the industry and the market. Sellers and buy­ ers are connected by four flows. The sellers send goods and services and communications such as ads and direct mail to the market; in return they receive money and information such as customer attitudes and sales data. The inner loop shows an exchange of money for goods and services; the outer loop shows an exchange of information. EY CUSTOMER ARKETS Consider the following key customer markets: consumer, busi­ ness, global, and nonprofit. Con sum e r Mar k e t s Companies selling mass consumer goods and services such as soft drinks, cosmetics, air travel, and athletic shoes and equipment spend a great deal of time trying to establish a superior brand image. Much of a brand's strength depends on developing a superior product and packaging, ensuring its availability, and backing it with engaging communications and reliable service. Bus i n e ssM r k e t s Companies selling business goods and services often face well-trained and well-informed professional buyers who are skilled at evaluating competitive offerings. Business buyers buy goods in order to make or resell a product to others at a profit. Business marketers must demonstrate how their products will help these buyers achieve Communication Goods/services J------, Market (a collection of buyers) Industry (a collection of sellers) Money Information FIG. 1.2 9
  • 43. 10 PART 1 UNDERSTANDING MARI<:ETiNG MANAGEMENT higher revenue or lower costs. Advertising can playa role, but the sales force, price, and the company's reputation for reliability and quality may playa stronger one. G lob a I Mar k e t s Companies selling goods and services in the global marketplace face additional decisions and challenges. They must decide which countries to enter; how to enter each (as an exporter, licenser, joint venture partner, contract manufacturer, or solo manufacturer); how to adapt their product and service features to each country; how to price their products in different countries; and how to adapt their communications to fit different cultures. They make these decisions in the face of different requirements for buying, negoti­ ating, owning, and disposing of property; different culture, language, and legal and political systems; and currencies that might fluctuate in value. Yet, the payoff for doing all this addi­ tionallegwork can be huge. ALASKA DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE. WAL-MART In 2005 alone, China accounted for $337 million of Alaska's exports-from seafood and fish meal to minerals, fertilizers, and wood-and surpassed Canada to become Alaska's third-largest export partner. Noting the huge market potential of China, especially with the 2008 Olympics in Beijing and the 2010 World Expo slated for Shanghai, Wal-Mart purchased about $140,000 of Alaska seafood for its China stores. In order to compete with white fish and farmed salmon from Norway, five Wal-Mart stores hired Alaska officials to host cooking demon­ • strations of wild Alaska sockeye salmon and black cod during a 14-day span. Although they were labor inten­ sive, the demonstrations gave an immediate taste test to China's young, sophisticated urban residents, who can pay the high prices these fish command. 13 Non pro fit and G 0 v ern men t a I Mar k e t s Companies selling their goods to nonprofit organizations such as churches, universities, charitable organizations, and government agencies need to price carefully, because these buyers have limited purchas­ ing power. Lower selling prices affect the features and quality the seller can build into the of­ fering. Much government purchasing calls for bids, and buyers often favor the lowest bid in the absence of extenuating factors. ARKETPLACES, M",RKETSPACES, A ~D METAIVIARKETS The marketplace is physical, such as a store you shop in; marketspaceis digital, as when you shop on the Internet. J4 Northwestern University's Mohan Sawhney has proposed the concept of a metamarket to describe a cluster of complementary products and services that are closely related in the minds of consumers, but spread across a diverse set of industries. The automobile metamar­ ket consists of automobile manufacturers, new car and used car dealers, financing compa­ nies, insurance companies, mechanics, spare parts dealers, service shops, auto magazines, classified auto ads in newspapers, and auto sites on the Internet. In purchasing a car, a buyer will get involved in many parts of this metamarket, and this creates an opportunity for metamediaries to assist buyers in moving seamlessly through these groups, although they are disconnected in physical space. One example is Edmund's ( a Web site where a car buyer can find the stated features and prices of different automobiles and easily click to other sites to search for the lowest-price dealer for financing, for car accessories, and for used cars at bargain prices. Metamediaries also serve other metamarkets, such as the home ownership market, the parenting and baby care mar­ ket, and the wedding market. 15 Marketing in Practice How is marketing done? Increasingly, marketing is not done only by the marketing depart­ ment. Marketing needs to affect every aspect of the customer experience, meaning that mar­ keters must properly manage all possible touch points-store layouts, package designs, product functions, employee training, and shipping and logistics methods. Marketing must also be heavily involved in key general management activities, such as product innovation and new-business development. To create a strong marketing organization, marketers must think like executives in other departments, and executives in other departments must think more like mar­ keters. IG CMO and later CEO, Carter Cast, noted that what surprised him
  • 44. DEFINING MARKETING FOR THE 21ST CENTURY CHAPTER 1 11 Eclmunrj's Is ametamediary Web site Ilml helps pro, pectil e car ouvers navigate the The All-New 2008 Cadillac CTS Now tM19able v.iilh a 304 hp Direct Inj~ction 16. the most powerful V6 E'J1glOe ever to beat the- Cadillac Wreath and Crest. New Vehicle Spotlight automubile metamarkel onlini:i, Spon.(I,.db'l'~ r;;;;;nj provides True Market Value;t!I pricing, unbiased car reviews, ratings, and ~ THE EDl'iUNDS CREEN CAR ADVISOR >ell.... N....,. ••d Comm.,nlaly on En·~',o""l expert advice to help you ger a talr desL Bqad OLf S!;9t9:1! StQ!W NEWCARSEJ 1- £..d..W Brvlo;n. InfoanJ1l!w r;- I~ liW!! --I!lI<l<-' - ­ - COMortlbig _ IolU<l!!:l ~ ~ ~ Aut6n:kltiV* r,..nch.1lad 1.dwlolcgi.s. ~~;R~!.~~n~~o~) AII-Whaal-Drlva Shootout 1 J~p Ctlerokeo SRTe VI. Audl R8. Find Used Car.. for Salo: (:.2lI.2.2 :j tiG!!~ Q.lml I OPRbO!'U'1!lMCtli ~EUNE Thlll;J.loslaulo·onlhuslulnl7W$ • 20QI TQkyo &1lO Show • Fyi To", 2QC8loxu'IS.f • BSooqir.gflomT9ho'llvoC9YS?'XifcomStlOwf!oor REVIEWS, AWARDS' AD Whip Now.w.ek of Oclober23 LATeST ROAD TfSTS FtATnr i99I bgallll~E enl pr~/r BMW 1J5; m -F ~I~I~I~ FH out '1'It1::1 YlIIl'ii:Jlll .... "1 C3me 0Il( Ol'. top: .. 1 COMPMIISON SPOHIGIH SR:~ CrQouover C,adil1",c c 8 CAR COMPARISONS l ~ • Auto lOCle; AS low AS 6 Q9% i • APR GQl pt'ob!Rm-Cfc<li! Of Qo=crQdlJ r.... prcl':o • CAleulIO yOII! AAYfIDW' !I , • GAl your FREE Crg" RoQO!'1 Il'Iluronco Conlo( most when he became CMO was "that I would interact so much with functions outside of marketing. I didn't realize it is a holistic assignment. Then I realized I really had to under­ stand things like product supply, cost break-evens, and accounting."17 Companies generally establish a marketing department to be responsible for creating and delivering customer value, but as the late David Packard of Hewlett-Packard observed, "Marketing is far too important to leave to the marketing department." Companies now know that every employee has an impact on the customer and must see the customer as the source of the company's prosperity. So they're beginning to emphasize interdepartmental teamwork to manage key processes. They're also placing more emphasis on the smooth management of core business processes, such as new-product realization, customer acqui­ sition and retention, and order fulfillment. In practice, marketing follows a logical process. The marketing planning process consists of analyzing marketing opportunities, selecting target markets, designing marketing strate­ gies, developing marketing programs, and managing the marketing effort. In highly compet­ itive marketplaces, however. marketing planning is more fluid and is continually refreshed. Companies must always be moving forward with marketing programs, innovating products and services, staying in touch with customer needs, and seeking new advantages rather than relying on past strengths. The changing new marketing environment is putting considerable demands on market­ ing executives. Marketers must have diverse quantitative and qualitative skills, an entrepre­ neurial attitude, and a keen understanding of how marketing can create value within their organization. 18 They must work in harmony with the sales function. There are five key functions for a CMO in leading marketing within the organization: 1. Strengthening the brands 2. 3. 4. 5. Measuring marketing effectiveness Driving new product development based on customer needs Gathering meaningful customer insights Utilizing new marketing technology Harvard's John Quelch and Gail McGovern note that there is tremendous variability in the responsibilities and job descriptions for CMOs.19 They offer eight ways to improve CMO suc­ cess (see Figure 1.3).
  • 45. 12 PART 1 UNDERSTANDING MARKETlrlG MANAGEMEN FIG. 1,3 Improvlll[1 CMO Success S,III/l:i"I~'lll MC;;C1,'el I "rod Jorrr A OliellJI 'Tim Tall ;j11' I [lis~ d !Ill_ CMO .. :;;i,llt!gv,ffil.','·I//I~.',' liy 1"1.; I r ,$~I(ln V,'nial 20ll-l. RelJIIPkd 1. Make the mission and responsibilities clear. Be certain that the case for having a CMO is strong and .the mission is well understood by leaders in the organization, particularly the CEO, the board, and line management Without a clear need (real or perceived), the role will be rejected by the organization, 2. Fit the role to the marketing culture and structure. Avoid having a CMO in a marketing-led company that has many individual brands rather than a single corporate umbrella-unless the person appointed to the position is a well-connected insider, 3. Choose a CMO who is compatible with the CEO. Beware of the CEO who wants to hire aCMO but doesn't want to relinquish any marketing control. Find a CEO who recognizes his or her responsibility to be the cheerleader for marketing and the brand, but realizes the need to be guided and coached by a marketing specialist. 4. Remember that showpeople don't succeed. The CMO should work hard to ensure the CEO is successful at being the principal cheerleader for the brand 5. Match the personality with the CMO type. Be certain that the chief marketer has the right skills and personality for whichever of the three CMO models he or she might fill (VP of Marketing Services, Classic CMO, or "Super" CMO) There is little tolerance for on-the-job training, 6. Make line managers marketing heroes. By stretching their marketing budgets, CMOs can improve a division's marketing productivity and help business unit leaders increase their top-line revenues, 7. Infiltrate the line organization. Have the CMO support the placement of marketing professionals from the corporate marketing department into divisional marketing roles, Provide input from the CMO into the annual reviews of line marketers. 8. Require right-brain and left-brain skills. The most successful CMO will have strong creative and technical marketing expertise, be politically savvy, and have the interpersonal skills to be a great leader and manager, : :: Core Marketing Concepts To understand the marketing function, we need to understand the following core set of concepts. Needs, Wants, and Demands Needs are the basic human requirements. People need air, food, water, clothing, and shelter to survive. People also have strong needs for recreation, education, and entertainment. These needs become wants when they are directed to specific objects that might satisfy the need. A consumer in the United States needs food but may want a hamburger, french fries, and a soft drink. A person in Mauritius needs food but may want a mango, rice, lentils, and beans. Wants are shaped by our society. Demands are wants for specific products backed by an ability to pay. Many people want a Mercedes; only a few are Willing and able to buy one. Companies must measure not only how many people want their product, but also how many would actually be willing and able to buy it. These distinctions shed light on the frequent criticism that "marketers create needs" or "marketers get people to buy things they don't want." Marketers do not create needs: Needs preexist marketers. Marketers, along with other societal factors, influence wants. Marketers might promote the idea that a Mercedes would satisfy a person's need for social status. They do not, however, create the need for social status. Understanding customer needs and wants is not always simple. Some customers have needs of which they are not fully conscious, or they cannot articulate these needs, or they use words that require some interpretation. What does it mean when the customer asks for a "powerful" lawnmower, a "fast" lathe, an "attractive" bathing suit, or a "restful" hotel? The marketer must probe furtheL We can distinguish among five types of needs: 1. Stated needs (The customer wants an inexpensive caL) 2. Real needs (The customer wants a car whose operating cost, not its initial price, is low.) 3. Unstated needs (The customer expects good service from the dealeL)
  • 46. DEFINING MARKETING FOR THE 21 ST CENTURY CHAPTER 1 4. Delight needs (The customer would like the dealer to include an onboard navigation system.) 5. Secret needs (The customer wants friends to see him as a savvy consumer.) Responding only to the stated need may shortchange the customer. Many consumers do not know what they want in a product. Consumers did not know much about cellular phones when they were first introduced, and Nokia and Ericsson fought to shape consumer percep­ tions of them. Simply giving customers what they want isn't enough any more-to gain an edge companies must help customers learn what they want. Target Markets, Positioning, and Segmentation A marketer can rarely satisfy everyone in a market. Not everyone likes the same cereal, hotel room, restaurant, automobile, college, or movie. Therefore, marketers start by dividing the market into segments. They identify and profile distinct groups of buyers who might prefer or require varying product and service mixes by examining demographic, psychographic, and behavioral differences among buyers. WAL-MART • Wal-Mart uses segmentation to reach customers in different geographic markets, with its new Store of the Community concept. Now over two dozen Wal-Mart stores have been designed to reflect the communities in which they are located. For instance, there's a Wal-Mart with a Western flair in Ft. Collins, Colorado, and a two-level art-deco-inspired unit to draw in wealthy African Americans in Baldwin Hills, California. In an effort to cater to the country's fourth-largest Amish community, the Middlefield, Ohio, Wal-Mart offers hitching posts outside for horse and buggies, block ice for refrigerators, and a huge assortment of denim fabric for making work pants. After identifying market segments, the marketer then decides which present the greatest opportunity-which are its target markets. For each, the firm develops a market offering that it positions in the minds of the target buyers as delivering some central benefit(s). For exam­ ple, Volvo develops its cars for buyers to whom safety is a major concern. Volvo, therefore, positions its car as the safest a customer can buy. Companies do best when they choose their target market(s) carefully and prepare tailored marketing programs. Offerings and Brands Companies address needs by putting forth a value proposition, a set of benefits that they offer to customers to satisfy their needs. The intangible value proposition is made physi­ cal by an offering, which can be a combina­ tion of products, services, information, and experiences. A brand is an offering from a known source. A brand name such as McDonald's carries many associations in people's minds that make up the brand image: hamburgers, fun, children, fast food, convenience, and golden arches. All companies strive to build a strong, favorable, and unique brand image. Value and Satisfaction The offering wiU be successful if it delivers value and satisfaction to the target buyer. The buyer chooses between different offerings based on 1he art -deeo slylinO of II lis new Wal-Mart store is Oleanlto appeal 10 the wealthy sllolJPers in it CaliforniiJ neiglllJorllOO(1. 13
  • 47. 14 PART 1 UNDERSTANDING MARKETING MANAGEMENT which she perceives to deliver the most value. Value reflects the sum of the perceived tangible and intangible benefits and costs to customers. It's primarily a combination of quality, service, and price ("qsp"), called the "customer value triad." Value increases with quality and service and decreases with price, although other factors can also play an important role in our perceptions of value. Value is a central marketing concept. We can think of marketing as the identification, cre­ ation, communication, delivery, and monitoring of customer value. Satisfaction reflects a person's judgments of a product's perceived performance (or outcome) in relationship to expectations. If the performance falls short of expectations, the customer is dissatisfied and disappointed. If it matches expectations, the customer is satisfied. If it exceeds them, the customer is delighted. Marketing Channels To reach a target market, the marketer uses three kinds of marketing channels. Communication channels deliver and receive messages from target buyers and include newspapers, magazines, radio, television, mail, telephone, billboards, posters, fliers, CDs, audiotapes, and the Internet. Beyond these, just as we convey messages by our facial expressions and clothing, firms communicate through the look of their retail stores, the appearance of their Web sites, and many other media. Marketers are increasingly adding dialogue channels such as e-mail, blogs, and toll-free numbers to familiar monologue channels such as ads. The marketer uses distribution channels to display, sell, or deliver the physical product or service(s) to the buyer or user. They include distributors, wholesalers, retailers, and agents. The marketer also uses service channels to carry out transactions with potential buyers. Service channels include warehouses, transportation companies, banks, and insurance companies that facilitate transactions. Marketers clearly face a design challenge in choosing the best mix of communication, distribution, and service channels for their offerings. Supply Chain The supply chain is a longer channel stretching from raw materials to components to final products that are carried to final buyers. The supply chain for women's purses starts with hides and moves through tanning, cutting, manufacturing, and the marketing channels to bring products to customers. Each company captures only a certain percentage of the total value generated by the supply chain's value delivery system. When a company acquires com­ petitors or expands upstream or downstream, its aim is to capture a higher percentage of supply chain value. Competition Competition includes all the actual and potential rival offerings and substitutes a buyer might consider. Suppose an automobile company is planning to buy steel for its cars. There are several possible levels of competitors. The manufacturer can buy steel from U.S. Steel in the United States, it can buy from a foreign firm in Japan or Korea, it can buy from a minimill such as Nucor at a cost savings, or it can buy aluminum from Alcoa for certain parts to reduce the car's weight or engineered plastics from Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC), purchasers of GE Plastics, for bumpers instead of steel. Clearly, U.S. Steel would be thinking too narrowly about its competition if it thought only of other integrated steel com­ panies. In fact, in the long run U.S. Steel is more likely to be hurt by substitute products than by other steel companies. Marketing Environment The marketing environment consists of the task environment and the broad environment. The task environment includes the actors engaged in producing, distributing, and promot­ ing the offering. These are the company, suppliers, distributors, dealers, and the target customers. In the supplier group are material suppliers and service suppliers, such as marketing research agencies, advertising agencies, banking and insurance companies, transportation companies, and telecommunications companies. Distributors and dealers
  • 48. DEFlr~lrjG MARKETI G I-OR HiE 21ST CENTURY include agents, brokers, manufacturer representatives, and others who facilitate finding and selling to customers. The broad environment consists of six components: demographic environment, eco­ nomic environment, physical environment. technological environment, political-legal environment, and social-cultural environment. Marketers must pay close attention to the trends and developments in these environments and make timely adjustments to their marketing strategies. ::: The New Marketing Realities We can say with some confidence that "the marketplace isn't what it used to be." Marketers must attend and respond to a number of significant developments. Major Societal Forces Today the marketplace is radically different as a result of major, and sometimes inter­ linking, societal forces that have created new behaviors, new opportunities, and new challenges: • Network information technology. The digital revolution has created an Information Age. The Industrial Age was characterized by mass production and mass consumption, stores stuffed with inventory, ads everywhere, and rampant discounting. The Information Age promises to lead to more accurate levels of production, more targeted communications, and more relevant pricing. • Globalization. Technological advances in transportation, shipping, and communica­ tion have made it easier for companies to market in other countries, and easier for con­ sumers to buy products and services from marketers in other countries. Deregulation. Many countries have deregulated industries to create greater compe­ tition and growth opportunities. In the United States, laws restricting financial services, telecommunications, and electric utilities have all been loosened in the spirit of greater competition. Privatization. Many countries have converted public companies to private ownership and management to increase their efficiency, such as British Airways and British Telecom in the United Kingdom. Heightened competition. Brand manufacturers are facing intense competition from domestic and foreign brands, resulting in rising promotion costs and shrinking profit mar­ gins. They are being further buffeted by powerful retailers that command limited shelf space and are putting out their own store brands in competition with national brands. Many strong brands are extending into related product categories, creating mega brands with much pres­ ence and reputation. Industry convergence. Industry boundaries are blurring at an incredible rate as compa­ nies are recognizing that new opportunities lie at the intersection of two or more industries. The computing and consumer electronics industries are converging as the giants of the computer world such as Dell, Gateway, and Hewlett-Packard release a stream of entertain­ ment devices-from MP3 players to plasma TVs and camcorders. The shift to digital tech­ nology is fueling this massive convergence. 20 Consumer resistance. A 2004 Yankelovich study found record levels of marketing resistance from consumers. 21 A majority of those surveyed reported negative opinions about marketing and advertising, stating that they avoid products that they feel overmar­ ket. The increased popularity of digital video recorders such as TiVo make it easier for consumers to skip or "zap" TV commercials, in part reflecting their desire for marketing avoidance. Retail transformation. Small retailers are succumbing to the growing power of giant retailers and "category killers." Store-based retailers face competition from catalog houses; direct-mail firms; newspaper, magazine, and TV direct-to-customer ads; home shopping TV; and e-commerce on the Internet. In response, entrepreneurial retailers are building enter­ tainment into their stores with coffee bars, lectures, demonstrations, and performances, marketing an "experience" rather than a product assortment. CHAPTER 1 15
  • 49. 16 PART 1 UNDERSTANDING MARKETING MANAGEMENT MAC COSMETICS INC- • Adivision of cosmetics giant Estee Lauder, MAC Cosmetics is considered a significant reason for Lauder's 13% net makeup sales increase. Yet, MAC's 1,000 stores worldwide don't simply sell Small Eye Shadow, Studio Fix, Lustreglass, and Pro Longwear Lipcoulour. Instead, they rely on highly paid "artists" to bond with each customer during a free makeup consultation and application lesson. Although this tack is hardly new in the world of retail makeup, what's unique is that MAC's artists are not out there to bump up their commis­ sions and load customers down with more products. Rather, they're trained to collaborate with customers so they'll leave the store with $50 or more of MAC products and the feeling, "I can definitely do this at home." The goal, says Matthew Waitesmith, MAC's head of "artist training and development," is for each customer to feel she's had an authentically artistic experience "that hopefully means they'll return to the place that makes them feel like an artist."22 • Disintermediation. The amazing success of early online dot-corns, such as AOL,, Yahoo!, eBay, WTRADE, and dozens of others that created disintermediation in the delivery of products and services by intervening between the traditional flow of goods through distribution channels, struck terror into the hearts of many established manufacturers and retailers. In response, many traditional companies engaged in reintermediationand became "brick-and-click" retailers, adding online services to their existing offerings. Many brick-and­ click competitors became stronger contenders than pure-click firms, because they had a larger pool of resources to work with and well-established brand names. The societal forces that spawned this Information Age have resulted in many new con­ sumer and company capabilities. New Consumer Capabilities Customers today perceive fewer real product differences and show less brand loyalty, and they are becoming more price and quality sensitive in their search for value. Consider ,;vhat consumers have today that they didn't have yesterday: • A substantial increase in buying power. Buyers are only a click away from comparing competitor prices and product attributes on the Internet. They can even name their price for a hotel room, airline ticket, or mortgage. Business buyers can run a relJerse auction in which sellers compete to capture their business. They can readily join with others to aggregate their purchases and achieve deeper volume discounts. • A greater variety of available goods and services. quickly became the world's largest bookstore but has since branched into retail sales of music and movies, clothing and accessories, consumer electronics, health and beauty aids, and home and garden products. Buyers can order goods online from anywhere in the world, bypassing limited local offerings and realizing great savings by ordering in countries with lower prices. • A great amount of information about practically anything. People can read almost any newspaper in any language from anywhere in the world. They can access online ency­ clopedias, dictionaries, medical information, movie ratings, consumer reports, and count­ less other information sources. • Greater ease in interacting and placing and receiving orders. Today's buyers can place orders from home, office, or mobile phone 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and quickly receive goods at their home or office. • An ability to compare notes on products and services. Social networking sites bring together buyers with a common interest. At auto enthusiasts talk about chrome rims, the latest BMW model, and where to find a great mechanic in their local area. Marketers are eying the success of the site, given that 35% of young, first-time car buyers consider the Internet their most important shopping tool.2 3 • An amplified voice to influence peer and public opinion. The Internet fuels personal connections and user-generated content through social media such as MySpace and single-use social networks such as Flickr (photos), (links), Digg (news stories),
  • 50. DEFINING MARKET!NG FOR THE 21 ST CENTURY Wikipedia (encyclopedia articles), and YouTube (video).24 In late 2004, Kryptonite, a firm that makes high-priced bike locks, found itself in an awkward position when several blogs showed how the firm's U-shaped locks could be easily picked using only the plastic casing of a Bic pen. 25 KFC, CONVERSE, WM. WRIGLEY JR. Although Chinese citizens are still prohibited from criticizing the government online, they have thousands of online forums for airing grievances about poor customer service, misleading ad campaigns, shoddy prod­ ucts, safety standards, and more. Chinese consumers are vocal and active, and when enough of them voice a complaint, companies listen. When a Chinese TV spot for Yum! Brand Inc.'s KFC Corp. depicted a hard­ working student who didn't pass his exams and two carefree children who enjoyed KFC fried chicken and did, KFC received so many complaints for suggesting hard work doesn't pay that it changed the ad to show • all three children doing well. Smart companies are enlisting their opinionated Internet consumers to give input before a product is launched. Converse and Wm. Wrigley Jr. conducted a joint promotion encouraging Chinese consumers to come up with their own cool designs for Converse sneakers that featured Wrigley's Juicy Fruit logo. 26 New Company Capabilities New forces also have combined to generate a new set of capabilities for today's companies: • Marketers can use the Internet as a powerful information and sales channel, augment­ ing their geographical reach to inform customers and promote their businesses and prod­ ucts worldwide. By establishing one or more Web sites, they can list their products and services, history, its business philosophy, job opportunities, and other information of inter­ est to visitors. Researchers can collect fuller and richer information about markets, customers, prospects, and competitors. They can also conduct fresh marketing research using the Internet to arrange for focus groups, send out questionnaires, and gather primary data in several other ways. Managers can facilitate and speed internal communication among their employees by using the Internet as a private intranet. Employees can query one another, seek advice, and download or upload needed information from and to the company's main computer. • Companies can also facilitate and speed external communication among customers by creating online and off-line "buzz" through brand advocates and user communities. In 2003, the Rock Bottom Brew pub chain reported a 76% jump in revenues after hiring BzzAgent and l,OOO-plus of its "agents" to launch a 13-week word-of-mouth campaignP BzzAgent has assembled a nationwide volunteer army of 260,000 consumers who join promotional pro­ grams for products and services they deem worth talking about. 20 Target marketing and two-way communication are easier thanks to the proliferation of special-interest magazines, TV channels, and Internet newsgroups. Extranets linking suppli­ ers and distributors let firms send and receive information, place orders, and make pay­ ments more efficiently. The company can also interact with each customer individually to personalize messages, services, and the relationship. Discount brokerage Charles Schwab spent 25% of its marketing communication budget online in 2005 to support its "Talk to Chuck" campaign, up from 8% in 2003. 29 • Marketers can send ads, coupons, samples, and information to customers who have requested them or have given the company permission to send them. They can now assemble information about individual customers' purchases, preferences, demograph­ ics, and profitability. British supermarket giant Tesco is outpacing its rival store, Sainsbury, by using its Clubcard data to personalize offers according to individual cus­ tomer attributes. 3o • Companies can reach consumers on the move with mobile marketing. Using GPS tech­ nology, for instance, consumers can download company logos so they can spot brands such as Dunkin' Donuts or Baskin Robbins when they're on the road. 3 ! Firms can also advertise on video iPods and reach consumers on their cell phones through mobile market­ ing. 32 General Motors Corp. launched its Pontiac G6 with a promotion asking consumers to CHAPTER 1 17
  • 51. 18 PART 1 UNDERSTANDING MARKETING MANAGEMENT take photos ofthe sports sedan on their camera phones and send them to GM in return for a free classic punk rock ring tone and a chance to win $1 million in cash. About 18,500 photos were sent, mostly from the G6 target market of young males under the age of 25. 33 • Firms can produce individually differentiated goods, whether they're ordered in person, on the phone, or online, thanks to ad­ vances in factory customization, computers, the Internet, and data­ base marketing software. For a price, customers can buy M&M candies with their names on them, Wheaties boxes or Jones soda cans with their pictures on the front, and Heinz ketchup bottles with customized messages.3 4 BMW's technology now allows buyers to design their own models from among 350 variations, with 500 op­ tions, 90 exterior colors, and 170 trims. The company claims that 80% of the cars bought by individuals in Europe and up to 30% bought in the United States are built to order. More and more companies can produce individually differentiated gooc1s, even consume I products like these • Managers can improve purchasing, recruiting, training, and in­ ternal and external communications. Aerospace and defense con­ tractor Boeing has joined large, high-profile companies Walt Disney, General Motors, and McDonald's in embracing corporate blogging to communicate with the public, customers, and em­ ployees. External blogs allow dialogues with a marketing vice pres­ ident and a glimpse into the flight testing of the new 777 model; internal blogs allow conversations on hot topics and anonymous feedback. 35 • Corporate buyers can achieve substantial savings by using the Internet to compare sellers' prices and to purchase materials at auction or by posting their own terms. Companies can improve logistics and operations to reap substantial cost savings, at the same time improving accuracy and service quality. • Firms can also recruit new employees online, and many are also preparing Internet train­ ing products for download to employees, dealers, and agents. : :: Company Orientation toward the Marketplace Given these new marketing realities, what philosophy should guide a company's marketing efforts? Increasingly, marketers operate consistent with a holistic marketing concept. Let's review the evolution of earlier marketing ideas. The Production Concept The production concept is one of the oldest concepts in business. It holds that con­ sumers will prefer products that are widely available and inexpensive. Managers of production-oriented businesses concentrate on achieving high production efficiency, low costs, and mass distribution. This orientation makes sense in developing countries such as China, where the largest PC manufacturer, Lenovo, and domestic appliances giant Haier take advantage of the country's huge and inexpensive labor pool to dominate the market. Marketers also use the production concept when a company wants to expand the market. 3G The Product Concept The product concept proposes that consumers favor products that offer the most quality, performance, or innovative features. Managers in these organizations focus on making superior products and improving them over time. However, these managers are sometimes caught up in a love affair with their products. They might commit the "better-mousetrap" fallacy, believing that a better mousetrap will lead people to beat a path to their door. A new or improved product will not necessarily be successful unless it's priced, distributed, adver­ tised, and sold properly.
  • 52. DEFINING MARKETING rOR THE 21 ST CE TURY CHAPTER 1 19 The Selling Concept The selling concept holds that consumers and businesses, if left alone, won't buy enough of the organization's products. The organization must, therefore, undertake an aggressive selling and promotion effort. The selling concept is expressed in the thinking of Sergio Zyman, Coca-Cola's former vice president of marketing, who said: "The purpose of mar­ keting is to sell more stuff to more people more often for more money in order to make more profit."37 The selling concept is practiced most aggressively with unsought goods, goods that buy­ ers normally do not think of buying, such as insurance, encyclopedias, and cemetery plots. Most firms also practice the selling concept when they have overcapacity. Their aim is to sell what they make, rather than make what the market wants. However, marketing based on hard selling carries high risks. It assumes that customers who are coaxed into buying a product will like it, and that if they don't, they not only won't return or bad-mouth it or complain to consumer organizations, but they might even buy it again. The Marketing Concept The marketing concept emerged in the mid-1950s. 30 Instead of a product-centered, "make-and-sell" philosophy, business shifted to a customer-centered, "sense-and­ respond" philosophy. The job is not to find the right customers for your products, but to find the right products for your customers. Dell Computer doesn't prepare a perfect com­ puter for its target market. Rather, it provides product platforms on which each person customizes the features he desires in the computer. The marketing concept holds that the key to achieving organizational goals is being more effective than competitors in creating, delivering, and communicating superior customer value to your chosen target markets. Theodore Levitt of Harvard drew a perceptive contrast between the selling and marketing concepts: To learn how Tata applied the marketing conceptto deepen its understanding of customers in India, visit marketingmanagementindia. o Selling focuses on the needs of the seller; marketing on the needs of the buyer. Selling is preoccupied with the seller's need to convert his product into cash; marketing with the idea of satisfying the needs of the customer by means of the product and the whole cluster of things associated with cre­ ating, delivering, and finally consuming it. 39 Several scholars have found that companies that embrace the marketing concept achieve superior performance. 4o This was first demonstrated by companies practicing a reactive market orienta­ tion-understanding and meeting customers' expressed needs. Some critics say this means companies develop only very basic innovations. Narver and his colleagues argue that more advanced, high-level innovation is possible if the focus is on customers' latent needs. Narver calls this a proactive marketing orientation. 4 ! Companies such as 3M, Hewlett Packard, and Motorola have made a practice of researching latent needs through a "probe-and-learn" process. Companies that practice both a reactive and a proactive marketing orientation are implementing a total market orientation and are likely to be the most successful. The Holistic Marketing Concept Without question, the trends and forces defining the 21st century are leading business firms to a new set of beliefs and practices. Today's best marketers recognize the need to have a more com­ plete, cohesive approach that goes beyond traditional applications of the marketing concept. "Marketing Memo: Marketing Righ t and Wrong" suggests where companies go wrong-and how they can get it right-in their marketing. The holistic marketing concept is based on the develop­ ment, design, and implementation of marketing programs, Nike is Wil ely acknowledger! as One or Ihe mOS1 skilled marketers tiround.
