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Conflict in Sri Lanka

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  • 1. COUNTRIES DIVIDED
  • 2. CONFLICT IN MULTI-ETHNIC SOCIETIES: CASE STUDY 1: Sri Lanka CASE STUDY 2: N Ireland
  • 3. Why do people of different races and religions disagree?
    • Not allowed to keep traditional way of life; forced to adopt different set of customs and traditions
    • Language and education policies which do not consider their interests
    • Law has been unfair to them
    • Fight for control of power
    • Disagreement on how the country should be ruled
    • Job opportunities or economic resources
  • 4. How do people resolve these disagreements?
    • Tolerance
    • Peaceful protest & marches
    • Hunger strikes
    • Taking up arms
    • Diplomatic negotiations to work out a peace settlement
  • 5. Conflict in Multi-ethnic Sri Lanka
  • 6.  
  • 7. First, The scenic side of Sri Lanka…
  • 8.  
  • 9. How is Sri Lanka like these days?
  • 10. Some parts in Colombo are marred by …
  • 11.  
  • 12. Tamil woman suicide bomber killed 23, wounded 60 Friday 05, July 1996 [Source : http://dspace.dial.pipex.com/town/parade/nm58/suicide.htm]
  • 13.  
  • 14. SRI LANKA The setting for a violatile situation
  • 15. Map 2000 SRI LANKANS 3 major races SINHALESE TAMILS MOORS
  • 16.
    • SINHALESE SPEAK SINHALA; BUDDHISTS
    • TAMILS SPEAK TAMIL; HINDUS
      • Sri Lankan Tamils
        • Descendants of Tamils who have been living in Sri Lanka for centuries
      • Indian Tamils
        • Descendants of tea plantation workers brought in from India by the British
    • MOORS MUSLIMS
        • Descendants of Arab or Indian Muslim traders
  • 17. Distribution of different racial groups in Sri Lanka, 1993 Indian Tamils Sri Lankan Tamils Sri Lankan Tamils 18% of population are Tamils
  • 18.
      • 1798 to 1948
      • British Colony
      • 4 Feb 1948
      • Gained independence
      • Known as Ceylon
      • 22 May 1972
      • Officially became known as the Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
    SRI LANKA
  • 19. SRI LANKA But why did conflict arise?
  • 20.
    • SRI LANKA
    • Racial Differences
    • Sinhalese vs Tamils
    • Conflicts over
    • Citizenship rights
    • Language policy
    • University Admission
    • Resettlement of Population
  • 21. Political decisions that led to conflict …
  • 22. Citizenship rights
    • 1948: Indian Tamils became stateless due to amendment in citizenship clauses
    • 1964: Indian Tamils who were stateless received help from India to become citizens of India again
    • This did not legalize till late 1980s and thus, not improving on the situation of the stateless Indian Tamils
  • 23. ‘Sinhala only’ policy
    • Under the British rule, the minority English-educated Tamils were able to occupy some fo the most powerful jobs in the government service.
    • Eight years after independence, in 1956, Sinhala was declared as the country’s official language.
    • Sinhala, not English, was to be used as administrative language
  • 24. impact
    • Peaceful demonstration against the Official language Act took place.
    • Supporters of the Sinhala language disrupted the demonstration.
    • Rioting occurred and hundreds died.
    • - What action did the government do to appease the situation?
  • 25.
    • July 1958
      • Pact signed which made Tamil made language of national minority and used for administrative purposes in areas where there were Tamils
      • Consequence
        • protests from Sinhalese which resulted in
        • withdrawal of pact in 1958 Violence escalated
  • 26.
    • In1978
      • Tamil declared national language in Sri Lankan Constitution and used mainly for administration in northern and eastern parts of the country as well as an official language.
      • English used as medium of communication amongst the different groups.
  • 27. Second issue of contention…
  • 28. University admission
    • Before 1970
      • Based on merit
      • Medium of instruction in exams: English
      • Sinhalese dissatisfied that there were almost as many Tamils as Sinhalese in the university medical and engineering courses
      • Did not reflect population proportion in the country
  • 29.
    • After 1970, the government introduced new university admission criteria.
    • Measures taken to lessen Tamil students in university – what are these measures?
      • Consequence: significant fall in percentage of Tamil students as opposed to rise of Sinhalese students
  • 30. Third issue of contention…
  • 31.
