Venice Rise

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  • 1. Location: Northern Italy
  • 2. Venice consists of clusters of 120 small islands situated some 3km from mainland. The islets were separated by numerous canals. There were several salt marshes on the lagoons which became a profitable resource.
  • 3. What was Venice like in the 5th to 9th Centuries?
  • 4. Economic activities • Capitalised their skill Venetian Society in salt production and monopolised salt trade System of • The early settlements consisted of small fishing • Traded salt & fish for government villages grain • a vassal state of • Craftsmen, fishermen • Established trade Byzantine Empire and salt traders agreements with • could elect own • Had an urban plan communities along Po leader (Doge) with an organized River to gain access to • Doge – most infrastructure mainland and forest experienced official, • Little land for farming; products. from ruling family, dependent on mainland. • Obtained wood for appointed for life shipbuilding & trade •3-tiered with Middle-East (for government gold, spices) structure
  • 5. How did Venice rise between the 9th and 15th Centuries? LEADERSHIP TRADE DEVELOPMENT & EXPANSION INDUSTRIAL INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT PRACTICES
  • 6. How did Venice rise between the 9th and 15th Centuries? LEADERSHIP Capable leaders contributed to the rise of Venice Doge Peietro II Orseolo Doge Pietro Ziani succeeded established control in Adriatic Doge Enrico Dandolo. After the Sea capture of Constantinople, military outposts were set up along important trade routes to Doge Enrico Dandolo directed safeguard Venice’s territorial the Fourth Crusade captured control . This marked the Constantinople and weakened beginning of Venice’s growth as the Byzantine Empire a maritime empire over the Mediterranean Sea.
  • 7. Doge Peietro II Orseolo established control in Adriatic Sea Doge Enrico Dandolo directed the Fourth Crusade captured Constantinople and weakened the Byzantine Empire
  • 8. How is this a reason for the rise of Venice?): Strong leadership in different aspects of the country’s development was needed to ensure that sound strategic decisions were made that enhanced the country’s political and economic strengths. By seizing control and managing the territories well, these capable leaders contributed in no small way to the rise of the importance of Venice.
  • 9. Hotel Danieli is one of the most famous luxury hotels in Venice. Built in the 14th C, the palazzo belonged to the family of the remarkable doge, Enrico Dandolo.
  • 10. How did Venice rise between the 9th and 15th Centuries? Reforms within the government LEADERSHIP Creation of the Great Council (& later the Senate) to • involve more nobles to serve and Capable leaders decide on Venice’s future contributed to the rise of • allow for specialization of duties in law Venice finance coinage, foreign relations, commerce and fleets Doge Peietro II Orseolo established control in Adriatic The Great Council (of Ten) Sea Maintained checks & balances (How?) • monitor the activities of organizations to safe-guard against corruption; Doge Enrico Dandolo directed • crush plots against the government the Fourth Crusade captured • limited the power of the Doge; Constantinople and weakened • preventing concentration of power the Byzantine Empire • Ensure best candidates for the election process
  • 11. From 12th to 18th C Council of Ten (Signoria) Doge Ducal Council General Assembly Up to 10th C
  • 12. How is this a reason for the rise of Venice?): Venice made constant improvements to their system of government. The Venetians were able to respond to threats and challenges by ensuring strong political leadership. With a growing population and prosperity the structure of the government was also reformed to respond to greater demands.
  • 13. How did Venice rise between the 9th and 15th Centuries? LEADERSHIP TRADE DEVELOPMENT & EXPANSION INDUSTRIAL INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT PRACTICES
  • 14. How did Venice rise between the 9th and 15th Centuries? Through … TRADE DEVELOPMENT & Attitude towards trade & EXPANSION overcoming competition Skilled diplomats – obtained favourable trading terms (lower taxes, brought in highly prized spices from East) Enterprising spirit – explored new trade routes, supplies & markets, beyond Middle East to China) e.g. Marco Polo Foreign traders established permanent trading posts in the city state – Arabs, Armenians, Greek and Africans
  • 15. How is this a reason for the rise of Venice?): By having an adventurous spirit, Venetian merchants and explorers were able to expand their trade which led to rapid economic growth. The increase in variety of valuable products traded created a lot of wealth for the country and was a reason for the rise of Venice.
