Ata sec april 2012


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  • In the context of mental retardation, Vygotsky objected to the terms developmental disability and developmental delays. Her wrote in The Fundamentals of Defectologgy, “A child whose development is impeded by a (mental) handicap is not simply a child less developed than his peers; rather, he has developed differently: (Vygotsky, 1983, p. 96)
  • Ata sec april 2012

    1. 1. + Designing for Diversity Kathy Howery ATA Special Education Council April 14, 2012
    2. 2. + Introductions
    3. 3. + Housekeeping Slides can be found at:
    4. 4. + Today’s Sessions  Universal Design for Learning  Assistive Technology
    5. 5. + This morning… UDL
    6. 6. Let’s Consider:What do you think about when youhear Universal Design for Learning?
    7. 7. + Diversity  Today’s classrooms are comprised of wide diversity of students who are coming to school not proficient in the language of instruction, who are identified with learning disabilities, attention deficit disorders, or other disabilities and growing numbers of children who are identified as “at-risk” due to other factors such as socio-economic, cultural and environmental backgrounds.
    8. 8. +  The goal of an inclusive education system is to provide all students with the most appropriate learning environments and opportunities for them to best achieve their potential.  In Alberta, inclusion in the education system is about ensuring that each student belongs and receives a quality education no matter their ability, disability, language, cultural background, gender, or age.
    9. 9. Something new?“The new challenge of inclusion is tocreate schools in which our day-to-dayefforts no longer assume that a particulartext, activity, or teaching mode will “work”to support any particular students’learning” Ferguson, 1995
    10. 10. + The Illusory Average Student
    11. 11. + Our current system? Combining the medical model (to be abnormal is to be unhealthy) and the statistical model (abnormally large or abnormally small amounts of measured characteristic)… turns behavior patterns into pathological signs. (Skrtic, 1986)
    12. 12. + Think Different “A child whose development is impacted (impeded) by a (mental) handicap is not simply a child less developed than his peers; rather, he has developed differently” (Vygotsky, 1983, p. 96)
    13. 13. + Changing our Thinking From DIS-ability to VARI-ability From Average to Unique
    14. 14. + Social construction of (Dis) Ability  The social model suggests it is society that causes the individual with (physical or psychological) differences to be disabled. In other words individuals with impairments are not disabled by their impairments but by the barriers that exist in society constructed for the “norm”. 
    15. 15. + Ableism  An ableist society is said to be one that treats non-disabled individuals as the standard of “normal living”, which results in public and private places and services, education, and social work that are built to serve standard people, thereby inherently excluding those with various disabilities. WikipediaKHOWERY 20/04/2012
    16. 16. + Aimee Mullen’s on Dis-abled
    17. 17. + Ableism in Education (Hehir, 2008)Applied to schooling and child development… the devaluation of disability results in societal attitudes that uncritically assert that: It is better for a child to walk than roll Read print than read braille Spell independently than use a spell checker Hang out with with non-disabled children rather than only with other disable children.KHOWERY 20/04/2012
    18. 18. +Let’s think about disability 20/04/2012KHOWERY
    19. 19. + Dis-abling barriers.
    20. 20. + Think of a time you have been disabled by Barriers.
    21. 21. +What about in the Educational Environment? Disability = a Mismatch between learner needs and education offered Disability is artifact of lack of appropriate relationship between the learner and the learning environment or education delivery. Jutta Treviranus
    22. 22. + Making Differences Ordinary If inclusion is to be successful and students with disabilities are to be part of the learning community, there must be a fundamental change in the general education classroom so it is accepted that not all students will learn the same things, in the same way, at the same time. (McLesky & Waldron, 2000)KHOWERY 20/04/2012
    23. 23. + Disabled Curriculum The traditional, one-size-fits-all curriculum is proving to be an entirely inadequate solution for problems that plague our schools in this era of standards-based reform. CAST
    24. 24. +KHOWERY 20/04/2012
    25. 25. + Enter Universal Design for Learning An educational approach that aims to increase access to learning for all students by reducing physical, cognitive, intellectual, organiz ational and other barriers.
