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Kidney Failure<br />1<br />
Kidney failureLet’s review: Why are kidneys important?<br /><ul><li>As excretory organ: Kidney removes
Removing nitrogenous waste products
Excess water & mineral salts
As osmoregulators: Kidney regulates salt & water balance  also indirectly control blood pressure</li></ul>URINE<br />
Kidney failureWhy kidney failure?<br />High blood pressure<br />Diabetes<br />Long term drinking of alcoholic beverages<br...
Kidney failurePossible cure / treatment?<br />Kidney transplant<br />Dialysis<br />Haemodialysis using Dialysis machine<br...
Dialysis<br />5<br />
     Differences between haemodialysis <br />         and peritoneal dialysis<br />
artery<br />How Is Blood Cleaned in a Dialysis Machine?<br />1<br />Blood is drawn from an artery in the patient’s arm<br ...
artery<br />dialysis tubing<br />dialysis<br />fluid<br />fresh dialysis<br />fluid<br />dialysis<br />machine<br />How Is...
artery<br />dialysis tubing<br />dialysis<br />fluid<br />fresh dialysis<br />fluid<br />dialysis<br />machine<br />How Is...
artery<br />dialysis tubing<br />dialysis<br />fluid<br />fresh dialysis<br />fluid<br />dialysis<br />machine<br />How Is...
artery<br />dialysis tubing<br />dialysis<br />fluid<br />fresh dialysis<br />fluid<br />dialysis<br />machine<br />How Is...
artery<br />vein<br />dialysis tubing<br />dialysis<br />fluid<br />filtered<br />blood<br />fresh dialysis<br />fluid<br ...
Exchange of Substances between the Blood and the Dialysis Fluid<br />Patient’s blood enters dialysis machine<br />dialysis...
Exchange of Substances between the Blood and the Dialysis Fluid<br />Patient’s blood enters dialysis machine<br />urea mol...
Exchange of Substances between the Blood and the Dialysis Fluid<br />Dialysis fluid contains the same concentration of ess...
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Kidney failure

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Transcript of "Kidney failure"

  1. 1. Kidney Failure<br />1<br />
  2. 2. Kidney failureLet’s review: Why are kidneys important?<br /><ul><li>As excretory organ: Kidney removes
  3. 3. Removing nitrogenous waste products
  4. 4. Excess water & mineral salts
  5. 5. As osmoregulators: Kidney regulates salt & water balance  also indirectly control blood pressure</li></ul>URINE<br />
  6. 6. Kidney failureWhy kidney failure?<br />High blood pressure<br />Diabetes<br />Long term drinking of alcoholic beverages<br />Major surgery / accidents<br />
  7. 7. Kidney failurePossible cure / treatment?<br />Kidney transplant<br />Dialysis<br />Haemodialysis using Dialysis machine<br />Peritoneal dialysis using membranes/bag<br />
  8. 8. Dialysis<br />5<br />
  9. 9. Differences between haemodialysis <br /> and peritoneal dialysis<br />
  10. 10. artery<br />How Is Blood Cleaned in a Dialysis Machine?<br />1<br />Blood is drawn from an artery in the patient’s arm<br />1<br />3 October 2011<br />Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. <br />7<br />
  11. 11. artery<br />dialysis tubing<br />dialysis<br />fluid<br />fresh dialysis<br />fluid<br />dialysis<br />machine<br />How Is Blood Cleaned in a Dialysis Machine?<br />1<br />Blood is pumped through a tubing to the dialysis machine<br />Blood is drawn from an artery in the patient’s arm<br />1<br />2<br />2<br />pump<br />3 October 2011<br />Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. <br />8<br />
  12. 12. artery<br />dialysis tubing<br />dialysis<br />fluid<br />fresh dialysis<br />fluid<br />dialysis<br />machine<br />How Is Blood Cleaned in a Dialysis Machine?<br />1<br />Blood is drawn from an artery in the patient’s arm<br />Blood is pumped through a tubing to the dialysis machine<br />1<br />2<br />2<br />The tubing is bathed in a special dialysis fluid and the tubing is semi-permeable<br />3<br />pump<br />3<br />3 October 2011<br />Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. <br />9<br />
  13. 13. artery<br />dialysis tubing<br />dialysis<br />fluid<br />fresh dialysis<br />fluid<br />dialysis<br />machine<br />How Is Blood Cleaned in a Dialysis Machine?<br />1<br />Blood is drawn from an artery in the patient’s arm<br />Blood is pumped through a tubing to the dialysis machine<br />1<br />2<br />2<br />The tubing is bathed in a special dialysis fluid and the tubing is semi-permeable<br />3<br />4<br />pump<br />Small molecules (e.g. urea) and metabolic waste products diffuse out of the tubing<br />4<br />3<br />3 October 2011<br />Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. <br />10<br />
  14. 14. artery<br />dialysis tubing<br />dialysis<br />fluid<br />fresh dialysis<br />fluid<br />dialysis<br />machine<br />How Is Blood Cleaned in a Dialysis Machine?<br />1<br />Blood is drawn from an artery in the patient’s arm<br />Blood is pumped through a tubing to the dialysis machine<br />1<br />2<br />2<br />The tubing is bathed in a special dialysis fluid and the tubing is semi-permeable<br />3<br />4<br />pump<br />5<br />Larger molecules (e.g. plates and blood cells) remain in the tubing<br />Small molecules (e.g. urea) and metabolic waste products diffuse out of the tubing<br />5<br />4<br />3<br />3 October 2011<br />Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. <br />11<br />
