0
bio test in Week 4 <ul><li>3R1 and 3R6 on Monday 03/10  </li></ul><ul><li>while 3R2 and 3R5 on Tue 04/10  </li></ul><ul><l...
Cellular Respiration Chapter 10
Lesson Objectives Cellular Respiration f) Define aerobic  g) anaerobic respiration  Write word equations for each type.  h...
Think about this <ul><li>Do respiration and breathing refer to the same processes? </li></ul>
What’s the difference? (Pg 194) http://www.teachhealthk-12.uthscsa.edu/studentresources/AnatomyofBreathing3.swf
What is respiration? <ul><li>Respiration  is the oxidation of glucose or another organic chemical which releases energy in...
Why respiration? <ul><li>Respiration  is the oxidation of glucose or another organic chemical which releases  energy  in l...
W hat are some of the uses of energy in our body?   protein synthesis active transport g r o w t h muscle contractions Pas...
Where does respiration take place? <ul><li>Takes place in the  mitochondria  of all living cells (plants & animals) </li><...
W here do we get our energy from?   In  , there are many  These mitochondria = Respiration  in mitochondria of living cell...
 
Oxidation Respiration Oxidation VS Respiration (Pg 194)
Types of Respiration Aerobic Anaerobic Aerobic Respiration  is the oxidation of glucose or another organic chemical in the...
Aerobic Respiration  is the oxidation of glucose or another organic chemical in the  presence of oxygen  with the release ...
<ul><li>Controlled by  many enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Word Equation </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Equation </li></ul><ul><li>...
http://www.purchon.com/biology/flash/respiration.swf
What happens to the energy produced? <ul><li>Most of the energy is lost as  heat energy </li></ul><ul><li>Remaining energy...
Anaerobic Respiration  is breakdown of glucose or another organic chemical in the  absence of oxygen .  Lesser energy  is ...
Anaerobic Respiration Glucose  Lactic acid  + small amount of energy (2 moles ATP)  Glucose  Ethanol  + carbon dioxide + s...
(3) What is anaerobic respiration? <ul><li>Incomplete  breakdown  of  glucose  in the  absence  of oxygen with the release...
What happens when plants respire anaerobically? <ul><li>Word Equation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>glucose    carbon dioxide + e...
What happens when humans exercise strenuously? <ul><li>Initially muscles respire  aerobically </li></ul><ul><li>Increase i...
What happens when we exercise strenuously? <ul><li>Insufficient oxygen  causes the muscles to respire  anaerobically  to r...
What happens when we exercise strenuously? <ul><li>Word equation </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose    lactic acid + energy </li><...
What is lactic acid? <ul><li>Lactic acid is a mildly  poisonous chemical </li></ul><ul><li>During period of rest, lactic a...
(4)   What is oxygen debt and recovery period? <ul><li>Oxygen debt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The  amount of oxygen  needed to ...
Fate of Lactic Acid? <ul><li>For further oxidation in liver to produce energy </li></ul><ul><li>Energy from above will be ...
2.5 What is oxygen debt and recovery period? Oxygen consumed during exercise Oxygen debt Oxygen consumed during rest
Types of Respiration Aerobic Anaerobic Aerobic Respiration  is the oxidation of glucose or another organic chemical in the...
EXPERIMENTS ON RESPIRATION
Investigation 1 Aim: To find out whether carbon dioxide is given  off during respiration  Caustic potash solution Limewate...
1. You need to set up a control. What would you put in the conical flask?  2. What purpose does the caustic potash solutio...
Investigation 2 Aim: To find out whether heat is produced during respiration.
Lesson Objectives Cellular Respiration f) Define aerobic  g) anaerobic respiration  Write word equations for each type.  h...
In this chapter, you should be able to: <ul><li>Describe the role of cilia, diaphragm, ribs and intercostal muscles in bre...
Path of Air Through the Respiratory System atmosphere
Path of Air Through the Respiratory System atmosphere  external nostril   external nostril
Path of Air Through the Respiratory System atmosphere  external nostril  nasal passages external nostril nasal passages
Path of Air Through the Respiratory System atmosphere  external nostril  nasal passages pharynx external nostril pharynx n...
Path of Air Through the Respiratory System atmosphere  external nostril  nasal passages pharynx larynx external nostril la...
Path of Air Through the Respiratory System atmosphere  external nostril  nasal passages pharynx larynx trachea external no...
