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    Using Cooperative Learning To Motivate    Phi Thanh Tra   051 E4 Using Cooperative Learning To Motivate Phi Thanh Tra 051 E4 Document Transcript

    • VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES ENGLISH DEPARTMENT PHÍ THANH TRÀ USING COOPERATIVE LEARNING TO MOTIVATE THE 11TH FORM STUDENTS IN SPEAKING CLASSES AT XUAN DINH HIGH SCHOOL SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIRMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHERLOR OF ARTS (TEEF)
    • VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES ENGLISH DEPARTMENT PHÍ THANH TRÀ USING COOPERATIVE LEARNING TO MOTIVATE THE 11TH FORM STUDENTS IN SPEAKING CLASSES AT XUAN DINH HIGH SCHOOL SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIRMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHERLOR OF ARTS (TEEF) SUPERVISOR: TRẦN HIỀN LAN, MA.
    • I hereby state that I: Phí Thanh Trà, 051E4, being a candidate for the degree of Bachelor of Arts (TEFL) accept the requirements of the College relating to the retention and use of Bachelor’s Graduation paper deposited in the library. In terms of these conditions, I agree that the origin of my paper deposited in the library should be accessible for the purposes of study and research, in accordance with the normal conditions established by the librarian for the care, loan or reproduction of the paper Signature
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS Contents Pages Acknowledgements………………………………………………............. i Abstract…………………………………………………………………... ii List of figures……………………………………………………….......... iii List of tables……………………………………………………………… iv List of abbreviations……………………………………………………... v CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION……………………………………… 1 1.1. Rationale of the study……………………………………………...... 1 1.2. Objectives of the study………………………………………………. 2 1.3. Research questions…………………………………………………... 2 1.4. Significance of the study…………………………………………...... 2 1.5. Scope of the study…………………………………………………… 3 1.6. Methods of the study………………………………………………… 3 1.7. Overview of the study……………………………………………...... 3 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………… 5 2.1. Cooperative learning………………………………………………… 5 2.1.1. Definition of cooperative learning……………………………... 5 2.1.2. History of cooperative learning………………………………... 6 2.1.3. Basic elements of cooperative learning………………………... 9 2.1.4. Issues in implementing cooperative learning………………...... 10 2.1.5. Modes of cooperative learning………………………………… 11 2.1.6. Types of CL groups……………………………………………. 13 2.1.7. The roles in CL………………………………………………… 14 2.1.8. Benefits of cooperative learning……………………………...... 16 2.1.9. Problem of cooperative learning and solution…………………. 17 2.2. Speaking skill………………………………………………………... 19 2.2.1. Speaking skill…………………………………………………. 19 2.2.2. Principles of teaching speaking……………………………… 19 2.2.3. Classroom organization and speaking skill…………………… 20 2.3. Using cooperative learning to motivate students in speaking classes.. 21 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY…………………………………….. 22 3.1. A brief introduction of the Xuan Dinh high school and its teaching 23 material…………………………………………………………………... 3.2. Subjects……………………………………………………………… 23 3.3. Data Collection Instruments………………………………………… 24 3.4. Method of data analysis……………………………………………... 27 CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION……………………...... 29 4.1. Results……………………………………………………………...... 29 4.1.1. From the survey questionnaires………………………………… 29 4.1. 2. From observation………………………………………………. 42
    • 4.2. Discussion…………………………………………………………… 44 CHAPTER 5: IMPLICATIONS………………………………………. 48 5.1. Issues related to CL………………………………………………...... 48 5.1.1. Forming Groups………………………………………………… 48 5.1.2. Functioning as a group………………………………………...... 48 5.1.3. Teacher collaboration…………………………………………… 49 5.2. CL activities…………………………………………………………. 50 5.2.1. Discussion………………………………………………………. 50 5.2.2. Role – play……………………………………………………… 54 5.2.3. Information gap…………………………………………………. 56 CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION…………………………………………. 58 6.1. Summary…………………………………………………………..... 58 6.2. Limitations…………………………………………………………... 58 6.3. Suggestions for further studies……………………………………… 59 References Appendix A1 Appendix A2 Appendix B1 Appendix B2 Appendix B3 Appendix B4
    • Acknowledgments I would like to express my sincere thanks to many people who directly and indirectly contributed to the accomplishment of the research work. First of all, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my supervisor, Ms. Tran Hien Lan, for her invaluable suggestions, correction and encouragement during the doing the graduation paper. It is certain that without her help, this paper would not have been fully completed. Secondly, my special thanks are given to all the teachers and students at Xuan Dinh high school who enthusiastically took part in the surveys and helped a lot in data collection procedures. It is no doubt that without their contributions, it would be very difficult for me to make my thesis successful. Next, I wish to send my thanks to all teachers in English Department, especially those directly taught me and gave me interesting lessons which created inspiration for me to carry out this paper. Last but not least, I would like to thank my family and my friends who always stood by me, encouraged me, helped and supported me in terms of both financially and mentally with their whole heart during the time of doing the thesis.
    • Abstract Cooperative Learning has been applied in teaching and learning English recently in high schools in Vietnam; nevertheless, lack of professional instructions makes difficult for both the teachers of English and the students to apply. So, this study has been conducted to investigate the real situation of using Cooperative Learning to motivate the 11th form students in speaking classes at Xuan Dinh high school and to give out some appropriate suggestions for successful Cooperative Learning lessons. The data was collected by means of two set of questionnaires and observation. The findings show that Cooperative Learning has been applied in this school; however, it is quite simple in terms of groups and activities and they have not explored and applied all aspects of Cooperative Learning that lead to a fact that although students have realize the advantages of Cooperative Learning in the speaking lessons, they have not been motivated to put it in action yet. Based on the findings, the researcher would like to propose some implications in terms of issues related to Cooperative Learning and Cooperative Learning activities with the hope that they will contribute a small part to the teaching of English at high schools in general.
    • List of tables Table 1: A classification of the surveyed teachers Table 2: A classification of the surveyed students Table 3: Numbers of speaking lessons per week as perceived by the teachers Table 4: Activities used to encourage students to speak out as perceived by the teachers. Table 5: Frequency of CL applying as perceived by the teachers Table 6: Frequency of CL applying as perceived by the students Table 7: Ways of forming groups Table 8: Frequency of CL activities used in CL groups Table 9: Advantages of CL as perceived by the teachers
    • List of figures Figure 1: Students' learning English experience Figure 2: Students’ most favorite English skill Figure 3: Students' favorite learning style Figure 4: Activities used to encourage students to speak (by students) Figure 5: Number of students per group as perceived by the students Figure 6: Frequency of forming new groups Figure 7: Frequency of Cooperative Learning activities used in Cooperative Learning lessons Figure 8: Advantages of Cooperative Learning Figure 9: Motivation of Cooperative Learning
    • List of abbreviations CL: Cooperative Learning T1: Teacher 1 T2: Teacher 2 T3: Teacher 3 T4: Teacher 4 T5: Teacher 5 Chapter 1: Introduction
    • 1.1. Rationale of the study The change in the aims of teaching and learning English in recent years has led to the change in teaching method. Such methods as audio- lingual method or grammar translation method have been replaced by communicative language teaching (Richard & Rodgers 2001). In order to increase students’ communicative competence, student-student interaction is emphasized in teaching and learning English. And one of the most useful ways to get this goal is to create learning group environment which “provides so many opportunities for students to communicate and provides a means of integrating listening, speaking, reading, and writing” (Crokall & Thiyaragarajali 1997; Harmer 1998; Jacobs 1997). It is the reason why Cooperative Learning within group work is specially paid much attention to. Realizing the benefits of Cooperative Learning, New English textbook 11 published by the Education Publishing House, which has been applied lately in Vietnam, was designed with many group activities, especially in speaking skill to improve students’ speaking ability. This reality shows that teaching and learning English have turned to a new period to catch up with other countries in the area and in the world. In fact, Cooperative learning has been used in English speaking classes in Vietnam. However, there are still many difficulties in organizing it for the teachers or in getting familiar with the new method for the students as they have been used to old methods for a long time. Moreover, there have been several studies in this area, but they were only carried out in the specializing school, not in ordinary school in Hanoi. That is the reason why I decided to choose “Using cooperative learning to motivate the 11th form students in speaking classes at Xuan Dinh high school” as the topic of my study which is aimed at finding out the reality of using Cooperative Learning
    • (CL) method in motivating students in speaking classes and its difficulties and then giving out some suggestions for the effective use of it. 1.2. Objectives of the study The study aims at doing a research to investigate the reality of using CL to motivate the 11th grade students in speaking classes at Xuan Dinh high schools. Through this research, the researcher hopes to find out the advantages of using this approach to teach speaking skill to the 11th grade students at this high school. And therefore, basing on the information of the real situation, the researcher would like to give some suggestions on using Cooperative learning to motivate students to speak effectively. 1.3. Research questions This study is done to find the answer for the following questions: 1. What do teachers do to encourage students to speak in the language classes? 2. To what extend is the Cooperative learning applied to teach speaking skill in the language classes? 3. What are the advantages of using Cooperative learning to motivate students in speaking classes as perceived by the the 11th grade students and the teachers at Xuan Dinh high school? 1.4. Significance of the study This research will help the teachers of English in general and the teachers of 11th grade in particular have a right view about using CL to motivate students to speak out in speaking classes. With the current situation shown in the study, the teachers may take advantages of this approach to increase students’ talking time. Lastly, the suggestions for the effective application of this approach will help the teachers find the
    • solutions to their own problems in speaking classes to make it really effective and interesting to the students. 1.5. Scope of the study Within the scope of a study, the researcher has no ambition to cover all aspects of CL and all students as well. The study is only focused on the advantages of CL to the 11th grade students in speaking classes at Xuan Dinh high schools. Moreover, because of time and resources limitation, only 275 11th grade students who have learnt New English 11th textbook published by the Education Publishing House and 5 teachers of English are involved in the research. 1.6. Methods of the study The research work is carried out through qualitative and quantitative methods. Both questionnaires and observation are applied to get data. In the first place, observation is used to observe the real situation of using CL in some speaking classes at Xuan Dinh high school, and then questionnaires are delivered to the 11th form students and the teachers of English to collect data. Then observation is also used to check, analyze, and classify these statistics from the questionnaires to help the researcher realize the problem of the study. 1.7. Overview of the study The study includes six chapters Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: Literature review Chapter 3: Methodology Chapter 4: Results and discussion Chapter 5: Implications
    • Chapter 6: Conclusion In chapter 1, rationale of the study, objectives of the study, research questions, significance of the study, scope of the study, methods of the study, and overview of the study are presented. In chapter 2, the literature of Cooperative learning, speaking skill, and the relevant between them are included. Chapter 3 is about method of the study in which participants, instrument, procedures, and method of data presentation and discussion are introduced. Implications chapter includes some suggestions for using CL effectively. And in the last chapter, conclusion includes summary of the research, and the limitation as well as some suggestions for further studies.
