Myers’ Psychology for AP*

David G. Myers

PowerPoint Presentation Slides
by Kent Korek
Germantown High School
Worth Publi...
Unit 7A:
Cognition: Memory
Unit Overview
•
•
•
•
•

The Phenomenon of Memory
Information Processing
Forgetting
Memory Construction
Improving Memory

...
The Phenomenon of Memory
Introduction
• Memory
• Extremes of memory
Information Processing
Introduction
Atkinson-Shiffrin Three-Stage Model
• Encoding
• Storage
• Retrieval
Introduction
• Connectionism
– Sensory memory
– Short-term memory
– Long-term memory

• Modified version of the threestage...
Introduction
• Modified version of the three-stage
processing model of memory
– Information directly into long-term
memory...
Modified Three-stage Processing
Model of Memory
Modified Three-stage Processing
Model of Memory
Modified Three-stage Processing
Model of Memory
Modified Three-stage Processing
Model of Memory
Modified Three-stage Processing
Model of Memory
Modified Three-stage Processing
Model of Memory
Modified Three-stage Processing
Model of Memory
Modified Three-stage Processing
Model of Memory
Modified Three-stage Processing
Model of Memory
Modified Three-stage Processing
Model of Memory
Modified Three-stage Processing
Model of Memory
Modified Three-stage Processing
Model of Memory
Encoding: Getting Information In
How We Encode
• Automatic Processing
– Parallel processing
– Automatic processing
• Space...
Encoding: Getting Information In
How We Encode
• Effortful Processing
• Rehearsal (conscious
repetition)
• Ebbinghaus
curv...
Encoding: Getting Information In
How We Encode
• Ebbinghaus curve
Encoding: Getting Information In
How We Encode
• Overlearning
• Spacing effect
– Massed practice
– Distributed practice

•...
Encoding: Getting Information In
How We Encode
• Serial position effect
– Recency effect
– Primacy effect
Encoding: Getting Information In
What We Encode
• Levels of Processing
– Visual encoding
– Acoustic encoding
– Semantic en...
Encoding: Getting Information In
What We Encode
Encoding: Getting Information In
What We Encode
Encoding: Getting Information In
What We Encode
Encoding: Getting Information In
What We Encode
Encoding: Getting Information In
What We Encode
• Visual Encoding
– Imagery
• Rosy retrospection

– Mnemonics
• Peg-word s...
Encoding: Getting Information In
What We Encode
• Organizing Information for Encoding
– Chunking
• acronym
Encoding: Getting Information In
What We Encode
• Organizing Information for Encoding
– Chunking
• acronym
Encoding: Getting Information In
What We Encode
• Organizing Information for Encoding
– Chunking
• acronym
Encoding: Getting Information In
What We Encode
• Organizing Information for Encoding
– Chunking
• acronym
Encoding: Getting Information In
What We Encode
• Organizing Information for Encoding
– Chunking
• acronym
Encoding: Getting Information In
What We Encode
• Organizing Information for Encoding
– Chunking
• acronym
Encoding: Getting Information In
What We Encode
• Organizing Information for Encoding
– Chunking
• acronym
Encoding: Getting Information In
What We Encode
• Organizing Information for Encoding
– Hierarchies
Storage: Retaining Information
Sensory Memory
• Sperling’s memory experiment
• Iconic memory
• Echoic memory
Storage: Retaining Information
Working/Short-Term Memory
• Magic number Seven
– Plus or minus 2

