Ch 12 sec 1


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  • Third estate 98.08%Second estate 1.43%First estate .49%
  • Numbered about 10,000Archbishops and bishopsManaged land for the Roman ChurchHad luxurious lifestyle that differed from the regular priest or monk that interacted with the people
  • About 350,000 people
  • 24 million people
  • This system reduced many to poverty, and it limited opportunities for economic growth. At the same time, those who paid the most in taxes, rents and fees were denied basic freedoms and political representation in the governing of France.
  • France was in trouble…wars, lavish castles, helping the Americas all put a huge strain on France’s financesPayments on the national debt consumed nearly half of the annual income from taxes
  • Once this body met, things quickly spiraled out of control
  • Married when she was 15 and he was 16At first they were very popular with the people
  • King Louis humiliated the member of the third estateTraditionally each estate had one vote, the third estate wanted one vote per representative
  • King Louis ordered troops to assemble outside of ParisSearch for weaponsBastille is fortress prison used to house political prisonersThe mob stormed the building and killed those assigned to guard itThe mob attacked government buildings and destroyed documents that recorded debts and rents due to member of the first and second estates
  • Demanded the end of many of the abuses suffered by the French people and advocated ideals that included innocence until guilt is proven and liberty to do anything that does not injure another.
  • Marie Antoinette’s homeland (Austria)They warned them to not harm the king (King Louis XIV)Tried him and executed him
  • 25,000 men and women were sent to the guillotine including Marie Antionette
  • Beheading of Marie Antoinette
  • Had to rely on the army for support because it lacked the support of most of the French
  • Ch 12 sec 1

    1. 1. • Nationalism
    2. 2. Until 1789 rule by kings States General called 1789 Fall of the Bastille, July 1789 New Constitution, 1789-1791 Republic 1792 Extremists in Power 1793 Reign of Terror 1793-1794 The Directory 1795 Napoleon First Consul 1799
    3. 3. French Revolution
    4. 4. Reasons for Revolution 1. Social Discrimination – The social ladder was divided into three parts.
    5. 5. Population of France Third Estate Second Estate Third Estate
    6. 6. First Estate • Leaders of the French church • They were exempt from most taxes
    7. 7. Second Estate • Nobles and aristocrats • Also exempt from taxes • Charged rent to peasants who farmed their land and charged fees for the use of their mills, wine presses and bakeries.
    8. 8. Third Estate • Contained a wide variety of citizens – Middle class, artisans, townsmen and peasants
    9. 9. • The wealthy produced little of the wealth • Those who produced the nation’s wealth were taxed heavily
    10. 10. 2. Economic Collapse – France was nearly bankrupt
    11. 11. • King Louis XIV called for the Estates-General • This was the only political body with the authority to reform the tax system. • It consisted of representatives from the first and second estates elected by the king and from the third elected by the people.
    12. 12. 3. Political Incompetence • King Louis XIV and Marie-Antoinette proved to be totally unqualified to lead the nation
    13. 13. • When the Estates-General met things went bad – The third estate demanded one vote per representative – First and second estate refused and the third estate walked out
    14. 14. National Assembly • The third estate formed this group • They signed the Tennis Court Oath • They simply wanted a constitution that would guarantee basic rights to all French citizens
    15. 15. • The citizens began to panic • The crowd charges the Bastille on July 14 • July 14 is celebrated as France’s Day of Independence
    16. 16. • National Assembly signed the Declaration of the Rights of Man on August 26, 1789
    17. 17. • Many French nobles fled France and went to Austria. • France declared war on Austria
    18. 18. Reign of Terror • Called for the removal of opposition and had a period of mass execution
    19. 19. • A five-man committee known as the Directory headed up the new government