In the context of mental retardation, Vygotsky objected to the terms developmental disability and developmental delays. Her wrote in The Fundamentals of Defectologgy, “A child whose development is impeded by a (mental) handicap is not simply a child less developed than his peers; rather, he has developed differently: (Vygotsky, 1983, p. 96)
Let’s Consider:What do you think about when youhear Universal Design for Learning?
+ Diversity Today’s classrooms are comprised of wide diversity of students who are coming to school not proficient in the language of instruction, who are identified with learning disabilities, attention deficit disorders, or other disabilities and growing numbers of children who are identified as “at-risk” due to other factors such as socio-economic, cultural and environmental backgrounds.
+ The goal of an inclusive education system is to provide all students with the most appropriate learning environments and opportunities for them to best achieve their potential. In Alberta, inclusion in the education system is about ensuring that each student belongs and receives a quality education no matter their ability, disability, language, cultural background, gender, or age. http://education.alberta.ca/department/ipr/inclusion/about.aspx
Something new?“The new challenge of inclusion is tocreate schools in which our day-to-dayefforts no longer assume that a particulartext, activity, or teaching mode will “work”to support any particular students’learning” Ferguson, 1995
+ Our current system? Combining the medical model (to be abnormal is to be unhealthy) and the statistical model (abnormally large or abnormally small amounts of measured characteristic)… turns behavior patterns into pathological signs. (Skrtic, 1986)
+ Think Different “A child whose development is impacted (impeded) by a (mental) handicap is not simply a child less developed than his peers; rather, he has developed differently” (Vygotsky, 1983, p. 96)
+ Changing our Thinking From DIS-ability to VARI-ability From Average to Unique
+ Social construction of (Dis) Ability The social model suggests it is society that causes the individual with (physical or psychological) differences to be disabled. In other words individuals with impairments are not disabled by their impairments but by the barriers that exist in society constructed for the “norm”. http://www.brainhe.com/TheSocial
+ Ableism An ableist society is said to be one that treats non-disabled individuals as the standard of “normal living”, which results in public and private places and services, education, and social work that are built to serve standard people, thereby inherently excluding those with various disabilities. WikipediaKHOWERY 20/04/2012
+ Ableism in Education (Hehir, 2008)Applied to schooling and child development… the devaluation of disability results in societal attitudes that uncritically assert that: It is better for a child to walk than roll Read print than read braille Spell independently than use a spell checker Hang out with with non-disabled children rather than only with other disable children.KHOWERY 20/04/2012
+Let’s think about disability 20/04/2012KHOWERY
+ Think of a time you have been disabled by Barriers.
+What about in the Educational Environment? Disability = a Mismatch between learner needs and education offered Disability is artifact of lack of appropriate relationship between the learner and the learning environment or education delivery. Jutta Treviranus
+ Making Differences Ordinary If inclusion is to be successful and students with disabilities are to be part of the learning community, there must be a fundamental change in the general education classroom so it is accepted that not all students will learn the same things, in the same way, at the same time. (McLesky & Waldron, 2000)KHOWERY 20/04/2012
+ Disabled Curriculum The traditional, one-size-fits-all curriculum is proving to be an entirely inadequate solution for problems that plague our schools in this era of standards-based reform. CAST
+ Enter Universal Design for Learning An educational approach that aims to increase access to learning for all students by reducing physical, cognitive, intellectual, organiz ational and other barriers.
+ Universal Design for Learning Universal Design for Learning is a set of principles for curriculum development that give all individuals equal opportunities to learn. http://www.cast.org/udl/KHOWERY 20/04/2012
+ The Curriculum Programs of Study Provincial Assessment Resources Instruction & Classroom Assessment
+ Universal Design for Learning UDL provides a blueprint (framework) for creating flexible goals, methods, materials, and assessments that accommodate learner differences. CAST, 2002
+ Universal Design Extension of architectural concept of Universal Design Designing for the divergent needs of special populations increases usability for everyone.
+ To many people the term seems to imply that UDL is a quest for a single, one size- fits-all, solution that will work for everyone. In fact, the very opposite is true. The essence of UDL is flexibility and the inclusion of alternatives to adapt to the myriad variations in learner needs, styles, and preferences.