Path of Air Through the Respiratory System atmosphere  external nostril  nasal passages pharynx larynx trachea bronchi ext...
Path of Air Through the Respiratory System atmosphere  external nostril  nasal passages pharynx larynx trachea bronchi bro...
Respiratory System atmosphere  external nostril  nasal passages pharynx larynx trachea bronchi bronchioles alveoli externa...
W hat are the differences b/w inspired & expired air?   21 %  16 % 0.03 %  4.0 % 78 %  78 % unsaturated  saturated variabl...
As air enters the body:  <ul><li>air is filtered </li></ul>   dust, foreign particles & bacteria are removed Nostrils  Na...
Dust, foreign particles & bacteria are removed <ul><li>fringe of  hair  (in nostril)  </li></ul><ul><li>fringe of  cilia  ...
As air enters the body:  <ul><li>air is  filtered </li></ul><ul><li>air is  warmed & moistened </li></ul><ul><li>harmful c...
Air passes the epiglottis and enters the lungs via the trachea Nostrils  Nasal cavity  Epiglottis  Trachea
Gas exchange system in Human The  lungs  are the organs involved in gaseous exchange.  The  trachea  is supported by  C-sh...
Gas exchange system in Human The trachea is branched into 2 tubes, the  bronchi , one to each lung.  Larynx  Trachea  C-sh...
At the end of the bronchioles are clusters of  air sacs  ( alveoli )
Gas exchange system in Human Between the ribs are 2 sets of muscles, external and internal  intercostal muscles .  When th...
W hat happens to the body during breathing?   When we breathe in,  <ul><li>external  intercostal muscles  contract   </li>...
W hat happens to the body during breathing?   When we breathe out,  <ul><li>external  intercostal muscles  relax </li></ul...
A spirometer can be used to measure the amount of air taken in during inspiration.
Capacity of the lung
Tidal volume : volume of air which enters  the lungs  per breath.
Inspiratory reserve volume (complementary volume) : extra volume of air that can be taken in during a deep breath.
Expiratory reserve volume (supplement volume) :  extra volume of air that can be forced out in during a deep exhale.
Vital capacity : Volume of air taken in by taking the  deepest breath.  tidal vol. + inspiratory reserve + expiratory rese...
Residual volume  : volume of air always present in  lung
Lesson Objectives Cellular Respiration f) Define aerobic  g) anaerobic respiration  Write word equations for each type.  h...
What is the structure of an alveolus? 7) Oxygenated blood (joining pulmonary vein) 3) Thin film of  moisture 4) Thin alveo...
Gaseous exchange  takes place between blood capillary and alveolus.  Red blood cell Blood capillary Blood plasma Alveolus ...
 
<ul><li>Alveolar walls are  very thin  &  moist </li></ul>H ow are the alveoli adapted for gaseous exchange?   <ul><li>Wel...
H ow is the diffusion gradient maintained?   <ul><li>constant flow of  blood </li></ul><ul><li>constant flow of  air   </l...
How is the alveoli adapted for its function? Feature Function Numerous alveoli Large SA  for gas exchange Thin walls of al...
BUT how about carbon dioxide?
 
 
 
<ul><li>Carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carried as  hydrogencarbonate ions  in deoxygenated blood breaks down to libe...
RESPIRATION <ul><li>Occurs in living cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidation of food su...
RESPIRATION Aerobic Respiration <ul><li>Occurs in living cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are involved. </li></ul><ul><li>...
RESPIRATION Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration <ul><li>Occurs in living cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are involv...
RESPIRATION Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration <ul><li>Oxygen is required. </li></ul><ul><li>Large amount of energy...
RESPIRATION Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration <ul><li>Oxygen is required. </li></ul><ul><li>Large amount of energy...
RESPIRATION Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration <ul><li>Oxygen is required. </li></ul><ul><li>Large amount of energy...
RESPIRATION Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration Breathing mechanism <ul><li>Oxygen is required. </li></ul><ul><li>La...
RESPIRATION Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration How the body takes in oxygen and removes carbon dioxide Breathing me...
RESPIRATION Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration How the body takes in oxygen and removes carbon dioxide Breathing me...
RESPIRATION Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration How the body takes in oxygen and removes carbon dioxide Breathing me...
RESPIRATION Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration How the body takes in oxygen and removes carbon dioxide Breathing me...
