Srilanka Conflict V.09


Published on

Published in: News & Politics
1 Comment
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Srilanka Conflict V.09

  1. 1. Multi-Ethnic society
  2. 2. <ul><li>Not allowed to keep traditional way of life; forced to adopt different set of customs and traditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Laws have been unfair to them – in language, education policies, job opportunities and citizenship rights denied. </li></ul><ul><li>Disagreement on how the country should be ruled. Fight for control of power </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Peaceful protest & marches </li></ul><ul><li>Hunger strikes </li></ul><ul><li>Taking up arms </li></ul><ul><li>Diplomatic negotiations to work out a peace settlement </li></ul>
  4. 4.
  5. 5. President of Sri Lanka LTTE Supremo
  6. 6. <ul><li>LINK 1 - http:// = cRosscwTizE&eurl =http%3A%2F%2Fglobalvoicesonline%2Eorg%2F2009%2F06%2F04%2Fsri%2Dlanka%2Da%2Dsuppressed%2Dnation%2F&feature= player_embedded </li></ul><ul><li>LINK 2 – </li></ul><ul><li>http:// =VWYO32-ikfI&eurl=http%3A%2F%2Farticle%2Ewn%2Ecom%2Fview%2F2009%2F05%2F11%2FUN%5FDeplores%5FKilling%5Fof%5FSri%5FLanka%5FCivilians%5F2%2F&feature= player_embedded </li></ul>IN FEBRUARY, MILITARY FORCES MOVED FORCEFULLY INTO THE TAMIL-DOMINATED AREAS IN AN ATTEMPT TO WAGE A FULL-SCALE WAR AGAINST TAMIL TIGERS AND END THE 25-YR UPRISING. Tamil Tigers are a militant group using terrorist methods of violence to fight for independence for the Tamil-dominated areas in the north and eastern parts of island. Sri Lankan Government with commanding military forces fight against subversion
  7. 7. What is the Cartoonist trying to say in these cartoons?
  8. 8. Sri Lanka Military Forces
  9. 9. Tamil Tiger soldiers
  11. 11. <ul><li>SINHALESE SPEAK SINHALA; BUDDHISTS </li></ul><ul><li>TAMILS SPEAK TAMIL; HINDUS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sri Lankan Tamils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Descendants of Tamils who have been living in Sri Lanka for centuries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian Tamils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Descendants of tea plantation workers brought in from India by the British </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>MOORS MUSLIMS </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Descendants of Arab or Indian Muslim traders </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Distribution of different racial groups in Sri Lanka Indian Tamils Sri Lankan Tamils 18% of population are Tamils
  13. 13. SRI LANKA The setting for a violatile situation
  14. 14. <ul><ul><li>1798 to 1948 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British Colony known as Ceylon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 Feb 1948 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gained independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>22 May 1972 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Officially became known as the Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka </li></ul></ul>SRI LANKA
  15. 15. SRI LANKA But why did conflict arise?
  16. 16. <ul><li>SRI LANKA </li></ul><ul><li>Racial Differences </li></ul><ul><li>Sinhalese vs Tamils </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts over </li></ul><ul><li>Citizenship rights </li></ul><ul><li>Language policy </li></ul><ul><li>University Admission </li></ul><ul><li>Resettlement of Population </li></ul>
  17. 17. Political decisions that led to conflict …
  18. 18. Citizenship rights <ul><li>1948: Indian Tamils became stateless due to amendment in citizenship clauses </li></ul><ul><li>1964: Indian Tamils who were stateless received help from India to become citizens of India again </li></ul><ul><li>This did not legalize till late 1980s and thus, not improving on the situation of the stateless Indian Tamils </li></ul>
  19. 19. ‘ Sinhala only’ policy <ul><li>Under the British rule, the minority English-educated Tamils were able to occupy some fo the most powerful jobs in the government service. </li></ul><ul><li>Eight years after independence, in 1956, Sinhala was declared as the country’s official language. </li></ul><ul><li>Sinhala, not English, was to be used as administrative language </li></ul>
  20. 20. Impact of the unfair laws - Peaceful demonstration against the Official language Act took place. - Supporters of the Sinhala language disrupted the demonstration. Rioting occurred and hundreds died. - What action did the government do to appease the situation?
  21. 21. <ul><li>July 1958 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pact signed which made Tamil made language of national minority and used for administrative purposes in areas where there were Tamils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>protests from Sinhalese which resulted in </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>withdrawal of pact in 1958 Violence escalated </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>In1978 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tamil declared national language in Sri Lankan Constitution and used mainly for administration in northern and eastern parts of the country as well as an official language. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English used as medium of communication amongst the different groups. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Second issue of contention…
  24. 24. University admission <ul><li>Before 1970 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on merit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medium of instruction in exams: English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sinhalese dissatisfied that there were almost as many Tamils as Sinhalese in the university medical and engineering courses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intake into the University did not reflect population proportion in the country </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>After 1970, the government introduced new university admission criteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Measures taken to lessen Tamil students in university – what are these measures? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequence: significant fall in percentage of Tamil students as opposed to rise of Sinhalese students </li></ul></ul>What action did the government do to appease the situation?