    • Chapter 2: Literature review 2.2. Cooperative learning 2.2.1. Definition of cooperative learning Cooperative Learning (CL) is nowadays used widely in the world, and each researcher defines it in different ways. So it is recommended to give out some explicit definitions to understand clearly about it. In the first place, according to Johnson, Johnson, and Holubec, leaders of CL since the 1970s, “CL is the instructional use of small groups so that students work together to maximize their own and each other’s learning” (1993: 9). Besides, CL has been defined as “a strategy which involves students in established, sustained learning groups or teams” (Alison King, 1993, learningandteaching.dal.ca/taguide). Moreover, Kagan (1990, cited in Panitza, 1996) considered CL “a set of processes which help people interact together in order to accomplish a specific goal or develop an end product which is usually content specific”. This means teachers designs a series of cooperative activities that have “a specific content bound” for students to finish together. In conclusion, definitions vary in words, but they all direct to group environment in which each member of a team is responsible for learning what is taught and helping teammates learn, thus creating an atmosphere of achievement (edtech.kennesaw.edu/intech/cooperativelearning.htm). It is better to distinguish CL with Competitive Learning. If in Competitive learning, in order to succeed, other learners must fail; in CL, learners must work together in order to succeed and personal success only springs from group success (en.wikipedia.org). It is the reason why CL is used more in teaching and learning English; and when it is applied correctly, it will improve information acquisition and retention, higher-
    • level thinking skills, interpersonal and communication skills, and self- confidence (Johnson, Johnson, and Smith, 1998).quot; 2.2.2. History of CL Working together to accomplish a common goal is an old idea in the world, and CL was developed basing on this theory, so it was born a long time ago. CL was firstly accepted by John Amos Comenius (1592 – 1670); he believed that “students could benefit from teaching one another”. After that, this kind of teaching method was extensively developed by Joseph Lancaster and Andrew Bell in the late 1700s in England. In 1806, this idea was brought to America as a mean to reduce competition. In fact, this idea is not new in America, but it was used and developed very fast at this time. We can’t help mentioning Colonel Francis Parker, one of the most successful advocates of CL in the United States, who applied CL in his classes which attracted a lot of visitors a year to examine. Following Colonel Francis Parker is James Coleman (1959) who realized the importance of CL and suggested that “instead of encouraging competition in the academic setting, “which effectively impedes the process of education,” schools should introduce a more collaborative approach to teaching” (cited in www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/4653). Another scholar of CL is John Dewey who used CL as the main part of his famous project method in instruction leading to the formation of the CL center at the University of Minnesota in the early 1970s. After that, a lot of researchers paid much attention to CL and implemented it in their language classes, in learning strategies that made chances for CL to develop. This is a partial timeline on the history of cooperative learning from Johnson, Johnson and Holubec (1998, p. 3:2-3:3)
    • Date Events Early 1900s John Dewey, Kurt Lewin, Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky 1960s Stuart Cook: Research on cooperation Madsen (Kagan): Research on cooperation & competition in children Bruner, Suchman: Inquiry (Discovery) Learning Movement B. F. Skinner: Programmed learning, behavior modification 1962 Morton Deutsch (Nebraska Symposium): Cooperation & trust, conflict Robert Blake & Jane Mouton: Research on intergroup competition 1966 David Johnson, U of MN: Begins training teachers in Cooperative Learning 1969 Roger Johnson: Joins David at U of MN 1970 David Johnson: Social Psychology of Education 1973 David DeVries & Keith Edwards: Combined instructional games approach with intergroup competition, teams-games- tournament 1974-1975 David & Roger Johnson: Research review on cooperation/competition David & Roger Johnson: Learning Together and Alone Mid 1970s Annual Symposium at APA (David DeVries & Keith Edwards, David & Roger Johnson, Stuart Cook, Elliot Aronson, Elizabeth Cohen, others) Robert Slavin: Begins development of cooperative curricula
    • Spencer Kagan: Continued research on cooperation among children 1976 Shlomo &Yael Sharan: Small Group Teaching (group investigation) 1978 Elliot Aronson: Jigsaw Classroom. Journal of Research & Development in Education, (Cooperation Issue) Jeanne Gibbs: Tribes 1981, 1983 David & Roger Johnson: Meta-analyses of research on cooperation 1985 Elizabeth Cohen: Designing Group work Spencer Kagan: Developed structures approach to cooperative learning AERA and ASCD special interest groups founded 1989 David & Roger Johnson: Cooperation & Competition- Theory & Research Early 1990s Cooperative learning gains popularity among educators 1996 First Annual Cooperative Learning Leadership Conference, Minneapolis (Retrieved from www.intime.uni.edu/coop_learning/ch3/default.htm) From this timeline, we can realize clearly the foundation and development of this method. 2.2.3. Basic elements of CL
    • Cooperation happens in most of daily situations, but it is not easy to cooperate in learning, especially in learning languages. To use CL successfully, it is necessary to know basic elements of it. There are five basic elements of CL including • Positive interdependence, • Face-to-face promotive interaction, • individual accountability, • Interpersonal and small group skill, as well as • Group processing (David W. Johnson, Roger T. Johnson, Edythe Johnson Holubec, 2003, cited in csudh.edu/dearhabermas/cooplrn.htm). These five elements are as same as Miguel Kagan in Kagan Cooperative Learning (1992). Firstly, students working cooperatively must have a sense of “positive interdependence” which means that students must ensure they need each other, they quot;sink or swimquot; together. They can have this sense by establishing a mutual goal, sharing the same resources or joining rewards. Secondly, when working in group, each member must encouraging and facilitating others so that they can complete a task and get the goal, which is called “face-to-face promotive interaction”. In fact, one student can evaluate, give feedback to others, and challenge other’s conclusion to help them achieve higher levels. “Individual accountability” is the third element of CL. A member’s result may affect to the group’s result, so it is important to assess individual learning regularly to know who needs support or who can support others by giving test randomly to each student. Migual Kagan stressed that “the purpose of CL is to make each member a stronger individual in his or her own right” (Miguel Kagan, 1992, Kagan CL, p19). Besides, one of the most important basic elements of CL is “interpersonal and small group skill”. This element means that students must combine their interpersonal with group skills; they must get to know and trust each
    • other, accept and support each other (Johnson 1990, 1991; Johnson and F.Johnson 1991). Final element is “group processing” which is called “team reflection” by Nunan (1992). This is an invisible factor contributing to the success of the team because it clarifies and improves the effectiveness of a member in contributing to their team (Kagan, 1992). In short, there are five basic elements of CL which many educators using CL are missing its essence. It is very essential to investigate them carefully to apply CL well. 2.2.4. Issues in implementing CL Indeed, when implementing CL, teachers typically face a number of questions, each of which usually has many possible answers among of them are forming groups, functioning as a group, CL principles and group activity, and teacher collaboration (Jacobs, 1994). “Forming group” is the first issue that must be taken into consideration when implementing CL because groups are the core aspect of CL. Teachers/supervisors have to think of questions such as “how many students per group?” or how often should CL be used?” (Jacobs, 1994). The fact is that greater participation is encouraged in some circumstances (Kagan, 1992); some situations need little ones, so teachers ought to base on each situation to give out the best decision. After forming a group, both teachers and students must take care of “functioning as a group”. Some students arranged into a group have not worked cooperatively from family, previous schooling or elsewhere (McGrath 1998) leading to many difficulties for teachers to applying CL. It is necessary for teacher to prepare some “mini-lessons” or “mini-activities” to introduce CL to their students and train them to get familiar with the new method, especially how to “respect others”.
    • Moreover, “CL principles and group activity” is another issue in implementing CL. Everyone agrees that group activity is the main character of CL and CL principles, another name of basic elements of CL, which make CL not simply put students together. Finally, teacher collaboration plays an important part in implementing CL. Truthfully, cooperation provides benefits not only for students but for teachers as well (Cooper & Boyd 1994; edge 1992; Nor 1997). Teacher’s roles changes from part to part. In the first stage, pre- implementing and post-implementing, teachers are the people who form groups and decide activities, but in the implementing stage when learners play more important role than teachers do (Palmer et al, 2003); teachers are instructors, facilitators, supporters, prompters and motivators. Besides, teachers can collaborate together to use CL efficiently. To summarize, five issues including forming groups, functioning as a group, CL principles and group activity, and teacher collaboration should be considered carefully to have smooth and effective CL lessons. 2.2.5. Modes of CL Modes of CL are cooperative structures, cooperative strategies, and sometimes called CL activities, used in CL lessons. Most of these structures are developed by Dr. Spencer Kagan and his associates at Kagan Publishing and Professional Development (cited in edtech.kennesaw.edu/intech/cooperativelearning.htm). According to him, there are a lot of modes designed for CL lessons including three-step- interview, roundrobin brainstorming, three-minute-review, numbered heads together, team pair solo, circle the sage, and partners. On the other hand, other researchers showed other activities like Jigsaw (Aronson, Blaney, Stephan, Sikes & Snapp 1978), think-pair-share (Lyman 1992), circle and square (Johns & Taylor), concept attainment (Bruner, Goodnow & Austin
    • 1967), concept formation (Taba 1992), graffity (Gibbs 1987), group investigation (Sharan & Sharan 1992), etc. In addition, Tsailing Liang (2002) gave out some more modes such as affinity, find the fib, send-a- problem, and commonalities. It is easy to realize the most common modes used in CL lessons are jigsaw, think-pair-share, three-step-interview, numbered heads together, team pair solo, and group investigation. Jigsaw is an activity where group mates share information with each other. Each member of the group has a specific material to learn and teach others. There is “a home team” and “an expert team” (Jacobs,….). Each members of the home team is responsible for a certain aspect of the topic, they gather with other teammates who have the same topic with them to make the expert team and discuss it. After that, students re-convene with original group to teach topic section to one another (Kevin Oliver, 1999, edtech.vt.edu/edtech/id/models/powerpoint/coop.pdf). Think-pair-share was developed by Lyman (1992) but many of which have been given labels by Kagan 1992 (Jacobs, 1994). This is a structure having three steps. Students are given chances from working individually in step 1 to working with a partner in step 2 and lastly sharing with others what was discussed. This strategy encourages students, helps without giving answers, asks for help, explains, and suggests ways of learning, reflecting (eazhull.org.uk/nlc/group_spelling.htm). Three-step-interview is the next structures of CL. Students also go through 3 steps as in think-pair-share. Each student chooses a partner and shares some ideas with him or her by asking questions, then they change the role and finally they share their ideas with the whole group. Students can develop questioning skills thanks to this activity (Kagan, 1994). Numbered heads together is the strategy in which students work together and check that all group members can explain what their group has
    • done (Kagan, 1992). This means that each students has a number, they work alone to do a task and then work together to go to a common answer. At the end of the discussion, the number called by the teachers will answer on behalf of their team. Team pair solo is designed to motivate students to tackle and succeed at problems which initially are beyond their ability (Kagan, edtech.kennesaw.edu/intech/cooperativelearning.htm). Students do the task first as a team, then with a partner and finally on their own. Thanks to the help of the team and partners, students can find the solution themselves. Last but not least, group investigation is one of the main modes of CL. This structures means that students work together on projects (Sharan and Sharan 1992). Each group has a certain assignment which they decide the way to conduct and finally is evaluated among themselves, their group mates or by the teachers. Other modes are also used in CL lessons and each of them has their own characters. Teacher should base on the situation to vary activities to make lessons interesting and attract all students to join in. 2.2.6. Types of CL groups When students are put into the right teams, they will feel strong, capable, and committed, so one of the most important functions of teachers who apply cooperative learning is “empowering students by organizing them into cooperative teams” (Jabcobs, 1994, p9). Sharing the same idea with Jacob, Johnson et al (1998, p.10:7 cited in serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/cooperative/group-types.html) also gave out three common types of CL groups including formal CL groups, informal CL groups, and cooperative base groups.