• The list of magic seven...
Storage: Retaining Information
Long-Term Memory
• Unlimited nature of long-term memory
Storage: Retaining Information
Storing Memories in the Brain
• Synaptic Changes
– Memory trace
– Long-term potentiation
(L...
Storage: Retaining Information
Storing Memories in the Brain
Stress Hormones and Memory
– Emotions and memories
– Flashbul...
Storage: Retaining Information
Storing Memories in the Brain
• Storing Implicit and Explicit Memories
– Amnesia
– H.M. Stu...
Storage: Retaining Information
Storing Memories in the Brain
• Storing Implicit and Explicit Memories
– Implicit memory (n...
Storage: Retaining Information
Storing Memories in the Brain
Retrieval: Getting Information Out
• Recall
• Recognition
• Relearning
Retrieval: Getting Information Out
Retrieval Cues
• Retrieval
cues
• Mnemonic
devices
• Priming
Priming
Priming
Priming
Retrieval: Getting Information Out
Context Effects
• Context effects
• Déjà vu
Retrieval: Getting Information Out
Context Effects
Retrieval: Getting Information Out
Context Effects
Retrieval: Getting Information Out
Context Effects
Retrieval: Getting Information Out
Context Effects
Retrieval: Getting Information Out
Context Effects
Retrieval: Getting Information Out
Context Effects
Retrieval: Getting Information Out
Moods and Memories
• State dependent memory
• Mood
congruent
memory
Forgetting
Introduction
• A.J.
Introduction
• Schacter’s sevens sins of memory
– Sins of Forgetting
• Absent-mindedness
• Transience
• Blocking
Introduction
• Schacter’s sevens sins of memory
– Sins of distortion
• Misattribution
• Suggestibility
• Bias

– Sin of in...
Encoding Failure
• Encoding failure
Encoding Failure
• Encoding failure
Encoding Failure
Storage Decay
• Storage decay
– Ebbinghaus curve
Storage Decay
• Storage decay
– Ebbinghaus curve
Ebbinghaus Curve
Ebbinghaus Curve
Retrieval Failure
Retrieval Failure
Interference
• Proactive interference (forward acting)
• Retroactive interference (backwardacting)
Retrieval Failure
Interference
Retrieval Failure
Interference
Retrieval Failure
Interference
Retrieval Failure
Interference
Retrieval Failure
Interference
Retrieval Failure
Motivated Forgetting
• Self-serving
personal histories
• Repression
Retrieval Failure
Motivated Forgetting
• Self-serving
personal histories
• Repression
Retrieval Failure
Motivated Forgetting
• Self-serving
personal histories
• Repression
Retrieval Failure
Motivated Forgetting
• Self-serving
personal histories
• Repression
Memory Construction
Misinformation and Imagination
Effects
• Loftus memory studies
– Misinformation effect
Source Amnesia
• Source amnesia (source
misattribution)
Discerning True and False
Memories
• Memory studies
• Eye witness testimony
Children’s Eyewitness Recall
• Children’s memories of abuse
– Suggestibility
Repressed or Constructed
Memories of Abuse?
• Areas of agreement
– Sexual abuse happens
– Injustice happens
– Forgetting h...
Repressed or Constructed
Memories of Abuse?
• Loftus studies with children
Improving Memory
Improving Memory Techniques
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Study repeatedly
Make the material meaningful
Activate retrieval cues
Use mnemo...
The End
• Types of Files

Teacher Information

– This presentation has been saved as a “basic” Powerpoint file. While this file
fo...
Teacher Information

• Hyperlink Slides - This presentation contain two types of hyperlinks.

Hyperlinks can be identified...
Teacher Information

• Continuity slides

– Throughout this presentation there are slides, usually of graphics or tables,
...
Division title (green print)
subdivision title (blue print)
• xxx
– xxx
– xxx
Division title (green print)
subdivision title (blue print)

