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How Psycholinguistic Elements Affect The Translation Of Fairy Tales For Children Of Vietnam   BùI Thị Thuý Nga
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How Psycholinguistic Elements Affect The Translation Of Fairy Tales For Children Of Vietnam BùI Thị Thuý Nga






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    How Psycholinguistic Elements Affect The Translation Of Fairy Tales For Children Of Vietnam   BùI Thị Thuý Nga How Psycholinguistic Elements Affect The Translation Of Fairy Tales For Children Of Vietnam BùI Thị Thuý Nga Document Transcript

    • VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY,HANOI COLLEGE OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES english department ------------- BÙI THỊ THUÝ NGA how psycholinguistic elements affect the translation of fairy tales for children of vietnam SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF ARTS (TEFL) 1
    • Hanoi, May 2009 2
    • ACCEPTANCE PAGE I hereby state that I: Bïi ThÞ Thuý Nga, K39A15, being a candidate for the degree of Bachelor of Arts (TEFL) accept the requirements of the College relating to the retention and use of Bachelor’s Graduation Paper deposited in the library. In terms of these conditions, I agree that the origin of my paper deposited in the library should be accessible for the purposes of study and research, in accordance with the normal conditions established by the librarian for the care, loan or reproduction of the paper. Signature: Date: 4/5/2009 3
    • ACKNOWLEGDEMENTS During the course of fulfilling my graduation paper, I have owned a debt of gratitude to many people. First and foremost, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to Mr. Ph¹m Ph¬ng LuyÖn Ph.D, my supervisor, for his enlightening guidance, without which the research paper could not be completed. Second, my special thanks would be sent to all lecturers of Translator and Interpreter Training Division for their golden comments and assistance. Last but not least, I am deeply grateful to my family and friends for their spiritual and material assistance during the time this study was carried out. 4
    • 5
    • ABSTRACT Learning English becomes more and more important in a situation of comprehensive global integration. We should not use only one kind of book or one teaching or learning method while learning and teaching English. One way of teaching English is learning from stories. Translating literature in general and fairy tales in particular has always been a difficult task to any translator because while translating for young children, translators have to take into account their psychological and linguistic elements. This study is carried out focusing on the translation of fairy tales in English into Vietnamese for young children of Vietnam. Chapter 2 gives some theoretical background on translation, its definitions and methods, an overview of children’s literature, fairy tales and characteristics of children’s language and psychology. This part points out some main psycholinguistic features of children. Chapter 3, based on what are drawn from chapter 2, analyses the translation of fairy tales for children in some categories such as the use and translation of idioms, the simplification of language. Chapter 4 summarizes the whole study and gives some recommendations. 6
    • 7
    • TABLE OF CONTENT Retention.......................................................................i Acknowlegdement........................................................ii Abstract........................................................................iii CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION...................................................4 I. Rationale` ............................................................................... 6 II. Aims and objectives of the study ............................................................................... 6 III. Methods of study ............................................................................... 7 IV. Scope of study ............................................................................... 7 V. Design of study........................................................7 CHAPTER 2: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND............................9 I. AN OVERVIEW OF TRANSLATION...................................9 I.1. Definitions ...................................................................................... 9 I.2. Methods of translation.........................................10 I.3. Literary translation...............................................13 II. AN OVERVIEW OF CHILDREN’S LITERATURE AND FAIRY TALES....................................................................................15 8
    • II.1. An overview of children’s literature...................15 II.1.1. Definitions..........................................................15 II.1.2. Types of children’s literature...........................16 II.1.2.1. Children’s literature by genre.......................16 II.1.2.2. Children’s literature by age category..........17 II.1.3. Characteristics of children’s literature............18 II.2. An overview of fairy tales....................................19 II.2.1. Definitions.........................................................19 II.2.2. History of fairy tales.........................................20 II.2.3. Characteristics of fairy tales............................21 III. AN OVERVIEW OF PSYCHOLOGY OF CHILDREN.........23 CHAPTER 3: RESULTS AND ANALYSIS................................26 I. Language simplification......................................26 I.1. Sentence structure...............................................26 I.2.Translating personal and geographical names....30 I.3. Adding and leaving out items...............................31 II. The use of familiar terms and slangs.................36 III. Translation of idioms...........................................37 III.1. An overview of idiomatic expressions................37 III.2. Translation of idioms..........................................38 III.2.1. Translation of idioms by semantic methods....38 III.2.2. Translation of idioms by communicative methods.....................................................................39 IV. Things to be avoided when translating fairy tales for children..........................................................40 9
    • CHAPTER 4: IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE STUDY............................................................................42 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION....................................................45 References.................................................................46 10
    • CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION I. Rationale English has become a major international language which makes it possible for integration of cultures among countries all over the world to take place. That integration is carried out in many fields of everyday life such as economy, politics, art and literature. Literature is said to be a mirror that reflects real life. It contains the cultural features of the place where it comes from. Translating plays an important role in transfering the cultural contents and spirits as well. Because of this reason, translating literature seems to be a hard work. This seems to be more difficult to translate literary works for children as it has to take a number of factors into consideration. The world of children has been regarded as a subculture with its own traits and language. Children’s psychological and language features have been a matter of fact which has been thoroughly researched on…. Translators of both English and Vietnamese need to understand language and psychological features of both English and Vietnamese children compared with those of the teenagers and adults. 11
    • Translating stories for children is interesting but hard work. Translators should pay attention to psycholinguistic features of children when they translate. Up to now, there have been few projects on this issue. With this in mind, I decided to choose to do a study on “ How psycholinguistic elements affect the translation of fairy tales for children of Vietnam?” in the hope to bring some light to this murky issue through setting the following aims and objectives. II. Aims and objectives of the study This study aims at answering these three following questions: 1. What are the linguistic features that may have been used in translation of fairy tales for Vietnamese children as contrasted with teenagers and adults? 2. What translation techniques and methods should be used when translating fairy tales for children? 3. What should be avoided when translating stories for children? III. Methods of the study This paper was carried out in the light of psychological analysis, language analysis and comparison the original text with the translated text. 12