RESPIRATION Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration How the body takes in oxygen and removes carbon dioxide Breathing me...
Lesson Objectives Cellular Respiration f) Define aerobic  g) anaerobic respiration  Write word equations for each type.  h...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

2011 cellular respiration

9,363

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
9,363
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
86
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • The energy is stored for later use by making a specia l “energy-rich” molecule called Adenosine TriPhosphate (ATP).
  • Too much lactic acid, is poisonous. Just like too much ethanol in body. Kills brain cells
  • Figure 10.8 page 202
  • Figure 10.8 page 202
  • Figure 10.8 page 202
  • Figure 10.8 page 202
  • Figure 10.8 page 202
  • Figure 10.8 page 202
  • Figure 10.8 page 202
  • Figure 10.8 page 202
  • Figure 10.8 page 202
  • TIBBLAD
  • Carbonic acid is an intermediate step in the transport of CO 2 out of the body via respiratory gas exchange . The hydration reaction of CO 2 is generally very slow in the absence of a catalyst, but red blood cells contain carbonic anhydrase , which both increases the reaction rate and dissociates a hydrogen ion (H + ) from the resulting carbonic acid, leaving bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ) dissolved in the blood plasma . This catalysed reaction is reversed in the lungs, where it converts the bicarbonate back into CO 2 and allows it to be expelled. This equilibration plays an important role as a buffer in mammalian blood. [1]
  • Carbonic acid is an intermediate step in the transport of CO 2 out of the body via respiratory gas exchange . The hydration reaction of CO 2 is generally very slow in the absence of a catalyst, but red blood cells contain carbonic anhydrase , which both increases the reaction rate and dissociates a hydrogen ion (H + ) from the resulting carbonic acid, leaving bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ) dissolved in the blood plasma . This catalysed reaction is reversed in the lungs, where it converts the bicarbonate back into CO 2 and allows it to be expelled. This equilibration plays an important role as a buffer in mammalian blood. [1]
  • Carbonic acid is an intermediate step in the transport of CO 2 out of the body via respiratory gas exchange . The hydration reaction of CO 2 is generally very slow in the absence of a catalyst, but red blood cells contain carbonic anhydrase , which both increases the reaction rate and dissociates a hydrogen ion (H + ) from the resulting carbonic acid, leaving bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ) dissolved in the blood plasma . This catalysed reaction is reversed in the lungs, where it converts the bicarbonate back into CO 2 and allows it to be expelled. This equilibration plays an important role as a buffer in mammalian blood. [1]
  • Page 217
  • Page 217
  • Page 217
  • Page 217
  • Page 217
  • Page 217
  • Page 217
  • Page 217
  • Page 217
  • Page 217
  • Page 217
  • Page 217
  • Transcript of "2011 cellular respiration"

    1. 1. bio test in Week 4 <ul><li>3R1 and 3R6 on Monday 03/10 </li></ul><ul><li>while 3R2 and 3R5 on Tue 04/10 </li></ul><ul><li>Topics </li></ul><ul><li>Transport in Mammals and </li></ul><ul><li>Respiration only. </li></ul>
    2. 2. Cellular Respiration Chapter 10
    3. 3. Lesson Objectives Cellular Respiration f) Define aerobic g) anaerobic respiration Write word equations for each type. h) Removal of lactic acid in muscles when anaerobic respiration occurs. Respiration Gaseous exchange in lungs b) State characteristics of gaseous exchange surface of the alveoli. c) Describe removal of carbon dioxide from lungs including role of carbonic anhydrase enzyme. i) Describe the effect of tobacco smoke and its major toxic components. Mechanism of breathing a) Identify parts of the respiratory tract. e) Describe role of cilia, diaphragm, ribs and intercostal muscles.
