Destination: Inclusive EducationIn an inclusive education system all studentsbelong and receive a quality educationregardless of their ability, disability, language,cultural background, gender or age. Alberta Education.
Innovation in Teaching & Learning• True innovation occurs at the margins• We are pushed further by: – Disruptive notions – Perspectives that do not fit in – Unpredictable inspirations that burst our neat categories 21/08/2012 KHOWERY
Something new?“The new challenge of inclusion is to createschools in which our day-to-day efforts nolonger assume that a particular text, activity,or teaching mode will “work” to support anyparticular students’ learning” Ferguson, 1995
Our current system?Combining the medical model (to be abnormal is to beunhealthy) and the statistical model (abnormally largeor abnormally small amounts of measuredcharacteristic)… turns behavior patterns intopathological signs. (Skrtic, 1986)
Changing our ThinkingFrom DIS-ability to VARI-ability
Social construction of (Dis) Ability • The social model suggests it is society that causes the individual with (physical or psychological) differences to be disabled. In other words individuals with impairments are not disabled by their impairments but by the barriers that exist in society constructed for the “norm”. • http://www.brainhe.com/TheSocial ModelofDisabilityText.html
Ableism• An ableist society is said to be one that treats non-disabled individuals as the standard of “normal living”, which results in public and private places and services, education, and social work that are built to serve standard people, thereby inherently excluding those with various disabilities. Wikipedia21/08/2012 KHOWERY
Ableism in Education (Hehir, 2008)Applied to schooling and child development… the devaluation of disability results in societal attitudes that uncritically assert that:• It is better for a child to walk than roll• Read print than read braille• Spell independently than use a spell checker• Hang out with with non-disabled children rather than only with other disable children. 21/08/2012 KHOWERY
What about in the Educational Environment? Disability = a Mismatch between learner needs and education offered Disability is artifact of lack of appropriate relationship between the learner and the learning environment or education delivery. Jutta Treviranus
Think of a time you have been disabled by Barriers.
Enter Universal Design for Learning• An educational approach that aims to increase access to learning for all students by reducing physical, cognitive, intellectual, organizational and other barriers.
Dis-abled Curriculum• The traditional, one-size-fits-all curriculum is proving to be an entirely inadequate solution for problems that plague our schools in this era of standards-based reform. CAST
The Curriculum Programs of Study Provincial AssessmentResources Instruction & Classroom Assessment
UDL Beginnings• Publishers should prepare and teachers should select instructional materials that are supportive and inclusive of students who have wide disparities in their ability to see, hear, read, etc… to achieve that end, we recommend that all developers of instructional materials adopt the concept of universal design and implement it in their products.• Furthermore, we recommend that teacher training programs prepare teachers for teaching in environments where the goals, methods, and materials are universally designed. (Orkwis & McLane, 1998, p.14)
UDL provides a blueprint (framework) for creatingflexible goals, methods, materials, andassessments CAST, 2002
Promise of Digital MediaIn our view, what is of most significance to the future of education, especially for students with disabilities, is the unequaled flexibility and transformability of digital media. Rose & Meyer 2002
The Future is in the MarginsWhen new technologies move beyond their initial stage of development, innovations in curriculum design, teaching strategies and policies will be driven by the needs of students “at the margins”, those for whom present technologies are least effective- most prominently, students with disabilities.The beneficiaries of these innovations will be ALL students. Rose & Meyer, 2000
SMART solutions for promotingaccessibilityhttp://smarttech.com/us/Solutions/Education+Solutions/SMART+solutions+for+accessibility
CAST:Center for Applied Special TechnologyUniversal Design for Learning is a set of principles forcurriculum development that give all individualsequal opportunities to learn.
How do we get there?• Designing an educational system to teach all students that will also support individualized and flexible instruction designed to teach each studentExpected Learner Variability
WHO are these diverse studentsin Alberta schools?
In an Alberta school of 500 students,we might expect to see…
•25 students with learning disabilities•40 studentswith AD/HD
•45 students who live belowthe poverty line•40 students whose firstlanguage is not English or French•25 students who are First Nations, Métis or Inuit (FNMI)
Think Different• Expected Learner Variability• Proactive Reduction of Barriers
UDL Universal Design for Learning calls for ... * Multiple means of representation, to give learners various ways of acquiring information and knowledge, * Multiple means of action and expression, to provide learners alternatives for demonstrating what they know, * Multiple means of engagement, to tap into learners interests, offer appropriate challenges, and increase motivation.21/08/2012 KHOWERY
UDL GuidelinesFrom the three principles, nine guidelines havebeen developed that form the primaryfoundation of UDL.The guidelines articulate the principles but theirmain purpose is to guide educators andcurriculum developers in using evidence-based means of addressing the range ofvariability that any classroom typicallyexperiences.
Principle 1: Representation• Students differ in the ways that they perceive and comprehend information that is presented to them.• For example, those with sensory disabilities (e.g., blindness or deafness), learning disabilities (e.g., dyslexia), language or cultural differences, and so forth may all require different ways of approaching content. Others may simply grasp information better through visual or auditory means rather than from printed text.
What are ways you are currently providing Multiple Means of Representation?
