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Prologue

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Transcript

  • 1. Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed)
    • Prologue:
    • The Story of Psychology
    • James A. McCubbin, PhD
    • Clemson University
    • Worth Publishers
  • 2. Prologue: Psychology’s Roots
    • Prescientific Psychology
      • Is the mind connected to the body or distinct?
      • Are ideas inborn or is the mind a blank slate filled by experience?
  • 3. Prologue: Psychology’s Roots
  • 4. Prologue: Psychology’s Roots
    • Psychological Science Is Born
      • Empiricism
        • Knowledge comes from experience via the senses
        • Science flourishes through observation and experiment
  • 5. Prologue: Psychology’s Roots
    • Wilhelm Wundt opened the first psychology laboratory at the University of Liepzig (c. 1879)
  • 6. Prologue: Psychology’s Roots
    • Structuralism used introspection (looking in) to explore the elemental structure of the human mind
  • 7. Prologue: Psychology’s Roots
    • Functionalism focused on how behavioral processes function- how they enable organism to adapt, survive, and flourish
  • 8. Prologue: Psychology’s Roots
    • Psychological Science Develops
      • Wundt--German philosopher and physiologist
      • James--American philosopher
      • Pavlov--Russian physiologist
      • Freud--Austrian physician
      • Piaget--Swiss biologist
  • 9. Prologue: Psychology’s Roots
    • Figure 1- British Psychological Society membership
  • 10. Prologue: Psychology’s Roots
    • Definition of Psychology
      • The science of behavior (what we do) and mental processes (sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, and feelings)
  • 11. Prologue: Contemporary Psychology
    • Psychology’s Big Issues
      • Nature-nurture controversy
        • the relative contribution that genes and experience make to development of psychological traits and behaviors
  • 12. Prologue: Contemporary Psychology
    • Natural selection
      • principle that those inherited trait variations contributing to survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
  • 13. Prologue: Contemporary Psychology
    • Psychology’s Perspectives
  • 14. Prologue: Contemporary Psychology
    • Psychology’s Perspectives
      • A lot depends on your viewpoint
  • 15. Prologue: Contemporary Psychology
    • Psychology’s Subfields
      • Basic Research
        • Biological psychologists explore the links between brain and mind
        • Developmental psychologists study changing abilities from womb to tomb
        • Cognitive psychologists study how we perceive, think, and solve problems
  • 16. Prologue: Contemporary Psychology
    • Psychology’s Subfields
      • Basic Research
        • Personality psychologists investigate our persistent traits
        • Social psychologists explore how we view and affect one another
  • 17. Prologue: Contemporary Psychology
    • Psychology’s Subfields
      • Applied Research
        • Industrial/organizational psychologists study and advise on behavior in the workplace
        • Clinical psychologists study, assess, and treat people with psychological disorders
  • 18. Prologue: Contemporary Psychology
    • Psychiatry
      • A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders
      • Practiced by physicians who sometimes use medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychotherapy