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  • Prepared by Khoa Anh Viet
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    1. 1. TRANSCRIPTIONPrepared by Khoa Anh Viet, M.A. Prepared by Khoa Anh Viet 1
    2. 2. Why is spelling so hard?• Blame the alphabet. You can never tell what sound a letter is going to make.• Blame the dic tionary.• Blame is on the his tory of the Englis h.SourceːWilliam, E. (2008). The challenge of spelling in English. English Teaching Forum, 46(1), 2-11. Prepared by Khoa Anh Viet 2
    3. 3. You can guess the pronunciation when … • ‘-ai’ /eɪ/ː cocaine, McCain, rain, etc. (except with ‘air’, Thai, naïve, )• ‘-ate ’ (v) /eɪ/ː graduate, communicate,• etc. ’ (n) /ət/ (usually more than three ‘-ate syllable nouns or adjectives)ː graduate, chocolate, etc. Note ː /s e nɪ t/ ˈ Senate ???• ‘-aze ’ /eɪz/ː haze, maze, etc. Prepared by Khoa Anh Viet 3
    4. 4. You can guess the pronunciation when …• ‘-al’ /əl/ (suffix)ː arrival, industrial, etc.• ‘-able ’ /əbl/: comfortable, portable,• etc. ‘ad-’/æd/ (when stressed)ː advertise, adverb, etc./əd/ (when unstressed)ː advise,• ‘-ar (c ons onant -r, s tre s s e d or advance, etc. one -s yllable )’ /ɑː/: car, start, etc.• ‘-as h’ /æʃ/: flash, trash, etc. Prepared by Khoa Anh Viet 4
    5. 5. You can guess the pronunciation when …• ‘-ese’ /iː/ː Vietnamese, Japanese, etc.• ‘e x-’ /eks/ (when stressed)ː export (n), ex-wife, execute, etc.• ‘e x-’ /ɪks/ (when unstressed before a consonant)ː export (v), exceed, etc. /ɪɡz/ (when unstressed before a vowel)ː example, executive, etc. Prepared by Khoa Anh Viet 5
    6. 6. You can guess the pronunciation when … • ‘-e c t’ /ekt/ (when stressed)ː subject (v), object (v), inject, etc. /ɪkt/ (when unstressed)ː subject (n), object (n), etc. • ‘-e n’ /ən/ (v, suffix)ː widen, strengthen, etc. Prepared by Khoa Anh Viet 6
    7. 7. You can guess the pronunciation when …• ‘-e e r’ /ɪə/ (suffix): engineer, volunteer, etc.• ‘-e tte ’ /et/: launderette, cigarette, etc.• ‘-e d’/t/ after voiceless sounds except /t//d/ after voiced sounds except /d//ɪd/ after /t/ and /d/ sounds. Prepared by Khoa Anh Viet 7
    8. 8. You can guess the pronunciation when …• ‘-e r’ /ə(r)/ (unstressed)ː teacher, speaker, etc.• ‘-e r (-c ons onant -r, s tre s s e d or one -s yllable )’ /ɜː/ː mermaid, fern,• etc.’ /iː/: employee, refugee, etc. (not ‘e e before r - /ɪə/ː sneer) Prepared by Khoa Anh Viet 8
    9. 9. You can guess the pronunciation when …• ‘-ity’ /əti/ or /ɪti/: ability, university, etc.• ‘-is h’ /ɪʃ/ː English, astonish, etc.• ‘-ing’ /ɪŋ /ː learning, doing.• ‘-ist or -ism’ /ɪst or ɪzm/ː tourist,• tourism. heroic, ironic, etc. ‘-ic ’ /ɪk/:• ‘-is e /-ize ’ (v) /aɪz/ː realize, organize, etc. Expe rtis e ? ? ? /e ks pɜː ˌ ˈ tiː z/ Prepared by Khoa Anh Viet 9
    10. 10. You can guess the pronunciation when …• ‘-ir’ (consonant -r, stressed or one- syllable)’ /ɜː /ː birdie, birth, etc.• ‘-ie’ (stressed)’ /iː/ː achieve, relief, relieve, retrieve, etc.• ‘-ice’ (stressed or one-syllable)’ /aɪs/ː rice, suffice, etc. Prepared by Khoa Anh Viet 10
    11. 11. You can guess the pronunciation when …• ‘dis-’ /dɪs/ (prefix): dislike, disco, etc.• ‘-ful’ /fl/ (suffix): awful, careful, etc.• ‘-fy’ (v) /faɪ /ː beautify, satisfy, etc.• ‘-ly’ /li/ (suffix): happily, merely, etc.• ‘-ment’ /mənt/ (unstressed): enjoyment, moment, etc. Prepared by Khoa Anh Viet 11
    12. 12. You can guess the pronunciation when …• ‘-or (-c ons onant -r, s tre s s e d or one -s yllable )’ /ɔː/ː torment, sort,• etc. ’ /əs/: serious, adventurous, etc. ‘-ous• ‘-oir’ /wɑː(r)/ː abattoir, reservoir, etc.• ‘-ory, -e ry, ’ /əri/ (unstressed)ː history, surgery, etc. Prepared by Khoa Anh Viet 12
    13. 13. You can guess the pronunciation when …• ‘pos t-’ /pəʊst/ (prefix)ː post-war, etc.• ‘-s ive ’ /sɪv/: expensive, intensive, etc.• ‘-s ome ’ /səm/ (unstressed): troublesome, lonesome, etc.• ‘-tive ’ /tɪv/: competitive, festive, etc.• ‘-tion’ / n/ action, nation, etc. ʃə ː Prepared by Khoa Anh Viet 13
    14. 14. You can guess the pronunciation when …• ‘-ual’ (v) (> 1 syllable) /uəl/ː actual, usual, etc.• ‘un-’ (prefix) /ʌn/ː unhappy, unusual, etc.• ‘-ur-(c ons onant -r, s tre s s e d or one -s yllable )’ /ɜː/ː surname, surf, purr, etc.• ‘-ur-(r, s tre s s e d)’ /ʌ/ː burrow, curry, etc. Prepared by Khoa Anh Viet 14
    15. 15. You can guess the pronunciation when …• ‘-us k’ / s k/ tusk, busk, etc. ʌ ː• ‘-us t’ /ʌst/ː must, lust, etc. (sustain unstressed)• ‘-uc e ’ /juːs/ (stressed)ː seduce, produce, etc. Prepared by Khoa Anh Viet 15
    16. 16. You can guess the pronunciation when …We ak form / /ə‘a’ attend ‘ar’ particular‘o’ carrot ‘e’ violet‘u’ autumn ‘er’ perhaps‘ough’ thorough Prepared by Khoa Anh Viet 16

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