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Placenta.tutor

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  • 1. Reproductive system physiologyPlacenta
    By
    Khorrami Ph.D.
    http://khorrami1962.spaces.live.com
    khorrami4@yahoo.com
  • 2.
  • 3. Estrogens
    Estrone (E1)
    Estradiol (E2)
    Estriol (E3)
    Estetrol (E4)
  • 4. Estrogen
    100mg/day before pregnancy
    300mg/day in late pregnancy
    85-90% is related to estriol(E3) or its conjugate
  • 5. Fetoplacental-maternal unit
    Liver
    Adrenal
    acetate
    fetus
    16-a-DHA-S
    E4
    DHA-S
    sulfatase
    16-a-DHA
    DHA
    Isomerase
    placenta
    E3
    E1
    E2
    DHA-S
    E3-G
    Mother
    urine
    E4: Estetrol
  • 6. Progesterone
    At term 250mg/day
    Excreted as Pregnandiol
    End of first trimester:10mg/day
    At term: 40mg/day
    Maternal cholesterol
    In syncytiotrophoblast: preg…..progesteron
    Most passes to fetal circulation
    Fetal adrenal……corticosteroid sulphate
    Remainder to maternal circulation
  • 7. HCG
    Found in urine of pregnant women (1927)
    Detectable in maternal plasma 7-10 days after implantation
    Doubling each 48hrs
    Peak at 8-10th week
    Synthesized by:
    More by syncytiotrophoblast
    Less by cytotrophoblast
  • 8. HCG
    a subunit:
    92 AA common with LH
    by single gene (ch.6)
    In cyto and syncytiotrophoblast cells
    b subunit:
    134 AA
    By 7 genes ( ch.19)
    In cytotrophoblast cells
  • 9. Placenta
    Lack of MHC-I and MHC-II in trophoblast cells
    Presence of Fas-ligand in placenta
    Apoptosis of activated T cells