Use this slide to add a table, chart, clip art, picture, diag...
Definition Slide
= add definition here
Definition
Slides
Memory
= the persistence of learning over time
through the storage and retrieval of
information.
Encoding
= the processing of information into the
memory systems – for example, by
extracting meaning
Storage
= the retention of encoded information over
time.
Retrieval
= the process of getting information out of
memory storage.
Sensory Memory
= the immediate, very brief recording of
sensory information in the memory
system.
Short-term Memory
= activated memory that holds a few items
briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone
number while dial...
Long-term Memory
= the relatively permanent and limitless
storehouse of the memory system.
Includes knowledge, skills, and...
Working Memory
= a newer understanding of short-term
memory that focuses on conscious, active
processing of incoming audit...
Parallel Processing
= the processing of many aspects of a
problem simultaneously; the brain’s
natural mode of information ...
Automatic Processing
= unconscious encoding of incidental
information, such as space, time and
frequency, and of well-lear...
Effortful Processing
= encoding that requires attention and
conscious effort.
Rehearsal
= the conscious repetition of information,
either to maintain it in consciousness or to
encode it for storage.
Spacing Effect
= the tendency for distributed study or
practice to yield better long-term retention
than is achieved throu...
Serial Position Effect
= our tendency to recall best the last and
first items in a list.
Visual Encoding
= the encoding of picture images.
Acoustic Encoding
= the encoding of sound, especially the
sound of words.
Semantic Encoding
= the encoding of meaning, including the
meaning of words.
Imagery
= mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful
processing, especially when combined
with semantic encoding.
Mnemonics
= memory aids, especially those techniques
that use vivid imagery and organizational
devices.
Chunking
= organizing items into familiar, manageable
units; often occurs automatically.
Iconic Memory
= a momentary sensory memory of visual
stimuli; a photographic or picture-image
memory lasting no more than ...
Echoic Memory
= a momentary sensory memory of auditory
stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds
and words can still be r...
Long-term Potentiation (LTP)
= an increase in a synapse’s firing potential
after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to
be ...
Flashbulb Memory
= a clear memory of an emotionally
significant moment or event.
Amnesia
= loss of memory.
Implicit Memory
= retention independent of conscious
recollection. (Also called nondeclarative or
procedural memory)
Explicit Memory
= memory of facts and experiences that one
can consciously know and “declare.” (Also
called declarative me...
Hippocampus
= a neural center that is located in the limbic
system; helps process explicit memories
for storage.
Recall
= a measure of memory in which the person
must retrieve information learning earlier,
as on a fill-in-the-blank tes...
Recognition
= a measure of memory in which the person
need only identify items previously
learned, as on a multiple-choice...
Relearning
= a measure of memory that assesses the
amount of time saved when learning
material for a second time.
Priming
= the activation, often unconsciously, of
particular associations in memory.
Deja Vu
= that eerie sense that “I’ve experienced this
before.” Cues from the current situation
may subconsciously trigger...
Mood Congruent Memory
= the tendency to recall experiences that are
consistent with one’s current good or bad
mood.
Proactive Interference
= the disruptive effect of prior learning on
the recall of new information.
Retroactive Interference
= the disruptive effect of new learning on the
recall of old information.
Repression
= in psychoanalytic theory, the basic
defense mechanism that banishes from
consciousness anxiety-arousing thoug...
Misinformation Effect
= incorporating misleading information into
one’s memory of an event.
Source Amnesia
= attributing to the wrong source an event
we have experienced, heard about, read
about, or imagined. (Also...
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  1. 1. Myers’ Psychology for AP* David G. Myers PowerPoint Presentation Slides by Kent Korek Germantown High School Worth Publishers, © 2010 *AP is a trademark registered and/or owned by the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.
  2. 2. Unit 7A: Cognition: Memory
  3. 3. Unit Overview • • • • • The Phenomenon of Memory Information Processing Forgetting Memory Construction Improving Memory Click on the any of the above hyperlinks to go to that section in the presentation.
  4. 4. The Phenomenon of Memory
  5. 5. Introduction • Memory • Extremes of memory
  6. 6. Information Processing
  7. 7. Introduction Atkinson-Shiffrin Three-Stage Model • Encoding • Storage • Retrieval