    • The theoretical background were derived from the best studies on translation, psychological features of children and children language. The analysis was based on examples taken from fairy tales for children. IV. Scope of the study In this study, I will focus on famous fairy tales for children in both American and British English. They are “Cinderella”, “Little Red Riding Hood”, “The Emperor’s New Clothes”, “Beauty and the Beast”, “Snow White”, “Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp”, “Peter Pan and Tinkerbell”, “Rapunzel”, “Sleeping Beauty”, “Puss in Boots”, “Snow White and The seven Dwarfs”, “The Frog Prince”, and “The Ugly Duckling”. However, due to the fact that there are many differences in versions of each fairy tale, I choose mainly my examples from the book “Learn English through fairy tale” by EIL group, Hanoi. V. Design of the study The study focuses on the thesis of how psycholinguistic elements affect the translation of fairy tales in English for Vietnamese children who are from 6 to 10 years old. It consists of five chapters and one appendix. They are introduction, theoretical background, psycholinguistic elements in translating 13
    • fairy tales for children, recommendations of the study and conclusion. Chapter 1 introduces the rationale, aims and objectives, scope, method and design of the study. Chapter 2 presents the definitions and methods of translation, overview of chidlren’s literature, overview of fairy tales, children’s psychology and their language. This chapter gives an overview of psychological and linguistic features of children that translators should take into account when translating for children. Chapter 3 is the main part of the study. Basing on what have been drawn from chapter 2, the translators can have some techniques and tips to do a better job. They are language simplification and the use of familiar terms and idioms that are suitable for the language level and moral development of children. Chapter 4 basing on what have discussed in chapter 3 recommends some tips for translators, teaching and further research. Chapter 5 is the last one of the study that draw the conclusions for the study. These conclusions answer to the questions raised in the aims of the study. 14
    • CHAPTER 2: THEORETICAL BACKGROUND I. AN OVERVIEW OF TRANSLATION I.1. Definitions The term “translation” was defined in different ways. There is no sole answer to the question “What is translation?”. Linguists and translation theorists have so far given a variety of answers. But they all seem to look at translation from these main perspectives. According to Peter Newmark (1998), translation is “Often, though not by any means always, rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way that the author intended the text.” Roger Bell (1991) defines translation as “the process or the result of converting information from one language or language variety into another. The aim is to reproduce as accurately as possible all grammatical and lexical features of the source language original by finding equivalentts in the target language. At the same time all factual information 15
    • contained in the original text must be retained in the translation.” Mildred L. Larson (1984) claims that “ Translation consists of transferring the meaning of the source language into the receptor language. Therefore, translation consists of studying the lexicon, grammatical structure, communication situation, and cultural context of the source language text, analyzing it in order to determine its meaning, and then reconstructing this same meaning using the lexicon and grammatical structure which are appropriate in the receptor language and its cultural context”. Meanwhile Nida and Taber (1974) believe that “translation consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style”. In the Oxford advanced learner’s dictionary, translation is defined as “ the process of changing something written or spoken in one language into another language”. In conclusion, translation is the transference of a text from one language to another language based on the equivalence. Translation here requires the study of language, grammar, culture and spiritual features of the receptor language.The transference here is 16
    • shown not only in the conveyance of the form but also in the conveyance of meaning. In order to successful in tranferring both the form and meaning, the translators while translating need take into account a number of factors. Besides language and knowledge, they must be well aware of the target language readers of their translation. They may “try to assess the level of education, the class, age and sex of the readership” (Newmark). This may help them decide on the language use, the style and “emotional tone”. I.2. Methods of translation According to Newmark (1997), two major methods of translation namely communication translation and semantic translation can fulfil the two main aims of translation, which are first, accuracy, and second, economy. Semantic translation is used for “expressive” texts while communicative for “informative” and “vocative” texts. In “ A textbook for translation” Newmark provided a V diagram 17
    • SL emphasis TL emphasis Word- for- word translation Adaptation Literal translation Free translation Faithful translation Idiomatic translation Semantic translation Communicative translation Word- for- word translation This is often demonstrated as interninear translation, with the TL immediately below the SL words. The SL word order is preserved and the words translated singly by their most common meanings, out of context. Cultural words are translated literally. The main use of word- for- word translation is either to understands the mechanics of the source language or construe a difficult text as a pre- translation process. Literal translation The SL grammatical constructions are converted to the nearest TL equivalents but the lexical words are again translated singly, out of context. As a pre- 18
    • translation process, this indicates the problems to be solved. Faithful translation A faithful translation attempts to reproduce the precise contextual meaning of the original within the constraints of the TL grammatical structures. It “ transfers” cultural words and preserves the degree of grammatical and lexical “ abnormality” (deviation from SL norms) in the translation. It attempts to be completely faithful to the intentions and the text- realisation of the SL writer. Semantic translation Semantic translation differs from “faithful translation” only in as far as it must take more account of the aesthetic value (that is, the beautiful and natural sound) of the SL text, compromising on “meaning” where appropriate ao that no assonance, word play or repetition jars in the finished version. Further, it may translate less important cultural words by culturally neutral third or functional terms but not by cultural equivalents- une nonne repassant un corporal may become “ a nun ironing a corporal cloth”- and it may make other small concessions to the readership. 19
    • The distinction between “faithful” and “semantic” translation is that the first is uncompromising and dogmatic, while the second is more flexible, admits the creative exception to 100% fidelity and allows for the translator’s intuitive empathy with the original. Adaptation This is the “freest” form of translation. It is used mainly for plays( comdies) and poetry; the themes, characters, plots are usually preserved, the SL culture converted to the TL culture and the text written. The deplorable practice of having a play or poem literally translated and then rewritten by an established dramatist or poet has produced many poor adaptations, but other adaptations have “rescued” period plays. Free translation Free translation reproduces the matter without the manner, or the content without the form of the original. Usually it is a paraphrase much longer than the original, a so-called “ intralingual translation”, often prolix and pretentious, and not translation at all. 20
    • Idiomatic translation Idiomatic translation reproduces the “ message” of the original but tends to distort nuances of meaning by preferring colloquialisms and idioms where these do not exist in the original. ( Authorities as diverse as Seleskovitch and Stuart Gilbert tend to this form of lively, “natural” translation.) Communicative translation Communicative translation attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original in such a way that both content and language are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership. I.3. Literary translation In the website http://www.traduguide.com/literary-translation/ literary-translation.asp, literary translation is defined as “ the artistic, recreative transferal of sense and sound from one language to another and from one culture to another”. According to P.Newmark (1997), short story is of literary forms, the second most difficult, after poetry. In this type of translation, Newmark defined two types 21
    • of key words: leitmotifs which are peculiar to a short story, characterising a character or a situation; and word or phrase that typifies the writer rather than the particular text. For key- words, translators have to assess their texts critically. They have to decide which lexical units are central, and have the more important function, and which are peripheral, so that the relative gains and losses in a translation may correspond to their assessment. It is also stated in the website http://www.traduguide.com/literary- translation/literary-translation.asp that problems posed by the translation of stories are also “the relative importance of SL culture and the author’s moral purpose to the reader. It may be exemplified in the translation of proper names, of the SL conventions and the author’s idiolect; the translation of dialect; the distinction between personal style, literary convention of period or movement and the norms of the SL. Therefore, it is concluded that” translation of literature is anything but simple. The process of literary translation is the most intense way to come to terms with the complexities of meaning and aesthetic form and literary text”. 22