    4. 4. Think about this <ul><li>Do respiration and breathing refer to the same processes? </li></ul>
    5. 5. What’s the difference? (Pg 194) http://www.teachhealthk-12.uthscsa.edu/studentresources/AnatomyofBreathing3.swf
    6. 6. What is respiration? <ul><li>Respiration is the oxidation of glucose or another organic chemical which releases energy in living cells. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Why respiration? <ul><li>Respiration is the oxidation of glucose or another organic chemical which releases energy in living cells. </li></ul>
    8. 8. W hat are some of the uses of energy in our body? protein synthesis active transport g r o w t h muscle contractions Passage of nerve impulses
    9. 9. Where does respiration take place? <ul><li>Takes place in the mitochondria of all living cells (plants & animals) </li></ul>
    10. 10. W here do we get our energy from? In , there are many These mitochondria = Respiration in mitochondria of living cells releases energy. (*Release NOT Produce)
    11. 12. Oxidation Respiration Oxidation VS Respiration (Pg 194)
    12. 13. Types of Respiration Aerobic Anaerobic Aerobic Respiration is the oxidation of glucose or another organic chemical in the presence of oxygen with the release of large amount of energy. Carbon dioxide and water are released as waste products. Anaerobic Respiration is breakdown of glucose or another organic chemical in the absence of oxygen. Lesser energy is released.
    13. 14. Aerobic Respiration is the oxidation of glucose or another organic chemical in the presence of oxygen with the release of large amount of energy . Carbon dioxide and water are released as waste products. Aerobic Respiration
    14. 15. <ul><li>Controlled by many enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Word Equation </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Equation </li></ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ENERGY </li></ul><ul><li> (38 moles of ATP) </li></ul>Aerobic Respiration Glucose + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy (large amount) 38 moles of ATP
    15. 16. http://www.purchon.com/biology/flash/respiration.swf
    16. 17. What happens to the energy produced? <ul><li>Most of the energy is lost as heat energy </li></ul><ul><li>Remaining energy is first stored in mitochondria as a chemical compound adenosine triphosphate (ATP) </li></ul><ul><li>Energy released from ATP is used for vital cellular activities </li></ul>
    17. 18. Anaerobic Respiration is breakdown of glucose or another organic chemical in the absence of oxygen . Lesser energy is released. Anaerobic Respiration
    18. 19. Anaerobic Respiration Glucose Lactic acid + small amount of energy (2 moles ATP) Glucose Ethanol + carbon dioxide + small amount of energy Mammals Plants
    19. 20. (3) What is anaerobic respiration? <ul><li>Incomplete breakdown of glucose in the absence of oxygen with the release of a small amount of energy </li></ul><ul><li>Takes place in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All plants, yeasts, some bacteria and fungi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles of humans and other mammals during strenuous exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mammals which dive for a long period of time in the ocean e.g seals and whales </li></ul></ul>
    20. 21. What happens when plants respire anaerobically? <ul><li>Word Equation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>glucose  carbon dioxide + ethanol + energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemical Equation </li></ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6  2C 2 H 5 OH + 2CO 2 + ENERGY </li></ul><ul><li> (2 moles of ATP) </li></ul>Alcoholic fermentation
    21. 22. What happens when humans exercise strenuously? <ul><li>Initially muscles respire aerobically </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in heart rate and breathing rate </li></ul><ul><li>Limit to the rate of heart beat </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen cannot be transported to muscles fast enough for tissue respiration </li></ul>Lactic acid production
    22. 23. What happens when we exercise strenuously? <ul><li>Insufficient oxygen causes the muscles to respire anaerobically to release energy </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose is broken down to lactic acid instead of carbon dioxide and water </li></ul><ul><li>Lactic acid accumulates in muscles and causes muscle cramps and fatigue </li></ul>
    23. 24. What happens when we exercise strenuously? <ul><li>Word equation </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose  lactic acid + energy </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical equation </li></ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6  2C 3 H 6 O 3 + ENERGY </li></ul><ul><li>(2 moles of ATP) </li></ul>
    24. 25. What is lactic acid? <ul><li>Lactic acid is a mildly poisonous chemical </li></ul><ul><li>During period of rest, lactic acid is removed from muscles and transported to liver </li></ul><ul><li>In liver 20% of lactic acid is oxidised completely to water and carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>Energy produced used to convert the remaining lactic acid to glucose </li></ul>