+ How do we get there? Designing an educational system to teach all students that will also support individualized and flexible instruction designed to teach each student CAST posits three UDL principles for this design.
+ UDL Universal Design for Learning calls for ... * Multiple means of representation, to give learners various ways of acquiring information and knowledge, * Multiple means of action and expression, to provide learners alternatives for demonstrating what they know, * Multiple means of engagement, to tap into learners interests, offer appropriate challenges, and increase motivation.KHOWERY 20/04/2012
+ Key Concepts in UDL Change the Environment not the Learner Leveraging Diversity Proactive Approach Flexibility Infusing Technology Understanding Goals & Assessment
+ Diversity is a fundamental human trait which affirms that no two people are similar, it is this dissimilarity that enriches our lives and assures collective human achievement. Ali Abdi, Professor, Educational Policy Studies University of Alberta
+ Changing our Thinking For many people, AD[/H]D is not a disorder but a trait, a way of being in the world. When it impairs their lives, then it becomes a disorder. But once they learn to manage its disorderly aspects, they can take full advantage of the many talents and gifts embedded in this sparkling kind of mind. Hallowell and Ratey 2005, p. 4
+ Innovation in Teaching & Learning True innovation occurs at the margins We are pushed further by: Disruptive notions Perspectives that do not fit in Unpredictable inspirations that burst our neat categoriesKHOWERY 20/04/2012
+ Dangers of designing for the norm Stagnation Shrinking of ideas Self perpetuating rut Lack of innovationKHOWERY 20/04/2012
+ Why is Flexibility Important to UDL? Flexibility is essential for two reasons: individual differences between learners differences between instructional media.
+ Differences between instructional media There is no universal medium of instruction
+ Medium of Instruction Auditory - Listening / Speaking Text - Reading / Writing Visual - Viewing / Representing
+ Qualities of Speech Natural speech has expressive power. Speech is transitory.
+ Qualities of Text Representational - permanent record Reduces memory demands
Qualities of Images A picture is worth a thousand words… But do you see what I see?
+ Long ago, Plato raised a concern in his Phaedrus that is familiar in our era: new technology will undermine traditional literacy. Plato (quoting Socrates) expressed the fear that the emerging technology of writing would destroy the rich oral literacy that was central to his culture. Writing would reduce the need for memory and attentive listening. It would give learners the appearance of wisdom by aiding rapid recall of information and facts without requiring internalization of such wisdom. This sort of “superficial” learner would inevitably be less literate. It turned out Plato was right only in part; although writing did change the meaning of literacy it enabled incredible advancements in knowledge.
+The Future is in the Margins When new technologies move beyond their initial stage of development, innovations in curriculum design, teaching strategies and policies will be driven by the needs of students “at the margins”, those for whom present technologies are least effective- most prominently, students with disabilities. The beneficiaries of these innovations will be ALL students. Rose & Meyer, 2000
+ Universal Design for LearningUsing digital materials & “assistive” technologies into the classroom we can create a more accessible and flexible environment for all students.
+ CAST Guidelines The UDL Guidelines are organized according to the three main principles of UDL that address representation, expression, and engagement. For each of these areas, specific "Checkpoints" for options are highlighted, followed by examples of practical suggestions. http://www.udlcenter.org/aboutudl/udlguidelines
+ Principle 1: Representation Students differ in the ways that they perceive and comprehend information that is presented to them. For example, those with sensory disabilities (e.g., blindness or deafness), learning disabilities (e.g., dyslexia), language or cultural differences, and so forth may all require different ways of approaching content. Others may simply grasp information better through visual or auditory means rather than from printed text.
+ Principle 1: RepresentationGuideline 1: Provide options for perceptionGuideline 2: Provide options for language and symbolsGuideline 3: Provide options for comprehension
+ Principle 2: Action & ExpressionStudents differ in the ways that they can navigate a learning environment and express what they know. For example, individuals with significant motor disabilities (e.g., cerebral palsy), those who struggle with strategic and organizational abilities (e.g., executive function disorders, ADHD), those who have language barriers, and so forth approach learning tasks very differently. Some may be able to express themselves well in writing text but not oral speech, and vice versa.