    26. 26. + Universal Design for Learning Universal Design for Learning
is a set of principles for curriculum development that give all individuals equal opportunities to learn. 20/04/2012
    27. 27. + Curriculum? How do you define curriculum?
    28. 28. + The Curriculum Programs of Study Provincial Assessment Resources Instruction & Classroom Assessment
    29. 29. + Universal Design for Learning  UDL provides a blueprint (framework) for creating flexible goals, methods, materials, and assessments that accommodate learner differences. CAST, 2002
    30. 30. + Universal Design Extension of architectural concept of Universal Design Designing for the divergent needs of special populations increases usability for everyone.
    31. 31. + To many people the term seems to imply that UDL is a quest for a single, one size- fits-all, solution that will work for everyone. In fact, the very opposite is true. The essence of UDL is flexibility and the inclusion of alternatives to adapt to the myriad variations in learner needs, styles, and preferences.
    32. 32. + How do we get there?  Designing an educational system to teach all students that will also support individualized and flexible instruction designed to teach each student  CAST posits three UDL principles for this design.
    33. 33. + UDL Universal Design for Learning calls for ... * Multiple means of representation, to give learners various ways of acquiring information and knowledge, * Multiple means of action and expression, to provide learners alternatives for demonstrating what they know, * Multiple means of engagement, to tap into learners interests, offer appropriate challenges, and increase motivation.KHOWERY 20/04/2012
    34. 34. + Key Concepts in UDL  Change the Environment not the Learner  Leveraging Diversity  Proactive Approach  Flexibility  Infusing Technology  Understanding Goals & Assessment
    35. 35. + Leveraging Diversity
    36. 36. + Change comes from the Margins
    37. 37. What SpecializedTechnology do YOU use?
    38. 38.  Yesterday’s AT today’s Tools!
    39. 39. + Design for Diversity
    40. 40. + Diversity is a fundamental human trait which affirms that no two people are similar, it is this dissimilarity that enriches our lives and assures collective human achievement. Ali Abdi, Professor, Educational Policy Studies University of Alberta
    41. 41. + Changing our Thinking For many people, AD[/H]D is not a disorder but a trait, a way of being in the world. When it impairs their lives, then it becomes a disorder. But once they learn to manage its disorderly aspects, they can take full advantage of the many talents and gifts embedded in this sparkling kind of mind. Hallowell and Ratey 2005, p. 4
    42. 42. + Innovation in Teaching & Learning True innovation occurs at the margins We are pushed further by: Disruptive notions Perspectives that do not fit in Unpredictable inspirations that burst our neat categoriesKHOWERY 20/04/2012
    43. 43. + Dangers of designing for the norm Stagnation Shrinking of ideas Self perpetuating rut Lack of innovationKHOWERY 20/04/2012
    44. 44. +
    45. 45. +
    46. 46. + Why is Flexibility Important to UDL? Flexibility is essential for two reasons:  individual differences between learners  differences between instructional media.
    47. 47. + Differences between instructional media  There is no universal medium of instruction
    48. 48. + Medium of Instruction  Auditory - Listening / Speaking  Text - Reading / Writing  Visual - Viewing / Representing
    49. 49. + Qualities of Speech  Natural speech has expressive power.  Speech is transitory.
    50. 50. + Qualities of Text  Representational - permanent record  Reduces memory demands
    51. 51. Qualities of Images A picture is worth a thousand words… But do you see what I see?
    52. 52. + Long ago, Plato raised a concern in his Phaedrus that is familiar in our era: new technology will undermine traditional literacy. Plato (quoting Socrates) expressed the fear that the emerging technology of writing would destroy the rich oral literacy that was central to his culture. Writing would reduce the need for memory and attentive listening. It would give learners the appearance of wisdom by aiding rapid recall of information and facts without requiring internalization of such wisdom. This sort of “superficial” learner would inevitably be less literate. It turned out Plato was right only in part; although writing did change the meaning of literacy it enabled incredible advancements in knowledge.
    53. 53. + Technology & Digital Media
    54. 54. + Digital media matter!