    • In Vietnam, when talking about the assessment of a translation, these three criterion of a good translated version are often mentioned: tÝn, ®¹t, nh·. TÝn, simply put, means that the translation must be faithful to the origin. In other words, tranlated version must be correct. §¹t means the translated version must convey the text’s content and spirit or have high quality. Nh· refers to the naturalness of TL text. In the view of many translators, a translated version that only conveys the content but unnaturally is not a good one. Therefore, it is necessary for the above three criterion to computational- exist. Eg: Mr X is a member of the Politburo, Mr A is a member of Writer Association. It is not wrong if that sentence is translated: “¤ng X lµ thµnh viªn Bé chÝnh trÞ, «ng A lµ thµnh viªn Héi nhµ v¨n”, but it is not natural. It will sound better if translated as: “ ¤ng X lµ uû viªn Bé chÝnh trÞ, «ng A lµ héi viªn Héi nhµ v¨n”. (NguyÔn V¨n D©n_ Gãp phÇn x©y dùng lý thuy’t dÞch thuËt) However, recently, many Vietnamese professional translators have the same opinion that it is unnecessary to assess a translated version with all these three criterion. Only “TÝn” or correctness is 23
    • enough on the ground that this term itself includes the two others, quality and naturalness. NguyÔn V¨n D©n, in his article, states that in translation, translators are required to have creativeness. This is based on their wide knowlegde of linguistic and culture to produce a faithful version with exact equivalent structure of TL. However, we cannot consider creativeness as a criteria as correctness is. Correctness includes creativeness. To do a good job, a translator need to follow some rules on knowlegde of culture and equivalence. In conclusion, literary translation is not an easy task to any translator. It requires not only language skill but also a good background knowlegde of culture, history, and style of each writer. The translators should be flexible in adjusting the target language readers and choosing the appropriate language use so that their translations are both correct and natural. Translating fairy tales for children also requires correctness, naturalness and creativeness. The translations should be appropriate for the language understanding of children and their moral and language development as well. II. AN OVERVIEW OF CHILDREN’S LITERATURE AND FAIRY TALES 24
    • 1. An overview of children’s literature 1.1. Definitions In the website http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Children’s _literature, children’s literature is defined as literature for “readers and listeners up to about age of twelve and is often illustrated. The term is used in senses which sometimes exclude young- adult fiction, comic books, or other genres. Books specifically for children existed by the 17th century”. Up to now, there have been some dabate on the issue of what constitutes children’s literature. They may be books written by children, books written for children and books chosen for children. Perhaps the most common definition of children’s literature is those books intentionally written for children. Books written for children to some extents are different from those for teenagers and adults. Obviously the degrees of language and knowledge of children are lower than of teenagers ans adults. The language written for children must be simplier. They cannot understand too strange concepts. On the contrary, teenagers and adults have a certain degree of language and knowlegde. Simply stories are not suitable to them. According to Anderson, an associate professor in the College of Education at the University of South Florida, children’s literature is defined as all books written for 25
    • children “ excluding works such as comic books, joke books, cartoon books, and nonfiction works that are not intended to be read from front to back, such as dictionaries, encyclopedias, and other reference material”. Books chosen for children maybe is the most restrictive definition. Teachers and parents can chose “appropriate” books for children. They choose those books that help them teach the children knowledge, language and at the same time teach them useful lessons. 1.2. Types of children’s literature Children’s literature can be divided in many ways. However, in this graduation paper, the author only covers, the first, by genre, and the second, by age category. 1.2.1. Children’s literature by genre A literary genre is a category of literary composition. Genres may be determined by technique, tone, content, or length. (http://en. wikipedia.org/wiki/Children’s_literature). According to Nancy Anderson, associate professor in the College of Education at the University of South Florida, children’s literature can be divided into six major subgenres. 26
    • 1. Picture book 2. Traditional literature 3. Fiction 4. Non- fiction 5. Biography 6. Poetry and verse In these six subgenres, due to the limitation of this graduation paper, the author will focus on traditional literature only. This subgenre can also be divided into six smaller subgenres: myths, fables, ballads, folk music, legends and fairy tales. The subgenre of traditional literature has ten main characteristics. They are unknown authorship; conventional introductions and conclusions; vague settings; stereotyped characters; anthropomorphism; cause and effect; happy ending for the hero; magic accepted as normal; brief stories with simple and direct plots and lastly, repitition of action and verbal patterns. Anderson states that there are “several common themes in traditional literature. They follow along the lines of “Triumph of good over evil, trickery, hero’s quest, reversal of fortune, and small outwitting the big,” “because one of the purposes of folklore was to transmit cultural values and beliefs, the theme is usually quite apparent”. 27
    • 1.2.2. Children’s literature by age category Dividing by age is also as vague and problematic as by types of children’s literature. We divide children’s literature based on age category in order to distinguish it from adult literature. Because of psychological and linguistic elements of chidlren in each periods in their life are different, each age likes reading different books. Age is divided into four main sub- divided age category: 0-5; 5-7; 7-12; and 13-18 (http://en.wikipedia org/wiki/Children’s_literature). There are not clear criteria for this division though one obvious distinction is that books for younger children is easier to read and understand. In the book “T©m lý häc løa tuæi”, children’s age is divided into two main periods: before schooling (from 0 to 5 years old) and while- schooling( from 6 to 18 years old). While schooling is also divided into three periods: 6-11; 12-15; and 15- 18. Due to the limitation of this graduation paper, the author will just focus on the period from 6 to 12 years old. In Vietnamese they are called “Nhi ®ång” who are students in primary schools. 1.3. Chracteristics of children’s literature Because of psychological and linguistic features of children, the literature for children has some 28
    • particular characterictics. Firstly, it is simple and straightforward. However, this does not mean that the vocabulary used are overly simplistic or the style is too flat. This shows that when translating for children, translator should pay attention to the use of vocabulary. It is not an easy task. The words used must be both appropriate for children’s language and knowlegde and sounds interesting. Secondly, it should express the children’s points of view. If the books written for children express the viewpoints of adult, they will make it difficult for children to understand or make them confused. Besides, sometimes the way of thinking and explaining by adults will have bad influence on the moral development of children. The world of adults is often more complicated than children’s. Children’s way of thinking is simple because they are pure to some extents. While adults do things with purposes and calculation. The author hope there will be a study in this topic in the future. The third characteristic of children’s literature is optimism. In Sarah Smedman’s opinion, “ Hope is a vital dimension of a children’s book”. It is not so difficult to understand the importance of optimism in books written for and read by children. Once again, it is necessary to talk about children’s moral development and the formation of personality. 29