  15. 15. artery<br />vein<br />dialysis tubing<br />dialysis<br />fluid<br />filtered<br />blood<br />fresh dialysis<br />fluid<br />dialysis<br />machine<br />How Is Blood Cleaned in a Dialysis Machine?<br />1<br />Blood is drawn from an artery in the patient’s arm<br />Blood is pumped through a tubing to the dialysis machine<br />1<br />2<br />6<br />2<br />The filtered blood is returned to a vein in the patient’s arm<br />The tubing is bathed in a special dialysis fluid and the tubing is semi-permeable<br />6<br />3<br />4<br />pump<br />5<br />Larger molecules (e.g. plates and blood cells) remain in the tubing<br />Small molecules (e.g. urea) and metabolic waste products diffuse out of the tubing<br />5<br />4<br />3<br />3 October 2011<br />Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. <br />12<br />
  16. 16. Exchange of Substances between the Blood and the Dialysis Fluid<br />Patient’s blood enters dialysis machine<br />dialysis machine<br />partially permeable membrane<br />dialysis fluid<br />patient’s blood<br />1<br />essential mineral salt<br />3 October 2011<br />Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. <br />13<br />
  17. 17. Exchange of Substances between the Blood and the Dialysis Fluid<br />Patient’s blood enters dialysis machine<br />urea molecule<br />dialysis machine<br />partially permeable membrane<br />dialysis fluid<br />patient’s blood<br />1<br />2<br />dialysis fluid<br />red blood cell<br />essential mineral salt<br />protein molecule<br />Blood flows in the opposite direction to flow of dialysis fluid<br />3 October 2011<br />Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. <br />14<br />
  18. 18. Exchange of Substances between the Blood and the Dialysis Fluid<br />Dialysis fluid contains the same concentration of essential substances as blood. No metabolic wastes present<br />Patient’s blood enters dialysis machine<br />dialysis machine<br />urea molecule<br />partially permeable membrane<br />dialysis fluid<br />patient’s blood<br />1<br />2<br />dialysis fluid<br />red blood cell<br />essential mineral salt<br />protein molecule<br />Blood flows in the opposite direction to flow of dialysis fluid<br />3 October 2011<br />Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. <br />15<br />
  19. 19. Exchange of Substances between the Blood and the Dialysis Fluid<br />Dialysis fluid contains the same concentration of essential substances as blood. No metabolic wastes present<br />Patient’s blood enters dialysis machine<br />dialysis machine<br />urea molecule<br />partially permeable membrane<br />dialysis fluid<br />patient’s blood<br />1<br />2<br />3<br />dialysis fluid<br />red blood cell<br />essential mineral salt<br />protein molecule<br />Concentration <br />gradient set up<br />between dialysis<br />fluid and blood<br />Blood flows in the opposite direction to flow of dialysis fluid<br />3 October 2011<br />Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. <br />16<br />
  20. 20. Exchange of Substances between the Blood and the Dialysis Fluid<br />Dialysis fluid contains the same concentration of essential substances as blood. No metabolic wastes present<br />Patient’s blood enters dialysis machine<br />dialysis machine<br />partially permeable membrane<br />dialysis fluid<br />patient’s blood<br />1<br />2<br />4<br />3<br />dialysis fluid with <br />waste products<br />dialysis fluid<br />urea molecule<br />red blood cell<br />essential mineral salt<br />protein molecule<br />Concentration <br />gradient set up<br />between dialysis<br />fluid and blood<br />Blood flows in the opposite direction to flow of dialysis fluid<br />Removal of metabolic waste products from the blood<br />3 October 2011<br />Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. <br />17<br />
  21. 21. Exchange of Substances between the Blood and the Dialysis Fluid<br />Dialysis fluid contains the same concentration of essential substances as blood. No metabolic wastes present<br />Patient’s blood enters dialysis machine<br />Filtered blood is returned to the patient<br />dialysis machine<br />partially permeable membrane<br />dialysis fluid<br />patient’s blood<br />filtered blood<br />1<br />5<br />2<br />4<br />3<br />dialysis fluid with <br />waste products<br />dialysis fluid<br />urea molecule<br />red blood cell<br />essential mineral salt<br />protein molecule<br />Concentration <br />gradient set up<br />between dialysis<br />fluid and blood<br />Blood flows in the opposite direction to flow of dialysis fluid<br />Removal of metabolic waste products from the blood<br />3 October 2011<br />Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. <br />18<br />
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