Liver

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Small intestines + Liver I

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Liver

  1. 1. Nutrition in Mammals<br />Chapter 6<br />
  2. 2. Lesson recap<br />
  3. 3. What did we learn the previous lesson?<br />Introduction to Nutrition in Mammals<br />Organs in the Mammalian Digestive system<br />Detailed examination of <br /><ul><li>Oesophagus,
  4. 4. Stomach
  5. 5. Small intestines</li></ul>4. Adaptations of the intestines for absorption<br />
  6. 6. <ul><li> Two layers of smooth muscles: </li></ul>longitudinal & circular muscles <br />What happens in the Oesophagus?<br />Peristalsis-is the Wave like contraction of the walls of the gut to move food down from mouth to stomach<br />
  7. 7. Circular muscle contracts; lumen constricts<br />Antagonistic <br />muscles<br />Longitudinal muscle relaxes<br />
  8. 8. Demonstration<br />
  9. 9. *Stomach<br />Structure of Stomach<br />Distensible = can stretch & expand<br />Send “Full” signal to brain<br />Numerous pits with gastric glands<br />Pyloric splincter = ring of muscle connecting the small intestines. <br />
  10. 10. What happens in our Stomach?<br />What happens in the Stomach?<br /><ul><li>Peristalsis occurs in the stomach</li></ul>Peristalsis- Wave like contraction of the walls of the gut to move food down from mouth to stomach<br />
  11. 11. Small Intestines – Last chance to digest!<br />
  12. 12. Demonstration<br />How does the movement of the intestinal wall look like?<br />
  13. 13. How do villi help to increase rate of absorption in the small intestine?<br />OR<br />How does the villus structure help to increase rate of absorption in the small intestine?<br />
  14. 14. Does surface area matter for absorption?<br />
  15. 15. If the small intestines were only a hollow tube…<br />0.5m2<br />200.0m2<br />
  16. 16. Increase Surface Area<br /><ul><li>Inner walls have numerous folds
  17. 17. Lined with vili
  18. 18. Microvilli on villi</li></ul>Adaptation of the small intestines<br />
  19. 19. How is the intestinal wall adapted for absorption?<br />
  20. 20. <ul><li>Thin membrane – 1 cell thick</li></ul>One-cell thick epithelium<br />Epithelium<br />-the inner and outer tissue covering digestive tract organs.ukhealthcare.uky.edu/patient/glossary/glossary-e.htm<br />-a type of tissue which lines a surface in the body.www.di.uq.edu.au/sparqglossary<br />Adaptation of the small intestines<br />
  21. 21. Increased intestinal surface area<br />1 cell thick epithelium<br />
  22. 22. Numerous capillaries to maintain concentration gradient<br />Many capillaries carry substance away<br />Each villus has a lacteal/lymphatic capillary surrounded by blood capillaries. <br />Continuous transport of digested food substances away<br />Adaptation of the small intestines<br />
  23. 23. Q. How is Concentration gradient maintained at the site of the intestinal villus?<br />A concentration gradient is maintained at the villus by the continual transport of digested food substances away from the villus.<br />Adaptation of the small intestines<br />
  24. 24. Absorption at the small intestines villus<br />
  25. 25. Glucose & amino acids enter into blood capillaries via diffusion & active transport<br />Glycerol & fatty acid diffuse into the epithelium, then combines back to fat moleculeswhen they enter lacteal<br />Water & mineral salts also absorbed.<br />How does absorption take place?<br />
  26. 26. Summary<br />Introduction to Nutrition in Mammals<br />Organs in the Mammalian Digestive system<br />3. Examined:<br /><ul><li>Oesophagus
  27. 27. Stomach
  28. 28. Small intestines</li></ul>4. Adaptations of the intestines for absorption<br />
  29. 29. Today’s Guest<br />Mr. Liver<br />
  30. 30. Q. How are food substances transported and utilized?Chapter 6 Pg 105 <br />
  31. 31. Liver Boss, <br />I’m done with absorbing all the nutrients. My villus is rich. What do I do with them now?<br />Good job! You’re done with all the goodies? Pass them to me and I’ll re-distribute!<br />
  32. 32. But you’re quite a distance away,<br />Can I send them to you by air mail? <br />Huh? What is air-mail?<br />There are no planes around the area. You need to ship the ‘goodies’ to me<br />
  33. 33. Hepatic portal vein<br />
  34. 34. Q. What are the ‘goodies’ to be transported?<br />Glucose<br />Amino acids<br />
  35. 35. Fate of Glucose<br />Redistributed<br />Excess return<br />So what do I do now with the excess glucose?<br />Let’s check out for laborers in the market<br />
  36. 36. In the Blood Market….<br />glucagon<br />glucagon<br />insulin<br />insulin<br />glucagon<br />glucagon<br />insulin<br />
  37. 37. From pancreas…<br />

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