    • Optimism in literature can help children look at everything optimistically in life. This is a positive factor to children’s development. Another characteristic of children’s literature that is also important is that it tends toward fantasy. Fantasy often implies a symbolic defiance of our knowlegde of reality, and represents the potential that lies below the surface in each of us. Reading books with fantasy helps children with their imagination. Moreover, children’s literature is seen to be didactic. Traditionally, children’s literature has been seen as attemping to educate children. They teach children what is right and what is wrong. They teach children good lessons in the hope that they will be good people. The last characteristic the author would like to mention here is repetition. This is regarded as a basic method of education. Repititions with words, phrases, situations and narrative patterns are common in children’s literature. ( http://www.ferrum.edu/thanlon/chlit/genre.htm) These characteristics are not characteristics themselves. They are also requirements of translations for children. Translators should take these characteristics into consideration. Awareness of these characteristics of children’s literature helps translators go into the world of children. 30
    • 2. An overview of fairy tales 2.1. Definitions “A fairy tale is a fictional story that may feature folkloric characters such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, giants, and talking animals, and usually enchantments, often involving a far-fetched sequence of events. In modern- day parlance, the term is also used to describe something blessed with princesses, as in “fairy tale ending” (a happy ending) or fairy tale romance”, though not all fairy tales end happily. Colloquially, a “fairy tale” or “fairy story” can also mean far- fetched story. Fairy tales commonly attract young children since they easily understand the archetypal characters in the story”. (http://en. wikipedia.org/wiki/Fairy_tale) Fairy tales are known as wonder tales or marchen (from the German). They are a subgenre of folktales involving magical, fantastic or wonderful episodes, characters, events, or symbols. (http://www.faculty. de.gcsu.edu/~mmagouli/fairy_tales.htm) The website http://www.askalana.com/fg/fairytales.html offers another definition of fairy tales that is “A magic story which cannot be true” (Linda Degh) which 31
    • differentiates them from legends, which could very well be true. It can be drawn from these definitions that fairy tales include a lot of fantastic plots, characters and events. The task of translators is to transfer these fantastic things and its spirit. 2.2. History of fairy tales Fairy tales are found in both oral folktales and in literary form. Because of the difficulty in defining children’s literature, it is difficult to trace the history of fairy tales. However, we can be sure that fairy tales have existed for thousands of years. The oral tradition of fairy tales came long before the written page. People passed them down by words of mouth. The tales changed over time. As the stories were retold, the tellers added some details and left the others out. The oldest known written fairy tales stemmed from ancient Egypt, for instance, “The Tale of Two Brothers”. Originally, adults were the audience of a fairy tale just as often as children. Literary fairy tales appeared in works intended for adults, but in the 19th and 20th centuries the fairy tale came to be associated with children’s literature. Many of fairy tales we know today come to us in versions first published by French writer Charles Perrault (1628- 1703). Perrault laid the foundations of the fairy tales in France. His stories 32
    • include “Sleeping Beauty”, “Little Red Riding Hood”, “Puss in Boots” and “Cinderella”, as well as many others. In the early nineteenth century, the German brothers Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm collected fairy tales and published them in a classic work known as Grimm’s Fairy Tales. Familiar characters from their stories include Hansel and Gretel, Snow White and Rumpelstiltskin. Between 1835 and 1848, Hans Christian Andersen (1805- 1875) made up his own fairy stories. In addition to “The Ugly Duckling”(1844) and “The Emperor’s New Clothes”(1837), they include “The Snow White”, “The Red Shoes”, “The Little Mermaid”(1836) and “The Snow Queen”(1845). His fairy tales have been translated into over 150 languages and continued to be published in millions of copies all over the world. Andersen’s fairy tales later inspired plays, ballets, movies and works of art. In 1880, Johanna Spyri (1827- 1901) published “ Heidi” in Switzerland which is subtitled a book “for children and those who love children”. 2.3. Characteristics of fairy tales Fairy tales are found all over the world and in every culture. Though each culture and geographic region of the world has its own body of fairy tales, there are several basic characteristics of fairy tales which have similarities in common with most cultures. 33
    • Certain themes and motifs tend to be repeated across many cultures and time periods. Universal human emotions such as love, hate, courage, kindness and cruelty appear always in fairy tales. Firstly, in terms of setting, fairy tales generally take place in an unspecified place and in an undefined and far-off time. They typically begin” Once upon a time, long ago in a far away place”. Next, the characters of fairy tales often has no specific names. They are often “flat” characters that never develop. Even when being given a name, Cinderella means nothing more than “girl of the cinders” and so on Rapunzel, Snow White and Sleeping Beauty. In fairy tales, a girl is often as protagonist. A fairy tale often has a simple plot that focuses on a problem or conflict that needs to be solved. It often tells the story of an individual (a girl, a hero or heroine). The fairy tales involve magic elements which may be magical people, animals, objects. Certain basic plots occur again and again in fairy tales such as the protagonist leaves home, the hero (or heroine) has bad luck, the hero (or heroine) must perform impossible task, or she or he must fight a villain, meets magical helpers, she or he is treated badly or in danger. Generally fairy tales end happily. Goodness is 34
    • rewarded and evil is punished. The protagonist is rewarded with wealth or with a happy marriage. Poor characters can marry royality. The traditional closing line of a fairy tale is “and they lived happily ever after”. There is also transformation in fairy tales, either a physical transformation or a character one. For example, the beast turns into a handsome prince, cinderella is transformed into a princess, the frog is transformed into a prince, the ugly duckling turns out to be a swan all along. The last characteristic that fairy tales all around the world share is its theme. The theme is generally morality that means the conflict between good and bad, in which good is rewarded and bad is punished. Moreover, it is also an encouragement of middle-class social values. In a nutshell, fairy tales have four main characterictics of setting, characters, plot and theme. Though fairy tales are not true, they have positive influence on the moral development of children, their way of thinking and their actions as well. Reading stories in general and fairy tales in particular can help children develop not only with their language skill but also their personality formation. It helps remove the negative adult influence, leave the central character to cope with things on their own. That is why parents 35
    • often find the traditional fairy tales for their children. They always wish to protect their children from the unhappier aspects of life and also always wish to teach them useful lessons so that they will become good people. Because of the importance of fairy tales to the development of children both in language acquisition and moral development, the translators should III. AN OVERVIEW OF PSYCHOLINGUISTIC FEATURES OF CHILDREN 1. An overview of psychology of children Child psychology development is a process that “is associated with the social and personal development of children”. This proccess begins from prenatal period to maturity in the areas of cognition, ethology, genetics, language, learning, perception and social behaviour. It is divided into smaller stages. There are many ways of dividing stages of child psychology development. According to Lª V¨n Hång in his book “T©m lý häc løa tuæi”, child psychology is divided into two periods: before schooling ( from 0 to 5 years old) and while- schooling ( from 6 to 18 years old). The second period 36
    • is divided into three smaller stages: early childhood (from 6 to 11,12 years old), middle childhood (from 11,12 to 14,15 years old) and high school year (from 14,15 to 18 years old). Paula Menyuk and Maria Estela Brisk offer a way of dividing language development of children. They devide it into five stages: infancy (0-3), pre- school years (3-5), primary school years (6-9), middle childhood (9-13) and high school years (13-18). The criteria they used to segment the years are both developmental and educational. That is, there are marked changes in language development between infancy, early childhood, middle childhood and adolescence. There are also marked changes in educational programs that are designed for infants, pre- school children, the children in the primary grades, those in middle school years and those in high school. The differences between developmental stages are not rigid because children develop at different rates. In the thesis of my graduation paper, children means who are in the age of from six to ten. It is because in Vietnam, primary school years last five years (school years 1 through 5). It is also because children in this stage have their own psychology 37