    • Formal CL groups are often used to teach “specific content”. Teacher is the person who structures the learning groups, teaches and evaluates students, as well as guides them to work together effectively. It is the reason why students have more chance to try different techniques of working cooperatively. Being different from formal CL groups, informal CL groups are used to “ensure active cognitive processing of information during the lectures”. Students receive knowledge directly through discussion with their friends. This kind of group reduces teacher’s talking time and increases students’ interests in working together. The last type is cooperative base groups which are founded to support students for along time. Implementing this kind of group means that students have to spend some years together to complete a CL task. However, it improves attendance, personalizes the works and improves quality and quantity of learning (Jacob, 1994, p10). Each type has its own characters and uses. They have to be applied in the right case to get the best results. 2.2.7. The roles in CL Because both teachers and learners have been used old methods for a long time, it is difficult for them to get familiar with CL. So the first important thing is helping them realize their role in CL learning and teaching which is totally different from traditional classes. This is also a new thing of the study. 2.2.7.1. The roles of the CL learners Changing to CL leads to the change in the roles of learners. They have responsibilities that are new to them (James C. Flowers et al, 1994)
    • such as contributing to the group's efforts, encouraging their fellow group members to contribute, keeping each other on task, working toward their shared goal, treating each other with care and respect. It means that students nowadays play a role as a teacher besides learners to teach their friends and they can learn a lot from this position. A difficulty is that students always think teacher is the only person who is capable of responding this role, and they are receivers not doers. It takes a long time for students to get familiar with the new way of learning and teaching. 2.2.7.2. The roles of the CL teachers/facilitators Instead of being lecturers in traditional techniques, teachers in CL are facilitators, prompters, motivators, etc. Cohen (1972) suggests that cooperative learning teachers become accustomed to quot;supportive supervisionquot; rather than the traditional quot;direct supervision.quot; And “a teacher who uses cooperative learning techniques might seem to have less work than one who uses traditional ones” (James C. Flowers et al, 1994, cited in (teched.vt.edu). With traditional learning, the key to succeed is teachers’ material preparation to deliver to students, but with CL, the teachers not only plan his or her delivery of the content, it is also necessary to plan student activities and evaluation. In addition, teachers have more responsibilities in CL suggested by James C. Flowers et al (1994) including planning lessons, activities, and evaluation; grouping students; physical placement of students; presenting and explaining the task to the students; monitoring group activities and intervening when necessary; helping students with social skills; and evaluating students.
    • Although students are the center of CL learning process, teachers still play an important part, and CL lessons can succeed relying a lot on the role of them. 2.2.8. Benefits of CL No one can deny the benefits brought by CL in learning and teaching language, among of them are: “Promoting student learning and academic achievement, increasing student retention, enhancing student satisfaction with their learning experience, helping students develop skills in oral communication, developing students' social skills, promoting student self-esteem, and helping to promote positive race relations” (edtech.kennesaw.edu/intech/cooperativelearning.htm). In addition, over 375 studies on the effect of CL, Johnson, Johnson & Smith (1991) found that students in CL perform better than competitive or individualistic learning, especially they gave a conclusion that CL quot;resulted in more higher-level reasoning, more frequent generation of new ideas and solutions (i.e., process gain), and greater transfer of what is learned within one situation to another (i.e., group to individual transfer) than did competitive or individualistic learningquot; (p. 2:12) (cited in teched.vt.edu/vc.html). In addition, according to Andrew M. Dahley (1994, cited in alumni.media.mit.edu.html), CL gives students “great achievement”, “social benefits” and “economic benefits”. In terms of great achievement, “there are more winners in a cooperative team because all members reap from the success of an achievement” (Slavin 1984). Fewer students have to fight against their classmates to be winners. Furthermore, a lot of social benefits are gained beside academic benefits. Students work cooperatively can know how to cooperate with others, they can learn others’ learning skill, attitudes, personality, and they can see point of views other than their own. Especially, CL can bring “economic benefits”. The
    • reality shows that less material are needed in cooperative learning without affecting the value of CL. Students can share materials together and learn with each other. CL not only brings benefits to students, teachers can benefit from CL as well. Hamm and Adams (1992) noted that teachers who began using collaborative leaning quot;became more cooperative in their own professional interactions and more willing to collaborate with their peersquot; (p. 8). Furthermore, “teachers who use cooperative learning may feel that their time is spent more effectively” (teched.vt.edu). They work with five or six groups instead of working with 33, 35 or more students. Besides, paper to evaluate is less (Hamm & Adams, 1992, pp. 15-16), so stress will be reduced. Teachers can spend more time moving in the class, and interacting with their students. Finally, teachers may feel “teaching and classroom management become easier” (teched.vt.edu) because most of activities are initially designed at home. In conclusion, CL has a lot of benefits compared with other approaches, especially traditional ones. If teachers can apply CL well, they can get all these benefits for their teaching. 2.2.9. Problem of CL and solution Besides advantages resulted from CL, there have some disadvantages as well. First of all, CL lessons may be failed if teachers do not “implementing the cooperative structure carefully” (Yu-hwei Shih et al, 2002). If teachers only put students into group without instruction or paying attention to positive independence or individual accountability, they can evaluate correctly. In most situations, a team has some members who do not want to work with others, they will keep silence and “get loss in the crowd” that make the lesson stress; or some students would like to control
    • their teammates to talk all the time (Kagan, 1995). It is recommended for teachers to study the cooperative structure carefully before implementing CL to solve this problem. Secondly, it is considered “time – consuming” to teach material in a cooperative way (Yu-hwei Shih et al, 2002). It can be understood that teachers must spend more time finding and designing additional material from many sources like reference books or internet…It seems that they are only interested in doing this at the first time, it is very difficult to maintain for a long time. On the other hand, it takes longer time for students to find material, discuss with their friends, and write reflection compared with traditional ways. The fact is that researchers have never given out the solution for these disadvantages. Moreover, “loss of control” is a problem given by Palmer et al, 2003. It is difficult for teachers who are familiar with traditional roles such as “lecturers” or performers” to get use to CL. They may feel that their role reduces and feel not comfortable. In order to crack this problem, teachers must understand the changing in the role of teachers in learning and teaching, they are facilitators, motivators, prompters…not lectures. Finally, other problems suggested by Jacob & Hall (1994) are “class attention” and “noise”. Teacher may feel confused to get students’ attention when they are working in group, and to make participations not make noise. Teachers can work out this problem by giving some rules relating to discipline or marks before hand. It is easy to meet these problems when implementing CL in the lessons; however, teacher can avoid them by “undergoing solid teacher development before using it” (Chang, 2000; Ju, 1995; Lai, 2002). 2.3. Speaking skill
    • 2.3.1. Speaking skill Speaking is a natural people’s ability which founded from they were born, and a lot of research of it were done leading to various definitions. Among these definitions, speaking considered as “the productive skill in the oral mode” (sil.org/lingualinks/languagelearning). In addition, according Bygate (1997), “speaking is often thought of as a popular form of expression which uses the unprestigious colloquial register” (Speaking, Oxford University press, p.3). It means that students must speak so as to carry out many transactions and speaking skill is a medium of communication which languages are learnt through. To speak a language, especially a foreign language, learners need to know “not only the linguistic knowledge” but also “the culturally acceptable ways of interacting with others in different situations and relationship” (Hymes, 1971). It is assumed that speaking a language requires more than language’s knowledge itself; speakers must learn the way native speakers use the language to speak fluently and accurately. It is the reason why speaking skill is an important one in learning and teaching languages. 2.3.2. Principles of teaching speaking In order to have a successful speaking lesson, teachers and learners should pay attention to its principles suggested in ELT methodology II (To Thu Huong et al, 2008). First of all, teaching speaking skill is closed to “receptive skill work”. Students learn this through texts which offer them models to follow. They can imitate the way native speakers use the languages and their intonation. Besides, when people want to keep their conversation, they have to listen to others, receive what partners say to produce new sentences, so it is also reception.
    • Secondly, teachers ought to “give students practice with both fluency and accuracy”. As being mentioned by Brown & Nation (1997), students must learn both knowledge and the way native speakers use the language to speak well. On the other hand, it is recommended to “provide opportunities for students to talk by using pair work and group work, and limit teacher talk”. Pair work and group work are good tools to encourage students to talk in the class, so it will reduce teacher’s talking time easily. Moreover, tasks planned should “involve negotiation of meaning”. By asking for explanation or clarification, students can understand the speech and maintain the talk for a long time. Lastly, “design classroom activities that involve guidance and practice in both transactional and interactional speaking”. Students have chances to communicate in various and unpredicted topics related to the real life so that they are stimulated to talk in speaking lessons. To conclude, these principles are not all, but they are more important than others, so they are reviewed to help teachers and learners have good speaking classes. 2.3.3. Classroom organization and speaking skill There are a lot of ways to organize a classroom in speaking skill, such as “teacher-fronted interaction”, “small group”, etc (Bygate (1997)). However, Long and Porter (1995) reported that “group interaction allows more talk for each of the students and a greater variety of talk”. In groups, they spend more time negotiating the meaning and checking through questioning, explanation which all use target language. Especially, the activities used in groups are similar to in teacher-fronted interaction, even
    • more effective. Besides, setting of a group is more natural than that of a full class; it resembled the real life conversation. It is the reason why organizing class within group work is one of the best ways to teach speaking skill. 2.4. Using CL to motivate students in speaking classes As being mentioned above, group work is useful to speaking classes, so CL within group work is an effective method to motivate students to speak. In fact, “any time cooperative is used, oral skill come into play” (Jacob, 1992). An example of using CL to motivate students in speaking classes is oral exam preparation. Students are given study questions in which the examination will be based on. Students are asked to work in group of four on previous test to prepare. The purpose of CL activities is helping students understand all the questions and materials for the test. According to Jacob (1994), there will the explainers and the checkers. The checkers will read the questions and the explainers have to read the materials to find the answers as soon as possible, so that both of them can understand the questions. Because it is a task to get mark within group, all students have to read and speak together because of their group and themselves. From the example above, CL is used to motivate students to speak in speaking classes. If everyone finishes their task well, CL will be applied successfully.