Principle 1: RepresentationGuideline 1: Provide options for perceptionGuideline 2: Provide options for language and symbolsGuideline 3: Provide options for comprehension
More ideas for Representation• Digital resources – www.LearnAlberta.ca• Book Rags – http://www.bookrags.com/• 60 Second Recap – http://www.60secondrecap.com/• YouTube – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DzAtEqFU3Lc&f eature=related
Options for ComprehensionJen: The Tiered Web Page Generator• http://www.tieredwebpages.com/Free Online Automatic Text Summarization Toolhttp://www.textcompactor.com/
Principle 2: Action & ExpressionStudents differ in the ways that they can navigate a learning environment and express what they know.• For example, individuals with significant motor disabilities (e.g., cerebral palsy), those who struggle with strategic and organizational abilities (e.g., executive function disorders, ADHD), those who have language barriers, and so forth approach learning tasks very differently. Some may be able to express themselves well in writing text but not oral speech, and vice versa.
What are ways you are currently providing Multiple Means of Expression?
Principle 2: Action & ExpressionGuideline 4: Provide options for physical actionGuideline 5: Provide options for expressive skills and fluencyGuideline 6: Provide options for executive functions
Strategies and Scaffoldshttp://sciencewriter.cast.org/welcome
Principle 3 : EngagementStudents differ markedly in the ways in which they can be engaged or motivated to learn.Some students are highly engaged by spontaneity and novelty while other are disengaged, even frightened, by those aspects, preferring strict routine.
The Steve Jobs Model for Educational Reform"If you read the front pages of the New YorkTimes, they will tell you that technologys promisehas not yet been realized in terms of studentperformance. My answer is, of course not. If wesimply attached computers to leeches, medicinewouldnt be any better today than it was in the19th century either. You dont get change byplugging in computers to schools designed for theindustrial age. You get it by deploying technologythat rewrites the rules of the game." • -RUPERT MURDOCH
Examples from the Program of Studies: UDL? Grade 10 English Language Arts General Outcome 2 - Comprehend literature and other texts in oral, print, visual and multimedia forms, and respond personally, critically and creatively 2.1 Construct meaning from text and context Grade 7 Science Unit D: Structures and Forces (Science and Technology Emphasis) Skill Outcome : Analyzing and Interpreting Students will: Analyze qualitative and quantitative data, and develop and assess possible explanations compile and display data, by hand or computer, in a variety of formats, including diagrams, flow charts, tables, bar graphs, line graphs and scatterplots (e.g., plot a graph, showing the deflection of different materials tested under load)21/08/2012 KHOWERY
Separating the Goal from the Means: Writing Goals and Objectives that Increase Access*Goals/Objectives that LIMIT Access: Goals/Objectives that ALLOW Access:Instead of … Try …The student will write… The student will express… The student will generate…The student will read… The student will receive information…The student will spell… The student will select…The student will compute… The student will solve…The student will define… The student will show… * From Gargiulo & Metcalf (2010) p. 270
Instructional MethodsThere is no universal medium of instruction
Medium of Instruction• Auditory - Listening / Speaking• Text - Reading / Writing• Visual - Viewing / Representing
Qualities of Speech• Natural speech has expressive power.• Speech is transitory.
“For people without disabilities, technology makes things easier. For people with disabilities, technology makes things possible …” National Council on Disability21/08/2012 KHOWERY
Will UDL eliminate the need for assistive technology?21/08/2012 KHOWERY
Assistive technologies will always have a role in the education of some learners. Children with physical disabilities need properly designed wheelchairs, adaptive switches to control devices, or speech synthesizers.UDL will not eliminate the need for such devices. But such devices will be used for the same reasons we use eyeglasses; that is, to enhance our abilities rather than to compensate for inadequately designed learning materials.
AT in the iWorldChallenges to Using Apps as AssistiveTechnologyhttp://www.atia.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageID=4296Apps challenging the billion dollar assistivetechnology markethttp://tinyurl.com/9wyzg6n
Goal of UDLCreating learning and learning environments whichprovide meaningful access for every learner Support Challenge
• If I were asked to …. summarize my reading of centuries of wise reflection on what is required of an environment for it to facilitate the growth of its members, I would say this: people grow best where they are continuously experiencing an ingenious blend of support and challenge; the rest is commentary. Robert Kegen, In Over our Heads
Amplification of Differences• In the 21st Century – the goal of education to recognize the diversity and amplify it not reduce it!
Strategic Planning• At the District Level – What role should the district play in UDL implementation? – What needs be done at the district level?• At the School Level – How do schools need to be structured and supported to design for diversity?• At the Classroom Level – How can teachers be supported to bring UDL to life in their instructional practices?
Change is not quick or easyWe have found that developing an inclusive program isalways harder that stakeholders initially think it will be.Indeed, successful programs are dynamic and ever-changing, presenting continuing challenges to teachersand administrators as they create classrooms to meet abroad range of student needs. McLeskey & Waldron, 200021/08/2012 KHOWERY
And potentially TRANFORMATIONAL21/08/2012 KHOWERY
“The success of technology has more to do with people than machines. All theright parts and pieces together won’t work miracles by themselves. It is people who make technology powerful by creatively using it to fulfill their dreams.” Alliance for Technology Access, 1996