    • development characteristics and language development ones. In terms of psychology, children in the primary grades are able to differentiate between moral rules, social norms and personal choices. For example, they know that it is not good to copy her friend’s homework. They can think of the consequences of going outside in the rain without wearing a raincoat or without asking for their parents’ permission. They start to understand that they have a choice between “right” and “wrong” or “good” and “bad” in a situation. For instance, when the child’s mother is very ill. She is deeply sleeping. She cannot realize her child’s presence. The child likes to go outside to play with others. She/ he can choose whether to go out or not. Children’s ability to understand that they can make right or wrong choices leads to more self- control. Children are vulnerable and affected easily by all events around him. They can be influenced by both internal factors (temperament, genetics and characteristics) and external factors (environment and social influences). In the website http://www.buzzle. com/articles/the-psychology-of-children.html, they list fifteen major general factors which can affect a child’s later development and have potential long- term effects. Two of them are learning experiences 38
    • either at play or during study and influence of films, stories, books or news events. 2. An overview of language acquisition of children According to John Field, “Psycholinguistics explores the relationship between the human mind and language. It treats the language user as an individual rather than a representative of a society – but an individual whose linguistic performance is determined by the strengths and limitations of the mental apparatus which we all share…In fact, the notion that language is a product of the human mind gives rise to two interconnected goals, both the concern of Psycholinguistics: (a) to establish an understanding of the process which underlie the system we call language and (b) to examine language as a product of the human mind and thus as evidence of the way in which human beings organise their thoughts and impose patterns upon their experiences.” Children acquire their first language through a number of input. An obvious input is books. Reading stories can teach children language use, besides knowlegde. In my graduation paper, I will focus on the role of reading fairy stories to the moral development of children in primary grades. Because this stage is important to the comprehensive development of 39
    • children, especially their moral development and language development. Reading is a good way that helps children with their language acquisition and knowlegde. In fact, learning to read can enhance conscious awareness of the categories and relations in language. The language for children must be simple and bright. It should have positive influence on the children. What children read have led to arguments about how reading should be taght. For that reason, translating stories for children requires translators an appropriate use of language that both transmit the content and spirit as well. As said in the previous part, the translators need to be creative in their work. They need to take the features of psychology and language of children into consideration when translating stories for them. According to Riitta Oittinen, Tampere University, Finland, “Situation and purpose are an intrinsic part of all translation. Translators never translate words in isolation but whole situations. They bring to the translation their cultural heritage, their reading experience, and in the case of children’s books, their image of childhood and their own child image.” ( Translating for children) 40
    • CHAPTER 3: RESULTS AND ANALYSIS Translating literary works has always been a difficult task to any translator. Translating for children seems to be more challenging because the translator has to take into account the psychological features and language acquisition of children. It is said in the book “Ph¸c th¶o v¨n häc thi’u nhi” that “ the language in literary works for teenagers or children must be simple and coherent but still remains colorful and imaginative” ( V©n Thanh, 1999). The language in a translated story is necessarily simple and coherent too. In fact, there has not been answer to the question that what should fairy tales be translated for children from English into Vietnamese. However, basing on reliable translation theories, psycholinguistic features of children and a number of comments of professional translators, this study points out some possible ways to translate fairy tales for children in primary grades. I. LANGUAGE SIMPLIFICATION I.1. Sentence structure A story contains of paragraphs and each paragraph comprises a certain number of sentences. To a certain extent, sentence is the smallest unit of a 41
    • text. According to Newmark, “since sentence is the basic unit of thought, presenting an object and what it does, is, or is affected by, so the sentence is, in the first instance your unit of translation”. It means that, when translating, to make the tranlation correct and natural, we need pay attention to every sentence. When we translate for children, it is more essential that we take care of each sentence. Children are learning to use language. They prefer short and simple sentences. This does not mean overly short and simplistic sentences as these can make the children bored. So do the long and complicated ones. Reading too long and complex sentences may make the child confusing or incomprehensive. That is why when translate, the translators need simplify sentence structure so that children can understand and feel interested. Simplification is also considered as a translation technique that at the same time is faithful to the original’s content and transfer the meaning to the readers. Grammatically, a sentence may be one of four kinds, depending upon the number and type(s) of clauses it contains. They are simple sentence, compound sentence, complex sentence and compound- complex sentence. A sentence’s type may be a statement, a question, a command or an 42
    • exclaimation. It is not always necessarily to translate a statement into an equivalent, a statement. We can translate into other type if it sounds better. Eg: “Although she saw someone in the bed wearing a shawl and nightcap, Little Red Riding Hood was rather puzzled. Her grandmother seemed quite different. ÔWhat big eyes you have, Grandmother!’ she said. ‘All the better to see you with!’ said the wolf. ‘What big ears you have, Grandmother!’ ‘All the better to hear you with!’ said the wolf. ‘What big teeth you have, Grandmother!’ ÔAll the better to eat you with!’said the wolf and he sprang out of bed. (EIL- Hanoi, Learn English through fairy tales, p108). Faithfully translated, this dialogue would be” ‘Bµ cã ®«i m¾t thËt to!’ ‘Bµ cã ®«i tai thËt to!’ ‘Bµ cã nh÷ng chiÕc r¨ng thËt to!’ Or ‘§«i m¾t bµ to thËt ®Êy!’ ‘Hai c¸i tai cña bµ to thËt!’ ‘R¨ng bµ to thËt!’ In terms of content, this version is acceptable but in terms of psycholinguistics, it is not as normally Vietnamese children talk to their grandmother especially when they are feeling something unsual or 43
    • different. They often ask questions to express their curiousity. Children in this stage usually ask questions of information. Therefore, the translator changed the sentence type to make it sounds better. ‘ Bµ ¬i bµ!Sao tai bµ to thÕ? ‘ Bµ ¬i bµ!Sao m¾t bµ to thÕ? ‘Bµ ¬i bµ! Sao måm bµ to thÕ? (translated by H÷u Ngäc) In the above example, exclaimation was changed to question. It sounds better indeed. Another way to simplify sentence structure is to split a too long and complicated sentence into simpler ones. Eg: As she was going through the wood, she met with a wolf, who had a very great mind to eat her up, but he dared not, because of some woodcutters working nearby in the forest. (http://www.pitt.edu/~dash/type0333.html#perr ault) Semantic translation Communicative translation Khi c« bÐ ®i qua c¸nh rõng, c« gÆp Kh¨n ®á vµo rõng th× gÆp chã sãi. mét con sãi, mét con cã trÝ rÊt lín lµ §¸ng lÏ c« ®· bÞ sãi ¨n thÞt ngay lóc sÏ ¨n thÞt c« bÐ, nhng nã kh«ng d¸m ®ã. Nhng may sao v× nã nghe thÊy v× mét vµi tiÒu phu ®ang lµm viÖc tiÕng nh÷ng ngêi tiÒu phu ®©u 44
    • gÇn ®ã ë trong rõng, ®ã. (translated by EIL-Hanoi) In terms of psychology, children do not like long sentences. In English grammar, a sentence may contains many propositions which are linked by linking devices. In Vietnamese, a complex sentence usually consists of two propositions. Combining many propositions at a time in a sentence in Vietnamese may easily leads to incoherence. Thus, the second translated version of the example above sounds smoother. In fairy tales written in English, there are often long sentences or which use relative clauses consisting both the plot’s details and the explanation for the situation. When translating into Vietnamese, we should consider splitting it into shorter sentences. Eg: Not long afterwards the queen had a baby daughter, and when she saw her jet black hair, snowy white skin and red lips she remembered her strange wish on that winter’s day and named her Snow White. (EIL- Hanoi, Learn English through fairy tale, p71) Translation: Kh«ng l©u sau ®ã hoµng hËu sinh h¹ ®îc mét nµng c«ng chóa tãc ®en nh gç mun, da tr¾ng nh tuyÕt vµ ®«i m«i ®á nh m¸u. Bµ ng¹c 45