  • 53. PART 1 ~I UNDERSTANDING MARKETING MANAGEMENT MARKETING MEMO 20 MARKETING RIGHT AND WRONG I ~ _ The Ten Deadly Sins of Marketing f--- The Ten Commandments of Marketing .. - - - 1. The company is not sufficiently market focused and 1. The company segments the market, chooses the best customer driven. segments, and develops a strong position in each chosen segment. 2. The company does not fully understand its target customers. 2. The company maps its customers' needs, perceptions, preferences, and behavior and motivates it stakeholders to obsess about serving and satisfying the customers. 3. The company needs to better define and monitor its 3. The company knows its major competitors and their strengths competitors. and vveaknesses. 4. The company has not properly managed its relationships 4. The company builds pal1ners out of its stakeholders and with its stakeholders. generously rewards them. 5. The company is not good at finding new opportunities. 5. The company develops systems for identifying opportunities, 6. The company's marketing plans and planning process 6. The company manages a marketing planning system that leads ranking them, and choosing the best ones. are deficient to insightful long-term and short-term plans. 7. The company's product and service policies need 7. The company exercises strong control over its product and tiglltenlng. service mix. 8. The company's brand-building and communications skills 8. Tile company builds strong brands by using the most cost- are weak. effective communication and promotion tools. 9. The company is not well organized to carryon effective 9. The company builds marketing leadership and a team spirit and efficient marketing. among its various departments. 10. The company has not macle maximum use of 10. Tile company constantly adds technology that gives it a technology. I competitive advantage in the marketplace. Adapled Source: Philip Kotler, Ten Deadly Markeling Sins (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2004). - processes, and activities that recognizes their breadth and interdependencies. Holistic marketing recognizes that "everything matters" in marketing-and that a broad, inte­ grated perspective is often necessary. Holistic marketing is thus an approach that attempts to recognize and reconcile the scope and complexities of marketing activities. Figure 1.4 provides a schematic overview of four broad components characterizing holistic marketing: relationship marketing, inte­ grated marketing, internal marketing, and performance marketing. We'll examine these major themes throughout this book. Successful companies will be those that can keep their marketing changing with the changes in their marketplace-and marketspace. "Breakthrough Marketing: Nike" describes how that company has successfully changed­ and thrived-through the years. Relationship Marketing Increasingly, a key goal of marketing is to develop deep, enduring relationships with people and organizations that could directly or indirectly affect the success of the firm's marketing activities. Relationship marketing aims to build mutually satisfying long-term relationships with key constituents in order to earn and retain their business. 42 Four key constituents for relationship marketing are customers, employees, marketing partners (channels, suppliers, distributors, dealers, agencies), and members of the financial community (shareholders, investors, analysts). Marketers must respect the need to create prosperity among all these constituents and develop policies and strategies to balance the
  • 54. DEfiNiNG MARI<ETING FOR THE 21ST CENTURY Marketing department Senior management Products & services Other departments CHAPTER 1 21 FIG. 1.4 HolisIC M"lrl<elillQ Dimensions Internal marketing ~/ Holistic Sales revenue Brand & customer equity Integrated marketing n Performance marketing Relationship marketing Ethics Community Environment Legal BREAKTHROUGH MARKETING Nike hit the ground running in 1962. Originally known as Blue Ribbon Sports, the company focused on providing high-quality running shoes designed especially for athletes by athletes. Founder Philip Knight believed that high-tech shoes for runners could be manufactured at competitive prices if imported from abroad. The company's commit­ ment to designing innovative footwear for serious athletes helped it build a cult following among U.S. consumers. Nike believed in a "pyramid of influence" where product and brand choices were influenced by the preferences and behavior of a small percentage of top athletes. Therefore, from the start, Nike's marketing campaigns featured winning athletes as spokespeople. Nike's first spokesperson, runner Steve Prefontaine, had an irreverent attitude that matched the company's spirit. In 1985, Nike signed up then-rookie guard Michael Jordan as a spokesperson. Jordan was still an up-and-comer, but he personified superior performance. Nike's bet paid off: The Air Jordan line of bas­ ketball shoes flew off the shelves, with revenues of over $1 00 million In the first year alone. In 1988, Nike aired the first ads in its $20 million "Just Do It" ad campaign. The campaign, which ultimately featured 12 TV spots in all, subtly challenged a generation of athletic enthusiasts to chase their goals; it was a natural manifestation of Nike's attitude of self­ empowerment through sports. As Nike began expanding overseas to Europe, however, it found that its U.S. -style ads were seen there as too aggressive. Nike real­ ized it had to "authenticate" its brand in Europe the way it had in the United States. That meant building credibility and relevance in Channel NIKE European sports, especially soccer (known outside the United States as football) Nike became actively involved as a sponsor of youth leagues, local clubs, and national teams. Autllenticity also required that consumers see athletes using the product, especially athletes who win. The big break came in 1994, when the Brazilian team (the only national team for which Nike had any real sponsorships) won the World Cup. That victory in the world's most popular sport helped Nike succeed in otller inter­ national markets such as China, where Nike came to command 10% of the shoe market. By 2003 overseas revenues surpassed U.S. revenues for the first time, and by 2006 international divisions generated nearly $7.3 billion in revenue, compared to $5.7 billion from the United States. In addition to expanding overseas, Nike moved into new athletic footvvear, apparel, and equipment product categories. These included the Nike Golf brand of footwear, apparel, and equipment, which were all endorsed by megastar Tiger Woods. In 2005, Nike introduced an urban-themed collection of retro footvlJear and apparel bearing the name of the original company, Blue Ribbon Sports. Blue Ribbon Sports designs-which included jeans, belts, sweaters, and woven shirts­ were sold at high-end retailers such as Barney's and Fred Segal. Today, Nike (Iominates the athletic footwear market. Swooshes abound on everytlling from wristwatches to golf clubs to swimming caps. As a result of its expansion across geographic markets and product categories, Nike is the top athletic apparel and footwear manufacturer in the world, with corporate fiscal 2007 revenues of nearly $16 billion. Sources: Justin Ewers and Tim Smart, "A Designer Swooshes In," US. News & World Report, January 26, 2004, p. 12; "Corporate Media Executive of the Year," Delaney Report, January 12, 2004, p. 1; "10 Top Nontraditional Campaigns," Advertising Age, December 22, 2003, p. 24; Chris Zook and James Allen, "GrO~~h Outside the Core," Harvard Business Review 8 (December 2003): 66.
  • 55. 22 PART 1 UNDERSTANDING MARKETING MANAGEMENT returns to all key stakeholders. To develop strong relationships with these constituents requires an understanding of their capabilities and resources, as well as their needs, goals, and desires. The ultimate outcome of relationship marketing is a unique company asset called a marketing network. A marketing network consists of the company and its supporting stakeholders-customers, employees, suppliers, distributors, retailers, ad agencies, uni­ versity scientists, and others-with whom it has built mutually profitable business rela­ tionships. The operating principle is simple: build an effective network of relationships with key stakeholders, and profits will follow. 43 Following this reasoning, more companies are choosing to own brands rather than physical assets. They are also increasingly subcon­ tracting activities to outsourcing firms that can do them better and more cheaply, while retaining core activities. A growing number of today's companies are also shaping separate offers, services, and messages to individual customers, based on information about past transactions, demo­ graphics, psychographics, and media and distribution preferences. By focusing on their most profitable customers, products, and channels, these firms hope to achieve profitable growth, capturing a larger share of each customer's expenditures by building high customer loyalty. They estimate individual customer lifetime value and design their market offerings and prices to make a profit over the customer's lifetime. These activities fall under what Columbia Business School professor Larry Selden and his wife and business consulting partner, Yoko Sugiura Selden, call "customer centricity." They offer the Royal Bank of Canada as an example: ROYAL BANK OF CANADA • In thinking of its business in terms of customer segments rather than product segments, Royal Bank of Canada (RBC) has tagged each of its roughly 11 million clients and put them into meaningful segments. Now it can focus on measuring and managing the customer profitability of these segments. In the process, RBC discovered a size­ able subsegment of customers hidden within its broader categories of "wealth preservers" and "wealth accu­ mulators." Dubbed "snowbirds," these individuals spent a number of months each winter in Florida, where they were experiencing difficulties establishing credit as well as missing their Canadian communities, particularly the familiarity of the French-Canadian accent and fluency in French. In order to meet their unique needs, RBC cre­ ated a Canadian banking experience in Florida 44 Another goal of relationship marketing is to place much more emphasis on customer retention. Attracting a new customer may cost five times as much as doing a good enough job to retain an existing one. A bank aims to increase its share of the customer's wallet; the supermarket aims to capture a larger share of the customer's "stomach." Companies build customer share by offering a larger variety of goods to existing customers. They train their employees in cross-selling and up-selling. Marketing must skillfully conduct not only customer relationship management (CRM), but partner relationship management (PRM) as well. Companies are deepening their part­ nering arrangements with key suppliers and distributors, thinking of these intermediaries not as customers but as partners in delivering value to final customers so everybody bene­ fits. For example, tired of having its big rigs return empty as often as 15% of the time after making a delivery, General Mills entered a program with Fort James and a dozen other com­ panies to combine one-way shipping routes into a cross-country loop served by a tag team of contracted trucks. As a result, General Mills reduced its empty-truck time to 6%, saving 7% on shipping costs in the process. 45 Integrated Marketing The marketer's task is to devise marketing activities and assemble fully integrated mar­ keting programs to create, communicate, and deliver value for consumers. Marketing activities come in all forms. 46 McCarthy classified these activities as marketing-mix tools of four broad kinds, which he called the four Ps of marketing: product, price, place, and promotion. 47
  • 56. DEFINI G MARKETING FOR THE 21ST C NTURY ~Mk ' mix ar etmg . CHAPTER 1 FIG. 1.5 The Four P Components of the Ma <eUng Mix Product Place Product variety Quality Design Features Brand name Packaging Sizes Services Warranties Returns Channels Coverage Assortments Locations Inventory Transport Price Promotion List price Discounts Allowances Payment period Credit terms Sales promotion Advertising Sales force Public relations Direct marketing The particular marketing variables under each P are shown in Figure 1.5. Marketers make marketing-mix decisions for influencing their trade channels as well as their final consumers. Once they understand these groups, marketers make or customize an offer­ ing or solution, inform consumers-recognizing that many other sources of information also exist-set a price that offers real value, and choose places where the offering will be accessible. The firm can change its price, sales force size, and advertising expenditures in the short run. It can develop new products and modify its distribution channels only in the long run. Thus the firm typically makes fewer period-to-period marketing-mix changes in the short run than the number of marketing-mix decision variables might suggest. The four Ps represent the sellers' view of the marketing tools available for influencing buyers. From a buyer's point of view, each marketing tool is designed to deliver a cus­ tomer benefit. A complementary breakdown of marketing activities has been proposed that centers on customers. Its four dimensions (SIVA) and the corresponding customer questions these are designed to answer are: 48 1. Solution: How can I solve my problem? 2. Information: Where can I learn more about it? 3. Yalue: What is my total sacrifice to get this solution? 4. Access: Where can I find it? Winning companies satisfy customer needs and surpass their expectations economically and conveniently and with effective communication. Two key themes of integrated marketing are that (1) many different marketing activities communicate and deliver value and (2) when coordinated, marketing activities maximize their joint effects. In other words, marketers should design and implement anyone market­ ing activity with all other activities in mind. For example, using an integrated communication strategy means choosing communication options that reinforce and complement each other. A marketer might selectively employ televi­ sion, radio, and print advertising, public relations and events, and PR and Web site communica­ tions, so that each contributes on its own as well as improving the effectiveness of the others. Each communication must also deliver a consistent brand image to customers at every brand contact. Applying an integrated channel strategy ensures that direct and indirect channels, such as online and retail sales, work together to maximize sales and brand equity. Online marketing activities play an increasingly prominent role in building brands and selling products and services. Created for $300,000 and no additional promotional expense, online site Carnival Connections made it easy for cruise fans to compare notes on cruise destinations and onboard entertainment, from casinos to conga lines. In a few short months, 2,000 of the site's 13,000 registered users planned trips aboard Carnival's 22 ships, generating an estimated $1.6 million in revenue for the company.49 23
  • 57. csnlllJdl Connr,r.tions olllifiti Iilill kelinu <1dl'lltI80 indudB fUI inleractlve site wllere UuiBe fans can compare nores. 1118 me 11[15 qent'l alet! Clbuut $jG million In Ilooklllgs I ~carntval Site Mop I Ab"ut U$ I Mv Pr"mo I Add .."" a""k I FAQ I Logl" CONNECTIONS. w:;::LiV i "A' i li:.I 'ra.': ,'a?it.fW'+UJL1jJ'i,Jj";jiij·jift1i? t!'W I Make the: Carnival Connection Time for a FUN Cruise together" You bet! Plan your group cruises with Cam ivai Connections: birthday parties, ·....eddings, family reunions, and more! EI1311: P3$SVt'orc: - - - - - Rernerlber FergM. Pas.swbf'C? Me~ t:t::I Not,] Member Vet? ChOOO'" • ClUJ Begin by selecting one or more of the cruise details below OR create a.n Invitation. A;WOtS:&."'.l~ AnySIt ..o M;;k Co :~. N1~·Du·.lho" 111£:'l~lCruise tOQetl~er with Carnival for your next family event. kC:lrn ""arc abou Car'lll",al ConnCcbons "Tt ~~O'Stat~' hoosc Ya~ r r: Am.'~ lisp Get the inside scoop on::I.Q.t1! Choice Qilling, actiVIties and more .... ith the latest reviews from Connections members. COllnect to CruIse Reviews Internal Marketing Holistic marketing incorporates internal marketing, ensuring that everyone in the organiza­ tion embraces appropriate marketing principles, especially senior management. Internal marketing is the task of hiring, training, and motivating able employees who want to serve customers well. Smart marketers recognize that marketing activities within the company can be as important or even more important than marketing activities directed outside the com­ pany. It makes no sense to promise excellent service before the company's staff is ready to provide it. Internal marketing must take place on two levels. At one level, the various marketing functions-sales force, advertising, customer service, product management, marketing research-must work together. Too often, the sales force thinks product managers set prices or sale quotas "too high"; or the advertising director and a brand manager cannot agree on an advertising campaign. All these marketing functions must be coordinated from the customer's point of view. The following example highlights the coordination problem: The marketing vice president of a major European airline wants to increase the air­ line's traffic share. His strategy is to build up customer satisfaction by providing better food, cleaner cabins, better-trained cabin crews, and lower fares, yet he has no authority in these matters. The catering department chooses food that keeps food costs down; the maintenance department uses cleaning services that keep cleaning costs down; the human resources department hires people without regard to whether they are naturally friendly; the finance department sets the fares. Because these departments generally take a cost or production point of view, the vice president of marketing is stymied in his efforts to create an integrated market­ ing mix. At the second level, other departments must embrace marketing; they must also "think customer." Marketing is not a department so much as a company orientation. 5o See Table 1.1. Internal marketing thus requires vertical alignment with senior management and hor­ izontal alignment with other departments, so everyone understands, appreciates, and supports the marketing effort. As former Yahoo! CMO Cammie Dunaway states, "You
  • 58. TABLE 1.1 H&D • They spend time meeting customers and listening to their problems. • They welcome the involvement of marketing, manufacturing, and other departments to each new project. • They benchmark competitors' products and seek "best of class" solutions • They solicit customer reactions and suggestions as the project progresses. • They continuously improve and refine the product on the basis of market feedback. Purchasing • They proactively search for the best suppliers. • They build long-term relationships with fewer but more reliable, high-quality suppliers. • They don't compromise quality for price savings. Manufacturing • They invite customers to visit and tour their plants. • They visit customer plants. • They willingly work overtime to meet promised delivery schedules. • They continuously search for ways to produce goods faster and/or at lower cost. • They continuously improve product quality, aiming for zero defects. • They meet customer requirements for "customization" where possible. Marketing • They study customer needs and wants in well-defined market segments. • They allocate marketing effort in relation to the long-run profit potential of the targeted segments. • They develop winning offers for each target segment. • They measure company image and customer satisfaction on a continuous basis. • They continuously gather and evaluate ideas for new products, product improvements, and services. • They urge all company departments and employees to be customer centered. Sales • They have specialized knowledge of the customer's industry • They strive to give the customer "the best solution." • They make only promises that they can keep. • They feed back customers' needs and ideas to those in charge of product development. They serve the same customers for a long period of time. Logistics • They set a high standard for service delivery time and meet this standard consistently. • They operate a knowledgeable and friendly customer service department that can answer questions, handle complaints, and resolve problems in a satisfactory and timely manner. Accounting • They prepare periodic "profitability" reports by product, market segment, geographic areas (regions, sales territories), order sizes, channels, and individual customers. • They prepare invoices tailored to customer needs and answer customer queries courteously and quickly. Finance • They understand and support marketing expenditures (eg., image advertising) that produce long-term customer preference and loyalty. • They tailor the financial package to the customer's financial requirements. • They make quick decisions on customer creditworthiness. Public Relations • They send out favorable news about the company and "damage control" unfavorable news. They act as an internal customer and public advocate for better company policies and practices. S:Jutr;a. Pr ill[,I<:JI'f. I(III~I ('II MarAvlio!TlNew YOI. Fr,;e PJ'!;ss 19!ofLl) n <- ~~. R~fir !I',I] 1.1111 llo~.l(,ll ( I'lt' FiCl' Prf:8'; d DN'L ur 0 StfTlUC /!. S,~llI.;"er I (:1111 PuI)II'llIr~1 (1;' Co Wiiatl! /j 1:J~' IIV Pillip MI vi All 'lljJL~; ieselvon A'lS8SsinQ Wilich _Olllparl~ Are Cuslome Mil1lii!rj D,par lmenl