    • Chapter III: Methodology This chapter describes the methodology of the research work which includes a brief introduction of the Xuan Dinh high school and its teaching material, the subjects, the data collection instruments, and the method of data analysis. 3.1. A brief introduction of the Xuan Dinh high school and its teaching material Under the authority of Ministry of Education and Training, Xuan Dinh high school located in Xuan Dinh province, Tu Liem district, Hanoi, Vietnam was founded in 1960. It was recognized as the first National Standardized high school in Hanoi in 2003. From now on, it has always tried to become one of the best high schools in Hanoi in terms of teaching, management, and learning, and has been received honorable name of excellent school for many years. In the year 2008 – 2009, there are 96 teachers and 1947 students, in which there are 11 teachers of English who are all female and have been teaching English for more than 5 years, and 617 the 11th form students who take English subject as a compulsory one. In addition, English subject is always a strength of Xuan Dinh high school because many students have got the high prize in the English written test to choose good students among those in the same place. New English textbook 11 published by the Education Publishing house is the main English textbook used to teach English to the 11th form students in this school. This text book is a good one because it was composed by Vietnamese English experts who know the real state of Vietnamese students very well. It is the reason why the themes of 16 units in this book are very common and relevant to Vietnamese students’ life and
    • interests. Moreover, this book is attractive to students with a lot of colorful pictures. The speaking skill part in this book was designed with several CL activities; however, the instructions for these activities which are insufficient cause difficulties for both the teachers and the students to do. The fact is that they only apply CL in a simple way without really understanding it, so that it can not involve all students in. In this study, the researcher will deal with using CL to motivate the 11th form students in speaking classes at Xuan Dinh high school and give out some suggestions to make CL really effective. 3.2. Subjects The study was conducted thanks to the cooperation of the 11th form teachers and the 11th form students at Xuan Dinh high school. 3.2.1. The teachers The survey questionnaires were distributed to 5 teachers among those who are now teaching English 11 at Xuan Dinh high school. All of them are female. For more detail, refer to table 1 Sex Teaching experience (years) T1 Female 5 T2 Female 7 T3 Female 9 T4 Female 9 T5 Female 19 Table 1: A classification of the surveyed teachers Although they are different in terms of teaching experience, they all apply CL in teaching English. These teachers’ point of views can help the researcher have general ideas about using and taking advantages of CL in
    • teaching English speaking lessons to motivate students to speak English in this school. 3.2.2. The students 275 students from 6 classes 11A1, 11A2, 11A6, 11D1, 11D3, and 11D7 who were taught English by the 5 teachers above were chosen as the participants for the research. In particular, refer to table 2 Name of classes Types of Classes Number of Number of surveyed students students 11A1 Social science 47 47 11A2 Social science 46 46 11A6 Social science 45 45 11D1 Natural science 46 46 11D3 Natural science 45 45 11D7 Natural science 46 46 Table 2: A classification of the surveyed students There are 3 main reasons for choosing these 6 classes. First of all, they are from both group A and group D which have different numbers of English periods per week and different aims in learning English; thanks to them, the researcher can elicit opinions of every student, not just some particular ones. Moreover, this selection can help the investigator know the various ways of applying CL in each class to encouraging students to speak out in English speaking lessons. Last but not least, the number of students is sufficient enough to help the researcher get the reliable data for the study. 3.3. Data Collection Instruments
    • Both the qualitative approach (observation) and the quantitative approach (survey questionnaires) are used to collect data for this research work. 3.3.1. Observation 3.3.1.1. Objectives Observation which is “a tool for collecting information without direct questioning on the part of the researcher” (Vajendra and Malick, 1999, p.129) is one of two instruments used to get the data for the research work. In this research, it was done before survey questionnaires were delivered to both teachers and students with two purposes. Firstly, observing classes with a carefully designed checklists help the researcher assess the current situation of teaching and learning English speaking lessons of the 11th form group students at Xuan Dinh high school, in which the researcher would like to know whether CL is applied or not. Moreover, the researcher would like to know the way the teachers applies CL and its advantages in motivating the students to speak English. Secondly, it was conducted to get information to check whether the answers for the survey questionnaires are reliable. The observation sheet follows three steps of a speaking lesson which are pre-speaking, while-speaking and post-speaking, but it mainly focuses on the while-speaking stage when CL is used. 3.3.1.2. Implementation Observation was done in two classes of 11D1 and 11A1 in two speaking lessons in the first two weeks of March, 2009. It was “non- participation observation”, which means the teachers and students participated in the speaking activities, but the researcher did not. 3.3.2. Questionnaires.
    • 3.3.2.1. Objectives Survey Questionnaires were used as the main tool for collecting data because “it is an efficient way of collecting information from a large number of respondents” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistical_survey). Moreover, “they are flexible in the sense that a wide range of information can be collected (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistical_survey). The data gained from the questionnaires will provide the researcher an over view of current situation of using CL to motivate students to speak out in speaking lessons and their opinions with this method as well. There are two sets of questionnaires, one for the teachers and the other for the students. Both closed and open-ended questions were used, but 90% of which were closed ones because it is easier for participants to answer and for the researcher to analyze the data. The questionnaires for the teachers consist of 10 questions. These 11 items are classified into four groups to answer three research questions. The first two ones are factual questions for the teachers’ information including the number of teaching years and the number of English speaking lessons per week. The next one is about what the teachers do to encourage their students to speak out in speaking classes which help to answer research question number 1. The content of question 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 are about frequency and ways of CL applied to teaching speaking skill in the languages classes. The last two questions are used to ask for teachers’ opinions about the advantages and motivation of CL in English speaking lessons (see appendix A2). The survey questionnaires for students were designed to get student’s opinions about CL application to teaching English speaking skill in the speaking lessons and its advantages as well. In terms of structure, the form of this questionnaire is similar to that for teachers. There are 11
    • questions which were divided into five groups to answers three research questions. The first two questions are factual questions which ask the students for their number of years of learning English and the skill which they like best. The next one asks students about their favorite English learning style. Question number 4 is used to ask about what their teachers do to encourage them to speak which answers research question number 1. The research question number 2 is solved by the next five questions about group formation and activities used in CL speaking lessons. The last two questions are used to ask for students’ opinions about advantages and motivation of CL in their English speaking lessons (see appendix A1). 3.3.2.2. Implementation The survey questionnaires were carried out through three steps. First of all, information related to this topic was read to design the questionnaires. The questions for students were translated into Vietnamese so that students in all levels can answer them. Then, survey questionnaires for both teachers and students were piloted with one teacher of English and 5 students in class 11D1 to see if they could complete the survey questionnaires or not. Then they were revised in terms of structure and language. Next, questionnaires were delivered to 5 teachers and 275 students from 16th to 20th March, 2009. The entire participants were given time to read and were carefully explained about the questions phrases by the researcher so that they could answer them properly. Finally, the survey questionnaires were classified and analyzed to reach the findings. 3.4. Method of data analysis First, after being collected, 15 survey questionnaires were chosen randomly to check if they were appropriate with what was observed or not. Next, the researcher looked through all the marked survey questionnaires both for teachers and students, interpreted, and counted them to get the
    • statistics. Then, these statistics were transferred into pie charts and bar charts to analyze and interpret into words. Finally, the image of using CL to motivate the 11th form students to speak in speaking lessons at Xuan Dinh high school were found out based on the results of two sources.
    • Chapter 4: Results and discussion This chapter presents and discusses the study results from survey questionnaires and observation with reference to the literature reviewed in the chapter 2. 4.1. Results 4.1.1. From the survey questionnaires 4.1.1.1. Overview of the teachers of English, the 11th form students and the English speaking lessons. 4.1.1.1.1. The teachers 4.1.1.1.1.1. Teachers’ teaching experiences Sex Teaching experience (years) T1 Female 5 T2 Female 7 T3 Female 9 T4 Female 9 T5 Female 19 Table 1: A classification of the surveyed teachers From the table 1, all the teacher filling in the survey questionnaires have at least more than 5 years of teaching experiences. This number of time is enough for them to study and apply different methods to teaching to find out the best one. 4.1.1.1.1.2. Number of speaking lessons per week According to the schedule and as perceived by the three teachers, there is one speaking lesson for each unit in English 11; however, speaking activities are organized in almost lessons including reading, speaking and writing according to the number of English periods per week by the rest. Teachers Numbers of speaking lessons per week
    • T1 One per unit T2 4 T3 One per unit T4 One per unit T5 3 Table 3: Numbers of speaking lessons per week as perceived by the teachers 4.1.1.1.2. The students 4.1.1.1.2.1. Students’ learning experience 7% 2% 1-5 years 6-10 years >10 years 91% Figure 1: Stude nts' le arning English e xpe rie nce As can be seen in the figure 1, among those attending the surveys questionnaire, 7% say that they have been learning English from one to five years, only 2% more than ten years, and 91% from six to ten years. In general, most of the participants have been learning English for some time, so they have had certain knowledge of English vocabulary and grammar which enable them to make simple conversation in English.
    • 4.1.1.1.2.2. Students’ most favorite English skill. Figure 2 shows which skill the 11th form students at Xuan Dinh high school like most. Reading skill is liked by most of Figure 2: The most favorite English skill participants (56%). It is easy to 11% 15% find the reason for this because Listening 18% Speaking there is a fact that Vietnamese Reading students have more chance to read 56% Writing in English than speak and listen to English. Only one third students (18%) consider speaking as their most favorite skill. There may be two reasons for this. The first reason is that exam in speaking is not available in high school final exam or in the entrance examination to universities. The second one is that students do not have chance to speak English with their friends and foreigners outside the classrooms. 4.1.1.1.2.3. Students’ favorite learning style Notes: The learning Styles 1. I want the teacher to give me instructions about the lesson so that I can learn better 2. I prefer to learn by doing language skill activities in English classes 3. I enjoy doing something for a class project 4. When I learn alone, I remember things better 5. I prefer working on projects by myself 6. I learn more when I study in a smaller group 7. I enjoy working on an assignment with two or three classmates. 8. In the English classes, I work best when I work with others
    • Fugure 3: Students' favorite learning style 100% 80% Disagree 60% Agree 40% Undecided 20% Agree 0% Strongly agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The eight learning styles can be divided into three groups: general learning style, learning individually and learning in groups. First of all, three first options are general learning style which involve in teachers’ instructions, language skill activities and class projects. In general, most of the students agree and strongly agree that they want their teachers to give them instructions about the lesson so that they can learn better (56, 36% and 23, 64%) (See figure 3). It proves that without the teachers’ instruction, it is difficult for them to learn the lessons. Besides, 83% students like doing language skill activities in English classes which give them “opportunities to get language acquisition” (ericdigests.org/2001-1/multiple.html). However, lots of students (31%) can not say whether they like doing class projects or not. Secondly, the next two options are about learning individually. As we can see from the figure 3, most of the students (22% and 35%) agree and strongly agree that they remember things better when they learn alone, and only 18% and 15% disagree and strongly disagree with the style of learning “I prefer working on projects by myself”. This figure shows that most of students asked like learning individually.