    • nhiªn nhí l¹i ®iÒu íc vµo c¸i h«m mïa ®«ng gi¸ l¹nh Êy. Vµ bµ ®· ®Æt tªn cho c«ng chóa lµ B¹ch TuyÕt. (translated by EIL group, Hanoi) Another example is: There was a sudden flurry and at great speed the hare burst into the clearing. ( EIL- Hanoi, Learn English through fairy tale, p65) Bçng nhiªn mét c¬n d«ng Ëp tíi. Nhanh nh chíp, thá phãng vÒ phÝa b·i ®Êt trèng. (translated by EIL group, Hanoi) The matter of sentence is a complicated linguistic issue. It is related to the grammatical system of both English and Vietnamese. My graduation paper only aims at the sentence level in translating fairy tales for children. To conclude, sentences should be as simple as possible but still retain the meaning and the nuance of the source language. I.2. Translating personal and geographical names Translating personal names and geographical names play an important role in bringing the stories to its readers, children. It is understandable that names of characters or places in the story may make children remember them better. A name which is both easy to understand and interesting is always preferred. It is said that “Names are almost always adapted in translations of children’s books. The reasons for this 46
    • are obvious. The reader may find foreign names difficult to pronounce; furthermore, they may sound too strange to the child. Sometimes, the names are changed completely, and sometimes they are translated” (Airaksinen, 2004). We can see from the idea of Airaksinen that we have to choose the right way of translating names so that the translated version sounds the best, and more importantly, the children memorize them easily. There are three main ways of translating names: I.2.1. Transferring the names as it is pronounced in Vietnamese Eg: Pegasus = Pªg¸t Bellerophon = Ben-le-r¬-ph«n Athene = Atªna Alladin = Ala®anh I.2.2. Translating completely the name into Vietnamese Eg: Zeus = Dít I.2.3. Keeping the names as in original Eg: Persephone Goldilocks Demeter Hades Rapunzel 47
    • Rumpelstiltskin Jerome While translating names in a story, translators need to consider the appropriate way so that children can remember the names easily. Sometimes the names can make the children interested in the fairy tales. For instance, ÔRapunzel’ can be translated in the third way, keeping the name as in original. EIL group choosed this way. However, it can be translated as “C« g¸i tãc dµi”. This way was applied in the book “TruyÖn cæ tÝch hay nhÊt th’ giíi vi’t cho thi’u nhi” (Mai Ngäc, 2008). I.3. Adding and leaving out items I.3.1.Adding items I.3.1.1. Descriptive and evaluative items The purpose of adding items is to make the sentences be easily understood, in other words, it helps the readers to understand the story better. The addition of items in general, descriptive and evaluative in particular, depends on several factors such as the situation, the culture, the readers and so on. Due to different situations and readers, the translators can choose the different types of addition or other techniques. According to some studies in cross culture communication, the way Anglicist talk is 48
    • sometimes different from Vietnamese’s. Anglicist tend to talk about the event only when Vietnamese like to describe and evaluate the event at the same time. Therefore, when translating fairy tales for Vietnamese children, translators should take the addition of evaluative and descriptive items into account. Eg: On her own in the forest, Snow White felt afraid. (EIL- Hanoi, Learn English through fairy tales, p72) Mét m×nh trong rõng v¾ng, B¹ch TuyÕt c¶m thÊy v« cïng sî h·i. (translated by EIL- Hanoi) The purpose of the book “Learn English through fairy tales” is to help students learn English at a rather simple level. The words used in fairy tales are not too difficult to understand. However, translating them into Vietnamese for children of Vietnam requires flexibility. The translators here added “v¾ng” to “rõng” and “v« cïng” to “sî h·i”. This makes the sentence sound rhyming and descriptive. If this sentence was translated semantically, it would be “Mét m×nh trong rõng, B¹ch Tuy’t c¶m thÊy sî h·i”. Obviously this sentence is not as descriptive as the one translated by EIL group. This way of translating in this sentence teachs children to use words to express feelings. The author can list a number of sentences which are added items while being translated. 49
    • She wondered if it was a woodman’s cottage where she might be able to stay. (EIL- Hanoi, Learn English through fairy tales, p72) Nµng tù hái liÖu ®©y cã ph¶i lµ nhµ cña ngêi tiÒu phu vµ liÖu nµng cã thÓ ë l¹i hay kh«ng. (translated by EIL- Hanoi) In this sentence, the translators both added and omitted some words. Semantically translated, this sentence is “Nµng tù hái liÖu ®©y cã ph¶i lµ nhµ cña ngêi ti“u phu n¬i mµ nµng cã th” ë l¹i”. We can easily see that the way EIL group translated makes the original sentence sound much more rhyming. When describing something or somebody, Vietnamese tend to not just only describe it but also evaluate it at the same time to show the speaker’s attitude, feelings or judgement. And hence, when reading the stories, the readers can realize the attitude of the writer is positive or negative. They can realize the feelings or emotions of the writer whether he is sad, happy or dissappointed. Even the readers can know the writer’s thought about the event whether it is right or wrong, good or bad. In general, translators often add adjectives to the target text, many of which are rhyming words. 50
    • Target text: A long time ago, a husband and wife lived happily in a cottage at the edge of a wood. But one day the wife fell ill. She could eat nothing and grew thinner and thinner. (EIL- Hanoi, Learn Eanglish through fairy tales, p93) Translation: ChuyÖn kÓ r»ng ®· l©u l¾m råi cã mét ®«i vî chång sèng rÊt h¹nh phóc trong mét ng«i nhµ tranh ë cuèi rõng. Bçng mét h«m ngêi vî ®æ bÖnh. Bµ kh«ng ¨n ®îc thø g× vµ ngµy cµng trë nªn gÇy gß èm yÕu. (translated by EIL- Hanoi) Obviously the translators used “gÇy gß èm y’u” that makes the readers feel more about the bad health condition of the wife in the story. It is much more moving than “ngµy cµng gÇy”. Another example is: Target text: But, as the lilac trees bent their branches down over the water and the sun shone warm and bright, he felt a deep happiness. (EIL- Hanoi, Learn English through fairy tale, p30) Source text: Khi nh÷ng c©y ®inh h¬ng uèn m×nh xuèng mÆt níc, bÇu trêi to¶ n¾ng Êm ¸p víi ¸nh n¾ng mÆt trêi chãi läi ®· lµm cho nã thùc sù c¶m thÊy h¹nh phóc. In conclusion, the addition of descriptive and evaluative helps the children have a more clear- cut imagination of the setting, the plots and the types of characters in the stories as well. 51
    • I.3.1.2. Explanation Airaksinen (2004) stated that “sometimes the translator wants to improve the text of the author, making it more vivid by adding new elements to it”. It can be drawn from this statement that translating word by word and sentence by sentence from the source text to the target text may not transfer all the connotation of the stories. It is understandable when we meet something difficult to understand, we need explanation. Therefore, adding explanation, in other words, adding new elements, is to make the language simpler and make the event or the story more vivid. Target text: ÔThe next evening the queen thought she would try some everyday names. So when the little man appeared she asked” Is your name John?” ‘No!’ ‘Is it Michael?” ‘Is it James?’ ‘No!No!” he cried, stamping his foot each time, and again he disappeared’ (EIL- Hanoi, Learn English through fairy tales, p124) Translation: “Tèi h«m sau hoµng hËu nghÜ r»ng bµ sÏ thö b»ng nh÷ng c¸i tªn thêng ngµy, bµ hái: Cã ph¶i tªn «ng lµ John? ¤ng ta l¹i nh¶y lªn nh thêng lÖ vµ tr¶ lêi: 52
    • Kh«ng ph¶i tªn ta ThÕ th× Michael? Hay lµ James? Ngêi tý hon l¹i reo lªn: Kh«ng, kh«ng tÊt c¶ ®Òu kh«ng ph¶i tªn cña ta. Còng nh lÇn tríc ngêi tý hon l¹i nh¶y lªn råi biÕn mÊt.” (EIL- Hanoi, Learn English through fairy tales, p129) Indeed, in this example, the translator added the sentence “¤ng ta l¹i nh¶y lªn nh thêng lÖ vµ tr¶ lêi” to make the situation more vivid. I.3.2. Leaving out items In some situations, it is necessary to add items to simplify the language. With the same target, leaving out items, in other words, the omission of unnecessary items, also makes the language simple. Target text: It was a large lovely garden, with soft green grass. Here and there over the grass stood beautiful flowers like stars, and there were twelve peach-trees that in the spring-time broke out into delicate blossoms of pink and pearl, and in the autumn bore rich fruit. The birds sat on the trees and sang so sweetly that the children used to stop their games in order to listen to them. “How happy we are here!” they cried to each other. 53