    • Indian Tamils lived in highland districts
    • Sri Lankan Tamils located mainly in Jaffna & Batticaloa
    • Policy in 1950 to resettle poor Sinhalese peasants from densely populated central and southwestern parts to the Tamil-majority areas
    Resettling of Sinhalese
  • 32. Population Resettlement
    • Consequence:
    • Tamils who felt that the Sinhalese were ‘intruders in their territories’-
        • Sinhalese peasants
        • Buddhist monks
        • Soldiers who were mainly Sinhalese
      • Whole villages were driven out by the Sri Lankan army to be occupied by Sinhalese settlers
      • The new settlers were also provided protection by the army
  • 33. impact
      • Unhappiness amongst Tamils felt marginalized and rejected by the large-scale government resettlement schemes into these traditional areas of Tamils
  • 34. Consequences of conflict..
  • 35. Political consequences of the Sinhalese-Tamil conflict
  • 36. Tamils embarked on armed conflict
    • Peaceful demands made initially
      • 1950: Federal party requested for recognition of federation of Tamil areas in the country.
    • 1976: Tamil United Liberation Front formed to fight for independent state for the Tamils
      • Separate state to be known as Tamil Eelam
  • 37.
    • Rejection by government to the demands
    • In 1976, the militant group Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) or Tamil Tigers was formed to pressure the government to give in to their demands
    • Sinhalese also showed hostility towards Tamils through violence. Between 1981-1983 anti-Tamil riots broke out
  • 38.
    • During the 1983 riots, 13 Sinhalese soldiers were killed by the Tamil Tigers
    • The riots sparked a long armed conflict between government forces and Tamil Tigers in the struggle for self rule in the north and east of the country.
    • The internal war has been on-going for 20 years, and cost more than 60,000 lives.
  • 39. Intervention from India
    • Initially played the role of mediator in response to 1983 riots
      • Mediator: neutral party who acts as peacemaker to resolve conflicts
    • However, peace talks between Sinhalese and Tamils (initiated by India) FAILED
    • In June 1987, Indian government decided to send food supplies and petroleum to help the Tamil minority in Sri Lanka
  • 40. Map of Sri Lanka
  • 41.
    • BUT Sri Lankan navy turned them away
    • Indian Air Force decided to send their supplies through air, resulting in violation of Sri Lankan airspace
  • 42.
    • July 1987: to resolve conflict with India over the abovementioned incident, peace accord was signed. It included:
      • Ceasefire between Tamil Tigers and Sri Lankan forces
      • Tamil Tigers to surrender all their arms to Indian peacekeeping troops
      • Merging of northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka where Tamils are dominant group
  • 43. Peacekeeping: successful?
    • NO! Why?
    • Tamil Tigers failed to abide to the agreement to surrender their weapons
    • Indian troops took over Tamil-dominated Jaffna
    • Confrontations are between Indian troops and Tamil Tigers from then onwards
  • 44. Economic consequences of the Sinhalese-Tamil conflict
  • 45. Unemployment
    • Riots of July 1983 left many factory workers, plantation and self-employed jobless
    • E.g. destroying their workplaces by vandalism or burning them down
    • crime rate in the country rose as a large number of Sinhalese took part in vandalism, looting and burning of their places of work occurred
    • ,
  • 46. Investment loss from other countries
    • Investments play a vital role in the economic growth of Sri Lanka
    • However, riots in the country led to fall in investments due to the instability
  • 47. Fall in tourism
    • Tourism is another major component of the economy in Sri Lanka
    • Riots=>loss of jobs=> fall of economy
    • Fall in tourismwhich resulted in loss of jobs and decline in the economy
  • 48. Social consequences of the Sinhalese-Tamil conflict
  • 49.
    • Sri Lankan Tamils driven out of their homeland
    • Large-scale displacement of Tamils (in July 1983, many Tamils fled to Tamil Nadu)
    • In 1990s, High Security Zones (HSZ) were set up by Sri Lankan army to contain LTTE
  • 50.
    • In 1995, many Tamils fled their homes when the Sri Lankan army moved into Jaffna to take on the LTTE.
    • Today, many Tamils still live in overcrowded conditions in refugee camps or with relatives and friends
  • 51.
    • 2005 Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadingamar a Tamil was assassinated His campaign against a separate Tamil state angered LTTE, a setback to peace
    • A string of attacks ensued
    • Tamil Tigers vowed to use available resources to obtain independence
    • Peace talks to commence in 2006
  • 52.  
  • 53.  
  • 54. Women and children massacred by LTTE in Kotiyagala in Monaragala District in Sri Lanka, Dec 1995 Srhttp://dspace.dial.pipex.com/town/parade/nm58/weli.htm
  • 55. Is peace possible?
    • 2002 Peace talks on ceasefire pact
    • LTTE dissatisfied
    • First Suicide bomb since 2001
    • Devastation was large - 30,000
    • Foreign aid not given to both
  • 56. Was the formation of the LTTE (Tamil Tigers) a help or hindrance to the Tamil cause?