  • 59. 26 PART 1 UNDERS-rANDING MARKETING MANAGi=MENT FIG. 1.6 Types of Marketing Organimtions (percenl of sample population i parentheses) Based llll Boo.:A!I/;'1I H;JIIIIII01I/jl';~II. of Natinl1rrlAI!vt>rIISI1I,', M,'}(kf!!llIil emlill~-'. ii' conjunclioll wi!h C1rarJ(/wee!( hOIF Constatltlne '1111 ~IDHIT1illl. 'Arrl1l-d vlillllill£lIllell~e. Hli1ll,j1~L'A, May 2ft, 2006, pp. ,7 ?O S{l/II('e' Growth Champions (14.7%) emphasize growth-support functions, leading such general-management activities as product innovation and new-business development. Marketing Masters (38.4%) oversee company-wide marketing efforts and the customer-focused side of new product and service launches, although are typically not involved with strategic decisions. Senior Counselors (16.9%) specialize in marketing strategy, advising the CEO and individual businesses, and may drive major communication programs, although not typically new product development. Best Practices Advisors (8.9%) work with individual business units to improve their marketing effectiveness and, but are less likely to be linked with above-average growth than both the Growth Champions and the Marketing Masters. Brand Builders (12.2%) support brands by providing marketing services like communications strategy, creative output, and campaign execution, but exhibit little strategic leadership. Service Providers (14.7%) coordinate marketing communications, but often work in firms with lower revenue growth and profitability want to be connecting at the very senior levels of the organization, and you also want to be connecting in with the engineers and scientists who are doing a lot of the work on the front lines." Dunaway also emphasizes the importance of integrated marketing, compar­ ing her job to that of an orchestra conductor: "You have to figure out how to pull all those instruments together in a way that's delivering great marketing accountability and engag­ ing marketing programs."S1 A study conducted by Booz Allen Hamilton and the Association of National Advertisers, in conjunction with Brandweek magazine, asked 2,000 executives to describe the marketing structure within their organizations and to detail the tasks they consider integral to their missions. The researchers identified six types of marketing organizations (see Figure 1.6 for a breakdown and descriptions). In the most successful type, Growth Champions, marketing heavily influenced all aspects of the organization. Growth Champions were 20% more likely to deliver revenue growth and profitability than the other types of marketing organizations. Performance Marketing Holistic marketing incorporates peljormance marketing and understanding the returns to the business from marketing activities and programs, as well as addressing broader con­ cerns and their legal, ethical, social, and environmental effects. Top management is going beyond sales revenue to examine the marketing scorecard and interpret what is happening to market share, customer loss rate, customer satisfaction, product quality, and other measures. FINANCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY Marketers are thus being increasingly asked to justify their investments to senior management in financial and profitability terms, as well as in terms of building the brand and growing the customer base. 52 As a consequence, they're employing a broader variety of financial measures to assess the direct and indirect value their marketing efforts create. They're also recognizing that much of their firms' market value comes from in­ tangible assets, particularly their brands, customer base, employees, distributor and supplier relations, and intellectual capital. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY MARKF;ING The effects of marketing clearly extend beyond the company and the customer to society as a whole. Marketers must carefully consider their role in broader terms, and the ethical, environmental, legal, and social context of their activities. 53 Increasingly, consumers demand such behavior, as Starbucks Chairman Howard Schultz has observed: 54
  • 60. DEFINING MARKETING FOR THE 21ST CENTURY CHAPTER 1 We see a fundamental change in the way consumers buy their products and services.... Consumers now commonly engage in a cultural audit of providers. People want to know your value and ethics demonstrated by how you treat employ­ ees, the community in which you operate. The implication for marketers is to strike the balance between profitability and social consciousness and sensitivity.... It is not a program or a quarterly promotion, but rather a way of life. You have to inte­ grate this level of social responsibility into your operation. This realization caJis for a new term that enlarges the marketing concept. We propose calling it the "societal marketing concept." The societal marketing concept holds that the organization's task is to determine the needs, wants, and interests of target markets and to deliver the desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently than competitors in a way that preserves or enhances the consumer's and society's long-term well-being. Sustainability has become a major corporate concern in the face of challenging environ­ mental forces. Firms such as Hewlett-Packard have introduced recyclable computers and printers and reduced greenhouse emissions; McDonald's strives for a "socially responsible supply system" encompassing everything from healthy fisheries to redesigned packaging. 55 The societal marketing concept calls upon marketers to build social and ethical con­ siderations into their marketing practices. They must balance and juggle the often con­ flicting criteria of company profits, consumer want satisfaction, and public interest. Table 1.2 displays some different types of corporate social initiatives, illustrated by McDonald's.56 As goods become more commoditized, and as consumers grow more socially conscious, some companies-including the Body Shop, Timberland, and Patagonia-are adding social responsibility as a way to differentiate themselves from competitors, build consumer prefer­ ence, and achieve notable sales and profit gains. They believe customers will increasingly look for signs of good corporate citizenship. ITAB LE 1.2 I Corporate Social Initiatives Type Description Example Corporate social marketing Supporting behavior change campaigns McDonald's promotion of a statewide childhood immunization campaign in Oklahoma Cause marketing Promoting social issues through efforts such as sponsorships, licensing agreements, and advertising McDonald's sponsorship of Forest (a gonlla) at Sydney's Zoo-a 1O-year sponsorship commitment, aimed at preserving this endangered species Cause-related marketing Donating a percentage of revenues to a specific cause based on the revenue occurring during the announced period of support McDonald's earmarking of $1 for Ronald McDonald Children's Charities from the sale of every Big Mac and pizza sold on McHappy Day Corporate philanthropy Making gifts of money, goods, or time to help nonprofit organizations, groups, or individuals McDonald's contributions to Ronald McDonald House Charities Corporate community involvement Providing in-kind or volunteer services in the community McDonald's catering meals for firefighters in the December 1997 bushfires in Australia Socially responsible business practices Adapting and conducting business practices that protect the environment and human and animal rights McDonald's requirement that suppliers increase the amount of living space for laying hens on factory farms d.,' $(JUice Philip Koller and N:1I1CV Lee, (,'orromte Res.onnsib1il/f. [J, lilll) Ihf' Most GOOI! (or t(lU( C<ilflfJ3I1Y [Wi Yuw Cause (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2004). Copyriglll © 2005 Ily Philip Koller and Nancy Lei' lJ~p.d bv pr./I i~sl()n ,If lo!m Wl10y & Sen:i, Inr ' 27
  • 61. 28 PART 1 UNDERSTANDING MARKETING MANAGEMENT BEN & JERRY'S • When they founded Ben & Jerry's, Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield embraced the performance marketing con­ cept by dividing the traditional financial bottom line into a "double" bottom line, which would include a measure­ ment of the environmental impact of their products and processes. That "double bottom line" later expanded into a "triple bottom line," to represent in objective terms the social impacts, both negative and positive, of the firm's entire range of business activities. Cohen and Greenfield informed their senior managers that they were going to be held accountable to maintain two bottom lines: "To improve the quality of life in the communities in which we operate, and to make a reasonable profit." Ben &Jerry's also recognized that just as companies require outside auditors to measure financial performance, they also require outside auditors to measure their performance along the environmental and social dimensions. As one of those outside auditors later recalled: "Measurement is a key tool to convince boards of directors and core executives that the socially responsible company is a sound business strategy. As companies make more data from their efforts available, the story becomes more compelling.... To advocate transparency in business and for all of us to ascribe to that-that's the ultimate acid test. "57 ::: Marketing Management Tasks With the holistic marketing philosophy as a backdrop, we can identify a specific set of tasks that make up successful marketing management and marketing leadership. We'll use the fol­ lowing situation to illustrate these tasks in the context of the plan of the book. (The "Marketing Memo: Marketers' Frequently Asked Questions" is a good checklist for the ques­ tions marketing managers ask, all of which we examine in this book.) Zeus Inc. (name disguised) operates in several industries, including chemicals, cameras, and film. The company is organized into SBUs. Corporate management is considering what to do with its Atlas camera division, which produces a range of 35 mm and digital cameras. Although Zeus has a sizable share and is producing rev­ enue, the 35 mm market itself is rapidly declining and its market share is slipping. In the faster-growing digital camera segment, Zeus faces strong competition and has been slow to gain sales. Zeus's corporate management wants Atlas's marketing group to produce a strong turnaround plan for the division. Developing Marketing Strategies and Plans The first task facing Atlas is to identify its potential long-run opportunities, given its mar­ ket experience and core competencies (see Chapter 2). Atlas can design its cameras with better features. It can make a line of video cameras, or it can use its core competency in optics to design a line of binoculars and telescopes. Whichever direction it chooses, it must develop concrete marketing plans that specify the marketing strategy and tactics going forward. Capturing Marketing Insights Atlas needs a reliable marketing information system to closely monitor its marketing envi­ ronment. Its microenvironment consists of all the players who affect its ability to produce and sell cameras-suppliers, marketing intermediaries, customers, and competitors. Its macroenvironment includes demographic, economic, physical, technological, political­ legal, and social-cultural forces that affect sales and profits (see Chapter 3). Atlas also needs a dependable marketing research system. To transform marketing strat­ egy into marketing programs, marketing managers must measure market potential, forecast demand, and make basic decisions about marketing expenditures, marketing activities, and marketing allocation. 58 To make these allocations, marketing managers may use sales­ response functions that show how the amount of money spent in each application will affect sales and profits (see Chapter 4).
  • 62. DEFINING MARKETlbJG FOR THE 21ST CENTURY I CHAPTER 1 29 ~ II1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 =:J MARKETING MEMO 1. 2. 3. 4. MARKETERS' FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS How can we spot and choose the right market segment(s)? How can we differentiate our offerings? How should we respond to customers who buy on price? How can '.'Ie compete against lower-cost, lower-price competitors? 5. How far can we go in customizing our offering for each customer? 6. How can we grow our business? 7. How can we build stronger brands? 8. How can we reduce the cost of customer acquisition? 9. How can we keep our customers loyal for longer? 10. How can we tell which customers are more important? 11. How can we measure the payback from advertising, sales pro­ motion, and public relations? 12. How can we improve sales force productivity? 13. How can we establish multiple channels and yet manage channel conflict? 14. How can we get tile other company departments to be more customer oriented? Connecting with Customers Atlas must consider how to best create val ue for its chosen target markets and develop strong, profitable, long-term relationships with customers (see Chapter 5). To do so, it needs to understand consumer markets (see Chapter 6). Who buys cameras, and why do they buy? What are they looking for in the way of features and prices, and where do they shop? Atlas also sells cameras to business markets, including large corporations, profes­ sional firms, retailers, and government agencies (see Chapter 7), where purchasing agents or buying committees make the decisions. Atlas needs to gain a full understanding of how organizational buyers buy. It needs a sales force that is well trained in presenting product benefits. Atlas will not want to market to all possible customers. It must divide the market into major market segments, evaluate each one, and target those it can best serve (see Chapter 8). Building Strong Brands Atlas must understand the strengths and weaknesses of the Zeus brand as customers see it (see Chapter 9). Is its 35 mm film heritage a handicap in the digital camera market? Suppose Atlas decides to focus on the consumer market and develop a positioning strat­ egy (see Chapter 10). Should it position itself as the "Cadillac" brand, offering superior cameras at a premium price with excellent service and strong advertising? Should it build a simple, low-priced camera aimed at more price-conscious consumers? Or something in between? Atlas must also pay close attention to competitors (see Chapter 11), anticipating its competitors' moves and knowing how to react quickly and decisively. It may want to ini­ tiate some surprise moves, in which case it needs to anticipate how its competitors will respond. Shaping the Market Offerings At the heart of the marketing program is the product-the firm's tangible offering to the mar­ ket, which includes the product quality, design, features, and packaging (see Chapter 12). To gain a competitive advantage, Atlas may provide leasing, delivery, repair, and training as part ofits product offering (see Chapter 13). Acritical marketing decision relates to price (see Chapter 14). Atlas must decide on wholesale and retail prices, discounts, allowances, and credit terms. Its price should match well with the offer's perceived value; otherwise, buyers will turn to competitors' products. Delivering Value Atlas must also determine how to properly deliver to the target market the value embodied in its products and services. Channel activities include those the company undertakes to
  • 63. 30 PART 1 UNDERSTANDING MARKETING MANAGEMENT make the product accessible and available to target customers (see Chapter 15). Atlas must identify, recruit, and link various marketing facilitators to supply its products and services efficiently to the target market. It must understand the various types of retailers, whole­ salers, and physical-distribution firms and how they make their decisions (see Chapter 16). Communicating Value Atlas must also adequately communicate to the target market the value embodied by its products and services. It will need an integrated marketing communication program that maximizes the individual and collective contribution of all communication activities (see Chapter 17). Atlas needs to set up mass communication programs consisting of advertising, sales promotion, events, and public relations (see Chapter 18). It also needs to plan more personal communications, in the form of direct and interactive marketing, as well as hire, train, and motivate salespeople (see Chapter 19). Creating Long-Term Growth Based on its product positioning, Atlas must initiate new-product development, testing, and launching as part of its long-term view (see Chapter 20). The strategy should take into account changing global opportunities and challenges (see Chapter 21). Finally, Atlas must build a marketing organization that's capable of implementing the marketing plan (see Chapter 22). Because surprises and disappointments can occur as mar­ keting plans unfold, Atlas will need feedback and control to understand the efficiency and effectiveness of its marketing activities and how it can improve them. 59 MARY 1. From a managerial point of view, marketing is an organiza­ tional function and a set of processes for creating, commu­ nicating, and delivering value to customers and for man­ aging customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stakeholders. Marketing management is the art and science of choosing target markets and get­ ting, keeping, and growing customers through creating, delivering, and communicating superior customer value. 2. Marketers are skilled at managing demand: they seek to influence the level, timing, and composition of demand. Marketers are involved in marketing many types of enti­ ties: goods, services, events, experiences, persons, places, properties, organizations, information, and ideas. They also operate in four different marketplaces: consumer, business, global, and nonprofit. 3. Marketing is not done only by the marketing department. Marketing needs to affect every aspect of the customer experience. To create a strong marketing organization, marketers must think like executives in other departments, and executives in other departments must think more like marketers. 4. Today's marketplace is fundamentally different as a result of major societal forces that have resulted in many new consumer and company capabilities. These forces have ••• ••• created new opportunities and challenges, and market­ ing management has changed significantly in recent years as companies seek new ways to achieve marketing excellence. 5. There are five competing concepts under which organiza­ tions can choose to conduct their business: the production concept, the product concept, the selling concept, the marketing concept, and the holistic marketing concept. The first three are of limited use today. 6. The holistic marketing concept is based on the develop­ ment, design, and implementation of marketing programs, processes, and activities that recognize their breadth and interdependencies. Holistic marketing recognizes that "everything matters" with marketing and that a broad! integrated perspective is often necessary. Four compo-' nents of holistic marketing are relationship marketing, integrated marketing, internal marketing, and socially responsible marketing. 7. The set of tasks necessary for successful marketing man­ agement includes developing marketing strategies and plans, capturing marketing insights, connecting with cus­ tomers, building strong brands, shaping the market offer­ ings, delivering and communicating value, and creating long-term growth.