    • The last one is about learning in groups. Only 40% participants choose option A (strongly agree) and B (agree) for “I learn more when I study in groups”. Moreover, students who like working on an assignment with two or three classmates, especially in English, occupy 65% of participants. In conclusion, all the students asked still like learning individually according to the traditional learning style. 4.1.1.2. Overview of activities used to encourage students to speak in the language classes 4.1.1.2.1. From teachers’ questionnaires Activities Number of choice Choosing interesting speaking topics 2 Choosing speaking topics related to student’s need 2 Organizing speaking games 4 Forming groups to discuss 4 Giving high marks 5 Others 0 Table 4: Activities used to encourage students to speak out as perceived by the teachers. Giving high marks is the prior strategy that is chosen by all the teachers (5 out of 5) to encourage their students to speak out in speaking classes. Both organizing speaking games and forming groups to discuss are significantly used by 4 teachers as a tool to motivate students to speak. Moreover, choosing interesting speaking topics and choosing speaking topics related to student’s need are sometime used by 2 teachers for each option. No other activities are used besides these ones as perceived by the teachers. This result is similar to what has been observed by the researcher in the speaking lesson where speaking game, discussion and marks are tools to get students involved in the speaking activities. .
    • 4.1.1.2.2. From students’ questionnaires A. She/he chooses interesting speaking topics Figure 4: activities used to encourage students to speak (by students) B. She/he chooses speaking topics related to students’ need 250 250 230 C. She/he organizes speaking games 200 D. She/he forms groups to discuss 150 150 E. She/he gives high marks 100 F. Others: 73 50 50 9 0 A B C D E F As perceived by the students, a lot of activities are used to motivate them to speak out in the language classes by their teachers. 250 out of 275 students choose giving high marks, 230 out of 275 chose forming groups to discuss, 150 choose organizing speaking games, and only 50 and 73 out of 275 students choose choosing interesting speaking topics and choosing speaking topics related to students’ need as the tools to make them speak out in speaking lessons. The number of students choosing option C, D and E is as many as the teacher’s. Moreover, only 9 students choose option F (others) which mainly focuses on creating good atmosphere in the language classes so that they feel comfortable to express their ideas. In conclusion, each teacher has their own way to motivate their students to speak out in the speaking classes, among them there are three main activities which are organizing speaking games, forming groups to discuss, and giving high marks. 4.1.1.3. CL applied to teaching speaking skill in the language classes. 4.1.1.3.1. Frequency of CL applying
    • 100% teachers agree that CL is applied in every speaking lesson whereas this choice is the answer by only 70% students. 22% students say that they learn speaking lessons cooperatively once a week; no one choose every two weeks or once a month. Especially, 7% students claim that CL is applied to every skill when speaking activities are organized. Options Number of answer In every speaking class 5 one time a week 0 one time two weeks 0 one time a month 0 Others 0 Table 5: Frequency of CL applying as perceived by the teachers Options Number of answer In every speaking class 193 one time a week 60 one time two weeks 0 one time a month 0 Others 22 Table 6: Frequency of CL applying as perceived by the students 4.1.1.3.2. Forming groups Both the teachers and the students were given the three same questions about group division. In the first place, one again, 80% teachers (4 out of 5) state that there are 4 students in each group, the rest chooses 5. From the observation, the researcher can find that students sitting in the two near rows normally form a group, so number 4 is the common one for students per group. And the
    • students grouped totally follow teachers’ appointment (5 out of 5 teachers). On the other hand, “groups are remained in almost lessons” and “sometimes changed” are the answer for the question “how often are new groups formed?” Figure 5: Number of students per group as percieved by the students 4% 8% 13% 3 4 5 75% More than 5 According to the students asked, as can be seen in Figure 5: 1. 3 students per group: 13% 2. 4 students per group: 75% 3. 5 students per group:4% 4. More than 5: 8% In general, number 4 is the common number students in each group. Yet, 270 out of 275 students which occupy 98, 2% say that their groups are formed according to their teachers’ appointment. The rest percentage (1.8%) chose “at random” as their answers for this question. For specific, please refer to table 6 Options Number of answers At random 5
    • According to teacher’s appointment 270 According to students’ interests. 0 According to students’ ability. 0 Table 7: ways of forming groups Figure 6: Frequency of forming new groups 0% every lesson 27% sometimes 73% remain in ever lesson 200 out of 275 students (73%) show that groups are remained in every lesson. 27% say that the new groups are sometimes reformed; no one chooses option “every lesson” for their answer. In short, the number of students in each group is four and they are sitting next to each other and mainly are appointed by the teachers; and these groups are normally remained in every lesson. 4.1.1.3.3. Frequency of CL activities used in CL groups Table 8: Frequency of CL activities used in CL groups Always Sometimes Rarely Never 1. Discussion (A) 100 170 5 0 2. Role –play (B) 0 0 150 100 3. Information gap (C) 0 150 100 25 4. Presentation (D) 20 200 55 0 5. Drill dialogues (E) 250 25 0 0 Always = in every lesson Sometimes = one time a week
    • Rarely = one time every two week Figure 7: Frequency of CL activities used in CL lessons 100% 80% 60% Never 40% Rarely 20% Always 0% A B C D E Table 7 and figure 7 illustrates the frequency of CL activities used in CL groups as perceived by the students. 100 out of 275 students say that discussion activity is organized in every speaking lesson, and 170 out of 275 which covers 62% claim that they sometimes learn speaking skill through discussion. Meanwhile, 150 students report that they rarely use role-play activities in CL lessons. Besides, 150 students claim that information gap is sometimes used. Especially, a lot of students (200) say presentation is sometime used, and 250 participants always read one cut dialogues as their speaking activity in their CL speaking lesson. According to the teachers, 100% agree that they always use discussion activity in their speaking lessons, role-play is sometime used by 3 out of 5 teachers, and information - gap is rarely (3 out of 5) or even never (2 out of 5) used. Meanwhile, one cut dialogues and presentation are always used by all of them. In short, discussion, presentation and one cut dialogues are three most common activities used in CL speaking lessons. 4.1.1.4. Advantages and motivation of CL in teaching and learning speaking lessons. 4.1.1.4.1. From the students
    • Figure 8: Advanatges of CL 100% 80% Strongly disagree 60% Disagree 40% Undecided 20% Agree 0% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Strongly agree Notes: Advantages of CL 1. Your pronunciation is improved 2. Your vocabulary is enriched 3. You are more confident 4. You understand lesson better 5. You know how to cooperate with each others 6. Your speaking skill is much more improved 7. Your work result is better 8. You can work independently from your teacher 9. You are more active 10. You can give out ideas faster and more easily Figure 8 shows the advantages of CL in speaking lesson as perceived by the students asked. 44% students disagree that their pronunciation is improved thanks to CL. On the other hand, 162 students which occupy 59% show their agreement with “their vocabulary is enriched”. 52% students say that in CL lessons, they are more confident and they understand lessons faster. On the contrary, only 10 students (3, 64%) disagree that they know how to cooperate with each other. 129 students (47%) agree with the idea that “your speaking skill is much more improved”. Furthermore, 88% students do not know whether their work results are higher thanks to CL. Like the above selection, a lot of students (124 out of 275) disagree that they can work independently from their
    • teachers. Lastly, 119 students agree with both “you are more active” and “you can give out ideas faster and more easily”. In addition, many students also believe that CL motivates them much in learning speaking skill. In particular, 143 out of 275 students think that they are motivated to speak because CL gives them more chance to speak (see figure 9). Surprisingly, 160 students speak in CL lessons because various and interesting topics are used. 93 students disagreed that “You can work with anyone you like”. Furthermore, 144 and 129 students also showed their agreement with “Your mistakes can be seen tolerantly by your groupmates” and “You are motivated to speak out by your groupmates“. Last but not least, 47 students strongly agree that they do no hesitate to speak when working in smaller groups (see figure 9) Notes: CL motivation 1. You are given more chances to speak with your classmates 2. Various and interesting topics are offered to you 3. You can work with anyone you like 4. You can share your ideas, personality, workload, etc with your friends 5. Your mistakes can be seen tolerantly by your groupmates 6. You are motivated to speak out by your groupmates 7. You do not hesitate when speaking in smaller groups Figure 9: Motivation of CL 100% 80% Strongly disagree 60% Diagree Undecided 40% Agree 20% Strongly agree 0% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
    • The observation shows a contradiction in the students’ motivation. Although many advantages of CL have been realized and students are all motivated to speak out in speaking lessons within CL, they have not participated in the lessons enthusiastically. Without the teachers’ examination, only some students speak and give out their ideas while others keep silent or even did other things. In fact, they have not considered speaking as an important skill because it is not an official exam. 4.1.1.4.2. From the teachers 10 advantages which are in students’ survey questionnaires are also used to ask the teachers. Advantages A B C D E 1. Students’ pronunciation is improved 0 1 4 0 0 2. Students ‘vocabulary increases 1 4 0 0 0 3. Students are more confident 5 0 0 0 0 4. Students understand lesson faster 0 0 5 0 0 5. Students know how to cooperate with each others 0 5 0 0 0 6. Students’ speaking skill is improved much 1 4 0 0 0 7. Students’ work result is higher 0 2 3 0 0 8. Students can work independently 0 0 5 0 0 9. Students are more active 1 4 0 0 0 10. Students can give out ideas faster and more easily 0 2 2 1 0 Table 9: Advantages of CL as perceived by the teachers Note: A: Strongly agree D; Disagree B: Agree E: Strongly Disagree C: Undecided As can be seen, 4 out of 5 teachers can not say that “students’ pronunciation is improved” in CL lessons, but the number shows their agreement with “students’ vocabularies are increased”. “Students are more
    • confident” is agreed by 100% teachers. However, all of them undecide the statement number 4 and 8, they do not think that the students can understand lessons faster and work independently from them. Moreover, “students’ studying result is better” is agreed by all. Most of the teachers agree that students’ speaking skill is improved and they are more active through CL activities. About motivation, 4 out of 5 teachers agree that giving their students more chances to speak English will motivate them. However, all of them undecide to give various and interesting topics in the speaking lessons because they have to follow the text book. Furthermore, 80% teachers agree that students do not hesitate to speak out when working in groups. 4.1. 2. From observation 4.1. 2.1. Description of the observed class 11A1 and 11D1 are two classes chosen to be observed by the researcher. The number of students is 45 for 11A1 and 47 for 11D1. In general, these two classes are quite good in terms of English learning ability compared to other classes of the same grade. In addition, 11A1 is from group A and 11D1 is from group D which leads to the different number of English lessons per week for each. However, their attitude towards learning English is good. In terms of infrastructure, there are no high-tech facilities like computers, labs, and projectors….Students often learn in classes furnished with only tables, chairs and the blackboard. Besides, tables are arranged in the traditional way in which students sit in the four straight rows facing the teacher. In short, students are not motivated in terms of modern facilities. 4.1.2.2. Description of the teaching procedure In the presentation stage, the first teacher used drill exercises to ask the students to read the model conversations to find out the useful