    25. 26. (4) What is oxygen debt and recovery period? <ul><li>Oxygen debt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The amount of oxygen needed to oxidise the lactic acid produced during anaerobic respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recovery period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time taken to remove lactic acid from the body in 2 ways </li></ul></ul>
    26. 27. Fate of Lactic Acid? <ul><li>For further oxidation in liver to produce energy </li></ul><ul><li>Energy from above will be used for conversion of remaining lactic acid into glucose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose obtained from lactic acid can be further oxidised. </li></ul></ul>
    27. 28. 2.5 What is oxygen debt and recovery period? Oxygen consumed during exercise Oxygen debt Oxygen consumed during rest
    28. 29. Types of Respiration Aerobic Anaerobic Aerobic Respiration is the oxidation of glucose or another organic chemical in the presence of oxygen with the release of large amount of energy. Carbon dioxide and water are released as waste products. Anaerobic Respiration is breakdown of glucose or another organic chemical in the absence of oxygen. Lesser energy is released. <ul><li>oxygen required </li></ul><ul><li>oxygen is not required </li></ul><ul><li>large amount of energy released </li></ul><ul><li>small amount of energy released </li></ul><ul><li>carbon dioxide & water produced </li></ul><ul><li>lactic acid (mammals) and ethanol & carbon dioxide (plants) produced </li></ul>
    29. 30. EXPERIMENTS ON RESPIRATION
    30. 31. Investigation 1 Aim: To find out whether carbon dioxide is given off during respiration Caustic potash solution Limewater Germinating seeds Limewater
    31. 32. 1. You need to set up a control. What would you put in the conical flask? 2. What purpose does the caustic potash solution serve? 3. What purpose does the limewater serve? 4. What happens to the limewater in C after some time? Explain your answers. Hint: caustic potash solution is potassium hydroxide Boiled seeds To absorb carbon dioxide To ensure that there is no more carbon dioxide present in the air supplied to the seeds White ppt formed. Germinating seeds give out carbon dioxide during respiration.
    32. 33. Investigation 2 Aim: To find out whether heat is produced during respiration.
    33. 34. Lesson Objectives Cellular Respiration f) Define aerobic g) anaerobic respiration Write word equations for each type. h) Removal of lactic acid in muscles when anaerobic respiration occurs. Respiration Gaseous exchange in lungs b) State characteristics of gaseous exchange surface of the alveoli. c) Describe removal of carbon dioxide from longs including role of carbonic anhydrase enzyme. i) Describe the effect of tobacco smoke and its major toxic components. Mechanism of breathing a) Identify parts of the respiratory tract. e) Describe role of cilia, diaphragm, ribs and intercostal muscles.
    34. 35. In this chapter, you should be able to: <ul><li>Describe the role of cilia, diaphragm, ribs and intercostal muscles in breathing. </li></ul><ul><li>State the difference between inspired and expired air. </li></ul><ul><li>State the effect of physical activity on rate and depth of breathing. </li></ul>
    35. 36. Path of Air Through the Respiratory System atmosphere
    36. 37. Path of Air Through the Respiratory System atmosphere external nostril external nostril
    37. 38. Path of Air Through the Respiratory System atmosphere external nostril nasal passages external nostril nasal passages
    38. 39. Path of Air Through the Respiratory System atmosphere external nostril nasal passages pharynx external nostril pharynx nasal passages
    39. 40. Path of Air Through the Respiratory System atmosphere external nostril nasal passages pharynx larynx external nostril larynx pharynx nasal passages
    40. 41. Path of Air Through the Respiratory System atmosphere external nostril nasal passages pharynx larynx trachea external nostril trachea larynx pharynx nasal passages
    41. 42. Path of Air Through the Respiratory System atmosphere external nostril nasal passages pharynx larynx trachea bronchi external nostril trachea larynx pharynx bronchi nasal passages
    42. 43. Path of Air Through the Respiratory System atmosphere external nostril nasal passages pharynx larynx trachea bronchi bronchioles external nostril trachea larynx pharynx bronchi bronchioles nasal passages
    43. 44. Respiratory System atmosphere external nostril nasal passages pharynx larynx trachea bronchi bronchioles alveoli external nostril trachea larynx pharynx bronchi bronchioles cluster of alveoli (air sacs) nasal passages
    44. 45. W hat are the differences b/w inspired & expired air? 21 % 16 % 0.03 % 4.0 % 78 % 78 % unsaturated saturated variable about body temp. variable little, if any Inspired air Expired air Oxygen Carbon dioxide Nitrogen Water vapour Temperature Dust particles
    45. 46. As air enters the body: <ul><li>air is filtered </li></ul> dust, foreign particles & bacteria are removed Nostrils Nasal cavity