  • 64. DEFI ING MARKETING FOR THE 21 ST CENTURY CHAPTER 1 31 ••• APPLICATIONS ••• Marketing Debate Does Marketing Create or Satisfy Needs? Marketing has often been defined in terms of satisfying customers' needs and wants. Critics, however, maintain that marketing goes beyond that and creates needs and wants that did not exist before. According to these critics, marketers encourage consumers to spend more money than they should on goods and services they really do not need. Marketing Discussion Consider the broad shifts in marketing. Are there any themes that emerge in these shifts? Can they be related to the major societal forces? Which force has contributed to which shift? Take a position: Marketing shapes consumer needs and wants versus Marketing merely reflects the needs and wants of consumers.
  • 65. ------------ CHA TER 2 ~iAmens AGs 011 J a lefl(linu p.nergy Conljli'll y foc:u elf growth smJfegl' .. ••• DEVELOPING MARKETING STRATEGIES AND PLANS
  • 66. 34 PART 1 UNDERSTAI--JDING MARKETING MArJAGEIV1ENT ::: Marketing and Customer Value Marketing is about satisfying consumers' needs and wants. The task of any business is to deliver customer value at a profit. In a hypercompetitive economy with increasingly rational buyers faced with abundant choices, a company can win only by fine-tuning the value deliv­ ery process and choosing, providing, and communicating superior value. The Value Delivery Process The traditional view of marketing is that the firm makes something and then sells it. In this view, marketing takes place in the second half of the process. Companies that subscribe to this view have the best chance of succeeding in economies marked by goods shortages where consumers are not fussy abbut quality, features, or style-for example, basic staple goods in developing markets. This traditional view of the business process, however, will not work in economies where people face abundant choices. There, the "mass market" is actually splintering into numer­ ous micro markets, each with its own wants, perceptions, preferences, and buying criteria. The smart competitor must design and deliver offerings for well-defined target markets. This realization inspired a new view of business processes that places marketing at the beginning of planning. Instead of emphasizing making and selling, companies now see themselves as part of a value delivery process. The value creation and delivery sequence can be divided into three phases. The first phase, choosing the value, represents the "homework" marketing must do before any product exists. The marketing staff must segment the market, select the appropriate mar­ ket target. and develop the offering's value positioning. The formula "segmentation, tar­ geting, positioning (STP)" is the essence of strategic marketing. Once the business unit has chosen the value, the second phase is providing the value. Marketing must determine specific product features, prices. and distribution. The task in the third phase is communicating the value by utilizing the sales force, sales promotion. advertising, and other communication tools to announce and promote the product. Each of these value phases has cost implications. It is also the case that the value delivery process begins before there is a product and continues while it is being developed and after it becomes available. NIKE • Critics of Nike often complain that its shoes cost almost nothing to make, yet cost the consumer so mUCh. True, the raw materials and manufacturing costs of a sneaker are relatively cheap, but marketing the product to the consumer is expensive. Materials, labor, shipping, equipment, import duties, and suppliers' costs generally total less than $25 a pair. Compensating the sales team, distributors, administration, and endorsers, as well as pay­ ing for advertising and R&D, adds $15 or so to Nike's total. Nike sells its product to retailers to make a profit of $7. The retailer therefore pays roughly $47 to put a pair of Nikes on the shelf. Factoring in the retailer's overhead (typically $30 covering human resources, lease, and equipment), along with a $1 0 profit, the shoe costs the con­ sumer over $80.
  • 67. o VELOPING MARKETING STRATEGIES AND PLANS London Business School's Nirmalya Kumar has put forth a "3 Vs" approach to marketing: value segment or customers (and their needs); (2) define the value proposition; and (3) define the value network that will deliver the promised service. 2 Dartmouth's Frederick Webster views marketing in terms of: (1) value-defining processes such as market research and company self-analysis; (2) value-developing processes including new-product development, sourcing strategy, and vendor selection; and (3) value-delivering processes such as advertising and managing distribution. 3 (1) define the The Value Chain Michael Porter of Harvard has proposed the value chain as a tool for identifying ways to cre­ ate more customer value (see Figure 2.1).4 According to this model, every firm is a synthesis of activities performed to design, produce, market, deliver, and support its product. The value chain identifies nine strategically relevant activities-five primary and four support activities-that create value and cost in a specific business. The primary activities are inbound logistics or bringing materials into the business; operations or converting them into final products; outbound logistics or shipping out final products; marketing them, which includes sales; and servicing them. The support activities-procurement, technology development, human resource management, and firm infrastructure-are handled in specialized departments. The firm's infrastructure covers the costs of general management, planning, finance, accounting, legal, and gov­ ernment affairs. The firm's task is to examine its costs and performance in each value-creating activity and to look for ways to improve it. Managers should estimate their competitors' costs and performances as benchmarks against which to compare their own costs and perfor­ mance. And they should go further and study the "best of class" practices of the world's best companies. 5 CISCO SYSTEMS INC. • Although Cisco Systems continues to grow, it is not grOWing at the breakneck speed of the 1990s, so its supply base needs have changed. The company has reduced its number of suppliers and aligned itself more closely with the remaining suppliers for each of its product-based teams-from Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) to microprocessors and broadband chips. Steve Darendinger, vice president of supply chain management for Cisco, says, "With ASIC we have gone from more than 20 suppliers to 3 sup­ pliers," and "the three have a greater level of ASIC leverage ... " Involving suppliers in new-product devel­ opment lets Cisco tap into its partners' expertise in improving time to volume, cutting costs, and improving supplier quality.6 The firm's success depends not only on how well each department performs its work, but also on how well the company coordinates departmental activities to conduct core business processes. 7 These core business processes include: The market-sensing process. All the activities in gathering market intelligence, dissemi­ nating it within the organization, and acting on the information • The new-offering realization process. All the activities in researching, developing, and launching new high-quality offerings quickly and within budget • The customer acquisition process. All the activities in defining target markets and prospecting for new customers • The customer relationship management process. All the activities in building deeper understanding, relationships, and offerings to individual customers The fulfillment management process. All the activities in receiving and approving or­ ders, shipping the goods on time, and collecting payment Strong companies are reengineering their work flows and building cross-functional teams to be responsible for each process. 8 At Xerox, a Customer Operations Group links CHAPTER 2 35
  • 68. 36 PART 1 UNDERSTANDING MARKETING MANAGEMENT Rite Aid is hoping ils use of CfTJss-tunctionalteams will illiprovn its lJusine&i processes enough to make it number Oil6 among retail druu chains. sales, shipping, installation, service, and billing so these activities flow smoothly into one another. Winning companies are those that excel at managing core business processes through cross-functional teams. AT&T, Polaroid, and Motorola have reorganized their employees into cross-functional teams; cross-functional teams are also found in nonprofit and govern­ ment organizations as well. Drugstore chain Rite Aid is using cross-functional teams to try to push its store from third to first place in the drugstore hierarchy. The company has created teams to focus on sales and margin growth, operational excellence, market optimization, continued supply chain improvements, and continued cost control. 9 To be successful, a firm also needs to look for competitive advantages beyond its own operations, into the value chains of suppli­ ers, distributors, and customers. Many com­ panies today have partnered with specific suppliers and distributors to create a supe­ rior value delivery network, also called a supply chain. Core Competencies Traditionally, companies owned and controlled most of the resources that entered their businesses-labor power, materials, machines, information, and energy-but this situation is changing. Many companies today outsource less-critical resources if they can obtain bet­ ter quality or lower cost. India has developed a reputation as a country that can provide ample outsourcing support. The key, then, is to own and nurture the resources and competencies that make up the essence of the business. Nike, for example, does not manufacture its own shoes, because cer­ tain Asian manufacturers are more competent in this task; instead Nike nurtures its superi­ ority in shoe design and merchandising, its two core competencies. A core competency has three characteristics: (1) It is a source of competitive advantage in that it makes a significant contribution to perceived customer benefits. (2) It has applications in a wide variety of mar­ kets. (3) It is difficult for competitors to imitate. lO Competitive advantage also accrues to companies that possess distinctive capabilities. IThereas "core competencies" refers to areas of special technical and production expertise, distinctive capabilities describes excellence in broader business processes. Consider Netflix, the pioneer online DVD rental service, based in Silicon Valley.!l ,.. • NETFLIX Back in 1997, while most people were still fumbling with programming their VCRs, Netflix founder Reed Hastings became convinced that DVDs were the home video medium of the future. He raised $120 million, attracted hun­ dreds of thousands of customers for his online movie DVD rental business, and took the company public in 2002, gaining another $90 million. Netflix has distinctive capabilities that promise to keep the company on top even as competitors such as Blockbuster and Wal-Mart try to muscle in on its turf. These distinctive capabilities are no late fees, (mostly) overnight delivery, and a deep catalog of over 65,000 movie titles, linked to systematic pro­ prietary search software that allows customers to easily search for obscure films and discover new ones. Netflix is now making all of Hollywood-not just movie rental businesses-react. With its online communities of peo­ ple who provide reviews and feedback, Netflix can identify potential fans for films. For instance, the company is credited with single-handedly bUilding audiences for such quirky independent films as Capturing the Friedmans, a documentary about sexual abuse in a Long Island family.