    • (EIL- Hanoi, Learn English through fairy tales, p144) Translation: §ã lµ mét khu vên ®Ñp vµ réng r·i. Kh¾p n¬i ngËp trµn s¾c hoa. Trong vên cã mêi hai c©y ®µo vµ mçi ®é xu©n vÒ chóng l¹i në ré nh÷ng b«ng hoa xinh x¾n mµu hång hoÆc ngäc trai vµ ®Õn mïa thu th× cho nh÷ng tr¸i ®µo ngät lÞm. Nh÷ng chó chim thêng ®Ëu trªn c©y vµ hãt nh÷ng giai ®iÖu rÊt dÔ th¬ng ®Õn møc bän trÎ nhiÒu khi dõng c¶ ch¬i ®Ó l¾ng nghe. Chóng thêng reo lªn sung síng “ë ®©y vui thËt!” (translated by EIL- Hanoi) This is an example of language simplification where the translators at the same time added descriptive items, adjectives, omitted unnecessary words, splitted sentences. In fact there are a number of methods to simplify the language besides changing sentence structure, translating personal and geographical names, adding and leaving out items when translating stories for young children. However, it needs a thorough study. My study only suggests these ways based on the experience of professional translators. II. USING FAMILIAR TERMS AND SLANG As said in the previous parts, translation of literary works is a difficult task to any translator, 54
    • particularly translating for children because of their psychological development, their knowlegde and also the language. Translating for children requires creativeness. Besides background knowlegde of language and culture, the translators should have the same language and maybe the same way of thinking with the children so that they can enter their world. That makes the children readers have the feelings of reading their own world. According to Airaksinen (2004), “a child does not understand that this is a translation he/she is reading, but he/she will notice if the text is not flowing or if it is difficult to understand”. Krista Bell (2003) also added that “if the words are not used gratuitously or sensationally, but in context and true to the characters and the setting, then Ôslanguage’ helps the plot flow and connects the readers to the stories”. It is drawn from these two statements that sometimes, it is necessary for the translators to use familiar terms and slang. Even though it is said to be rude to use slang in stories for children, in some cases using slang is the best choice for the translation. It should be noted here that the translators should be really sensitive in their work because their readers are children in early childhood. They are easily affected by external factors. The task of translators 55
    • here is to keep the meaning and content of the original and at the same time to teach children language indirectly. Because the use of familiar terms and slangs is a complicated part and the limitation of a graduation paper, the author cannot cover this issue. The author hopes that there will be a number of reserch on the use of familiar terms and slangs in translation of fairy tales in English for children of Vietnam. III. USING IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS III.1. An overview of idiomatic expressions Idioms are defined as ‘expressions of at least two words which cannot be understood literally and which function as a unit semantically’ (Beekman and Callow 1974: 121 quoted in Larson: 1984). In the website http://www.r- go.ca/example_idiomatic_expression.htm, an idiomatic expression is defined as “an expression whose meaning cannot be guessed from the meanings of the words that make it up”. Another definition of idiom is “a phrase whose meaning cannot be determined by the literal definition of the phrase itself, but refers instead to a figurative meaning that is known only through common use. In linguistics, idioms are widely assumed to be figures of speech that contradict the principle of compositionality; however, this has shown to be a subject of debate” (retrieved from website: http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Idiom ) Eg: A can of worms A can of worms has nothing to do with a can or with worms. It means “ trouble”. 56
    • A famous translator commented that “In terms of psychology, children like something cute and funny. They like rhythmic way of speaking” (Thuý Toµn, 1983). Idiomatic expressions are indespensable to literary works as they make the language natural and vivid. Translating idioms is a hard work to translators because it is not necessarily the translation of an idiom from the SL to TL. It depends on the situation and the creativeness of the translators. When translating idioms, translators may meet some difficulties such as no equivalents. III.2. Idioms translated from non- idiomatic expressions In some cases, translators can use an idiom to replace a group of words as long as it does not change the meaning. The use of such idiom can make the target language more concise and descriptive. Eg: jet black hair tãc nh gç mun Snowy white skin da tr¾ng nh tuyÕt Red lips m«i ®á nh m¸u More examples relating to the use of idiom as equivalent to a group of words: Fresh flowers t¬i nh hoa In a flash nhanh nh chíp 57
    • III.2. The translation of idioms III.2.1. The translation of idioms by semantic methods According to Newmark (1998), semantic translation is defined as “where the translator attempts, within the bare syntactic and semantic constraints of the TL, to reproduce the precise contextual meaning of the author”. Not all idioms can be translated semantically as there are differences in culture. However, there are some can be translated semantically. Eg: Source text: I only I could have a child whose skin was as white as snow, with hair as black as a raven and lips as red as blood. (EIL- Hanoi, Learn English through fairy tale, p71) Target text: Bµ thÇm íc gi¸ nh m×nh sinh ®îc mét ®øa con da tr¾ng nh tuyÕt, víi m¸i tãc ®en nh gç mun vμ m«i ®á nh m¸u. (translated by EIL group, Hanoi) Other idioms which can be translated semantically are some idioms of comparison or similes. 58
    • Source text: Cinderella was so happy that she did not notice how quickly the time was flying by. (EIL- Hanoi, Learn English through fairy tale, p20) Target text: Cinderella h¹nh phóc ®Õn møc c« bÐ ®· kh«ng ®Ó ý ®Õn thêi gian ®ang tr«i nhanh nh bay ®Õn vËy. We may encounter many other similes of the same use in both Vietnamese and English. For example: - as pretty as picture - ®Ñp nh tranh - as light as feather - nhÑ nh l«ng hång - as big as mill wheels - to nh hai b¸nh xe cèi xay - as warm as sunbeams - Êm ¸p nh tia n¾ng mÆt trêi - as quick as a flash - nhanh nh ¸nh chíp III.2.2. Translation idioms by communicative methods According to Newmark (1998), communicative translation is defined as “where the translator attempt to produce the same effect on the TL readers as was produced by the original on the SL readers”. Communicative methods are used more frequently when translating idioms for the fact that English idioms are sometimes different from Vietnamese’s in terms of culture. For children in particular, the translators must pay attention to their language use, the word choice, on the ground that 59
    • their knowlegde and language as well are limited. They cannot understand too difficult words, too informal words and strange words or concepts. Translators should put it simple and interesting at the same time. Larson (1984) states that “great care must be taken when translating idioms. A literal translation will result in nonsense. The translator must first be sure of the meaning of the idiom and then look for the natural equivalent way to express the meaning of the idioms as a whole”. IV. THINGS TO BE AVOIDED WHEN TRANSLATING FAIRY TALES FOR CHILDREN When translating for children, the translators must take their psychological features and their limited knowlegde as well as language in to account. IV.1. Using dialects In Longman dictionary, dialect is “a variety of languages spoken only in one area, in which words or grammar are slightly different from other forms of the same language”. Using dialects in stories may make children find it difficult to understand because they are strange to them. Children have a limited amount of words and concepts. In the book “Learn English through fairy tales” (EIL- Hanoi, 2006), the author found that there are no use of dialects. However, as a 60
    • matter of fact, many translators use dialects while translating. For example, there are “thiÖt, nhøt, hÕt tr¬n, mÎm, nhÔu, Ón, mÖ, m¹, tau (=t«i), bä (=bè), heng (=vÉn cßn), choa (=chóng t«i), m« (=®©u), tª (=kia), m«i (=muçng), ®äi (=b¸t), ng¸i (=xa)…” IV.2. Using too informal words Using informal words inappropriately in stories for children may affect the use of language of children later on. It should be noted that children in this stage are easily affected by external factors. They learn language quickly. If they are badly affected by too informal words, this would be negative to their moral development. IV.3.Word-for-word translation Word-for-word translation always should be avoided. In many cases if we translate word for word, the translation may be wrong or difficult for children to understand. It is essential that translators avoid these things when translating stories for children. Frankly speaking, how and what to avoid when translating fairy tales for children in primary grades is a murky and complicated topic. There should be further research on this. Due to limitation of a study, the author here just recommend some common things. 61