+ Principle 2: Action & ExpressionGuideline 4: Provide options for physical actionGuideline 5: Provide options for expressive skills and fluencyGuideline 6: Provide options for executive functions
+ Strategies and Scaffolds http://sciencewriter.cast.org/welcome
+ Principle 3 : EngagementStudents differ markedly in the ways in which they can be engaged or motivated to learn.Some students are highly engaged by spontaneity and novelty while other are disengaged, even frightened, by those aspects, preferring strict routine.
+ Principle 3 : Engagement Guideline 7: Provide options for recruiting interest Guideline 8: Provide options for sustaining effort and persistence Guideline 9: Provide options for self- regulation
+ Strategy Support http://cst.cast.org/cst/auth-login Cast Strategy Tutor
+ Goal of UDLCreating learning and learning environmentswhich provide meaningful access for everylearner Support Challenge
+ IfI were asked to …. summarize my reading of centuries of wise reflection on what is required of an environment for it to facilitate the growth of its members, I would say this: people grow best where they are continuously experiencing an ingenious blend of support and challenge; the rest is commentary. Robert Kegen, In Over our Heads
+ The Steve Jobs Model for Educational Reform "If you read the front pages of the New York Times, they will tell you that technologys promise has not yet been realized in terms of student performance. My answer is, of course not. If we simply attached computers to leeches, medicine wouldnt be any better today than it was in the 19th century either. You dont get change by plugging in computers to schools designed for the industrial age. You get it by deploying technology that rewrites the rules of the game." -RUPERT MURDOCH
+ UDL Goals The key is to design a goal that represents the true purpose of the learning activity. Clear goals enable us to determine which alternative pathways and scaffolds can be used to meet diverse learning needs while keeping the learning challenge where it belongs.
+ Separating the Goal from the Means: Writing Goals and Objectives that Increase Access* Goals/Objectives that LIMIT Access: Goals/Objectives that ALLOW Access: Instead of … Try … The student will write… The student will express… The student will generate… The student will read… The student will receive information… The student will spell… The student will select… The student will compute… The student will solve… The student will define… The student will show… * From Gargiulo & Metcalf (2010) p. 270
+ Assessment Do we know what we are assessing?
+ Universally Designed Assessment Must clearly understand what we are assessing! Reduce Construct Irrelevant Variance! Multiple pathways to demonstrating success. Be authentic!
+ Expert Learners In UDL we are seeking to create expert learners, individuals who- whatever the particular strengths and weaknesses are know themselves and know how to learn.
+ Food for Thought: Why UDL? If you are currently involved in a UDL initiative, why? What is your GOAL? How will you know you are reaching it? What will be the change(s) you expect to see?
+ “For people without disabilities, technology makes things easier. For people with disabilities, technology makes things possible …” National Council on DisabilityKHOWERY 20/04/2012
+ Will UDL eliminate the need for assistive technology?KHOWERY 20/04/2012
+ Assistive technologies will always have a role in the education of some learners. Children with physical disabilities need properly designed wheelchairs, adaptive switches to control devices, or speech synthesizers. UDL will not eliminate the need for such devices. But such devices will be used for the same reasons we use eyeglasses; that is, to enhance our abilities rather than to compensate for inadequately designed learning materials.
Let’s Consider:What do we mean by assistivetechnology?
+ Assistive technology is a generic term that includes assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative devices and the process used in selecting, locating, and using them. Wikipedia
+ Assistive Technology (AT) is "any item, piece of equipment, or product system whether acquired commercially of the shelf, modified or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities." (Individuals with Disabilities Education ACT (IDEA) 20, USC, Chapter 33, Section 1401 (25) US)
+ The term assistive technology service means any service that directly assists a child with a disability in the selection, acquisition, or use of an assistive technology device. (Individuals with Disabilities Education ACT (IDEA) 20, USC, Chapter 33, Section 1401 (25) US)
+Assistive technology is technology that increases, improves or maintains the functional capabilities of students with disabilities. Rose, Hasselbring, Stahl & Zabala ((2005)
+ Definition of ATL (Alberta) Assistive Technology for Learning (ATL) is defined as the devices, media and services used in learning environments to overcome barriers for students with physical, sensory, cognitive, speech, learning or behavioural special needs to actively engage in learning and to achieve their individual learning goals.
