Srilanka Conflict V.09

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  • 1. Multi-Ethnic society
  • 2.
    • Not allowed to keep traditional way of life; forced to adopt different set of customs and traditions.
    • Laws have been unfair to them – in language, education policies, job opportunities and citizenship rights denied.
    • Disagreement on how the country should be ruled. Fight for control of power
  • 3.
    • Tolerance
    • Peaceful protest & marches
    • Hunger strikes
    • Taking up arms
    • Diplomatic negotiations to work out a peace settlement
  • 4.
  • 5. President of Sri Lanka LTTE Supremo
  • 6.
    • LINK 1 - http:// = cRosscwTizE&eurl =http%3A%2F%2Fglobalvoicesonline%2Eorg%2F2009%2F06%2F04%2Fsri%2Dlanka%2Da%2Dsuppressed%2Dnation%2F&feature= player_embedded
    • LINK 2 –
    • http:// =VWYO32-ikfI&eurl=http%3A%2F%2Farticle%2Ewn%2Ecom%2Fview%2F2009%2F05%2F11%2FUN%5FDeplores%5FKilling%5Fof%5FSri%5FLanka%5FCivilians%5F2%2F&feature= player_embedded
    IN FEBRUARY, MILITARY FORCES MOVED FORCEFULLY INTO THE TAMIL-DOMINATED AREAS IN AN ATTEMPT TO WAGE A FULL-SCALE WAR AGAINST TAMIL TIGERS AND END THE 25-YR UPRISING. Tamil Tigers are a militant group using terrorist methods of violence to fight for independence for the Tamil-dominated areas in the north and eastern parts of island. Sri Lankan Government with commanding military forces fight against subversion
  • 7. What is the Cartoonist trying to say in these cartoons?
  • 8. Sri Lanka Military Forces
  • 9. Tamil Tiger soldiers
  • 11.
      • Sri Lankan Tamils
        • Descendants of Tamils who have been living in Sri Lanka for centuries
      • Indian Tamils
        • Descendants of tea plantation workers brought in from India by the British
        • Descendants of Arab or Indian Muslim traders
  • 12. Distribution of different racial groups in Sri Lanka Indian Tamils Sri Lankan Tamils 18% of population are Tamils
  • 13. SRI LANKA The setting for a violatile situation
  • 14.
      • 1798 to 1948
      • British Colony known as Ceylon
      • 4 Feb 1948
      • Gained independence
      • 22 May 1972
      • Officially became known as the Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
  • 15. SRI LANKA But why did conflict arise?
  • 16.
    • Racial Differences
    • Sinhalese vs Tamils
    • Conflicts over
    • Citizenship rights
    • Language policy
    • University Admission
    • Resettlement of Population
  • 17. Political decisions that led to conflict …
  • 18. Citizenship rights
    • 1948: Indian Tamils became stateless due to amendment in citizenship clauses
    • 1964: Indian Tamils who were stateless received help from India to become citizens of India again
    • This did not legalize till late 1980s and thus, not improving on the situation of the stateless Indian Tamils
  • 19. ‘ Sinhala only’ policy
    • Under the British rule, the minority English-educated Tamils were able to occupy some fo the most powerful jobs in the government service.
    • Eight years after independence, in 1956, Sinhala was declared as the country’s official language.
    • Sinhala, not English, was to be used as administrative language
  • 20. Impact of the unfair laws - Peaceful demonstration against the Official language Act took place. - Supporters of the Sinhala language disrupted the demonstration. Rioting occurred and hundreds died. - What action did the government do to appease the situation?
  • 21.
    • July 1958
      • Pact signed which made Tamil made language of national minority and used for administrative purposes in areas where there were Tamils
      • Consequence
        • protests from Sinhalese which resulted in
        • withdrawal of pact in 1958 Violence escalated
  • 22.
    • In1978
      • Tamil declared national language in Sri Lankan Constitution and used mainly for administration in northern and eastern parts of the country as well as an official language.
      • English used as medium of communication amongst the different groups.
  • 23. Second issue of contention…
  • 24. University admission
    • Before 1970
      • Based on merit
      • Medium of instruction in exams: English
      • Sinhalese dissatisfied that there were almost as many Tamils as Sinhalese in the university medical and engineering courses
      • Intake into the University did not reflect population proportion in the country
  • 25.
    • After 1970, the government introduced new university admission criteria.
    • Measures taken to lessen Tamil students in university – what are these measures?
      • Consequence: significant fall in percentage of Tamil students as opposed to rise of Sinhalese students
    What action did the government do to appease the situation?