    • languages for their talking. Then, the class was divided into smaller groups of four to discuss and the representatives of each group were called to present. Giving high marks was the tool used to encourage the students to speak out (see appendix B3). In the second class, drill exercises and forming smaller groups were also used in presentation stage. Firstly, students were ordered to read the example and make the same conversations. Next, some guidelines were given to help students understand the requirement clearly before smaller groups were formed to practice (see appendix B4). In terms of students’ participation, different attitudes could be seen clearly. Some students listened to the teacher and their friend attentively. However, most of the students talked privately and waited for their friends’ performance. Even some students showed boredom to teacher’s task. In short, students were not really motivated to speak out in speaking lessons. 4.1.2.3. The real of CL application from observation 4.1.2.3.1. Encouragement It is easy to realize from the observation (see appendix B3 and B4) that some techniques were used by the teachers to get students involved in the lessons and motivate them to speak out. However, these activities are similar to those in the survey questionnaires, including organizing speaking games, forming groups to discuss and giving high marks. These ways of encouragement seem to be applied in every class and in every lesson, thus students can guess what will be done next so that they are not eager to take part in. 4.1.2.3.2. CL application From the observation, we can see that CL has been applied in both classes in speaking lessons under the form of pair works and group works. The number of students per group work is four people who are sitting in the two near rows which are unchanged in one semester, so group members are
    • the same in all lessons. Besides, activities used in CL lessons are only forming groups to discuss topics that are not too challenging for the students. Unchanged activities and unchanged group mates can not create good students’ attitude towards learning. 4.1.2.3.3. Motivations The application of CL in two classes has not motivated all the students to speak out. The fact is that only some students joined in the activities enthusiastically, others chatted or even did their own jobs. This shows a fact that the activities have not met their needs yet. The participants have not really motivated to speak out by the CL activities. In summary, all students have a thought of speaking out in English speaking lessons; however, this thought have not been put in action yet. 4.2. Discussions This part is going to discuss the results gained from the survey questionnaires and observation. 4.2.1. For the research question number 1 When being asked what the teachers often do to encourage their students to speak in the language classes, both the teachers and the students at Xuan Dinh high school agree that there are three mains ways: organizing games, forming groups to discuss and giving high marks. The other ways are rarely or even never used. There are two main reasons for this. First, the three activities are mostly done because they are easy to be carried out in the language classes without putting much effort in while the contents of the lessons must be kept according to the schedules. If the teachers choose interesting speaking topics or topics related to students’ need, it is very difficult for the teachers to design the tasks closely to the lessons.
    • Second, the number of students in a class at this school is very large, about 40-45 students per class, thus to choose a topic which is liked by all students is not easy at all. In short, the teachers in Xuan Dinh high school have applied some techniques to motivate students to speak out in English classes. However, these activities are still not quite effective. 4.2.2. For the research question number 2 This question is used to investigate the application of CL applied to teaching speaking skill in the languages classes at Xuan Dinh high school. The fact is that CL has been applied in terms of forming groups to do the speaking tasks. Groups in this case are both “formal group” and “informal group” (Jacob, Johnson et al, 1998). It means that students discuss or do some activities to investigate the knowledge themselves under the teachers’ supervision. However, students are not free to choose their partners to work with; the task is carried out by the teachers. It is the reason why some students fell dissatisfied while working in group. Furthermore, the groups are often remained in every lesson that reduces eagerness of students to take part in. Sometimes, they understand each other so clearly that they can guess the ideas without hearing the words from their friends. Besides, CL is applied in terms of speaking activities. In CL lessons, various activities are used, such as discussing, doing drill dialogues, presenting, role -playing, gaming and doing projects. These activities play an important role in making the CL lessons successful. However, discussion and games are main tools which are usually used directly in the class without much preparation from the students; meanwhile, role playing and doing projects are rarely used because it takes a lot of time to set up.
    • CL activities suggested by Kagan, such as Jigsaw, think - pair – shares… have not applied yet. To conclude, CL has been applying in teaching and learning English speaking lessons at Xuan Dinh high school. Nevertheless, the application is only forming group to discuss or playing games, the advantages of CL has not explored completely. 4.2.3. For the research question number 3 In general, through the survey questionnaires, the researcher finds out that not only students but also the teachers have realized the advantages and motivation of CL. Although participants mostly undecide if students can work independently and their results will be better thanks to CL, they all think that students’ pronunciation, vocabulary and especially confidence, activation are much improved. Through CL lessons, students know how to cooperate with others; they are more active when trying to finish the common goals. These results found by the researcher share the same point with Andrew M.Dahley (1994): Students can gain “great achievement” and “social benefits” from CL. Furthermore, students find motivation to talk when they are given more chance to talk with their classmates, especially with whom they like. Through conversation, they can understand each other better and share the same targets. Moreover, they are motivated to speak out by their partners and do not hesitate to speak which are similar to what have been remarked by Kagan (1992). In conclusion, this section has discussed the using of CL to motivate students in speaking classes at Xuan Dinh high school. The above analysis proves that both the teachers and the students have realized the motivation
    • of CL in speaking classes; however, they have not explored and applied all aspects of CL to have really successful CL lessons where students can speak out every thing they want. Therefore, the next chapter will suggest some strategies to enhance the use of CL to motivate students in speaking classes at Xuan Dinh high school.
    • Chapter 5: Implications After investigating the real situation of using CL in speaking classes at Xuan Dinh high school, the researcher would like to propose some implications so that the teachers of English at Xuan Dinh high school and other schools can apply CL in teaching and learning English speaking lessons effectively. This chapter focuses on some suggestions in terms of issues related to CL and its activities that can be used in speaking lessons to motivate students to speak out. 5.1. Issues related to CL 5.1.1. Forming Groups Forming groups is very important in applying CL to teaching English speaking lessons. It is recommended to base on the real state of the class to form groups. Groups should be changed regularly in terms of participants’ ability and interests to make a new inspiration for students to work in smaller groups. However, most of the classes at Xuan Dinh high school are large ones with more than 45 students, changing to form groups certainly takes a lot of time and it is easy to cause a chaos. So, in the orientation lessons, teachers can ask students to pick up numbers which is the base for the teachers to form new groups in each lesson. Then a list of groups per unit is conducted in which the number students of the groups can be changed according to purposes the lessons. Besides, teachers can ask the monitors or group leaders to divide classes into groups before the lessons to save time and keep discipline. 5.1.2. Functioning as a group As mentioned in the “literature review”, “some students arranged into a group have not worked cooperatively from family, previous school or elsewhere” (McGrath, 1998), so organizing “mini-lessons” or “mini- activities” to help students get used to CL is very important. Before the lessons, the teachers should spend at least one period checking students’
    • attitude toward CL and organizing small CL activities to help them get acquainted with the new method. The teachers ought to go around the classrooms, observe and find out difficulties that the students encounter and then it is better for the supervisors to give clear explanations both in English and Vietnamese in order to make all students understand the way to apply CL clearly. Thanks to this lesson, CL will be easier to organize without misunderstanding among students. 5.1.3. Teacher collaboration Teachers play an important part in the success of CL lessons. Their roles change from pre-implementing part to post-implementing one. Lackof the teachers’ instructions lead to a lot of problems for the students to apply CL. In the pre-implementing part, the teachers should give clear instructions and ask the students to be sure that all of them understand the tasks. In the next stage, the teachers should go around and stop at each group to check that all participants take part in contributing ideas and to ensure that they do not do their own jobs. If the students have any difficulties, he/she can help them to solve them immediately. Besides, the teachers can use a note to tick groups’ ideas so as to choose the best one to present in front of the class. In the last part, the teachers are commentators and assessors. They give the comments that help students to be better the next time or combine groups’ ideas and give their own idea to let the classes go in the right ways. In short, when carefully considering the above issues, the CL is certainly successful. The rest is applying CL activities to attract students to join in the lessons which will be discussed in the next part.
    • 5.2. CL activities 5.2.1. Discussion Discussion is the main tool that often is used in CL lessons. However, discussion does not only mean putting students together to discuss a problem to find out a common answer. Teachers firstly put students in group of four or five and then can apply some discussion activities such as jigsaw, numbered heads together and group investigation which were approved to attract students in the speaking lessons. Activity 1: Jigsaw According to Jacob (1992), there are “a home team” and “an expert team” in Jigsaw activity. Members of each home team are responsible for a certain field. They will break and gather with people who have the same field with them in other groups to discuss. Finally, they will come back to the origin teams to give their answers. Activity: Jigsaw Model lesson plan Unit 11: Sources of energy 1. Class description: 46 grade 11 students, 37 girls and 9 boys, Xuan Dinh high school. 2. Objectives: by the end of the lesson, Students will be able to talk about the reason why we have to use alternative sources of energy and the advantages and disadvantages of various sources of energy. 3. Anticipated problems: Students do not have many words and knowledge to talk about alternative sources of energy, so teacher should be ready to provide them. 4. Teaching aids: textbook, blackboard, chalk, visual aids, and handout 5. Organization: Group work
    • 6. Procedures: - Students are divided into groups of 8 - Each student is in charge of investigating about the advantages and the disadvantages of each kind of various sources of energy including coal, geothermal heat, petroleum, solar energy, oil, wind power and gas. - The student who is responsible for the same source of energy will get together to establish “expert teams” to discuss the problems. Sources of energy Advantages Disadvantages Coal Geothermal heat Petroleum Solar energy Oil Wind power Gas - After discussing in the expert teams, students come back to the home team to present their ideas. - The teacher calls the representative of one or two groups to go to the board to present the ideas and assesses. This activity helps the students focus on only one problem, so that they can investigate it deeply and excitingly. However, it is time-consuming and complicated to cross-discuss when students do not understand the rule of the activity. It is recommended for the teachers to clearly explain both in English and Vietnamese so that all students can apply well.