  • 69. DEVE.LOPING MARKE.TING STRATEGIES AND PLANS CHAPTER 2 37 Netflix became a success in the DVD rental business by exploiting its distinctive capabilities-state-oHhe-art software that supports its product recommendations, merchandising, and inventory control inter! hy permissior of NetlliJ-:, Inc. , pYflghll2' L007 Nell.ix. 111[; AL llgilt" leseivoti. How Netfllx Works: 0°'" 6S.~ o:~-= 0 , I LATE FEE' _!V1~r-l:I..-o, r"'... ~_~,' Wharton's George Day sees market-driven organizations as excelling in three distinc­ tive capabilities: market sensing, customer linking, and channel bonding. 12 In terms of market sensing, he believes that tremendous opportunities and threats often begin as "weak signals" from the "periphery" of a business. 13 He offers a systematic process for developing peripheral vision, and practical tools and strategies for building "vigilant organizations" attuned to changes in the environment, by asking questions in three cate­ gories (see Table 2.1). Competitive advantage ultimately derives from how well the company has fitted its core competencies and distinctive capabilities into tightly interlocking "activity systems." Competitors find it hard to imitate companies such as Southwest Airlines, Dell, and IKEA because they are unable to copy their activity systems. TABLE 2.1 Learning from the • • What have beenpast past blind spots? our • What instructive analogies do other industries offer? !I Who in the industry is skilled at picking up weak signals and acting on them? Evaluating the present • What important signals are we rationalizing away? • Wllat are our mavericks, outliers, complainers, and defectors telling us? What are our peripheral customers and competitors really thinking? • EnVisioning the future What future surprises could really hurt or help us? • What emerging technologies could change the game? • Is there an unthinkable scenario that might disrupt our business? ~Mro' ~')1Ir George S O~y alld P(l~ J H SchcemaKer, I' riplloml Vision: Dctecung ttle Weali Sigmls That WI/I Make or Break COrllPEIfIY (Boston' HaJvanJ BU$iness Sello I f"re<;s. ;?fJnf)) I Becoming a Vigilant Organization
  • 70. 38 PART 1 UNDERSTANDING MARKETING MANAGEMENT Business realignment may be necessary to maximize core competencies. It has three steps: (1) (re)defining the business concept or "big idea"; (2) (re)shaping the business scope; and (3) (re)positioning the company's brand identity. Consider what Kodak is doing to realign its business: KODAK • With the advent of the digital era and consumers' new capacity to store, share, and print photos using their PCs, Kodak faces more competition than ever, both in-store and online. In 2004, after being bumped from the Dow Jones Industrial Average, where it had held a spot for more than 70 years, the company started the painful process of transformation. It started off by expanding its line of digital cameras, printers, and other equipment, and it also set out to increase market share in the lucrative medical imaging business. Making shifts is not with­ out challenges,however. The company announced in the summer of 2006 that it would outsource the making of its digital cameras. Kodak eliminated almost 30,000 jobs between 2004 and 2007 and it spent money acquiring a string of companies for its graphics communications unit. Not only must Kodak convince consumers to buy its digital cameras and home printers, but it also must become known as the most convenient and affordable way to process digital images. So far, the company faces steep competition from Sony, Canon, and Hewlett-Packard. 14 A Holistic Marketing Orientation and Customer Value A holistic marketing orientation can also help capture customer value. One view of holistic marketing sees it as "integrating the value exploration, value creation, and value delivery activities with the purpose of building long-term, mutually satisfying relationships and coprosperity among key stakeholders."15 According to this view, holistic marketers succeed by managing a superior value chain that delivers a high level of product quality, service, and speed. Holistic marketers achieve profitable growth by expanding customer share, building customer loyalty, and capturing customer lifetime value. Figure 2.1, a holistic marketing framework, shows how the interaction between relevant actors and value-based activities helps to create, maintain, and renew customer value. The holistic marketing framework is designed to address three key management questions: 1. Value exploration-How can a company identify new value opportunities? 2. Value creation-How can a company efficiently create more promising new value offerings? 3. Value delivery-----How can a company use its capabilities and infrastructure to deliver the new value offerings more efficiently? Let's look at how marketers can answer them. I FIG. 2.1 I Collaborative Network A Holistic Marketing Framework $oilieR P. Koller. DC. J~iJl, anti S. Maesincea "Formulaliflg a Malkel Renewal Strategy." in M"rkoting Moves (f'alt 1) Fig. H (Ba~[on: IlarvallJ Business School Press, 2002), p. 29. Callyriolll © 200? hv President ami Fellows of HarvArd Collene. All righls raSAI ved Value Exploration Cognitive space Competency space Resource space t Value Creation )' Customer benefits Customer relationship management • • Business domain Business partners .. • Internal resource management Business partner management t Value DeIiVe:._~
  • 71. DEVELOrlNG MARKETING STRATEGIES AND PLANS VALUE EXPLORATION Finding new value opportunities is a matter of understanding the relationships among three spaces: (1) the customer's cognitive space; (2) the company's com­ petence space; and (3) the collaborator's resource space. The customer's cognitive space re­ flects existing and latent needs and includes dimensions such as the need for participation, stability, freedom, and change. 16 We can describe the company's competency space in terms of breadth-broad versus focused scope of business; and depth-physical versus knowledge­ based capabilities. The collaborator's resource space includes horizontal partnerships, with partners chosen for their ability to exploit related market opportunities, and vertical partner­ ships, with partners who can serve the firm's value creation. VALUE CREATION Value-creation skills for marketers include identifying new customer benefits from the customer's view; utilizing core competencies from its business domain; and selecting and managing business partners from its collaborative networks. To create new cus­ tomer benefits, marketers must understand what the customer thinks about, wants, does, and worries about and observe whom customers admire and interact with, and who influ­ ences them. ALUE DEUVERV Delivering value often means making substantial investments in infra­ structure and capabilities. The company must become proficient at customer relationship management, internal resource management, and business partnership management. Customer relationship management allows the company to discover who its customers are, how they behave, and what they need or want. It also enables the company to respond ap­ propriately, coherently, and quickly to different customer opportunities. To respond effec­ tively, the company requires internal resource management to integrate major business processes, such as order processing, general ledger, payroll, and production, within a single family of software modules. Finally, business partnership management allows the company to handle complex relationships with its trading partners to source, process, and deliver products. The Central Role of Strategic Planning Successful marketing thus requires companies to have capabilities such as understand­ ing customer value, creating customer value, delivering customer value, capturing cus­ tomer value, and sustaining customer value. Only a select group of companies stand out as master marketers: Procter & Gamble, Southwest Airlines, Nike, Disney, Nordstrom, Barnes & Noble, Starbucks, Wal-Mart, Target, Enterprise Rent-A-Car, Progressive Insurance, McDonald's, Ritz-Carlton, and several Asian (Sony, Toyota, Samsung, Canon) and European (IKEA, Club Med, Bang & Olufsen, Electrolux, Nokia, Lego, Tesco, and Virgin) companies. "Breakthrough Marketing: Intel" describes how that company created customer value and built a brand in a category for which most people thought branding impossible. These companies focus on the customer and are organized to respond effectively to changing customer needs. They all have well-staffed marketing departments, and all their other departments accept the concept that the customer is king. To ensure that they select and execute the right activities, marketers must give priority to strategic planning in three key areas: managing a company's businesses as an investment portfolio, assessing each business's strength by considering the market's growth rate and the company's position and fit in that market, and establishing a strategy. For each business, the company must develop a game plan for achieving its long-run objectives. Most large companies consist of four organizational levels: the corporate level, the division level, the business unit level, and the product level. Corporate headquarters is responsible for designing a corporate strategic plan to guide the whole enterprise; it makes decisions on the amount of resources to allocate to each division, as well as on which businesses to start or eliminate. Each division establishes a plan covering the allo­ cation of funds to each business unit within the division. Each business unit develops a strategic plan to carry that business unit into a profitable future. Finally, each product level (product line, brand) within a business unit develops a marketing plan for achieving its objectives in its product market. The marketing plan is the central instrument for directing and coordinating the market­ ing effort. The marketing plan operates at two levels: strategic and tactical. The strategic marketing plan lays out the target markets and the value proposition the firm will offer, CHAPTER 2
  • 72. 40 PART 1 UNDERSTANDING MARKETING MANAGEMENT INTEL BREAKTHROUGH MARKETING Intel makes the microprocessors that are found in 80% of the world's personal computers. In the early days, Intel microprocessors were known simply by their engineering numllers, such as "80386" or "80486." Intel positioned its chips as the most advanced. The trouble was, as Intel soon learned, numbers can't be trademarked. Competitors came out with their own "486" chips, and Intel had no way to distinguish itself from the competition. Worse, Intel's products were hidden from consumers, buried deep inside PCs. Witll a hidden, untrademarked product, Intel had a hard time convincing consumers to pay more for its high-performance products. Intel's response was a marketing campaign that created history. Tile company chose atrademarkable nam&--Pentium-and launched the "Intel Inside" marketing campaign to build awareness of the brancl and get its name outside the PC and into the minds of conslilners. Intel used an innovative cooperative scheme to extend the reacll of the campaign: It would help computer makers who used Intel processors to advertise their PCs if the makers also included the Intel logo in their ads. Intel also gave computer manufacturers a co-op reimbursement on Intel processors if they agreed to place an "Intel Inside" sticker on the outside of their PCs and laptops Intel continues its integrated ingredient campaigns to this day. For example, when launching its Centrino mobile microprocessor platform, Intel began with 1V ads III at aired in the United States and 11 other countries. These ads include tile animated logo and now familiar five-note brand signature melody. Print, online, and outdoor advertising followed shortly thereafter. Intel created eight-page inserts for major newspapers 1I1at urged the wired world to not only "unwire," but also "Untangle. Unburden. Uncompromise. Unstress." Intel even held a "One Unwired Day" event that took place in major cities such as New York, Chicago, San Francisco, and Seattle. In addition to allowing free trial Wi-Fi access, the company held fes­ tivals in each city that included live music, product demonstrations, and prize giveaways. The "Unwired" campaign was another Intel success in marketing. The $300 million total media effort for the Centrino mobile platform, which also included cooperative advertising with manufacturers, helped generate $2 billion in revenue for Intel during the first nine months of the campaign. Going forward, Intel launched a new brand identity in 2006, sup­ ported by a $2 billion global marketing campaign. The company intro­ duced a new logo with a different font and updated visual look and also cI'eated a new slogan: "Leap Ahead." In addition to the new logo and slogan, Intel developed a new microprocessor platform called Viiv (rhymes with "five") aimed at home entertainment enthusiasts. These moves were designed to create the impression of Intel as a "vvarm and fuzzy consumer company," with products that went beyond the PC. Intel remained one of the most valuable brands in the world, its $32 billion brand valuation earning it fifth place in the 2006 InterbrandlBusinessWeek ranking of the Best Global Brands. Sources: Don Clark, "Intel to Overhaul Marketing in BirJ to Go heyond PCs," Wall Street Joumal, December 30, 2005; Cliff Edwards, "Intel Everywhere?" BusinessWeek, March 8, 2004, pp. 56-62; Scott Van Camp, "ReadMe. 1st," BtalJdweek, February 23, 2004, p. 17; and David Kirkpatrick, "At Intel, Speed Isn't Everything," FOItulJe, Februal)l9, 2004, p. 34; "How to Become a Superbrand," Marketing, Janual)l8, 2004, p. 15; Roger Slavens, "Pam Pallace, liP-Director, Corporate Marketing Group, Intel Corp," 8 to B, December 8,2003, p. 19; Kennetll Hein. "Study: New Brand Names Not Making Tileir Mark," Brandweek, December 8, 2003, p. 12; Heather Clancy, "Intel Thinking Outside the Box," Computer Reseller News, November 24, 2003, p. 14; Cynthia L. Webb, "A Chip Off tile Old Recovery?", October 15, 2003; "Intel Launches Second Phase of Centrino Ads," TectJlJology Advertising & Branding Report, Octoher 6, 2003. based on an analysis of the best market opportunities. The tactical marketing plan specifies the marketing tactics, including product features, promotion, merchandising, pricing, sales channels, and service. Today, teams develop the marketing plan with inputs and sign-offs from every important function. Management then implements these plans at the appropriate levels of the organi­ zation, monitors results, and takes necessary corrective action. The complete planning, implementation, and control cycle is shown in Figure 2.2. We next consider planning at each of these four levels of the organization. FIG,2.2 18 Strategic rlannin[l. Impl8mentation, unrl Conlr!)1 Pr[)ces~es Planning Implementing Controlling Corporate planning Organizing Measuring results Division planning Implementing Diagnosing results Business planning ~ Product planning Taking corrective action
  • 73. DEVELOPING MARKETING STRATEGIES A D PLANS CHAPTER 2 41 Arls III<e this were p<lrl 01 Illiel:; strateg for lJuilding Q branu ill il product area where no hranrl name hat! ever xsted l1efnre--llliCloprocessors. INTEl' CENTRINO' DUO PROCESSOR TECHNOLOGY. be_ Irs what 4flves your not_ _s performance•..weless coMeclMty, and IIlIIZing billt!flJrt, Ifs w lifference @ a QOQd CD"""IJ!I"Oln<! ~ _ . Centrlno' (iREAT COMPUTING STAATS WITH INTEL INSIDE. 0.0 ::: Corporate and Division Strategic Planning Some corporations give their business units a lot of freedom to set their o""n sales and profit goals and strategies. Others set goals for their business units but let them develop their own strategies. Still others set the goals and participate in developing individual business unit strategies. 17 All corporate headquarters undertake four planning activities: 1. Defining the corporate mission 2. Establishing strategic business units 3. Assigning resources to each SBD 4. Assessing growth opportunities We'll look at each process. Defining the Corporate Mission An organization exists to accomplish something: to make cars, lend money, provide a night's lodging, and so on. Over time the mission may change, to take advantage of new opportuni­ ties or respond to new market conditions. changed its mission from being the world's largest online bookstore to aspiring to become the world's largest online store; and eBay changed its mission from running online auctions for collectors to running online auc­ tions of all kinds of goods. To define its mission, a company should address Peter Drucker's classic questions: W What is our business? Who is the customer? What is of value to the customer? What will our busi­ ness be? What should our business be? These simple-sounding questions are among the
  • 74. 42 PART 1 UNDERSTANDING MARKETING MA!'JAGEMENT most difficult a company will ever have to answer. Successful companies continuously raise them and answer them thoughtfully and thoroughly.19 Organizations develop mission statements to share with managers, employees, and (in many cases) customers. A clear, thoughtful mission statement provides employees with a shared sense of purpose, direction, and opportunity. Mission statements are at their best when they reflect a vision, an almost "impossible dream" that provides a direction for the company for the next 10 to 20 years. Sony's former president, Akio Morita, wanted everyone to have access to "personal portable sound," so his company created the Walkman and portable CD player. Fred Smith wanted to deliver mail anywhere in the United States before 10:30 AM the next day, so he created FedEx. Table 2.2 lists three sample mission statements. Good mission statements have five major characteristics. First, they focus on a limited number of goals. The statement "We want to produce the highest-quality products, offer the most service, achieve the widest distribution, and sell at the lowest prices" claims too much. Second, mission statements stress the company's major policies and values. They narrow the range of individual discretion so that employees act consistently on important issues. Third, they define the major competitive spheres within which the company will operate. • Industry. Some companies will operate in only one industry; some only in a set of related industries; some only in industrial goods, consumer goods, or services; and some in any in­ dustry. For example, DuPont prefers to operate in the industrial market, whereas Dow is will­ ing to operate in the industrial and consumer markets. • Products and applications. Firms define the range of products and applications they will supply. St. Jude Medical aims to "serve physicians worldwide with high-quality products for cardiovascular care." • Competence. The firm identifies the range of technological and other core competen­ cies it will master and leverage. Japan's NEC has built its core competencies in computing, communications, and components to support production of laptop computers, television receivers, and handheld telephones. • Market segment. The type of market or customers a company will serve is the market segment. Aston Martin makes only high-performance sports cars. Gerber serves primarily the baby market. • VerticaL The vertical sphere is the number of channel levels, from raw material to final prod­ uct and distribution, in which a company will participate. At one extreme are companies with a large vertical scope; at one time Ford owned its own rubber plantations, sheep farms, glass man­ ufacturing plants, and steel foundries. At the other extreme are "hollow corporations" or "pure marketing companies" consisting of a person with a phone, fax, computer, and desk who con­ tracts out every service, including design, manufacture, marketing, and physical distribution. 20 • Geographical. The range of regions, countries, or country groups in which a company will operate defines its geographical sphere. Some companies operate in a specific city or TABLE 2.2 Sample Mission Statement Rubbermaid Commercial Products Inc. "Our Vision is to be the Global Market Share Leader in each of the markets we serve. We will earn this leadership position by providing to our distributor and end-user customers innovative, high-quality, cost­ effective, and environmentally responsible products. We will add value to these products by providing legendary customer service through our Uncompromising Commitment to Customer Satisfaction." Motorola "The purpose of Motorola is to honorably serve the needs of the community by providing products and services of superior quality at a fair price to our customers; to do this so as to earn an adequate profit which is required for the total enterprise to grow; and by so doing provide the opportunity for our employees and shareholders to achieve their reasonable personal objectives." eBay "We help people trade practically anrthing on earth. We will continue to enhance the online trading experiences of all-collectors, dealers, small businesses, unique item seekers, bargain hunters, opportunity sellers, and browsers"