  8. 8. Introduction • Connectionism – Sensory memory – Short-term memory – Long-term memory • Modified version of the threestage processing model of memory
  9. 9. Introduction • Modified version of the three-stage processing model of memory – Information directly into long-term memory – Working memory
  10. 10. Modified Three-stage Processing Model of Memory
  11. 11. Modified Three-stage Processing Model of Memory
  12. 12. Modified Three-stage Processing Model of Memory
  13. 13. Modified Three-stage Processing Model of Memory
  14. 14. Modified Three-stage Processing Model of Memory
  15. 15. Modified Three-stage Processing Model of Memory
  16. 16. Modified Three-stage Processing Model of Memory
  17. 17. Modified Three-stage Processing Model of Memory
  18. 18. Modified Three-stage Processing Model of Memory
  19. 19. Modified Three-stage Processing Model of Memory
  20. 20. Modified Three-stage Processing Model of Memory
  21. 21. Modified Three-stage Processing Model of Memory
  22. 22. Encoding: Getting Information In How We Encode • Automatic Processing – Parallel processing – Automatic processing • Space • Time • Frequency • Well-learned information
  23. 23. Encoding: Getting Information In How We Encode • Effortful Processing • Rehearsal (conscious repetition) • Ebbinghaus curve
  24. 24. Encoding: Getting Information In How We Encode • Ebbinghaus curve
  25. 25. Encoding: Getting Information In How We Encode • Overlearning • Spacing effect – Massed practice – Distributed practice • Testing effect
  26. 26. Encoding: Getting Information In How We Encode • Serial position effect – Recency effect – Primacy effect
  27. 27. Encoding: Getting Information In What We Encode • Levels of Processing – Visual encoding – Acoustic encoding – Semantic encoding • Self-reference effect
  28. 28. Encoding: Getting Information In What We Encode
  29. 29. Encoding: Getting Information In What We Encode
  30. 30. Encoding: Getting Information In What We Encode
  31. 31. Encoding: Getting Information In What We Encode
  32. 32. Encoding: Getting Information In What We Encode • Visual Encoding – Imagery • Rosy retrospection – Mnemonics • Peg-word system
  33. 33. Encoding: Getting Information In What We Encode • Organizing Information for Encoding – Chunking • acronym
  34. 34. Encoding: Getting Information In What We Encode • Organizing Information for Encoding – Chunking • acronym
  35. 35. Encoding: Getting Information In What We Encode • Organizing Information for Encoding – Chunking • acronym
  36. 36. Encoding: Getting Information In What We Encode • Organizing Information for Encoding – Chunking • acronym
  37. 37. Encoding: Getting Information In What We Encode • Organizing Information for Encoding – Chunking • acronym
  38. 38. Encoding: Getting Information In What We Encode • Organizing Information for Encoding – Chunking • acronym
  39. 39. Encoding: Getting Information In What We Encode • Organizing Information for Encoding – Chunking • acronym
  40. 40. Encoding: Getting Information In What We Encode • Organizing Information for Encoding – Hierarchies
  41. 41. Storage: Retaining Information Sensory Memory • Sperling’s memory experiment • Iconic memory • Echoic memory
  42. 42. Storage: Retaining Information Working/Short-Term Memory • Magic number Seven – Plus or minus 2 • The list of magic sevens – Seven wonders of world – Seven seas – Seven deadly sins – Seven primary colors – Seven musical scale notes – Seven days of the week
  43. 43. Storage: Retaining Information Long-Term Memory • Unlimited nature of long-term memory
  44. 44. Storage: Retaining Information Storing Memories in the Brain • Synaptic Changes – Memory trace – Long-term potentiation (LTP) – Memory boosting drugs • CREB • glutamate
  45. 45. Storage: Retaining Information Storing Memories in the Brain Stress Hormones and Memory – Emotions and memories – Flashbulb memory
  46. 46. Storage: Retaining Information Storing Memories in the Brain • Storing Implicit and Explicit Memories – Amnesia – H.M. Studies
  47. 47. Storage: Retaining Information Storing Memories in the Brain • Storing Implicit and Explicit Memories – Implicit memory (nondeclarative memory) – Explicit memory (declarative memory) • Hippocampus • Cerebellum
  48. 48. Storage: Retaining Information Storing Memories in the Brain
  49. 49. Retrieval: Getting Information Out • Recall • Recognition • Relearning
  50. 50. Retrieval: Getting Information Out Retrieval Cues • Retrieval cues • Mnemonic devices • Priming
  51. 51. Priming
  52. 52. Priming
  53. 53. Priming
  54. 54. Retrieval: Getting Information Out Context Effects • Context effects • Déjà vu
  55. 55. Retrieval: Getting Information Out Context Effects
  56. 56. Retrieval: Getting Information Out Context Effects
  57. 57. Retrieval: Getting Information Out Context Effects
  58. 58. Retrieval: Getting Information Out Context Effects