  • 26. Is this cartoon likely to be drawn by a Sri Lankan or a Tamil artist?
  • 27. Third issue of contention…
  • 28.
    • Indian Tamils lived in highland districts
    • Sri Lankan Tamils located mainly in Jaffna & Batticaloa
    • Policy in 1950 to resettle poor Sinhalese peasants from densely populated central and southwestern parts to the Tamil-majority areas
    Resettling of Sinhalese
  • 29. Population Resettlement
    • Consequence:
    • Tamils who felt that the Sinhalese were ‘intruders in their territories’-
        • Sinhalese peasants
        • Buddhist monks
        • Soldiers who were mainly Sinhalese
      • Whole villages were driven out by the Sri Lankan army to be occupied by Sinhalese settlers
      • The new settlers were also provided protection by the army
  • 30. impact
      • Unhappiness amongst Tamils felt marginalized and rejected by the large-scale government resettlement schemes into these traditional areas of Tamils
  • 31. Consequences of conflict..
  • 32. Political consequences of the Sinhalese-Tamil conflict
  • 33. Tamils embarked on armed conflict
    • Peaceful demands made initially
      • 1950: Federal party requested for recognition of federation of Tamil areas in the country.
    • 1976: Tamil United Liberation Front formed to fight for independent state for the Tamils
      • Separate state to be known as Tamil Eelam
  • 34.
    • Rejection by government to the demands
    • In 1976, the militant group Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) or Tamil Tigers was formed to pressure the government to give in to their demands
    • Sinhalese also showed hostility towards Tamils through violence. Between 1981-1983 anti-Tamil riots broke out
  • 35.
    • During the 1983 riots, 13 Sinhalese soldiers were killed by the Tamil Tigers
    • The riots sparked a long armed conflict between government forces and Tamil Tigers in the struggle for self rule in the north and east of the country.
    • The internal war has been on-going for 20 years, and cost more than 60,000 lives.
  • 36. Intervention from India
    • Initially played the role of mediator in response to 1983 riots
      • Mediator: neutral party who acts as peacemaker to resolve conflicts
    • However, peace talks between Sinhalese and Tamils (initiated by India) FAILED
    • In June 1987, Indian government decided to send food supplies and petroleum to help the Tamil minority in Sri Lanka
  • 37. Map of Sri Lanka
  • 38.
    • BUT Sri Lankan navy turned them away
    • Indian Air Force decided to send their supplies through air, resulting in violation of Sri Lankan airspace
  • 39.
    • July 1987: to resolve conflict with India over the abovementioned incident, peace accord was signed. It included:
      • Ceasefire between Tamil Tigers and Sri Lankan forces
      • Tamil Tigers to surrender all their arms to Indian peacekeeping troops
      • Merging of northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka where Tamils are dominant group
  • 40. Peacekeeping: successful?
    • NO! Why?
    • Tamil Tigers failed to abide to the agreement to surrender their weapons
    • Indian troops took over Tamil-dominated Jaffna
    • Confrontations are between Indian troops and Tamil Tigers from then onwards
  • 41. Economic consequences of the Sinhalese-Tamil conflict
  • 42. Unemployment
    • Riots of July 1983 left many factory workers, plantation and self-employed jobless
    • E.g. destroying their workplaces by vandalism or burning them down
    • crime rate in the country rose as a large number of Sinhalese took part in vandalism, looting and burning of their places of work occurred
    • ,
  • 43. Investment loss from other countries
    • Investments play a vital role in the economic growth of Sri Lanka
    • However, riots in the country led to fall in investments due to the instability
  • 44. Fall in tourism
    • Tourism is another major component of the economy in Sri Lanka
    • Riots=>loss of jobs=> fall of economy
    • Fall in tourismwhich resulted in loss of jobs and decline in the economy
  • 45. Social consequences of the Sinhalese-Tamil conflict
  • 46.
    • Sri Lankan Tamils driven out of their homeland
    • Large-scale displacement of Tamils (in July 1983, many Tamils fled to Tamil Nadu)
    • In 1990s, High Security Zones (HSZ) were set up by Sri Lankan army to contain LTTE
  • 47.
    • In 1995, many Tamils fled their homes when the Sri Lankan army moved into Jaffna to take on the LTTE.
    • Today, many Tamils still live in overcrowded conditions in refugee camps or with relatives and friends
  • 48.
  • 49.
  • 50.
  • 51.
  • 52. What is the outcome of the military offensive into the Tamil stronghold? And, how have Tamil civilians been affected?
  • 53.
  • 54. What is the world doing about it? Can the world do anything? What has UN done to help the Tamils?