+ The ATL Continuum ATL devices and media range from “low tech” tools such as pencil grips and page fluffers, single message voice output devices, and magnifiers.
+ The ATL Continuum . . . to “high tech” systems such as speech generating communication systems and screen reading technologies, and environmental control systems.
+ AT Devices . . . … are the readily available components that can be purchased and compiled into ATL systems. They are tangible things.
+ AT Services . . . … are the strategies, ideas, supports and personnel that are necessary to make the device(s) work functionally for the person.
+ AT Services include: knowledge and expertise about the student the assessment process evaluation of the tools training strategies for implementing the devices.
+ Effective use of ATL for students also includes: an understanding of the devices how to use them effectively to make a difference for the student(s) how to incorporate AT into daily lessons and routines
+ Consider… Imagine you have a Universally Designed Learning Environment, are there students who would still not be able to meaningfully in their learning without specialized, personalized assistive technology?
+ Students who need physical access: Keyboard Rate / Sticky Keys Alternative Keyboards
+ Students who need physical access: Dedicated Word Processors Switch Activated Access / Onscreen Keyboards
+ Students who need physical access: Augmentative Alternative Voice Input Systems Communication
+ Students who need sensory access: Sound Field Systems Face Time Personal FM Systems
+ Students who need sensory access: Portable Braille Support Devices Screen ReadersPortable Print Enlargers
Students who need cognitive access: Graphic Support
+ Students who need cognitive access: Scan & Read / Text to Speech
+ Students who need cognitive access: Digital Books / Videos PDAs - Pocket Coach
+ Students who need cognitive access: Word Prediction(Talking) Spell Check / Grammar Check Talking Word Processor
+ Students who need cognitive access: Graphic Keyboards Touch Screen
+ Students who need cognitive/physical access: National Library of Interactive Manipulatives Intellimathics Math Pad
+ Making Differences Ordinary!! AT Implementation in the Classroom
+ Alberta Education Website http://education.alberta.ca/admin/technology/atl.aspx
+ The SETT Framework isa tool that helps teams gather and organize information that can be used to guide collaborative decisions about services that foster the educational success of students. Joy Smiley Zabala www.joyzabala.com
+ The Goal of SETT Framework… to guide collaborative teams in the development and use of Student-centered, Environmentally-useful, and Tasks-focused Tool systems that foster the educational achievement of students. Joy Smiley Zabala
+ The SETT Framework The Student o The person who is the central focus of the educational process and for whom everyone involved in any part of the educational program is an advocate The Environments o The customary environments in which the student is (or can be) expected to learn and grow The Tasks o The specific things that the student needs to be able to do or learn to reach expectations and make educational progress (Outcomes of the Programs of Study)
+ The SETT Framework The Tools o Everything that is needed by the student and other involved in supporting the student in order for the student to accomplish the tasks in the places where they need to be done so that appropriate educational progress is achieved.
+ The SETT Framework theSETT Framework is not a protocol for assessment, but rather an organizational tool that can be applied as an integral, ongoing part of ALL phases of programming for students with special educational needs.
+ Critical Components of the SETT Framework:TeamingCreating Shared Knowledge / UnderstandingGathering information to make appropriate decisionsMaking decisions based on Information / Data
+ The SETT Framework can help: Organize what we’re doing, Gatherall the different pieces of information that we have Decide what information we still need to gather Develop a Plan for putting student success.
+ I want to know more! http://www.joyzabala.com
+ Change is not quick or easy We have found that developing an inclusive program is always harder that stakeholders initially think it will be. Indeed, successful programs are dynamic and ever-changing, presenting continuing challenges to teachers and administrators as they create classrooms to meet a broad range of student needs. McLeskey & Waldron, 2000KHOWERY 20/04/2012
+ And potentially TRANFORMATIONALKHOWERY 20/04/2012
+ “The success of technology has more to do with people than machines. All theright parts and pieces together won’t work miracles by themselves. It is people who make technology powerful by creatively using it to fulfill their dreams.” Alliance for Technology Access, 1996