  26. 26. Is this cartoon likely to be drawn by a Sri Lankan or a Tamil artist?
  27. 27. Third issue of contention…
  28. 28. <ul><li>Indian Tamils lived in highland districts </li></ul><ul><li>Sri Lankan Tamils located mainly in Jaffna & Batticaloa </li></ul><ul><li>Policy in 1950 to resettle poor Sinhalese peasants from densely populated central and southwestern parts to the Tamil-majority areas </li></ul>Resettling of Sinhalese
  29. 29. Population Resettlement <ul><li>Consequence: </li></ul><ul><li>Tamils who felt that the Sinhalese were ‘intruders in their territories’- </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sinhalese peasants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhist monks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soldiers who were mainly Sinhalese </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whole villages were driven out by the Sri Lankan army to be occupied by Sinhalese settlers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The new settlers were also provided protection by the army </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. impact <ul><ul><li>Unhappiness amongst Tamils felt marginalized and rejected by the large-scale government resettlement schemes into these traditional areas of Tamils </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Consequences of conflict..
  32. 32. Political consequences of the Sinhalese-Tamil conflict
  33. 33. Tamils embarked on armed conflict <ul><li>Peaceful demands made initially </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1950: Federal party requested for recognition of federation of Tamil areas in the country. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1976: Tamil United Liberation Front formed to fight for independent state for the Tamils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate state to be known as Tamil Eelam </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Rejection by government to the demands </li></ul><ul><li>In 1976, the militant group Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) or Tamil Tigers was formed to pressure the government to give in to their demands </li></ul><ul><li>Sinhalese also showed hostility towards Tamils through violence. Between 1981-1983 anti-Tamil riots broke out </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>During the 1983 riots, 13 Sinhalese soldiers were killed by the Tamil Tigers </li></ul><ul><li>The riots sparked a long armed conflict between government forces and Tamil Tigers in the struggle for self rule in the north and east of the country. </li></ul><ul><li>The internal war has been on-going for 20 years, and cost more than 60,000 lives. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Intervention from India <ul><li>Initially played the role of mediator in response to 1983 riots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediator: neutral party who acts as peacemaker to resolve conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>However, peace talks between Sinhalese and Tamils (initiated by India) FAILED </li></ul><ul><li>In June 1987, Indian government decided to send food supplies and petroleum to help the Tamil minority in Sri Lanka </li></ul>
  37. 37. Map of Sri Lanka
  38. 38. <ul><li>BUT Sri Lankan navy turned them away </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Air Force decided to send their supplies through air, resulting in violation of Sri Lankan airspace </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>July 1987: to resolve conflict with India over the abovementioned incident, peace accord was signed. It included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ceasefire between Tamil Tigers and Sri Lankan forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tamil Tigers to surrender all their arms to Indian peacekeeping troops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Merging of northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka where Tamils are dominant group </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Peacekeeping: successful? <ul><li>NO! Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Tamil Tigers failed to abide to the agreement to surrender their weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Indian troops took over Tamil-dominated Jaffna </li></ul><ul><li>Confrontations are between Indian troops and Tamil Tigers from then onwards </li></ul>
  41. 41. Economic consequences of the Sinhalese-Tamil conflict
  42. 42. Unemployment <ul><li>Riots of July 1983 left many factory workers, plantation and self-employed jobless </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. destroying their workplaces by vandalism or burning them down </li></ul><ul><li>crime rate in the country rose as a large number of Sinhalese took part in vandalism, looting and burning of their places of work occurred </li></ul><ul><li>, </li></ul>
  43. 43. Investment loss from other countries <ul><li>Investments play a vital role in the economic growth of Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><li>However, riots in the country led to fall in investments due to the instability </li></ul>
  44. 44. Fall in tourism <ul><li>Tourism is another major component of the economy in Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><li>Riots=>loss of jobs=> fall of economy </li></ul><ul><li>Fall in tourismwhich resulted in loss of jobs and decline in the economy </li></ul>
  45. 45. Social consequences of the Sinhalese-Tamil conflict
  46. 46. <ul><li>Sri Lankan Tamils driven out of their homeland </li></ul><ul><li>Large-scale displacement of Tamils (in July 1983, many Tamils fled to Tamil Nadu) </li></ul><ul><li>In 1990s, High Security Zones (HSZ) were set up by Sri Lankan army to contain LTTE </li></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>In 1995, many Tamils fled their homes when the Sri Lankan army moved into Jaffna to take on the LTTE. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, many Tamils still live in overcrowded conditions in refugee camps or with relatives and friends </li></ul>
  48. 48.
  49. 49.
  50. 50.
  51. 51.
  52. 52. What is the outcome of the military offensive into the Tamil stronghold? And, how have Tamil civilians been affected?
  53. 53.
  54. 54. What is the world doing about it? Can the world do anything? What has UN done to help the Tamils?