    46. 47. Dust, foreign particles & bacteria are removed <ul><li>fringe of hair (in nostril) </li></ul><ul><li>fringe of cilia (on epithelial cells along trachea) </li></ul><ul><li>mucus (produced by gland cells) </li></ul>Gland cell Epithelial cell Sweeping action of cilia moves mucus along
    47. 48. As air enters the body: <ul><li>air is filtered </li></ul><ul><li>air is warmed & moistened </li></ul><ul><li>harmful chemicals are detected </li></ul> by sensory cells (in mucous membrane) Nostrils Nasal cavity
    48. 49. Air passes the epiglottis and enters the lungs via the trachea Nostrils Nasal cavity Epiglottis Trachea
    49. 50. Gas exchange system in Human The lungs are the organs involved in gaseous exchange. The trachea is supported by C-shaped rings of cartilage which ensures that it is always kept open. Larynx Trachea C-shaped rings of cartilages Lung
    50. 51. Gas exchange system in Human The trachea is branched into 2 tubes, the bronchi , one to each lung. Larynx Trachea C-shaped rings of cartilages Bronchus (plural: bronchi) Bronchioles Lung
    51. 52. At the end of the bronchioles are clusters of air sacs ( alveoli )
    52. 53. Gas exchange system in Human Between the ribs are 2 sets of muscles, external and internal intercostal muscles . When the external intercostal muscles contracts , internal intercostal muscles relaxes . The diaphragm is a dome-shaped sheet of muscle and elastic tissue. Ribs Intercostal muscles Diaphragm
    53. 54. W hat happens to the body during breathing? When we breathe in, <ul><li>external intercostal muscles contract </li></ul><ul><li>ribs swing upwards & outwards </li></ul><ul><li>diaphragm contracts & flattens </li></ul> Volume of thoracic cavity  <ul><li>Pressure of air in cavity is lower than outside lungs </li></ul> Air flows into lungs
    54. 55. W hat happens to the body during breathing? When we breathe out, <ul><li>external intercostal muscles relax </li></ul><ul><li>ribs swing downwards & inwards </li></ul><ul><li>diaphragm relaxes & rises </li></ul> Volume of thoracic cavity  <ul><li>Pressure of air in cavity is higher than outside lungs </li></ul> Air flows out of lungs
    55. 56. A spirometer can be used to measure the amount of air taken in during inspiration.
    56. 57. Capacity of the lung
    57. 58. Tidal volume : volume of air which enters the lungs per breath.
    58. 59. Inspiratory reserve volume (complementary volume) : extra volume of air that can be taken in during a deep breath.
    59. 60. Expiratory reserve volume (supplement volume) : extra volume of air that can be forced out in during a deep exhale.
    60. 61. Vital capacity : Volume of air taken in by taking the deepest breath. tidal vol. + inspiratory reserve + expiratory reserve vol.
    61. 62. Residual volume : volume of air always present in lung
    62. 63. Lesson Objectives Cellular Respiration f) Define aerobic g) anaerobic respiration Write word equations for each type. h) Removal of lactic acid in muscles when anaerobic respiration occurs. Respiration Gaseous exchange in lungs b) State characteristics of gaseous exchange surface of the alveoli. c) Describe removal of carbon dioxide from lungs including role of carbonic anhydrase enzyme. i) Describe the effect of tobacco smoke and its major toxic components. Mechanism of breathing a) Identify parts of the respiratory tract. e) Describe role of cilia, diaphragm, ribs and intercostal muscles.
    63. 64. What is the structure of an alveolus? 7) Oxygenated blood (joining pulmonary vein) 3) Thin film of moisture 4) Thin alveolus epithelium 8) Red blood cell 5) Thin capillary wall 6) Deoxygenated blood (from pulmonary artery) 1) Bronchiole 2) Alveolar cavity
    64. 65. Gaseous exchange takes place between blood capillary and alveolus. Red blood cell Blood capillary Blood plasma Alveolus Tissue fluid Deoxygenated blood Oxygenated blood Air movement Film of water
    65. 67. <ul><li>Alveolar walls are very thin & moist </li></ul>H ow are the alveoli adapted for gaseous exchange? <ul><li>Well supplied by blood capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands are found in the lungs </li></ul> Facilitate rapid diffusion of gases  Transports away oxygenated blood   surface area for gaseous exchange
    66. 68. H ow is the diffusion gradient maintained? <ul><li>constant flow of blood </li></ul><ul><li>constant flow of air </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant replacement of oxygenated blood by deoxygenated blood by blood flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeping the oxygen concentration high in alveolus by replenishing air in alveolus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid absorption of oxygen across the thin alveolus and capillary wall and formation of oxyhaemoglobin </li></ul></ul>
    67. 69. How is the alveoli adapted for its function? Feature Function Numerous alveoli Large SA for gas exchange Thin walls of alveoli Rapid diffusion of gases Thin film of moisture Oxygen can dissolve Dense capillary network Rapid and efficient gas exchange
    68. 70. BUT how about carbon dioxide?
