Generic fsc and examples of food waste


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Generic fsc and examples of food waste

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Generic fsc and examples of food waste

  1. 1. Generic FSC and examples of food waste stage Examples of food waste/loss characteristics 1 Harvesting-handing at harvest Edible crop left infield Ploughed into soil Eaten by birds, rodents Timing of harvest not optimal Loss in food quality Damage during harvesting/poor harvesting technique Out-grades at farm to improve quality of produce 4 Storage Pests, disease, spillage, contamination, natural drying out of food 2 Threshing Loss to poor technique 3 Drying-transport and distribution Poor transport infrastructure Loss owning to spoiling/bruising
  2. 2. stage Examples of food waste/loss characteristics Processing 5 Primary processing -Cleaning -Classification -De-hulling -Pounding -Grinding -Packaging -Soaking -Winnowing -Drying -Sieving -milling Contamination in process causing loss quality 6 Secondary processing -Mixing -Cooking -Frying -Cutting -extrusion Contamination in process causing loss quality
  3. 3. 7 Product evaluation -quality control Product discarded/ out-grades in supply chain 8 Packaging -weighing -Labelling -sealing Inappropriate packaging damages produce grain spillage from sack 9 Marketing-Publicity, Selling, Distribution Damage during transport: spoilage, poor handling in wet market Loss caused by lack of cooling/cold storage 10 Post-consumer- Recipes elaboration: Traditional dishes, new dishes product evaluation, consumer education, discard Plate scrapings Poor storage/stock management in homes: discarded before serving Poor food preparation technique: edible food discarded with inedible Food discarded in packaging” confusion over “best before” and “use by” dates 11 End of life-disposal of food waste/loss at different stages of supply chain Food waste discarded may be separately treated, fed to livestock/poultry, mixed with other wastes and landfilled
  4. 4. Palm Oil Processing 1. Sterilization Sterilization inactivates the lipases in the fruits, and prevents build-up of free fatty acids (FFA). 3. Stripping / Thressing Stripping or threshing involves separating the sterilized fruits from the bunch stalks. 4. Pressing The oil flows from the press to the De-Sanding and Settling Tank (DST). The DST comprises 3 compartments. The Crude Palm Oil (CPO), having been transferred to the bottom of the first compartment, is then allowed to gradually overflow between the 3 compartments thereby naturally de-sanding the oil. 5. Oil extraction Crude oil After stripping, the fruits are moved into a digester where, the fruits are reheated to loosen the pericarp. The steam heated vessels have rotating shafts to which are attached stirring arms. Second stage pressing on the press cake fibres enables more oil to be extracted.
  5. 5. Clarification Oil from the top is skimmed off and purified in the centrifuge prior to drying in vacuum dryer. The final crude palm oil is then cooled and stored. The oil is dried in vacuum dryers, cooled and sent to storage tanks. The digestion process is accelerated by diluting the digested product with hot water. From the Horizontal Rapid Digester, the digested product (including the nut) is transferred to the hopper of the Multi-Purpose Hydraulic Press.