Pre-natal Development

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Child and Adolescent Development

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Pre-natal Development

  1. 1. PRE-NATAL DEVELOPMENT
  2. 2. HUMAN LIFE BEGINS AT CONCEPTION • From conception to zygote, the embryo and the fetus are undeniably human life. • The film “Silent Scream”
  3. 3. Are you a Pro-abortion or Pro-life?
  4. 4. THE STAGES OF PRE-NATAL DEVELOPMENT • GERMINAL PERIOD (First 2 weeks after conception) • A. Creation of zygote • B. Continued cell division • C. Attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall - Differentiation of cells already begins as inner (Blastocyts) and outer (Trophoblast) layers of the organism are formed.
  5. 5. • EMBRYONIC PERIOD (2-8 weeks after conception) • A. Cell differentiation intensifies • B. Life support systems for embryo develop • C. Organs appear Zygote attached to the wall of the uterus 2 layers of cells are formed - Inner layer = Endoderm - Outer layer= Ectoderm & Mesoderm Organogenesis- Process of organ formation during the first 2months of pre-natal development
  6. 6. Life Support System • Placenta • Umbilical cord • Amnion/ amniotic sac
  7. 7. • FETAL PERIOD (2months- 7 months after conception) -growth and development continue dramatically 3 inches long Wt. 1 ounce -Active, moves its arms and legs, opens and closes it’s mouth, moves its head. -parts of the face, upper and lower extremities can be distinguished. -Genitals can now be Identified.
  8. 8. 6 inches long Wt. 4-7 ounces -Growth spurt occurs in the body’s lower parts -Reflexes are stronger -Mother feels the movement of the embryo -Downy hair (lanugo) covers body
  9. 9. 12 inches long Wt. close to a pound - Structure of the skin (fingernails, toenails are formed - More active - Heartbeat is audible with ordinary stethoscope
  10. 10. 14 inches long Wt. 1 ½ pound - Eyes and eyelids are completely formed - Fine layer of head covers the head - Grasping reflex present - Irregular movements occur
  11. 11. 16 inches long Wt. 3 pounds -Cerebral cortex of brain develops
  12. 12. 17 inches long Wt. 5 pounds -Subcutaneous fat is deposited for later use. -Responds to sounds
  13. 13. 21 inches long Wt. 7 pounds Organ functions actively -vernix is present over the entire body -position for birth
  14. 14. TERATOLOGY AND HAZARDS TO PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT • TERATOLOGY- is the field that investigates the causes of congenital (birth) defects. • TERATOGEN- Any agent that causes a birth defect. • From the Greek word tera “monster”
  15. 15. CLUSTERS OF HAZARDS TO PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT
  16. 16. I. PRESCRIPTION AND NON-PRESCRIPTION DRUGS • ANTIBIOTICS (STREPTOMYCIN AND TETRACYCLINE) • DIET PILLS • ASPIRIN- HIGH DOSAGES
  17. 17. 2. PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS • ARE DRUGS THAT ACT ON THE NERVOUS SYSTEM TO ALTER STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS, MODIFY PERCEPTIONS, AND CHANGE MOODS. DRUGS NICOTINE EFFECTS Preterm births and low birth weights, fetal and neonatal deaths, respiratory problems, sudden infant death syndrome.
  18. 18. ALCOHOL Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) • facial deformities, defective limbs and heart • learning problems and many are below average in intelligence, while some are mentally retarded
  19. 19. • increased risk of miscarriage CAFFEINE
  20. 20. COCAINE, METHAMPHETAMINE • higher rates of infant mortality, low birth weight, and developmental and behavioral problems. MARIJUANA, HEROIN • lower intelligence in children, ADHD
  21. 21. • RADIATION • TOXIC WASTES ( CARBON MONOXIDE, MERCURY, LEAD, COAL ASH) • PROLONGED EXPOSURE TO SAUNAS/ BATH TUBS 3. ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS
  22. 22. 4. MATERNAL DISEASES • RUBELLA (GERMAN MEASLES)
  23. 23. • SYPHILIS (A SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTION) • GENITAL HERPES
  24. 24. AIDS • IS A SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTION THAT IS CAUSED BY THE HUMAN IMMUNODEfiCIENCY VIRUS (HIV), WHICH DESTROYS THE BODY’S IMMUNE SYSTEM. A MOTHER CAN INFECT HER OFFSPRING WITH HIV/AIDS IN THREE WAYS: • (1) DURING GESTATION ACROSS THE PLACENTA, • (2) DURING DELIVERY THROUGH CONTACT WITH MATERNAL BLOOD OR FLUIDS, • (3) POSTPARTUM (AFTER BIRTH) THROUGH BREAST FEEDING
  25. 25. • FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCY • NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS • TWO TYPES • OPEN NTDS- ANENCEPHALY, ENCEPHALOCELES, HYDRANENCEPHALY, INIENCEPHALY, SCHIZENCEPHALY AND SPINA BIFIDA. • CLOSED NTDS- LIPOMYELOMENINGOCELE, LIPOMENINGOCELE AND TETHERED CORD. • MATERNAL MALNUTRITION
  26. 26. Anencephaly Encephalocele Spina bifida Open NTDs
  27. 27. CLOSED NTDS Lipomyelomeningocele, Tethered Cord
  28. 28. 5. OTHER PARENTAL FACTORS • EXPOSURE TO LEAD , RADIATION, CERTAIN PESTICIDES AND PETROCHEMICALS -MAY CAUSE ABNORMALITIES IN THE SPERM THAT LEAD TO MISCARRIAGE / DISEASES SUCH AS CHILDHOOD CANCER. • OLDER FATHERS MAY PLACE THEIR OFFSPRING AT RISK OF CERTAIN DEFECTS
  29. 29. THANK YOU!

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