  • 16. How did Venice rise between the 9th and 15th Centuries? Through … TRADE DEVELOPMENT & EXPANSION Innovations in Maritime Technology Nautical chart provided information Mariner’s compass from known voyages Venetian fleets (landmarks, distance, propelled by oars ports) for more and sails allowing Improved visibility in accurate planning swift travel over winter – for trade in long distances - the Mediterranean The great galley was throughout the year built in 13th C – a greater trade combination of a expansion and merchant and war vessel territorial – to deter pirates control
  • 17. How is this a reason for the rise of Venice?): Venice took advantage of the opportunites in maritime technology during the 13th C. The increase in variety of valuable products traded created a lot of wealth for the country and was a reason for the rise of Venice.
  • 18. Other reasons… & Efficiency in managing voyages E AD ENT Senate set up management TR PM N O IO VEL ANS Maritime technology system where traders DE EXP led to greater efficiency travelled in convoys (more in sea trade profitable to trade in large quantities & greater trade volume) Overcoming trade competition Competition from Genoa over trade in the Mediterranean area led to series of war. Genoa was defeated in late 14th C, and this led to more trade. Trade monopoly Used a combination of land Venice’s strategic location & sea routes to Arabia at the northern tip of the Able to provide greater variety of goods Adriatic Sea, Central and than Genoa or the Hanseatic League Southern Europe (trading states of N Europe)
  • 19. How is this a reason for the rise of Venice?): With superior ships that were able to travel further, and strong enough to repel pirate attacks enabled Venice to obtain exotic products from the Middle East and China for which there was a huge demand. Monopolising the trade routes in Europe enabled Venice to raise the prices – made large profits as European states had to buy from Venice than other states. With all-year round travel, expansion of trade and territorial control led to more ships calling at Venice, increased trade and a higher level of economic prosperity.
  • 20. How did Venice rise between the 9th and 15th Centuries? LEADERSHIP TRADE DEVELOPMENT & EXPANSION INDUSTRIAL INNOVATIVE PRACTICES DEVELOPMENT
  • 21. INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT Manufacturing Trade-related industries industries Arsenal was developed into a More market for centralized shipbuilding industrial Traditional industries area producing great galleys -Glass-making, candles & scented soap New industries such as printing emerged More skilled craftsmen attracted to settle in Venice.
  • 22. How is this a reason for the rise of Venice?): Venice’s trade expansion encouraged its industrial development. Craftsmen were well-paid and this attracted other craftsmen from Europe and the surrounding region to settle in the city-state. Arsenal, the shipbuilding centre producing became the backbone of Venice’s maritime industry and power. The success of the industries and particularly its maritime trade brought Venice wealth and recognition.
  • 23. How did Venice rise between the 9th and 15th Centuries? LEADERSHIP TRADE DEVELOPMENT & EXPANSION INNOVATIV INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT E PRACTICES
  • 24. The Venetians were highly innovative as seen in the new ways of conducting businesses. Trade efficiency increased and and Venice’s economy expand Accounting Double-entry bookkeeping method INNOVATIV (standardized columns of credit and E debit columns and entries) PRACTICES Giro-banking which minimizes the need for cash transactions and currency exchanges between traders, allows for loans, and several transactions to be made in a day How is this a reason for the rise of Venice?): The Venetians were highly innovative as seen in the new ways of conducting businesses. Trade efficiency increased and Venice’s economy expanded.
  • 25. Impact of Development in the 15th Century Economic Prosperity Territorial possessions - In the industries, Controlled trade in talented craftsmen were -Mediterranean Sea well-paid (through defeating - trade unions and guilds Byzantine Empire) Social transformation were formed to -Adriatic Sea region (by - attracted foreign talent ensure job - promoted migration security and surpressing pirates) (owing to labour shortage) quality of goods - cosmopolitan city produced - Became renown as Centre of the Arts in Europe - government funds were provided to support development of Universities for scientific and literary fields