    69. 74. <ul><li>Carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carried as hydrogencarbonate ions in deoxygenated blood breaks down to liberate carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide diffuses out of capillary wall , across alveolus wall into the alveolus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expelled out of the lungs during expiration </li></ul></ul>c) Describe removal of carbon dioxide from lungs including role of carbonic anhydrase enzyme.
    70. 75. RESPIRATION <ul><li>Occurs in living cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidation of food substances </li></ul><ul><li>with the release of energy. </li></ul>September 16, 2011 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
    71. 76. RESPIRATION Aerobic Respiration <ul><li>Occurs in living cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidation of food substances </li></ul><ul><li>with the release of energy. </li></ul>September 16, 2011 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
    72. 77. RESPIRATION Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration <ul><li>Occurs in living cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidation of food substances </li></ul><ul><li>with the release of energy. </li></ul>September 16, 2011 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
    73. 78. RESPIRATION Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration <ul><li>Oxygen is required. </li></ul><ul><li>Large amount of energy is released. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide and water are produced . </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in living cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidation of food substances </li></ul><ul><li>with the release of energy. </li></ul>September 16, 2011 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
    74. 79. RESPIRATION Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration <ul><li>Oxygen is required. </li></ul><ul><li>Large amount of energy is released. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide and water are produced . </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen is not required. </li></ul><ul><li>Small amount of energy is released. </li></ul><ul><li>Lactic acid is produced in mammals. Ethanol and carbon dioxide are produced in yeast. </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in living cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidation of food substances </li></ul><ul><li>with the release of energy. </li></ul>September 16, 2011 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
    75. 80. RESPIRATION Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration <ul><li>Oxygen is required. </li></ul><ul><li>Large amount of energy is released. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide and water are produced . </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen is not required. </li></ul><ul><li>Small amount of energy is released. </li></ul><ul><li>Lactic acid is produced in mammals. Ethanol and carbon dioxide are produced in yeast. </li></ul>Differences <ul><li>Occurs in living cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidation of food substances </li></ul><ul><li>with the release of energy. </li></ul>September 16, 2011 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
    76. 81. RESPIRATION Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration Breathing mechanism <ul><li>Oxygen is required. </li></ul><ul><li>Large amount of energy is released. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide and water are produced . </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen is not required. </li></ul><ul><li>Small amount of energy is released. </li></ul><ul><li>Lactic acid is produced in mammals. Ethanol and carbon dioxide are produced in yeast. </li></ul>Differences <ul><li>Occurs in living cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidation of food substances </li></ul><ul><li>with the release of energy. </li></ul>September 16, 2011 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
    77. 82. RESPIRATION Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration How the body takes in oxygen and removes carbon dioxide Breathing mechanism <ul><li>Oxygen is required. </li></ul><ul><li>Large amount of energy is released. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide and water are produced . </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen is not required. </li></ul><ul><li>Small amount of energy is released. </li></ul><ul><li>Lactic acid is produced in mammals. Ethanol and carbon dioxide are produced in yeast. </li></ul>Differences <ul><li>Occurs in living cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidation of food substances </li></ul><ul><li>with the release of energy. </li></ul>September 16, 2011 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
    78. 83. RESPIRATION Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration How the body takes in oxygen and removes carbon dioxide Breathing mechanism <ul><li>Oxygen is required. </li></ul><ul><li>Large amount of energy is released. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide and water are produced . </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen is not required. </li></ul><ul><li>Small amount of energy is released. </li></ul><ul><li>Lactic acid is produced in mammals. Ethanol and carbon dioxide are produced in yeast. </li></ul>Differences <ul><li>Occurs in living cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidation of food substances </li></ul><ul><li>with the release of energy. </li></ul>September 16, 2011 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.