    • Activity: Numbered heads together In “Numbered heads together” activity, students first work individually to find the answer and then discuss with the whole group to get the final one. Activity: Numbered heads together Model lesson plan Unit 14: Recreation 1. Class description: 46 grade 11 students, 37 girls and 9 boys, Xuan Dinh high school. 2. Objectives: by the end of the lesson, students will be able to express agreements and disagreements about entertainment activities and state the reasons. 3. Anticipated problems: Students may not have enough vocabulary to talk about the topics, so T should be ready to provide them 4. Teaching aids: textbook, blackboard, chalk, visual aids, and handout. 5. Organization: Group work. 6. Procedures: - The students are divided into group of 6. Each of them has a number - Teacher gives them a situation and asks them to work individually first before sharing the ideas with their group mates. Situation: The students of class 11A2 will have a two-day holiday. They are discussing whether they should go on a camping holiday. Finally, they decide to go camping. Please express your agreement and disagreement.
    • Some suggestions: Reasons for agreeing Reasons for disagreeing 1. can enjoy spectacular scenery 1. have to bring a lot of equipment 2. can have a lot of outdoor and supplies which are quite activities heavy 3. can get close to nature 2. have to eat bread for two days, 4. can enjoy the trees, flowers and which is not very pleasant the wildlife 3. have to hire a coach, which costs 5. can become more active s lot of money 4. have to sleep in a tent, the weather might be bad. - After discussing in group, the teacher will call a number to present in front of the class. Activity: Group investigation Students are divided into groups to work on projects. They decide the way to product and evaluated themselves. Although this kind of activity is said to be time-consuming because students have to spend time searching for document outside the class, it brings students a lot of useful knowledge from different sources. Activity: Group investigation Model lesson plan Unit 16: The wonders of the world 1. Class description: 46 grade 11 students, 37 girls and 9 boys, Xuan Dinh high school 2. Objectives: by the end of the lesson, students will be able to use facts and opinions to talk about features of man-made places. 3. Anticipated problems: Students may not have enough knowledge about this field, so T should be ready to provide them
    • 4. Teaching aids: textbook, blackboard, chalk, visual aids, and handout. 5. Organization: Group work. 6. Procedures: - The students are divided into group of 5 - T hangs pictures of 5 man - made places and asks students to investigate these five places to prepare a project to describe these places with both facts and opinions. They are given one week to prepare - Groups present their project in front the class. To have a successful Group investigation activity, students must spend time establishing the relationship outside class. They have to get together to find the answers for what they are intend to do. After that, they divide workload separately to find the documents which help each of them develop critical thinking. Them they get together to make a whole project. To some extend, this kind of activity is similar to giving a presentation. 5.2.2. Role – play Role-play is a quite interesting activity that students can take “The role of a person affected by an issue and studies the impacts of the issues on human life and/or the effects of human activities on the world around us from the perspective of that person” (serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/roleplaying/). This activity is quite useful for students because it emphasizes the real world; students have to use their own knowledge, experiences, as well as varieties of skill to show their points of view. However, using role-play activity in teaching English speaking lessons is not easy at all. Lessons need to be carefully explained and supervised in order to involve the students and to enable them to learn as much as possible from the experience.
    • Activity: Role-play: an interview Model lesson plan Unit 12: The Asian Games 1. Class description: 46 grade 11 students, 37 girls and 9 boys, Xuan Dinh high school. 2. Objectives: by the end of the lesson, students will be able to use the required language to ask and answer about the Asian Games and sports 3. Anticipated problems: Students may not have enough vocabulary to talk about the topics, so T should be ready to provide them 4. Teaching aids: textbook, blackboard, chalk, visual aids, and handout. 5. Organization: Group work. 6. Procedures: - The students are divided into group of 3 - They are asked to plays roles as a reporter of 360° sports program, a group leader of Vietnam association sports and a bodybuilding player who have just come back from the 14th Asian Games held in Busan, Korea. They are in the interview to talk the results of the Vietnamese team, some advantages and disadvantages of the competition. - Each group is delivered a record of the number of medals won by Vietnamese players. Medal won by Vietnam (at the 14th Asian Games held in Busan, Korea) Sports Gold Medals Silver Medals Bronze Medals Body building 1 1 Billiards 1 1 Karatedo 2 1 Shooting 1 Wushu 1 1 Questions to ask (for the reporter):  General questions: health, feeling….
    •  What is the total number of Medal won by Vietnam in the 14th Asian Games held in Busan, Korea? How many gold/ silver/ bronze?  Which sport is in the highest position in the classification board?  Did Vietnam team get the goal defined in advance?  What are the advantages and disadvantages of Vietnam team when going to Korean to participate in the competition? - After practicing in group, Students will be asked to go to present in front of the class. When carrying out this activity, the teachers should explain clearly the instructions, even ask the students to repeat through “Student recall” techniques. When the students understand the task carefully, they can take their roles easily. The fact is that the students have to cooperate with each other to make an influent and accurate interview. 5.2.3. Information gap Information gap is kind of activity in which each student has information that the other student(s) don't have. The objective is for students to ask questions to find out what they can get from the other(s). Activity: Filling the blank Model lesson plan Unit 13: Hobbies 1. Class description: 46 grade 11 students, 37 girls and 9 boys, Xuan Dinh high school. 2. Objectives: By the end of the lesson, students will be able to ask and answer about a hobby. 3. Anticipated problems:
    • Students may not have enough vocabulary to talk about the topics, so T should be ready to provide them. 4. Teaching aids: textbook, blackboard, chalk, visual aids, and handout. 5. Organization: Group work. 6. Procedure: - The students are divided into group of 6 - Each student is delivered a paper in which there are tables with some options such as names, hobbies, reasons and time. - Students have to go around the group to ask for their partners’ information to fill in the blank by taking notes. Sample: Names Hobbies Reasons Time A B C D E Questions to ask:  What is your hobby?  Why do you like it?  When do you do these activities? - After the lesson, students will report their friend hobbies in front of the class. This activity can be done without much preparation and it can be changed flexibly to make the lessons interesting. Through this activity, students can share their personality as well as knowledge with their friends. Chapter 6: Conclusion
    • 6.1. Summary In the light of CL theory, this research work is conducted to investigate the real situation of using CL to motivate the 11th form students in speaking classes at Xuan Dinh High school. Toward the completion of the research work, it is found that the teachers have done some activities to encourage students in speaking lessons including CL activities. In fact, CL has been applied in teaching English speaking skill and both the teachers and the students have realized its advantages; however, it has not been explored completely. In terms of applications, groups are formed to do some speaking activities which are still simple and easy to carry out. In terms of motivation, CL helps students to improve social skills, learning skill, and knowledge enrichment that encourage them to speak out in the speaking lessons as perceived by the students and the teachers themselves. From the findings gained from the two set survey questionnaires and observations done at Xuan Dinh high school, the researcher would like to propose some implication on the issues related to CL and its activities with the hope that the teachers of English and the students at Xuan Dinh and other high schools can apply and have successful CL lessons. 6.2. Limitations Although this research work has successfully been conducted and has helped to deal with the problems mentioned well, there are some limitations. The first limitation is the scale of the study. This research work was only carried out in Xuan Dinh high school, located in the outskirts of Hanoi capital. In fact, it could be conducted in a large scale with the same knowledge and researching procedure. The next one is concerned with the scale of the survey questionnaires and observation with the enrollment of nearly a half of the 11th form
    • students and only 5 teachers of English at Xuan Dinh high school, which can not reflect the total picture of using CL to motivate the 11th form students in speaking classes in this school. Moreover, in terms of data collection instruments, only two set of survey questionnaires and observations were used. Without interview, the researcher could not have chance to listen directly to both the teachers and the students’ ideas, so some problems related to CL as perceived by them have not been exploited. In short, limitations are unavoidable in doing a large project like this thesis, so the researcher would like to give out some suggestions for further studies so that these restrictions can be narrowed. 6.3. Suggestions for further studies Basing on the above mentioned limitation of the study, the following recommendations are given for further studies. First of all, the next study should be carried out on the larger scale in terms of both schools and participants. The numbers of school can be broadened to more than one, in Hanoi in general, or other cities. Besides, participants involve in the survey should be more so that it can fully reflect the situation of the issue. Next, the subject of this study has the 11th form students while CL has been introduced to both in the 10th and 12th forms students in high schools. So, it is recommended to conduct the next research work with the other groups of students at high school in general and at Xuan Dinh high school in particular. On the other hand, interview should be included in the data collection instruments with two reasons: the researcher can get ideas
    • directly from the participants, and participants also have opportunities to express what they think about the issues raised. Besides, the further study might be on students themselves in terms of ages, in terms of interest, and in terms of ability, because CL is successful or not also depending on this factors. In conclusion, the researcher of the study hopes that her research work will contribute a small part to the teaching and learning English at school in general, especially the approach she has applied will help the teachers of English at schools to teach and promote their students’ speaking ability. CL has been considered as an appropriate approach for teaching learners to communicate in target language and it is expected to be applied at several schools. References English authors
    • Bygate (1997). Speaking. Oxford University press Jacobs, G and Hall, S. (1994). Implementing Cooperative learning. English Language Forum (October 1997). Johnson, D., Johnson, R.& Holubec, E. (1998). Cooperation in the classroom. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Miguel Kagan et al (1997). Cooperative Learning Structures for Class Building. Kagan Cooperative Learning publisher Miguel Kagan et al (1995). Classbuilding: Cooperative Learning Activities. Kagan Cooperative Learning publisher Nunan, D. (1992). Collaborative Language Learning and Teaching. Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers Nunan, D. (1999). Second Language Teaching and Learning. Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers Penny Ur (1996). Characteristic of a successful speaking activity. New York: Cambridge. Vietnamese authors Le Thu Trang (1998). Investigating some effective techniques used in Pair work and group work to develop speaking skill for the 11th grade students in Hanoi high school. English Department, HULIS, VNU To, Ngan Ha (2007). Cooperative learning in teaching speaking skill to the 10th students at Foreign Language Specializing school. English Department, HULIS, VNU To, Thu Huong et al (2008). ELT Methodology I, English Department, HULIS, VNU Websites