    55. 55. + Digital media is: Versatile Transformable Can Be Marked Can Be Networked 3_9.cfm
    56. 56. Digital Media isFlexible and Transformable
    57. 57. Digital Media isFlexible and Transformable
    58. 58. + The promise of new technologies
    59. 59. +The Future is in the Margins When new technologies move beyond their initial stage of development, innovations in curriculum design, teaching strategies and policies will be driven by the needs of students “at the margins”, those for whom present technologies are least effective- most prominently, students with disabilities. The beneficiaries of these innovations will be ALL students. Rose & Meyer, 2000
    60. 60. + Universal Design for LearningUsing digital materials & “assistive” technologies into the classroom we can create a more accessible and flexible environment for all students.
    61. 61. + Sounds easy, right?
    62. 62. + The Guidelines
    63. 63. + CAST Guidelines The UDL Guidelines are organized according to the three main principles of UDL that address representation, expression, and engagement. For each of these areas, specific "Checkpoints" for options are highlighted, followed by examples of practical suggestions.
    64. 64. + Principle 1: Representation  Students differ in the ways that they perceive and comprehend information that is presented to them.  For example, those with sensory disabilities (e.g., blindness or deafness), learning disabilities (e.g., dyslexia), language or cultural differences, and so forth may all require different ways of approaching content. Others may simply grasp information better through visual or auditory means rather than from printed text.
    65. 65. + Principle 1: RepresentationGuideline 1: Provide options for perceptionGuideline 2: Provide options for language and symbolsGuideline 3: Provide options for comprehension
    66. 66. + Wikipedia
    67. 67. + More ideas for Representation  Digital resources   Book Rags   60 Second Recap   YouTube  =related
    68. 68. + Options for ComprehensionJen: The Tiered Web Page Generator Online Automatic Text Summarization Tool
    69. 69. + UDL Editions BookBuilder
    70. 70. + Principle 2: Action & ExpressionStudents differ in the ways that they can navigate a learning environment and express what they know. For example, individuals with significant motor disabilities (e.g., cerebral palsy), those who struggle with strategic and organizational abilities (e.g., executive function disorders, ADHD), those who have language barriers, and so forth approach learning tasks very differently. Some may be able to express themselves well in writing text but not oral speech, and vice versa.
    71. 71. + Principle 2: Action & ExpressionGuideline 4: Provide options for physical actionGuideline 5: Provide options for expressive skills and fluencyGuideline 6: Provide options for executive functions
    72. 72. + Physical ActionWriting Tools Manipulatives
    73. 73. + Strategies and Scaffolds
    74. 74. + Principle 3 : EngagementStudents differ markedly in the ways in which they can be engaged or motivated to learn.Some students are highly engaged by spontaneity and novelty while other are disengaged, even frightened, by those aspects, preferring strict routine.
    75. 75. + The Why of Learning!!
    76. 76. + Principle 3 : Engagement Guideline 7: Provide options for recruiting interest Guideline 8: Provide options for sustaining effort and persistence Guideline 9: Provide options for self- regulation
    77. 77. + Strategy Support  Cast Strategy Tutor
    78. 78. + Goal of UDLCreating learning and learning environmentswhich provide meaningful access for everylearner Support Challenge
    79. 79. +  IfI were asked to …. summarize my reading of centuries of wise reflection on what is required of an environment for it to facilitate the growth of its members, I would say this: people grow best where they are continuously experiencing an ingenious blend of support and challenge; the rest is commentary. Robert Kegen, In Over our Heads
    80. 80. + The Steve Jobs Model for Educational Reform "If you read the front pages of the New York Times, they will tell you that technologys promise has not yet been realized in terms of student performance. My answer is, of course not. If we simply attached computers to leeches, medicine wouldnt be any better today than it was in the 19th century either. You dont get change by plugging in computers to schools designed for the industrial age. You get it by deploying technology that rewrites the rules of the game."  -RUPERT MURDOCH
    81. 81. + Flexibility still requires Pedagogy!  Flexible MATERIALS  Flexible instructional METHODS  Clear Accessible GOALS  Accessible & Authentic ASSESSMENT
    82. 82. + UDL Goals The key is to design a goal that represents the true purpose of the learning activity. Clear goals enable us to determine which alternative pathways and scaffolds can be used to meet diverse learning needs while keeping the learning challenge where it belongs.