    79. 84. RESPIRATION Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration How the body takes in oxygen and removes carbon dioxide Breathing mechanism <ul><li>Oxygen is required. </li></ul><ul><li>Large amount of energy is released. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide and water are produced . </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen is not required. </li></ul><ul><li>Small amount of energy is released. </li></ul><ul><li>Lactic acid is produced in mammals. Ethanol and carbon dioxide are produced in yeast. </li></ul>Differences <ul><li>Occurs in living cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidation of food substances </li></ul><ul><li>with the release of energy. </li></ul>September 16, 2011 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. <ul><li>Inspiration </li></ul><ul><li>External intercostal muscles contract, internal intercostal muscles relax. </li></ul><ul><li>Ribs move upwards and outwards. </li></ul><ul><li>Diaphragm contracts and flattens. </li></ul><ul><li>Volume of thorax increases. </li></ul><ul><li>Air pressure in thorax decreases. </li></ul><ul><li>Air flows into the lungs. </li></ul>
    80. 85. RESPIRATION Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration How the body takes in oxygen and removes carbon dioxide Breathing mechanism <ul><li>Oxygen is required. </li></ul><ul><li>Large amount of energy is released. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide and water are produced . </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen is not required. </li></ul><ul><li>Small amount of energy is released. </li></ul><ul><li>Lactic acid is produced in mammals. Ethanol and carbon dioxide are produced in yeast. </li></ul>Differences <ul><li>Occurs in living cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidation of food substances </li></ul><ul><li>with the release of energy. </li></ul>September 16, 2011 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. <ul><li>Inspiration </li></ul><ul><li>External intercostal muscles contract, internal intercostal muscles relax. </li></ul><ul><li>Ribs move upwards and outwards. </li></ul><ul><li>Diaphragm contracts and flattens. </li></ul><ul><li>Volume of thorax increases. </li></ul><ul><li>Air pressure in thorax decreases. </li></ul><ul><li>Air flows into the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>Expiration </li></ul><ul><li>External intercostal muscles relax, internal intercostal muscles contract. </li></ul><ul><li>Ribs move downwards and inwards. </li></ul><ul><li>Diaphragm relaxes and arches upwards. </li></ul><ul><li>Volume of thorax decreases. </li></ul><ul><li>Air pressure in thorax increases. </li></ul><ul><li>Air flows out of the lungs. </li></ul>
    81. 86. RESPIRATION Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration How the body takes in oxygen and removes carbon dioxide Breathing mechanism <ul><li>Oxygen is required. </li></ul><ul><li>Large amount of energy is released. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide and water are produced . </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen is not required. </li></ul><ul><li>Small amount of energy is released. </li></ul><ul><li>Lactic acid is produced in mammals. Ethanol and carbon dioxide are produced in yeast. </li></ul>Differences <ul><li>Occurs in living cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidation of food substances </li></ul><ul><li>with the release of energy. </li></ul>September 16, 2011 Copyright © 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. <ul><li>Inspiration </li></ul><ul><li>External intercostal muscles contract, internal intercostal muscles relax. </li></ul><ul><li>Ribs move upwards and outwards. </li></ul><ul><li>Diaphragm contracts and flattens. </li></ul><ul><li>Volume of thorax increases. </li></ul><ul><li>Air pressure in thorax decreases. </li></ul><ul><li>Air flows into the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>Expiration </li></ul><ul><li>External intercostal muscles relax, internal intercostal muscles contract. </li></ul><ul><li>Ribs move downwards and inwards. </li></ul><ul><li>Diaphragm relaxes and arches upwards. </li></ul><ul><li>Volume of thorax decreases. </li></ul><ul><li>Air pressure in thorax increases. </li></ul><ul><li>Air flows out of the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>Gaseous exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen dissolves in film of moisture covering alveolar wall. </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolve oxygen diffuses into blood capillaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide diffuses from blood into alveolar cavity. </li></ul>
    82. 87. Lesson Objectives Cellular Respiration f) Define aerobic g) anaerobic respiration Write word equations for each type. h) Removal of lactic acid in muscles when anaerobic respiration occurs. Respiration Gaseous exchange in lungs b) State characteristics of gaseous exchange surface of the alveoli. c) Describe removal of carbon dioxide from lungs including role of carbonic anhydrase enzyme. i) Describe the effect of tobacco smoke and its major toxic components. Mechanism of breathing a) Identify parts of the respiratory tract. e) Describe role of cilia, diaphragm, ribs and intercostal muscles.
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

    ×