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  • Why is it called Latin America? Latin was the language used by the Roman conquerors during the time of the Roman Empire
  • They found it first and had a monopoly on it
  • The Spanish laid claims to north, south and central America
  • Why not on the eastern side? Why only on the west?
  • Had to wait for information to get across the oceanHigh tax on exported goods as well as imported goodsThis restricted the personal and economic growth of the colonies
  • How did that make relations between the church and the donatarios?
  • Could only be Roman Catholic (no protestantism was allowed)20% of all gold and silver mined in colonies went to Spainvice=in place of roy=kingOnly Spanish born could hold these positions
  • Officially, the Spanish government never approved of enslaving the native South AmericansCould only enslave the Indians were were cannibals and hostileAfter a while they reported back that all Indians were cannibals and hostile
  • This let them farm, mine or manufacture goods for trade or sale
  • Roman church often represented these Indians during labor disputes and defended them against ill-treatment
  • Harsh treatment, exposure to European illnesses and harsh responses to uprisings led to reduced Indian population
  • Brought a plant over from Arabia

Ch 8 sec 1 Ch 8 sec 1 Presentation Transcript

  • Latin America
  • South America • Portugal had exclusive control on trade to the East along the sea route around Africa • This forced Spanish to find another route to China • They found the “New World” and worked to monopolize it!
  • Line of Demarcation • Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand called on Pope Alexander VI (a Spaniard) to decide who could settle where. • Everything to the east of the line went to Portugal • Everything west of the line went to Spain
  • • Portugese were unpleased with this because the winds they needed to get around Africa took them into Spanish area • The Treaty of Tordesillas was established
  • • How did other nations feel about the Treaty of Tordesillas? • The French, Dutch and English explored areas anyway.
  • Treatment of the Natives • Europeans looked down on the Indians and pressured them to become more civilized (or more European) • At best, the Indians were second class citizens who were expected to perform whatever menial tasks the Europeans were unwilling to do.
  • How were they going to rule their settlements? • They were separated from their settlements by an ocean. • They wanted absolute power like they had in their home countries
  • There were 3 problems to that: 1. Couldn’t solve problems quickly because had to wait for answers to issues 2. They ignored the Creoles (Spanish or Portuguese born in Americas). – They only gave governing duties to those born in the mother country 3. Spain and Portugal determined the price, quantity, and types of goods that could be produced and sold in the colonies.
  • Portuguese Rule of the Colonies • Portugal granted control to 12 nobles called donatario – Their rule would be passed down to their sons – Had complete control of the land – Were responsible to colonize, defend and tax their territory and to send excess funds to Portugal
  • • The Roman Church would bring complaints of the colonists to the donatarios • If the complaints were ignored, the church would report back to Portugal
  • Spanish Authority in New World • Spain appointed a viceroy to rule each colony • The viceroy had to answer to the Council of the Indies (which was in Spain) • Also had an official who was in charge of each village or city.
  • Native Population • Explorers were sent as ambassadors from Spain to native South Americans • Friars and priests were sent to convert the Indians
  • • Conquistadors were rewarded with land with an Indian labor force • Many conquistadors were harsh in treatment of this labor force
  • • Bartolome de Las Casas spoke out against mistreatment • His efforts helped pass the New Laws of 1542 – Courts were established to protect the Indians and mestizos (people with Indian and Spanish parents) – Most reforms were overturned by powerful landowners
  • • Slaves were needed to take the place of dead Indians • At least 9 millions Africans were enslaved and brought to the New World
  • • Video clip – Slavery Middle Passage
  • • Silver and sugar were the two major exports of colonial Latin America • Over time, Indians became skilled labor and black slaves did hard labor of digging and loading • Today, one of most profitable resources is coffee
  • • Turn in your book to page 143