    83. 83. The Planning Pyramid
    84. 84. + Separating the Goal from the Means: Writing Goals and Objectives that Increase Access* Goals/Objectives that LIMIT Access: Goals/Objectives that ALLOW Access: Instead of … Try … The student will write… The student will express… The student will generate… The student will read… The student will receive information… The student will spell… The student will select… The student will compute… The student will solve… The student will define… The student will show… * From Gargiulo & Metcalf (2010) p. 270
    85. 85. + Assessment Do we know what we are assessing?
    86. 86. + Universally Designed Assessment Must clearly understand what we are assessing! Reduce Construct Irrelevant Variance! Multiple pathways to demonstrating success. Be authentic!
    87. 87. + Expert Learners In UDL we are seeking to create expert learners, individuals who- whatever the particular strengths and weaknesses are know themselves and know how to learn.
    88. 88. + Food for Thought: Why UDL? If you are currently involved in a UDL initiative, why? What is your GOAL? How will you know you are reaching it? What will be the change(s) you expect to see?
    89. 89. +
    90. 90. + Assistive Technologies
    91. 91. + “For people without disabilities, technology makes things easier. For people with disabilities, technology makes things possible …” National Council on DisabilityKHOWERY 20/04/2012
    92. 92. + Will UDL eliminate the need for assistive technology?KHOWERY 20/04/2012
    93. 93. + Assistive technologies will always have a role in the education of some learners. Children with physical disabilities need properly designed wheelchairs, adaptive switches to control devices, or speech synthesizers. UDL will not eliminate the need for such devices. But such devices will be used for the same reasons we use eyeglasses; that is, to enhance our abilities rather than to compensate for inadequately designed learning materials.
    94. 94. Let’s Consider:What do we mean by assistivetechnology?
    95. 95. + Assistive technology is a generic term that includes assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative devices and the process used in selecting, locating, and using them. Wikipedia
    96. 96. + Assistive Technology (AT) is "any item, piece of equipment, or product system whether acquired commercially of the shelf, modified or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities." (Individuals with Disabilities Education ACT (IDEA) 20, USC, Chapter 33, Section 1401 (25) US)
    97. 97. + The term assistive technology service means any service that directly assists a child with a disability in the selection, acquisition, or use of an assistive technology device. (Individuals with Disabilities Education ACT (IDEA) 20, USC, Chapter 33, Section 1401 (25) US)
    98. 98. +Assistive technology is technology that increases, improves or maintains the functional capabilities of students with disabilities. Rose, Hasselbring, Stahl & Zabala ((2005)
    99. 99. + Functional Capabilities? Communication Mobility Seeing Hearing Learning Playing
    100. 100. + Definition of ATL (Alberta) Assistive Technology for Learning (ATL) is defined as the devices, media and services used in learning environments to overcome barriers for students with physical, sensory, cognitive, speech, learning or behavioural special needs to actively engage in learning and to achieve their individual learning goals.
    101. 101. + The ATL Continuum ATL devices and media range from “low tech” tools such as pencil grips and page fluffers, single message voice output devices, and magnifiers.
    102. 102. + The ATL Continuum . . . to “high tech” systems such as speech generating communication systems and screen reading technologies, and environmental control systems.
    103. 103. + AT Devices . . . … are the readily available components that can be purchased and compiled into ATL systems. They are tangible things.
    104. 104. + 40,000 assistive technology products!
    105. 105. + There’s an App for that!  Apple  Free Tech 4 Teachers ne-ipad-apps-for-special-education.html
    106. 106. + There’s an App for that! Scribed Apps-for-Special-Education
    107. 107. + There’s an App for that! support
    108. 108. + Freeware, Shareware, Everywhere! 07/free-assistive-technology-tools-to- make.html
    109. 109. + AT Services . . . … are the strategies, ideas, supports and personnel that are necessary to make the device(s) work functionally for the person.
    110. 110. + AT Services include: knowledge and expertise about the student the assessment process evaluation of the tools training strategies for implementing the devices.
