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  • Better understanding of animal breeding and care leads to increased quantities of milk and meatAncient farmers found growing the same crops in the same position caused a buildup of pests and a reduction in fertility. So the solution was to grow a winter crop, and then summer crop, and finally leave the ground for one growing season to recover.
  • Sheep farmers needed fewer workers than other types of farms, so lack of work led to cottage industries
  • Most english farmland was open, and many could use it for grazing their livestock. Land enclosure, however, prevented common use.Many poor farmers were unable to support their families on the small plots of land
  • Enabled a farmer to grow more crops using much less seed. Also paved the way for use of other farming inventions since it produced evenly spaced rows.
  • Enabled farm land that had not been farmed to be able to be farmed due to the composition of the soil
  • Before 1 person could process 1 pound of cotton a day…with the cotton gin, 50 pounds of cotton a day.Why were all these new machines sprouting up? To keep pace with the speed at which the landowners could provide the raw materials
  • Enabled more acres to be harvested in less time
  • Before this the wheat and grans were harvested and separated by hand. It was exhausting and required many laborers.
  • Reduced the number of laborers needed and replaced teams of horses or oxen with steam engines
  • Improvements in one industry often led to growth and job opportunities in many other industries
  • A drought or flood could shut down a mill or factoryThey needed a more reliable source of power
  • Patents – prevented others from making a similar device for several yearsThis gives the inventor time to recover the cost of developing his invention and to make a profit…once the patent expires, anyone can then make and sell the product without braking the law

Ch 13 sec 1 Ch 13 sec 1 Presentation Transcript

  • Industrial Revolution
  • Agricultural Revolution • Farmers developed methods that resulted in an increased food supply – Crop rotation – rotating crops so the nutrients in the land are not depleted.
  • • As more land became available, landowners raised more sheep • Sheep’s wool was a cash crop • Cottage Industries – wool was spun into cloth in a person’s home
  • • Landowners began to enclose their land to increase income. • Many were forced to seek work in the cities
  • Farming Machines • Seed Drill – Developed by Jethro Tull – Placed seeds in rows across a plot of land
  • Jethro Tull
  • • Iron Plow – Turned the soil more easily and enabled the field to be plowed more quickly
  • • Cotton Gin – Developed by Eli Whitney – Took seeds out of cotton
  • Eli Whitney
  • • Horse Drawn Reaping Machine – Enabled farmers to cut wheat much more quickly – Invented by Cyrus McCormick
  • Cyrus McCormick
  • • Threshing machine – Developed by Andrew Meikle – Separate the wheat from the husks and stalks quickly
  • Andrew Meikle
  • • Steam Tractor – Developed by John Fowler – It lowered the cost of plowing fields
  • John Fowler
  • Industrial Revolution • The 18th and 19th centuries • It began in Great Britain
  • • Factories were created to house the large machines • Animals or running water were initially used for power
  • • Steam engine – James Watt made significant improvements to it – Provided consistent and reliable power for the Industrial Revolution
  • • Flying shuttle – Enabled workers to weave the strands of cotton into cloth much more rapidly – Developed by John Kay
  • John Kay
  • • Spinning Jenny – Could quickly spin many strands of cotton into thread – Developed by James Hargreaves
  • James Hargreaves
  • • Entrepreneurs were people who developed businesses and sold their inventions • Richard Arkwright was one of the most famous entrepreneurs • He got the government to grant patents
  • Richard Arkwright
  • Factors that Encouraged the Rise of Industry: 1. Growing population 2. Abundant raw materials 3. Stable government