  • 75. DEVELOPING MARKETING STRATEGIES AND PLAr--J5 CHAPTER 2 state. Others are multinationals such as Unilever and Caterpillar, which operate in almost every country in the world. The fourth characteristic of mission statements is that they take a long-term view. They should be enduring; management should change the mission only when it ceases to be rel­ evant. Finally, a good mission statement is as short, memorable, and meaningful as possible. Marketing consultant Guy Kawasaki even advocates developing short three- to four-word corporate mantras rather than mission statements, like "peace of mind" for Federal Express. 21 Compare the rather vague missions statements on the left with Google's mission statement and philosophy on the right: To build total brand value by innovating to deliver customer value and customer leadership faster, better, and more completely than our competition. We build brands and make the world a little happier by bringing our best to you Google Mission: To organize the worlel's information and make it universally accessible and useful. Google Philosophy: Never settle for the best. 1. Focus on the user and all else will follow. 2. It's best to do one thing really, really well. 3. Fast is better than slow. 4. Democracy on the Web works. 5. You don't need to be at your desk to need an answer. 6. You can make money without doing evil. 7. There is always more information out there. 8. The need for information crosses all borders. 9. You can be serious without a suit. 10. Great just isn't good enough.22 Establishing Strategic Business Units Companies often define their businesses in terms of products: They are in the "auto busi­ ness" or the "clothing business." But Harvard's famed marketing professor Ted Levitt argued that market definitions of a business are superior to product definitions. In other words, companies must see their business as a customer-satisfying process, not a goods-producing process. Products are transient; basic needs and customer groups endure forever. Transportation is a need: the horse and carriage, the automobile, the railroad, the airline, and the truck are products that meet that need. Viewing businesses in terms of customer needs can suggest additional growth opportu­ nities. IBM redefined itself from a hardware and software manufacturer to a "builder of net­ works." Table 2.3 gives several examples of companies that have moved from a product to a market definition of their business. It highlights the difference between a target market def­ inition and a strategic market definition. TABLE 2.3 Product OriOll1eti v,rsus Marke -Oliont (I Defillitions of a BusillP,o,s Company Product Definition Market Definition Missouri-Pacific Railroad Xerox Standard all Columbia Pictures Encyclopaedia Britannica Carrier We run a railroad. We make copying equipment. We sell gasoline. We make movies. We sell encyclopedias. We make air conditioners and furnaces. We are a people-and-goods mover. We help improve office productivity. We supply energy. We market entertainment. We distribute information. We provide climate control in the home. 43
  • 76. A target market definition tends to focus on selling a product or service to a current market. Pepsi could define its target market as everyone who drinks a cola beverage, and competitors would therefore be other cola companies. A strategic market definition, how­ ever, focuses also on the potential market. If Pepsi considered everyone who might drink something to quench their thirst, their competition would also include non cola soft drinks, bottled water, fruit juices, tea, and coffee. To better compete, Pepsi might decide to sell additional beverages whose growth rate appears to be promising. A business can define itself in terms of three dimensions: customer groups, customer needs, and technology.23 Consider a small company that defines its business as designing incandescent lighting systems for television studios. Its customer group is television studios; the customer need is lighting; and the technology is incandescent lighting. The company might want to expand. It could make lighting for other customer groups, such as homes, fac­ tories, and offices; or it could supply other services needed by television studios, such as heating, ventilation, or air conditioning. It could design other lighting technologies for tele­ vision studios, such as infrared or ultraviolet lighting. Large companies normally manage quite different businesses, each requiring its own strategy. General Electric has classified its businesses into 49 strategic business units, SBlls. An SBU has three characteristics: 1. It is a single business, or a collection of related businesses, that can be planned sepa­ rately from the rest of the company. 2. It has its own set of competitors. 3. It has a manager responsible for strategic planning and profit performance, who con­ trols most of the factors affecting profit. The purpose of identifying the company's strategic business units is to develop separate strate­ gies and assign appropriate funding. Senior management knows that its portfolio of businesses usually includes a number of "yesterday's has-beens" as well as "tomorrow's breadwinners."24 Assigning Resources to Each SBU 25 Once it has defined SBUs, management must decide how to allocate corporate resources to each. The 1970s saw several portfolio-planning models introduced to provide an analytical means for making investment decisions. The GE/McKinsey Matrix classifies each SBU according to the extent of its competitive advantage and the attractiveness of its industry. Management would want to grow, "harvest" or draw cash from, or hold on to the business. Another model, the BCG's Growth-Share Matrix, uses relative market share and annual rate of market growth as criteria to make investment decisions. Portfolio-planning models like these have fallen out of favor as oversimplified and sub­ jective. More recent methods firms use to make internal investment decisions are based on shareholder value analysis, and whether the market value of a company is greater with an SBU or without it (whether it is sold or spun off). These value calculations assess the poten­ tial of a business based on potential growth opportunities from global expansion, reposi­ tioning or retargeting, and strategic outsourcing. Assessing Growth Opportunities Assessing growth opportunities includes planning new businesses, downsizing, and termi­ nating older businesses. If there is a gap between future desired sales and projected sales, corporate management will need to develop or acquire new businesses to fill it. Figure 2.3 illustrates this strategic-planning gap for a major manufacturer of blank com­ pact disks called Musicale (name disguised). The lowest curve projects the expected sales over the next five years from the current business portfolio. The highest curve describes desired sales over the same period. Evidently, the company wants to grow much faster than its current businesses will permit. How can it fill the strategic-planning gap? The first option is to identify opportunities to achieve further growth within current busi­ nesses (intensive opportunities). The second is to identify opportunities to build or acquire businesses that are related to current businesses (integrative opportunities). The third option is to identify opportunities to add attractive businesses unrelated to current busi­ nesses (diversification opportunities). INTENSIVE G .OWTH Corporate management's first course of action should be a review of op­ portunities for improving existing businesses. One useful framework for detecting new intensive growth opportunities is called a "product-market expansion grid" (Figure 2.4).26
  • 77. DEVELOPING MARKETING STRATEGIES AND PLANS ( Desired sales ~ Dive::itic~ __ <:: 1110 Sirategic-Planning Gap / / ~ ~~ ~ Strategic-planning Gap // 45 FIG.2.3 ~ ~egrativegrowth ~ / ~ Intensive growt~ Cil CHAPTER 2 ~ ~' portfolio :~~~~~ I? U) o 2 3 4 / ) 5 Time (years) The company first considers whether it could gain more market share with its current prod­ ucts in their current markets, using a market-penetration strategy. Next it considers whether it can find or develop new markets for its current products, in a market-development strategy. Then it considers whether it can develop new products of potential interest to its current mar­ kets with a product-development strategy. Later the firm will also review opportunities to develop new products for new markets in a diversification strategy. STARBUCKS • When Howard Schultz, Starbucks' CEO until 2000, came to the company in 1982, he recognized an unfilled niche for cafes serving gourmet coftee directly to customers, This became Starbucks' market-penetration strategy and helped the company attain a loyal customer base in Seattle. The market-development strategy marked the next phase in Starbucks' growth: It applied the same successful formula that had worked wonders in Seattle, first to other cities in the Pacific Northwest, then throughout North America, and finally, across the globe. Once the company had estab­ lished itself as a presence in thousands of cities internationally, Starbucks sought to increase the number of pur­ chases by existing customers with a product-development strategy that led to new in-store merchandise, including compilation CDs, a Starbucks Duetto Visa card that allows customers to receive points toward Starbucks purchases whenever they use it, and high-speed wireless Internet access at thousands of Starbucks "HotSpots" through a deal with T-Mobile. Finally, Starbucks pursued diversification into grocery store aisles with Frappuccino® bottled drinks, Starbucks brand ice cream, and the purchase of tea retailer Tazo® Tea. 27 So how might Musicale use these three major intensive growth strategies to increase its sales? It could try to encourage its current customers to buy more by demonstrating the ben­ efits of using compact disks for data storage in addition to music storage. Musicale could also try to attract competitors' customers if it noticed major weaknesses in competitors' products or marketing programs. Finally, Musicale could try to convince nonusers of com­ pact qisks to start using them. How can Musicale use a market-development strategy? First, it might try to identify poten­ tial user groups in the current sales areas. If Musicale has been selling compact disks only to consumer markets, it might go after office and factory markets. Second, it might seek addi­ tional distribution channels in its present locations. If it has been selling its disks only through stereo equipment dealers, it might add mass-merchandising or online channels. Third, the Current Products New Products Current Markets 1. Market-penetration strategy 3. Product-development strategy .... __ ._­ New Markets 2. Market-development strategy (Diversification strategy) FIG . . 4 Tllree Intensive Towth Strategies: Ansoft's Pmdllcl-Markel Exransion Grid ';ll/If' .. 1~11,1Il1 II III '''[111 Itl'l 11'1 p,!rr lI;'si'H, H'1fI','I!O '//lO'<:W.>s fir:~IIW .:ill;'femcs l']f 11 VW'llllcllio. I, )~ !II!.!! f'I: fJI , Sri,; llllP.l- 1 ,t(lll~1 l'l5t, '" 1'l'IIIJIJ ,~ ~h" "'III'e p!I.,";IIl:;'11 [lid Fl h)i:~ II Hdrv:lIl C"!!! III Ills II": ::'!I·f1. rmw
  • 78. 46 PART 1 UNDERSTANDING MARKETING MANAGE.MENT company might consider selling in new locations in its home countIy or abroad. If Musicale sold only in the United States, it could consider entering the European market. Management should also consider new-product possibilities. Musicale could develop new features, such as additional data storage capabilities or greater durability. It could offer the CD at two or more quality levels, or it could research an alternative technology such as flash drives. By examining these intensive growth strategies, managers may discover several ways to grow. Still, that growth may not be enough. In that case, management must also look for integrative growth opportunities. TEGRAT' VE u~OWTH A business can increase sales and profits through backward, for­ ward, or horizontal integration within its industry. For example, drug giant Merck has gone beyond just developing and selling ethical pharmaceuticals requiring a doctor's prescription. It purchased Medco, a mail-order pharmaceutical distributor, formed a joint venture with DuPont to establish more basic research, and began another joint venture with Johnson & Johnson to bring some of its ethical products into the over-the-counter market. Media companies have long reaped the benefits of integrative growth. Here's how one business writer explains the potential that NBC could reap from its merger with Vivendi Universal Entertainment to become NBC Universal. Although it's a far-fetched example, it gets across the possibilities inherent in this growth strategy:28 [When] the hit movie Seabiscuit (produced by Universal Pictures) comes to televi­ sion, it would air on Bravo (owned by NBC) or USA Network (owned by Universal), followed by the inevitable bid to make the movie into a TV series (by Universal Television Group), with the pilot being picked up by NBC, which passes on the show, but it's then revived in the "Brilliant But Canceled" series on cable channel Trio (owned by Universal) where its cult status leads to a Spanish version shown on Telemundo (owned by NBC) and the creation of a popular amusement-park attrac­ tion at Universal Studios. How might Musicale achieve integrative growth? The company might acquire one or more of its suppliers, such as plastic material producers, to gain more control or generate more profit through backward integration. It might acquire some wholesalers or retailers, especially if they are highly profitable, in forward integration. Finally, Musicale might acquire one or more competitors, provided that the government does not bar this horizon­ tal integration. However, these new sources may still not deliver the desired sales volume. In that case, the company must consider diversification. DIVERSIFICATION GROWTH Diversification growth makes sense when good opportunities exist outside the present businesses-the industry is highly attractive and the company has the right mix of business strengths to be successful. For example, from its origins as an ani­ mated film producer, Walt Disney Company has moved into licensing characters for mer­ chandised goods, entering the broadcast industry with its own Disney Channel as well as ABC and ESPN acquisitions, and developing theme parks and vacation and resort properties. CISCO SYSTEMS INC. • Known for years as a mass producer of routers and switches, Cisco is attempting to diversify beyond these nuts and bolts products into the business of changing how consumers communicate and view television. With its recent $6.9 billion acquisition of Scientific-Atlanta Inc., widely recognized for its expertise in video delivery, Cisco hopes to enter consumers' living rooms with items such as home-networking equipment and wirelessly net­ worked DVD players and services such as video on demand. The diversification move is already paying off: Scientific-Atlanta produced 7% of Cisco's $8 billion in revenue in the fourth quarter of 2006. 29 Several types of diversification are possible for Musicale. First, the company could choose a concentric strategy and seek new products that have technological or marketing synergies with existing product lines, though the new products themselves may appeal to a different group of customers. It might start a laser disk manufacturing operation, because it knows how to manufacture compact discs. Second, the company might use a horizontal strategy to search for new products that could appeal to current customers, even though the new prod­
  • 79. DEVELOPING MARKETING STRATEGIES AND PLANS ucts are technologically unrelated to its current product line. Musicale might produce com­ pact disc cases, for example, though they require a different manufacturing process. Finally, the company might seek new businesses that have no relationship to its current technology, products, or markets, adopting a conglomerate strategy to consider such new businesses as making application software or personal organizers. DOWNSIZING ANO OlVESTING OWER BUSINESSES Weak businesses require a dispro­ portionate amount of managerial attention. Companies must carefully prune, harvest, or di­ vest tired old businesses in order to release needed resources to other uses and reduce costs. To focus on its travel and credit card operations, American Express in 2005 spun offAmerican Express Financial Advisors, which provided insurance, mutual funds, investment advice, and brokerage and asset management services (it was renamed Ameriprise Financial). HEALTHSOUTH CORP. In 2006, HealthSouth Corp., one of the nation's largest providers of rehabilitative health care, announced it was planning to get rid of its large network of outpatient services. The company, still reeling from a $2.7 billion fraud scandal in 2003, planned to increase its stockholder value by focusing on the areas that account for 58% of the company's net operating revenue and 86% of its operating earnings: post-acute-care inpatient services. "We intend to focus HealthSouth's resources on establishing a 'pure play,' post-acute company that builds on our Gore competencies," said Jay Grinney, CEO and president. "At the same time, we believe our outpatient, surgery, and diagnostic divisions will be well positioned to succeed under new owners who will place strategic priority on strengthening each individual business. "30 Organization and Organizational Culture Strategic planning happens within the context of the organization. A company's organization consists of its structures, policies, and corporate culture, all of which can become dysfunctional in a rapidly changing business environment. Whereas managers can change structures and policies (with difficulty), the company's culture is very hard to change. Yet adapting the culture is often the key to successfully implementing a new strategy. What exactly is a corporate culture? Most businesspeople would be hard-pressed to describe this elusive concept, which some define as "the shared experiences, stories, beliefs, and norms that characterize an organization." Yet, walk into any company and the first thing that strikes you is the corporate culture-the way people dress, talk to one another, and greet customers. Acustomer-centric culture can affect all aspects of an organization. As one expert says, "To me, being consumer-centric is more a principle-the driving value of a company­ than a process. It's in a company's DNA, top to bottom. It means you recognize the diver­ sity across the face of consumers, and that you are open to observations and opinions other than your own; this allows you to be an advocate for the consumer-whether you are a leacjing innovator or packing boxes in the warehouse.... The question is, Do you see consumers as the driving life force of your company for as long as it exists, or do you see them as simply a hungry group of people that needs to be satisfied so your business will grow in the short term?"31 Sometimes corporate culture develops organically and is transmitted directly from the CEO's personality and habits to the company employees. Mike Lazaridis, president and co­ CEO of Blackberry producer Research in Motion, is a scientist in his own right, winning an Academy Award for technical achievement in film. He hosts a weekly, innovation-centered "Vision Series" at company headquarters to focus on new research and company goals. As he states, "I think we have a culture of innovation here, and [engineers] have absolute access to me. I live a life that tries to promote innovation."32 arketing Innovation Innovation in marketing is critical. The traditional view is that senior management hammers out the strategy and hands it down. Gary Hamel offers the contrasting view that imaginative ideas on strategy exist in many places within a company.33 Senior management should identify CHAPTER 2 47