    • CHAPTER 4: IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE STUDY I. IMPLICATIONS TO TRANSLATORS Translation is one of the most demanding jobs, that requires translators specified knowlegde and techniques in translation and in other fields as well. Choosing the right methods and techniques to apply is important and decisive to the quality of translated text. Within the scope of the research paper, I have addressed the overview of translation, children’s literature in general and fairy tale as a genre in particular, psychology and language of children. And there are some useful implications for translators especially to the students of the Translator and Interpreter Training Division. Literature for children in general and fairy tales in particular have some characteristics that translators need to take into account. Whenever translating, translators must pay attention to the readership and their features that relate to the translation. In this study, the author focuses on young children who are in primary school or “nhi ®ång”. The children in this stage are maybe at the beginning of language and 62
    • knowlegde acquisition and personality formation. As presented in the study, when translating fairy tales for children, translators need simplify the language, choose appropriate words and grammar structures so that this can help children to develop their language, knowlegde and imagination. It is clear that children are easily affected by what they read. Therefore, the tasks of translators are to transfer the meaning of the original and at the same time to teach children. It is said in the previous parts that the study researches a small part in the translation of fairy tales. The study indeed does not cover all fairy tales. It inly focuses on the book “Learn English through fairy tales” that EIL group Hanoi collected and translated. The author have figured out some techniques that the translators should pay more attention. They are the language use, the use of slangs and familiar terms, the use of idioms and idiomatic expressions in the translated text. It is a fact that there are many techniques which are used when translating fairy tales for children. The author hopes that there will be more researches in these techniques. II. IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING Because transtion is a difficult and demending task, the training is also demanding. Being the final year student who is going to be a graduated one, I 63
    • fortunately have been taught by many excellent teachers whose lectures have inspired my passion for translation. Through studying and researching process, I strongly emphasize on the importance of four basic English skills namely writing, listening, speaking and reading, and the very importance of background knowlegde and language use. The success of a translator is the success of many factors. One of that is the creativeness. When the translators have a good background knowlegde, specified knowlegde and the ability to use language flexibly, they can transfer the original in the most effective way. Translating fairy tales is only one small part of translation. In fact, the translator have too translate in a great number of fields. It is essential that they need to constantly accumulate their knowlegde. It can be drawn that the students should be taught to translate on each certain type of document in a certain field and the features of translation methods that are applied to those types. As presented before, reading fairy tales not only teaches children moral lessons but also teachs them language and the use of language. Learn English through fairy tales is a good way for children to practise their English. For children in primary schools, they perhaps are not able to compare the original and 64
    • the translated text. But to the students in high schools and universities, they can do. III. IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH Due to limited time and knowlegde of the writer, this research paper only focuses on some techniques used in translation of fairy tales in English for Vietnamese children. She only presents some analysis on the psychological and linguistic features of children. She has not brought a deeper and comprehensive look at translating fairy tales for children. As a matter of fact, there is a need for further research at macro level into the translation methods, techniques and tips as well as other affecting factors. Survey and interview should be conducted to bring a thorough overview of this topic. 65
    • CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION The study has mentioned some areas of translation, language and psychology of children related to the study’s thesis including translation definitions and methods, children’s literature in general, fairy tales in particular, psycholinguistic elements in translating fairy tales for children such as language simplification, the translation of idioms. The study also mentioned some mistakes that translators should avoid in translation process. Translating fairy tales for children is an art of using language. It can be drawn from the study that translators should take the psychological and linguistic features of children into account. Moreover, they must pay attention to their word choice, the use of familiar terms and slangs and the choice of appropriate translation methods. Only when they understand the nature of the readers, can they enter the world of children. However, with a scope of a graduation paper, this study cannot cover all aspects of the issue. Hope that there will be further study into this topic. 66
    • 67
    • References In English 1. Newmark, Peter (1995). A textbook of translation. Phoenix ELT. 2. Newmark, Peter (1998). Approaches to translation. 3. Baker, Mona (1992). In other words. Routlegde. 4. Larson, Mildred L. (1984). Meaning-based translation. University Press of America. 5. T¹ ThÞ Thuý H»ng (2005). Psychological elements in translating English stories for teenagers. (Graduation Paper). 6. Field, John (2003). Psycholinguistics. Routlegde. 7. Scovel, Thomas (1998). Psycholinguistics. Oxford University Press. 8. Menyuk Paula & Brisk Maria (2005). Language development and Education. Palgrave Macmillan. 9. Bell, R (1989,1991). Translation and Translating. 10. Airaksinen (2004). Adaptation in translations of Children’s books. 11. ÔThe evolution of language’ Retrieved 12. 2009 from http://www.washingtonpost.com 13. ÔLiterary translation’ Retrieved December 23, 2009, from http://www.traduguide.com/literary- translation/literary-translation.asp 68
    • 14. ÔSaying it with the right word’ Retrieved December 23, 2009, from www.theage.com.au/articles/ 2003/08/18/1061059758795.html 15. ÔThe language of teenagers’ Retrieved December 23, 2009, from http://www.theenglishplace.co.uk/english/tea cher/1/english-update.shtm/#1 16. ÔEarly childhood Moral Development Continued’ Retrieved December 23, 2009, from http://www.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php ?type=doc&id= 12753&cn=462 17. ÔEarly childhood moral Development’ Retrieved December 23, 2009, from http://www.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php ?type=doc&id=12769&cn=462 18. ÔMore Information about Child Psychology’ Retrieved December 23, 2009, from http://www.guidetoonlineschools.com/child_p sychology_ info.html 19. ÔChildren’s literature’ Retrieved February 5, 2009, from http://en. wikipedia.org/wiki/Children’s_literature 20. ÔCharacteristics of Children’s Literature as a Genre’ Retrieved February 5, 2009, from http://www.ferrum.edu/thanlon/chlit/genre.ht ml 69
    • 21. ‘Children’s Literature’ Retrieved February 5, 2009, from http:// www/ experiencefestival.com/a/Childrens_literature_- _Basic_characteristics/id/1222075 22. ‘Basic Characteristics of Children’s literature’ Retrieved February 5, 2009, from http://shvoong.com/humanities/1852906-basic-characteristics- children-literature/ 23. ÔLanguage Development’ Retrieved February 5, 2009, from http://en. wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_development 24. ÔRiitta Oittinen- Translating for Children’ Retrieved February 5, 2009, from http://www.uta.fi/~trrioi/tranch.html 25. ÔThe Psychochology of Children’ Retrieved February 5, 2009, from http://buzzle.com/articles/the- psychology-of-children.html 26. ÔFairy tales’ Retrieved February 5, 2009, from http://www.faculty.de.gcsu.edu/~mmagouli/f airy_tales.htm 27. ÔCharacteristics of Grimm’s fairy tales’ Retrieved December 23, 2009, from http://courses.psu.edu/ger/ger100_fgg1/trans perencies/fairytales.html 28. ÔCharacteristics of Fairy Tales’ Retrieved February 5, 2009, from http://www.askalana.com/fg/fairytales.html 70
    • In Vietnamese 1. V©n Thanh (1999). Ph¸c th¶o v¨n häc thiÕu nhi. Nhµ xuÊt b¶n Khoa häc x· héi. 2. NguyÔn V¨n Khang (2001). TiÕng lãng ViÖt Nam. Nhµ xuÊt b¶n Khoa häc x· héi. 3. (1983) Bµn vÒ v¨n häc thiÕu nhi. Nhµ xuÊt b¶n Kim §ång. 4. Lª V¨n Hång (2007). T©m lý häc løa tuæi vµ t©m lý häc s ph¹m. Nhµ xuÊt b¶n §¹i häc Quèc gia Hµ Néi. 5. Nhãm EIL- Hµ Néi (2006). Häc tiÕng Anh qua truyÖn cæ tÝch. Nhµ xuÊt b¶n Thanh Niªn. 6. ÔGãp phÇn x©y dùng lý thuyÕt dÞch thuËt’ Retrieved December 23, 2009, from http://tvvn.org/f18/go-p- pha-n-xa-y-du-ng-ly-thuye-t-di-ch-thua-t-5778 7. Mai Ngäc (2008). TruyÖn cæ tÝch hay nhÊt thÕ giíi viÕt cho thiÕu nhi. Nhµ xuÊt b¶n V¨n ho¸ Th«ng tin. 71