  59. 59. Retrieval: Getting Information Out Context Effects
  60. 60. Retrieval: Getting Information Out Context Effects
  61. 61. Retrieval: Getting Information Out Moods and Memories • State dependent memory • Mood congruent memory
  62. 62. Forgetting
  63. 63. Introduction • A.J.
  64. 64. Introduction • Schacter’s sevens sins of memory – Sins of Forgetting • Absent-mindedness • Transience • Blocking
  65. 65. Introduction • Schacter’s sevens sins of memory – Sins of distortion • Misattribution • Suggestibility • Bias – Sin of intrusion • persistence
  66. 66. Encoding Failure • Encoding failure
  67. 67. Encoding Failure • Encoding failure
  68. 68. Encoding Failure
  69. 69. Storage Decay • Storage decay – Ebbinghaus curve
  70. 70. Storage Decay • Storage decay – Ebbinghaus curve
  71. 71. Ebbinghaus Curve
  72. 72. Ebbinghaus Curve
  73. 73. Retrieval Failure
  74. 74. Retrieval Failure Interference • Proactive interference (forward acting) • Retroactive interference (backwardacting)
  75. 75. Retrieval Failure Interference
  76. 76. Retrieval Failure Interference
  77. 77. Retrieval Failure Interference
  78. 78. Retrieval Failure Interference
  79. 79. Retrieval Failure Interference
  80. 80. Retrieval Failure Motivated Forgetting • Self-serving personal histories • Repression
  81. 81. Retrieval Failure Motivated Forgetting • Self-serving personal histories • Repression
  82. 82. Retrieval Failure Motivated Forgetting • Self-serving personal histories • Repression
  83. 83. Retrieval Failure Motivated Forgetting • Self-serving personal histories • Repression
  84. 84. Memory Construction
  85. 85. Misinformation and Imagination Effects • Loftus memory studies – Misinformation effect
  86. 86. Source Amnesia • Source amnesia (source misattribution)
  87. 87. Discerning True and False Memories • Memory studies • Eye witness testimony
  88. 88. Children’s Eyewitness Recall • Children’s memories of abuse – Suggestibility
  89. 89. Repressed or Constructed Memories of Abuse? • Areas of agreement – Sexual abuse happens – Injustice happens – Forgetting happens – Recovered memories are incomplete – Memories before 3 years are unreliable – Hypnotic memories are unreliable – Memories can be emotionally upsetting
  90. 90. Repressed or Constructed Memories of Abuse? • Loftus studies with children
  91. 91. Improving Memory
  92. 92. Improving Memory Techniques • • • • • • • Study repeatedly Make the material meaningful Activate retrieval cues Use mnemonic devices Minimize interference Sleep more Test your own knowledge, both to rehearse it and to help determine what you do not yet know
  93. 93. The End
  94. 94. • Types of Files Teacher Information – This presentation has been saved as a “basic” Powerpoint file. While this file format placed a few limitations on the presentation, it insured the file would be compatible with the many versions of Powerpoint teachers use. To add functionality to the presentation, teachers may want to save the file for their specific version of Powerpoint. • Animation – Once again, to insure compatibility with all versions of Powerpoint, none of the slides are animated. To increase student interest, it is suggested teachers animate the slides wherever possible. • Adding slides to this presentation – Teachers are encouraged to adapt this presentation to their personal teaching style. To help keep a sense of continuity, blank slides which can be copied and pasted to a specific location in the presentation follow this “Teacher Information” section.
  95. 95. Teacher Information • Hyperlink Slides - This presentation contain two types of hyperlinks. Hyperlinks can be identified by the text being underlined and a different color (usually purple). – Unit subsections hyperlinks: Immediately after the unit title slide, a page (slide #3) can be found listing all of the unit’s subsections. While in slide show mode, clicking on any of these hyperlinks will take the user directly to the beginning of that subsection. This allows teachers quick access to each subsection. – Bold print term hyperlinks: Every bold print term from the unit is included in this presentation as a hyperlink. While in slide show mode, clicking on any of the hyperlinks will take the user to a slide containing the formal definition of the term. Clicking on the “arrow” in the bottom left corner of the definition slide will take the user back to the original point in the presentation. These hyperlinks were included for teachers who want students to see or copy down the exact definition as stated in the text. Most teachers prefer the definitions not be included to prevent students from only “copying down what is on the screen” and not actively listening to the presentation. For teachers who continually use the Bold Print Term Hyperlinks option, please