  • 80. 48 UNDERSTANDING MARKETING MANAGEMENT PART 1 and encourage fresh ideas from three groups that tend to be underrepresented in strategy maJdng: employees 'with youthful perspectives; employees who are far removed from company headquarters; and employees who are new to the industry, Each group is capable of challeng­ ing company orthodoxy and stimulating new ideas, Jump Associates, an innovative strategy firm, offers five key strategies for managing change in an organization: 34 1. Avoid the innovation title-Pick a name RoseAtcl, In Motion, the cOlllflany thai developed 1118 Blaclllerry wireloss {levir,n fosters Q culture ot Innovation thot CEO Miko LJmmHs care1ully cUliivates and vCllu8S hitjhly for the innovation team that won't alien­ ate coworkers, 2. Use the buddy system-Find a like- minded collaborator within the organization, 3. Set the metrics in advance-Establish dif­ ferent sets of funding, testing, and perfor­ mance criteria for incremental, experimen­ tal, and potentially disruptive innovations, 4. Aim for quick hits first-Start with easily implemented ideas that will work to demonstrate that things can get done, before quickly switching to bigger initiatives, 5. Get data to back up your gut-Use testing to get feedback and improve an idea, "Marketing Insight: Creating Innovative Marketing" describes how some leading compa­ nies approach innovation, Firms develop strategy by identifying and selecting among different views of the future, The Royal Dutch/Shell Group has pioneered scenario analysis, which consists of developing plausible representations of a firm's possible future that make different assumptions about forces driving the market and that include different uncertainties, Managers need to think through each scenario with the question: "What will we do if it happens?" They need to adopt one scenario as the most probable and watch for signposts that might confirm or disconfirm it. 35 ::: Business Unit Strategic Planning The business unit strategic-planning process consists of the steps shown in Figure 2.5. We examine each step in the sections that follow. The Business Mission Each business unit needs to define its specific mission within the broader company mission. Thus, a television-studio-lighting-equipment company might define its mission as, "To tar­ .:. Business mission I • External environment (opportunity & __ __ threat analysis) . Goal SWOT analYSIS I-­ formulation I-+­ Internal environment (strengths/!­ weaknesses analysis) t FIG. 2.5 I The Business Uilli Sirniegilc-Plalllllllq flloccss __ I Strateg.v formulation L-­ I i Program formulallon I - Implementation f-­ Feedback and control
  • 81. DEVELOPING MARKETING STRATEGIES AND PLANS I '~') ~ 1 MARKETING INSIGHT CHAPTER 2 CREATING INNOVATIVE MARKETING I When IBM surveyed top CEOs and government leaders about their agenda priorities, their answers about innovation were revealing. Business-model innovation and coming up with unique ways of doing things scored high. IBM's own drive for business-model innovation led to much collaboration, bolh within IBM itself and externally with companies, governments, and educational institutions, CEO Samuel Palmisano noted how the breakthrough Cell processor, based on the company's Power architecture, would not have happened without collaboration with Sony and Nintendo, as well as competitors Toshiba and Microsoft, Procter & Gamble similarly has made it a goal for 50% of the new company's products to come from outside P&G's labs-from inven­ tors, scientists, and suppliers whose new-product ideas can be devel­ oped in-house Business guru Jim Collins' research emphasizes the importance of systematic, broad-based innovation: "Always looking for the one big breakthrough, the one big idea, is contrary to what we founcl: To build a truly great company, it's decision upon decision, action upon action, day upon day, month upon month .. , . It's cumulative momen­ tum and no one decision defines a great company." He cites the suc­ cess of Walt Disney with theme parks and Wal-Mart with retailing as examples of companies who ivere successful after having executed against a big idea brilliantly over such a long period of time, Northwestern's Mohanbir Sawhney and his colleagues outline 12 dimensions of business innovation that make up the "innovation radar" (see Table 2.4) and suggest that business innovation is about increasing customer value, not just creating new things; business innovation comes in many flavors and can take place on any dimen­ sion of a business system; and business innovation is systematic and requires careful consideration of all aspects of a business. Business writer C.K. Prahalad believes much innovation in indus­ tries from financial and telecom services to health care and automo­ biles can come from developments in emerging markets such as India. Forced to do more with less, Indian companies and foreign competitors are finding new ways to maximize minimal resources and offer quality products and services at low prices. Consider Bangalore's Narayana Hrudayalaya hospital, which charges a flat fee of $1,500 for heart bypass surgery that would cost 50 times that Low labor costs allow India's Narayana Hrudayalaya hO&pital to innovate throuUh irs priCing stral~gies, much in the United States. The low cost is a result of the hospital's low labor and operating expenses and an assembly-line view of care that has specialists focus just on their own area. The approacll works-the hospital's mortality rates are half those of U.S. hospitals. Narayana also operates on hundreds of infants for free and profitably insures 2.5 million poor Indians against serious illness for 11 cents a month, Finally, to find breakthrough ideas, some companies find ways to immerse a range of employees in solVing marketing problems. Samsung's Value Innovation Program (VIP) isolates product develop­ ment teams of engineers, designers, and planners with a timetable and end date in the company's center just south of Seoul, Korea, while 50 specialists help guide their activities. To help make tough trade-offs, team members draw "value curves" that rank attributes such as a product's sound or picture quality on a scale from 1 to 5. To develop a new car, BMW similarly mobilizes specialists in engi­ neering, design, production, marketing, purchasing, and finance at its Research and Innovation Center or Project House. Sources: Steve Hamm, "Innovation: The View From the Top," BusinessWeek, April 3, 2006, pp. 52-53: Jena McGregor, "The World's Most Innovative Companies," BusinessWeek, April 24, 2006, pp, 63-74; Rich Karlgard, "Digital Rules," Forbes, March 13, 2006, p, 31; Jennifer Rooney and Jim Collins, "Being Great Is Not Just a Matter of Big Ideas," Point, June 2006, p, 20; Moon Ihlwan, "Camp Samsung," BlisinessWeek, July 3,2006, pp, 46-47; Mohanbir Sawhney, Robert C. Wolcott, and Inigo Arroniz, "The 12 Different Ways for Companies to Innovate," MIT Sloan Management Review, Spring 2006, pp, 75-85; Pete Engardio, "Business Prophet: How C,K. Prahalad Is Changing the Way CEO's Think," BlisinessWeek, January 23, 2006, pp. 68-73. get major television studios and become their vendor of choice for lighting technologies that represent the most advanced and reliable studio lighting arrangements." Notice that this mission does not attempt to win business from smaller television studios, win business by being lowest in price, or venture into nonlighting products. SWOT Analysis The overall evaluation of a company's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats is called SWOT analysis. It's a way of monitoring the external and internal marketing environment. 49
  • 82. 50 PART 1 TABLE 2.4 I UNDERSTANDING MARKETING MANAGEMENT Tile '12 Dimensiolls of Business Innovation ------- - Dimension Definition Examples Offerings (WHAT) Develop innovative new products or services. • Gillette Mach3Turbo razor Platform Use common components or building blocks to create derivative offerings. • General Motors OnStar telematics platform Solutions Create integrated and customized offerings that solve end­ to-end customer problems. • UPS logistics services Supply Chain Solutions Customers (WHO) Discover unmet customer needs or identify underserved customer segments. • Enterprise Rent-A-Car focus on replacement car renters Customer Experience Redesign customer interactions across all touch points and all moments of contact. • Washington Mutual Occasio retail banking concept Value Capture Redefine how company gets paid or create innovative new revenue streams. • Google paid search • Blockbuster revenue sharing with movie distributors Processes (HOW) Redesign core operating processes to improve efficiency and effectiveness. • Toyota Production System for operations Change form, function, or activity scope of the firm. • Cisco partner-centric networked virtual organization • Apple iPod music player and iTunes music service - Organization • Disney animated movies • DuPont Building Innovations for construction • Green Mountain Energy focus on "green power" • Cabela's "store as entertainment experience" concept • General Electric Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) • Procter & Gamble front-back hybrid organization for customer focus Supply Chain Think differently about sourcing and fulfillment. • Moen ProjectNet for collaborative design with suppliers • General Motors Celta use of integrated supply and online sales Presence (WHERE) Create new distribution channels or innovative points of presence, including the places where offerings can be bought or used by customers. • Starbucks music CD sales in coffee stores Networking Create network-centric intelligent and integrated offerings. • Otis Remote Elevator Monitoring service Brand Leverage a brand into new domains. -- • Diebold RemoteTeller System for banking • Department of Defense Network-Centric Warfare • Virgin Group "branded venture capital" • Yahoo l as a lifestyle brand Dourct) MII!IRl1blr SiIWlll1r.y, Rot,er! C WOIt:nIl, .111(1 IlIlyoArrnl1lz. "T118 12 Dilfl1rem Wny:; for COf1lllAnil~;410 Il1l1ovalp," MITSIV<1/1 MalJ8gellwl11 ileview, Sprin(j 2006, 11. i8 EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT (OPPORTUNITY AND THREAT) ANALYSIS A business unit must monitor key macroenvironmentforces and significant microenvironmentfactors that af­ fect its ability to earn profits. The business unit should set up a marketing intelligence system to track trends and important developments and any related opportunities and threats. Good marketing is the art of finding, developing, and profiting from these opportunities. o6 A marketing opportunity is an area of buyer need and interest that a company has a high probability of profitably satisfying. There are three main sources of market opportunities. 37 The first is to supply something that is in short supply. This requires little marketing talent, as the need is fairly obvious. The second is to supply an existing product or service in a new or superior way. There are several ways to uncover possible product or service improvements: the problem detection method asks consumers for their suggestions, the ideal method has them imagine an ideal version of the product or service, and the consumption chain method asks consumers to chart their steps in acquiring, USing, and disposing of a product. This last method often leads to a totally new product or service. Opportunities can take many forms, and marketers need to be good at spotting them. Consider the following: • A company may benefit from converging industry trends and introduce hybrid products or services that are new to the market. For example: At least five major cell phone manufac­ turers released phones with digital photo capabilities.
  • 83. DEVELOPING tvlARKETINCi STRATEGIES AND PLANS CHAPTER 2 A company may make a buying process more convenient or efficient. Consumers can now use the Internet to find more books than ever and search for the lowest price with a few clicks. • A company can meet the need for more information and advice. facilitates finding professional experts in a wide range of fields. • A company can customize a product or service that was formerly offered only in a stan­ dard form. Timberland allows customers to choose colors for different sections of their boots, add initials or numbers to their boots, and choose different stitching and embroidery. • A company can introduce a new capability. Consumers can now create and edit digital "iMovies" with the new iMac and upload them to an Apple Web server or Web site such as YouTube to share with friends around the world. • A company may be able to deliver a product or a service faster. FedEx discovered a way to deliver mail and packages much more quickly than the U.S. Post Office. • A company may be able to offer a product at a much lower price. Pharmaceutical firms have created generic versions of brand-name drugs. To evaluate opportunities, companies can use market opportunity analysis (MOA) to determine their attractiveness and probability of success by asking questions like: 1. Can we articulate the benefits convincingly to a defined target market(s)? 2. Can we locate the target market(s) and reach them with cost-effective media and trade channels? 3. Does our company possess or have access to the critical capabilities and resources we need to deliver the customer benefits? 4. Can we deliver the benefits better than any actual or potential competitors? 5. Will the financial rate of return meet or exceed our required threshold for investment? In the opportunity matrix in Figure 2.6(a), the best marketing opportunities facing the TV-lighting-equipment company are listed in the upper-left cell (#1). The opportunities in the lower-right cell (#4) are too minor to consider. The opportunities in the upper-right cell (#2) and lower-left cell (#3) are worth monitoring in the event that any improve in attractive­ ness and success probability. An environmental threat is a challenge posed by an unfavorable trend or development that would lead, in the absence of defensive marketing action, to lower sales or profit. Figure 2.6(b) illustrates the threat matrix facing the TV-lighting-equipment company. The (a) Opportunity Matrix FIG. 2.6 Success Probability High ~ High Low 1 2 c: > '" 1. Company develops more poweriul lighting system 2. Company develops device to measure energy efficiency of any lighting system 3. Company develops device to measure illumination level 4. Company develops software program to teach lighting fundamentals to 1V studio personnel -­ ~ E ~ Low 3 4 (b) Threat Matrix Probability of Occurrence High ~ High Low 2 '" c: en ::l .~ '" en LOW~. ~ __ 1. Competitor develops superior lighting system 2. Major prolonged economic depression 3. Higher costs 4. Legislation to reduce number of 1V studio licenses OppOl1Ul1ity anrl Threill Mati ice 51
  • 84. 52 PART 1 UNDERSTANDING MARKETING MANAGEMCNT threats in the upper-left cell are major, because they can seriously hurt the company and they have a high probability of occurrence. To deal with them, the company needs contin­ gency plans. The threats in the lower-right cell are very minor and can be ignored. The firm will want to carefully monitor threats in the upper-right and lower-left cells in the event they grow more serious. INTERI""L E.'IIVIRONMENl (STR.EIlGTHS AND WEAKNESSES) ANA...YSI5 It's one thing to find attractive opportunities, and another to be able to take advantage of them. Each busi­ ness needs to evaluate its internal strengths and weaknesses. LOAN BRIGHT • At the Web site of Loan Bright, an online mortgage company, potential homebuyers can get a personalized list of lenders and available terms. At first Loan Bright made its money by selling the homebuyer data to high-end mortgage lenders, including Wells Fargo, Bank of America, and Chase Manhattan Mortgages. These firms turned the data into leads for their sales teams. But worrisome internal issues arose. For one thing, Loan Bright had to please everyone of its big clients, yet each was becoming tougher to satisfy, eating up time and resources. The company's top managers gathered to analyze the market and Loan Bright's strengths and weaknesses. They decided that instead of serving a few choice clients, they would shift down-market to serve many more individ­ ual loan officers, who responded to the company's Google ads and only wanted to buy a few leads. The switch required revamping the way Loan Bright salespeople brought in new business, including using a one-page con­ tract instead of the old 12-page contract and creating a separate customer service departmenl.3 8 Businesses can evaluate their own strengths and weaknesses by using a form like the one shown in "Marketing Memo: Checklist for Performing Strengths/Weaknesses Analysis." Clearly, the business doesn't have to correct all its weaknesses, nor should it gloat about all its strengths. The big question is whether the firm should limit itself to those opportuni­ ties for which it possesses the required strengths, or consider those that might reqUire it to find or develop new strengths. For example, managers at Texas Instruments (Tl) were split between those who wanted TI to stick to industrial electronics, where it has clear strength, and those who wanted the company to continue introducing consumer products, where it lacks some reqUired marketing strengths. Sometimes a business does poorly not because its people lack the required strengths, but because they don't work together as a team. In one major electronics company, engineers look down on the salespeople as "engineers who couldn't make it," and salespeople look down on the service people as "salespeople who couldn't make it." It's critical to assess inter­ departmental working relationships as part of the internal environmental audit. Goal Formulation Once the company has performed a SWOT analysis, it can proceed to develop specific goals for the planning period. This stage of the process is called goal formulation. Goals are objec­ tives that are specific with respect to magnitude and time. Most business units pursue a mix of objectives, including profitability, sales growth, mar­ ket share improvement, risk containment, innovation, and reputation. The business unit sets these objectives and then manages by objectives (MBa). For an MBa system to work, the unit's objectives must meet four criteria: 1. They must be arranged hierarchically, from the nwst to the least important. For ex­ ample, the business unit's key objective for the period may be to increase the rate of re­ turn on investment. Managers can increase profit by increasing revenue and reducing expenses. They can grow revenue, in turn, by increasing market share and prices. 2. Objectives should be quantitative whenever possible. The objective "to increase the return on investment (ROIl" is better stated as the goal "to increase ROI to 15% within two years." 3. Goals should be realistic. Goals should arise from an analysis of the business unit's opportunities and strengths, not from wishful thinking.
  • 85. DEVELOPING MARKETING S1RATEGIES AND PLANS lll-_M_A_R_K_E_T_IN_G_M_E_M_O _ ;!j ------ Minor Strength Neutral 53 CHECKLIST FOR PERFORMING STRENGTHS/WEAKNESSES ANALYSIS Performance Major Strength CHAPTER 2 Importance Minor Weakness Major Weakness High Med Low Marketing 1. Company reputation 2. Market share 3. Customer satisfaction 4. Customer retention 5. Product quality 6. Service quality 7. Pricing effectiveness 8. Distribution effectiveness 9. Promotion effectiveness 10. Sales force effectiveness 11. Innovation effectiveness 12. Geographical coverage Finance 13. Cost or availability of capital 14. Cash flow 15. Financial stability Manufacturing 16. Facilities 17. Economies of scale 18. Capacity 19. Able. dedicated workforce 20. Ability to produce on time 21. Technical manufacturing skill Organization 22. Visionary, capable leadership 23. Dedicated employees 24. Entrepreneurial orientation 25. Flexible or responsive 4. Objectives must be consistent. multaneously. It's not possible to maximize sales and profits si- Other important trade-offs include short-term profit versus long-term growth, deep penetration of existing markets versus developing new markets, profit goals versus nonprofit goals, and high growth versus low risk. Each choice calls for a different marketing strategy.39 Many believe that adopting the goal of strong market share growth may mean foregoing strong short-term profits. For years, Compaq priced aggressively in order to build its share in the computer market. Compaq later decided to pursue profitability at the expense of growth. Yet management experts Charan and Tichy believe that most businesses can be growth businesses and grow profitably.40 They cite success stories such as GE Medical, Allied Signal, Citibank, and GE Capital, all enjoying profitable growth. Some so-called trade-offs may not be trade-offs at all. Strategic Formulation Goals indicate what a business unit wants to achieve; strategy is a game plan for getting there. Every business must design a strategy for achieving its goals. consisting of a marketing strategy and a compatible technology strateg