    111. 111. + Effective use of ATL for students also includes: an understanding of the devices how to use them effectively to make a difference for the student(s) how to incorporate AT into daily lessons and routines
    112. 112. + Consider…  Imagine you have a Universally Designed Learning Environment, are there students who would still not be able to meaningfully in their learning without specialized, personalized assistive technology?
    113. 113. + Students who need physical access: Keyboard Rate / Sticky Keys Alternative Keyboards
    114. 114. + Students who need physical access: Dedicated Word Processors Switch Activated Access / Onscreen Keyboards
    115. 115. + Students who need physical access: Augmentative Alternative Voice Input Systems Communication
    116. 116. + Students who need sensory access: Sound Field Systems Face Time Personal FM Systems
    117. 117. + Students who need sensory access: Portable Braille Support Devices Screen ReadersPortable Print Enlargers
    118. 118. Students who need cognitive access: Graphic Support
    119. 119. + Students who need cognitive access: Scan & Read / Text to Speech
    120. 120. + Students who need cognitive access: Digital Books / Videos PDAs - Pocket Coach
    121. 121. + Students who need cognitive access: Word Prediction(Talking) Spell Check / Grammar Check Talking Word Processor
    122. 122. + Students who need cognitive access: Graphic Keyboards Touch Screen
    123. 123. + Students who need cognitive/physical access: National Library of Interactive Manipulatives Intellimathics Math Pad
    124. 124. + Making Differences Ordinary!!  AT Implementation in the Classroom
    125. 125. + Where do I start?
    126. 126. + Alberta Education Website
    127. 127. + The SETT Framework isa tool that helps teams gather and organize information that can be used to guide collaborative decisions about services that foster the educational success of students. Joy Smiley Zabala
    128. 128. + The Goal of SETT Framework… to guide collaborative teams in the development and use of Student-centered, Environmentally-useful, and Tasks-focused Tool systems that foster the educational achievement of students. Joy Smiley Zabala
    129. 129. + The SETT Framework The Student o The person who is the central focus of the educational process and for whom everyone involved in any part of the educational program is an advocate The Environments o The customary environments in which the student is (or can be) expected to learn and grow The Tasks o The specific things that the student needs to be able to do or learn to reach expectations and make educational progress (Outcomes of the Programs of Study)
    130. 130. + The SETT Framework The Tools o Everything that is needed by the student and other involved in supporting the student in order for the student to accomplish the tasks in the places where they need to be done so that appropriate educational progress is achieved.
    131. 131. + The SETT Framework  theSETT Framework is not a protocol for assessment, but rather an organizational tool that can be applied as an integral, ongoing part of ALL phases of programming for students with special educational needs.
    132. 132. + Critical Components of the SETT Framework:TeamingCreating Shared Knowledge / UnderstandingGathering information to make appropriate decisionsMaking decisions based on Information / Data
    133. 133. + The SETT Framework can help:  Organize what we’re doing,  Gatherall the different pieces of information that we have  Decide what information we still need to gather  Develop a Plan for putting student success.
    134. 134. + I want to know more!
    135. 135. +
    136. 136. +
    137. 137. Special Education Technology –+ British Columbia
    138. 138. +
    139. 139. + University of Buffalo –  AT Training Online
    140. 140. + Stay Tuned!  Assistive/Enabling Technology Certificate  ACRAT Assistive Technology Conference   ERLC – Making Connections
    141. 141. + IMAGINE…KHOWERY 20/04/2012
    142. 142. + Change is not quick or easy We have found that developing an inclusive program is always harder that stakeholders initially think it will be. Indeed, successful programs are dynamic and ever-changing, presenting continuing challenges to teachers and administrators as they create classrooms to meet a broad range of student needs. McLeskey & Waldron, 2000KHOWERY 20/04/2012
    143. 143. + But change is possible…KHOWERY 20/04/2012
    144. 144. + And potentially TRANFORMATIONALKHOWERY 20/04/2012
    145. 145. + “The success of technology has more to do with people than machines. All theright parts and pieces together won’t work miracles by themselves. It is people who make technology powerful by creatively using it to fulfill their dreams.” Alliance for Technology Access, 1996
    146. 146. + Kathy Howery