    • Andrew M. Dahley (1994). Cooperative learning classroom research. Retrieved December 15th 2008 from http://alumni.media.mit.edu/~andyd/mindset/design/clc_rsch.html Barbara J. Millis (1996). Cooperative learning. The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga Instructional Excellence Retreat. Retrieved in 2008 from utc.edu/Administration/WalkerTeachingResourceCenter/FacultyDevelopm ent/CooperativeLearning/index.html#return David and Roger Johnson (2001). Cooperative Learning. Retrieved December 20th 2008 from http://www.clcrc.com/pages/cl.html. David W. Johnson, Roger T. Johnson, Edythe Johnson Holubec (1991). Cooperation in the classroom. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company. Retrieved December 17th 2008 from http://www.csudh.edu/dearhabermas/cooplrn.htm Heather Coffey. Cooperative learning. The UNC school of Education. Retrieved December 16th 2008 from http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/4653. Howard Community College's Teaching Resources (2001). Ideas on Cooperative Learning and the use of Small Groups. Retrieved December 20th 2008 from www.howardcc.edu/profdev/resources/learning/groups1.htm. James C. Flowers and John M. Ritz (1994). Cooperative learning in technology education. Virginia council on technology teacher education. Retrieved December 20th 2008 from http://teched.vt.edu/vctte/VCTTEMonographs/VCTTEMono13(CoopLearn ).html
    • Kagan, S. Kagan (2001). Structures for Emotional Intelligence. Kagan Online Magazine. Retrieved December 20th 2008 from http://www.kaganonline.com/Newsletter/index.html Kayi H, (2006). Teaching speaking: Activities to promote speaking in a second language. The Internet Journal, Vol. XII, No 11. Retrieved January 15th 2009 from http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Kayi-TeachingSpeaking.html Miguel Kagan et al (1992). Kagan Cooperative Learning. Retrieved November 16 2008 from http://www.kaganonline.com/ National Capital Language Resources Center (NCLRC) (n.d). Developing Speaking Activities. Retrieved January 15 2009 from http://www.nclrc.org/ essentials/speaking/developspeak.htm National Capital Language Resources Center (NCLRC) (n.d). Guidelines for communicative, Learner - centered instruction. Retrieved January 20 2009 from http://www.nclrc.org/essentials/goalsmethods/guidelines.htm ?. Cooperative learning. Retrieved December 16th 2008 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cooperative_learning APPENDIX A1 Questionnaires
    • (For students) My name is Phi Thanh Tra. I am the fourth year student of College of Foreign Languages, Vietnam National University, Hanoi. I am carrying out a graduation paper entitled “Using Cooperative learning to motivate the 11th grade students in speaking classes at Hanoi high schools”. I would like to ask for your opinions to complete my research work. All your answers will be used in my thesis and your help is highly appreciated. Thank you very much for your cooperation! Cooperative learning is “the instructional use of small groups so that students work together to maximize their own and each other’s learning” 2. How long have you learnt English? …………….years 3. Which skill do you like most? A. Listening C. Reading B. Speaking D. Writing 4. What is your favorite learning style? (Please answer by ticking in A, B, C, D, E to show your opinion) A B C D E Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree Learning styles A B C D E 1. I want the teacher to give me instructions about the lessons so that I can learn better. 2. I prefer to learn by doing language skill activities
    • in English classes 3. I enjoy doing something for a class project 4. When I learn alone, I remember things better 5. I prefer working on projects by myself 6. I learn more when I study in a smaller group 7. I enjoy working on an assignment with two or three classmates 8. In the English class, I work better when I work with others 5. What does your teacher of English do to encourage you in speaking classes? (You can choose more than one option) A. She/he chooses interesting speaking topics B. She/he chooses speaking topics related to students’ need C. She/he organizes speaking games D. She/he forms smaller groups for you to discuss in E. She/he gives high marks when you can produce good language F. Others: …………………………………………………….. 6. How often do you learn speaking skill cooperatively in smaller groups? A. In every speaking class C. one time two weeks B. one time a week D. one time a month E. Others: ……………………………………………………… 7. How many members do you work with? A. 3 b. 4 c. 5 d. More than 5 d. How are you formed into smaller groups?
    • a. At random b. According to teacher’s appointment c. According to students’ interests. d. According to students’ ability. e. How often are new groups formed? a. Every speaking lesson b. Sometimes c. Groups are remained in every lesson. f. How often are the following activities used in your speaking lessons? Activities Always Sometimes Rarely Never Discussion Role-play Information gap Presentation Drill dialogues
    • g. What are the advantages of using Cooperative learning in speaking classes? A B C D E Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree Advantages A B C D E 1. Your pronunciation is improved 2. Your vocabulary is enriched 3. You are more confident 4. You understand lesson better 5. You know how to cooperate with each others 6.Your speaking skill is much more improved 7. Your work result is better 8. You can work independently from your teacher 9. You are more active 10. You can give out ideas faster and more easily h. Why does Cooperative learning motivate you to speak in speaking classes? (You can choose more than one option) A B C D E Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree Motivations A B C D E 1. You are given more chances to speak with your classmates 2. Various and interesting topics are offered to you 3. You can work with anyone you like 4. You can share your ideas, personality, workload, etc with your friends
    • 5. Your mistakes can be seen tolerantly by your groupmates 6. You are motivated to speak out by your groupmates 7. You do not hesitate when speaking in smaller groups Thank you for your cooperation! APPENDIX A2 Questionnaires (For teachers) My name is Phi Thanh Tra. I am the fourth year student of College of Foreign Languages, Vietnam National University, Hanoi. I am carrying
    • out a graduation paper entitled “Using Cooperative learning to motivate the 11th grade students in speaking classes at Xuan Dinh high schools”. I would like to ask for your opinions to complete my research work. All your answers will be used in my thesis and your help is highly appreciated. Thank you very much for your cooperation! Cooperative learning is “the instructional use of small groups so that students work together to maximize their own and each other’s learning” 1. How long have you taught English? …………….years 2. How many speaking lessons do your 11th grade students have in a week? 18.1 20.3 19.2 21.Others: …….. 3. What do you often do to encourage your students to speak out in speaking classes? 3.1. Choosing interesting speaking topics 3.2. Choosing speaking topics related to students’ need 3.3. Organizing speaking games 3.4. Forming groups to discuss 3.5. Giving high marks 3.6. Others: …………………………………………………….. 4. How often do you get your students to do speaking activities cooperatively? 4.1. In every speaking class 4.2. one time a week
    • 4.3. one time two weeks 4.4. one time a month 4.5. Others (please specify): …………………………………………… 5. How many members do you get your students to work with? a. 3 c. 5 b. 4 d. More than 5 7. How are students grouped into smaller groups? 17.At random 18.According to teacher’s appointment 19.According to students’ interests. 20.According to students’ ability. 8. How often are new groups formed? 17.Every speaking lesson 18.Sometimes 9. How often are the following Cooperative learning activities used in your speaking classes? Activities Always Sometimes Rarely Never Discussion Role-play Information gap Presentation Drill dialogues 10. What are the advantages of using Cooperative learning in speaking classes? A B C D E
    • Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree Advantages A B C D E 1. Students’ pronunciation is improved 2. Students’ vocabulary is enriched 3. Students get more confident 4. Students understand lesson completely 5. Students know how to cooperate with each others 6.Students’ speaking skill is much more improved 7. Students’ work result is better 8. Students can work independently from the teacher 9. Students are more active 10. Students can give out ideas faster and more easily 11. How does Cooperative learning motivate students to speak in speaking classes? (You can choose more than one option) A B C D E Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree Motivations A B C D E 1. Students are given more chances to speak English 2. Various and interesting topics are offered in your speaking lessons 3. Students can work with anyone they want to 4. Students can learn their friends’ ideas, personality, etc. 5. Students can share their personality, ideas, news and workload…. with their friends 6. Students’ mistakes can be accepted by both their teachers and their groupmates
    • 7. Students do not hesitate when speaking in smaller groups Thank you for your cooperation!
    • APPENDIX B1 Observation Checklist 1. General information • Date • Observer • Class • Type of class • Numbers of student • Topic • Course book 2. Teachers’ activities in speaking lessons 3. Types of speaking activities 4. Teachers’ instructions 5. Duration of speaking activities 6. Students’ participation
    • APPENDIX B2 Observation Sheet 1 Date: Observer: Class: Type of class: Number of students: Unit: Topic: Course book:
    • Stage Activities Instruction Duration Ss’ participation Warm-up Presentation Production
    • APPENDIX B3 Observation Sheet 1 Date: 5/3/2009 Number of students: 47 Observer: Phi Thanh Tra Unit: 11 Class: 11D1 Topic: Sources of energy Type of class: Social science Course book: English 11 Stage Activities T’s instruction Duration Ss’ participant Warm-up Chatting to T gave questions 5 - Most of the review the and asked Ss to minutes students listened old lesson answer to the teacher and their friends ttentively.
    • Presentation 1. Work in - T asked: 30 - Some Ss work pair: Tick the • Tung read the minutes in pair, some Ss appropriate model keep silent, and box conversation some students on the book chat with their friends. • Others underlined the words and phrases that are used in the conversation - T divided class - Some students 2. Work in worked in into 4 groups group: make groups, some Ss conversation - T asked each kept silent, and about pair in each group some students advantages make conversation chat with their and about advantages friends. disadvantages and disadvantages of a of a alternative - Some students alternative source of energy showed source of boredom to - T called 4 pairs teacher’s task. energy to practice in front of the class, other listen and find out the mistakes - T gave good marks to Ss having good conversation Production Work in - T divided the 10 - Some groups group: class into twelve minutes discussed, some Express your groups of three. groups chatted belief on the - T asked Ss to with each other, increasing use discuss and calls others did their of alternative some group own exercises.
    • sources in the leaders to present. future
    • APPENDIX B4 Observation Sheet 2 Date: 10/3/2009 Observer: Phi Thanh Tra Class: 11A1 Type of class: Natural science Number of students: 45 Unit: 12 Topic: The Asian games Course book: English 11
    • Cooperative Learning Stage Activities T’s instruction Duration Ss’ participation Warm-up Matching - T divided class 5 minutes - Ss participated into 2 groups and eagerly. said: “ Each group has one representative to go to the board and match the pictures with its name” Pre- Introducing - T gave meaning 5 minutes - Students showed speaking new words of some new boredom to the words given in the teacher’s task book. While – 1. Work in - T asked students 20 - Some Ss worked speaking pairs: Ask to open the minutes in pair, some Ss and answer textbook kept silent, and questions - T asked them to some students about the read the examples chatted with their Asian carefully. friends. games, - T asked them using the some questions information about the from the examples table - T asked them to make similar conversation as Phi Thanh Tra 90 051E4
    • Cooperative Learning the examples. 2. Talk - T asked Ss to about the open book (p140) sports and look at the results of table at task 2. the - T asked some Vietnamese questions to help athletes at students 14th Asian understand the Games table After – Work in - T put students in 15 - Some groups speaking groups: groups of 3-4 minutes discussed, some discussion - T asked them to groups chatted ask and answer with each other, about Vietnamese some others did performance and their own exercises achievements at the 14th Asia Games. Phi Thanh Tra 91 051E4