  96. 96. Teacher Information • Continuity slides – Throughout this presentation there are slides, usually of graphics or tables, that build on one another. These are included for three purposes. • By presenting information in small chunks, students will find it easier to process and remember the concepts. • By continually changing slides, students will stay interested in the presentation. • To facilitate class discussion and critical thinking. Students should be encouraged to think about “what might come next” in the series of slides. • Please feel free to contact me at kkorek@germantown.k12.wi.us with any questions, concerns, suggestions, etc. regarding these presentations. Kent Korek Germantown High School Germantown, WI 53022 262-253-3400 kkorek@germantown.k12.wi.us
  97. 97. Division title (green print) subdivision title (blue print) • xxx – xxx – xxx
  98. 98. Division title (green print) subdivision title (blue print) Use this slide to add a table, chart, clip art, picture, diagram, or video clip. Delete this box when finished
  99. 99. Definition Slide = add definition here
  100. 100. Definition Slides
  101. 101. Memory = the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
  102. 102. Encoding = the processing of information into the memory systems – for example, by extracting meaning
  103. 103. Storage = the retention of encoded information over time.
  104. 104. Retrieval = the process of getting information out of memory storage.
  105. 105. Sensory Memory = the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
  106. 106. Short-term Memory = activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing before the information is stored or forgotten.
  107. 107. Long-term Memory = the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
  108. 108. Working Memory = a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory.
  109. 109. Parallel Processing = the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain’s natural mode of information processing for many functions. Contrasts with the stepby-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.
  110. 110. Automatic Processing = unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
  111. 111. Effortful Processing = encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
  112. 112. Rehearsal = the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage.
  113. 113. Spacing Effect = the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
  114. 114. Serial Position Effect = our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.
  115. 115. Visual Encoding = the encoding of picture images.
  116. 116. Acoustic Encoding = the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words.
  117. 117. Semantic Encoding = the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words.
  118. 118. Imagery = mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding.
  119. 119. Mnemonics = memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
  120. 120. Chunking = organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.
  121. 121. Iconic Memory = a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
  122. 122. Echoic Memory = a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
  123. 123. Long-term Potentiation (LTP) = an increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.
  124. 124. Flashbulb Memory = a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
  125. 125. Amnesia = loss of memory.
  126. 126. Implicit Memory = retention independent of conscious recollection. (Also called nondeclarative or procedural memory)
  127. 127. Explicit Memory = memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare.” (Also called declarative memory)
  128. 128. Hippocampus = a neural center that is located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage.
  129. 129. Recall = a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learning earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
  130. 130. Recognition = a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test.
  131. 131. Relearning = a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time.
  132. 132. Priming = the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.
  133. 133. Deja Vu = that eerie sense that “I’ve experienced this before.” Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
  134. 134. Mood Congruent Memory = the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood.
  135. 135. Proactive Interference = the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.
  136. 136. Retroactive Interference = the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.
  137. 137. Repression = in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories.
  138. 138. Misinformation Effect = incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event.
  139. 139. Source Amnesia = attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. (Also called source misattribution.) Source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories.
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