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Errors 1st Year Students At E.D., Hulis, Vnu Make With Ending Sounds And Strategies To Overcome Using Communicative Teaching Pham Cam Chi   Main Text Errors 1st Year Students At E.D., Hulis, Vnu Make With Ending Sounds And Strategies To Overcome Using Communicative Teaching Pham Cam Chi Main Text Document Transcript

  • Phạm Thị Cẩm Chi- 051E4, HULIS, VNU CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1. Statement of the problem and rationale of the study It is generally acknowledged that while studying English, there are many pronunciation errors that learners of English as a second language (ESL) are likely to make: word and sentence stress, intonation, length of vowel sounds, ending sounds and linking sounds, etc. Over and above the common errors of all language background, Vietnamese students have their typical errors concerned their own language. To better our pronunciation, it is necessary to do a research into Vietnamese most typical pronunciation problem which is, in this research, errors with ending sounds. First of all, ending sounds, which is stated as the lack of clear circulation of the end of words (Maindonald, 1995), are among some factors of need specific to Vietnamese students. Because of the influence of Vietnamese mother tongue, in which the ending consonant sounds are never paid attention to, Vietnamese learners tend to make errors with ending sounds. They either simply omit them or pronounce them wrongly, which also leads to wrong linking sounds. This can be regarded as the most common errors of Vietnamese learners, as based on an earlier research by the Australian Government publication Asian Language Motes (1978), initial clusters do not cause many problems, but final clusters is found extremely hard for Vietnamese students. Also based on a recent research conducted on “common speaking errors made by high school students”, 100% participants commit errors with ending sounds (Nguyen, 2004). It seems reasonable to conclude that ending sounds errors are most commonly found in Vietnamese ESL learners. 1
  • Errors 1st year students at E.D., HULIS, VNU make with ending sounds and strategies to overcome using communicative teaching. Secondly, although it is common error of learners, teachers do not appear to pay attention to it. The above conclusion results partly from personal observation supporting this research and partly on the survey of approaches to teaching pronunciation by Ames Teachers (Macneiland Rogers, 1986). It is possibly because the final sounds are not pronounced so clearly as other sounds in an utterance so they are less noticed by both learners and teachers. Added to this, there have not been many studies on these particular ending sounds errors so far within the scope. Only studies about general speaking and pronunciation errors were carried out, which appear to have failed to highlight the main problem of Vietnamese students. Lastly, as students in English department of HULIS who will use English as their main occupation, or become future teachers, it is exceedingly important to realize all of their pronunciation errors, in this case ending sound ones. From then, they can self-correct to be ready to teach their students in the future. It is obviously seen that a number of students notice it when they pronounce wrongly, whereas other students, on the other hand, do not recognize their problem with ending sounds. This research will help students become well aware of their pronunciation problems which they might not have paid any attention before. It also helps teachers in teaching pronunciation in university, as there are strategies on how to help students practice ending sounds in communicative teaching. From the reasons above, it is essential to study ending sounds errors in this project. 1.2. Aim of the study This research aims to analyze ending sounds errors in pronunciation of Vietnamese first year students in HULIS, VNU to raise awareness of their 2
  • Phạm Thị Cẩm Chi- 051E4, HULIS, VNU pronunciation problem. From that point, they can achieve better English to administer future career. After defining the weak points of students, strategies would be suggested to help teachers in using communicative teaching method to solve students’ ending sound problems Research questions: a. What are the ending sound errors that first year students in English department, HULIS, VNU are likely to make? b. What are communicative strategies for teachers and students to use in teaching and learning to address the issue? 1.3. Scope of the research: The project within the scope of a graduation paper is carried out with no ambition to cover all problems with pronunciation and/or over all Vietnamese learners of English. Scope of the research is limited as it is only conducted on first year students of English department, HULIS, VNU. 1.4. Methodology 1.4.1. Design: In order to analyze ending sounds errors that student make in their utterances, observation is used. Information is necessary to be collected in a natural way. Added to this, any lesson was audibly recorded to analyze at home with the help of English native speakers. 1.4.2. Population: There were 35 first year students from 4 classes in HULIS, VNU participating in this study. They are about the same age and both genders. Because most students in this university are female, the number of female as subjects in the research was much larger than that of male. The classes were 3
  • Errors 1st year students at E.D., HULIS, VNU make with ending sounds and strategies to overcome using communicative teaching. chosen randomly to take part in this project so they are from various educational backgrounds. In class, whenever students made any speech in front of others, they were observed and recorded by the researcher so that all the pronunciation errors with ending sounds were taken note of carefully. 1.4.3. Data collection instruments and procedure To collect data, at first an observation scheme was created. It was designed carefully with reference from earlier researches. It was then brought to class and noted with type, frequency, etc of students’ ending sound errors. In order to be effective, the observation scheme was also created based on a secondary observation supporting the research before it was conducted. Studying literature review and earlier research about the issue helps to make an effective observation scheme. The observer went to take part in speaking classes of first year students and take note of their errors, then classify them and put in different categories, and then make a table of errors as well as other requirements. When finished, it was used as trial version to see if any problem or inappropriateness arose. Beside, a tape-recorder was used to record students’ speech and then can be brought home for in-depth analysis. Tape-recorder(s) was placed near the speaker(s) to get clear and loud utterances, in order to record the sound but not distract them. 1.4.4. Data analysis procedure First, data was collected through observation and from tape recorder. After observing 7 lessons in 4 classes, a list of common pronunciation errors students make with ending sounds was made by the observer. At the same 4
  • Phạm Thị Cẩm Chi- 051E4, HULIS, VNU time, tapes recorded from students were sent to 2 native speakers to help analyze and find errors and frequency with which errors are made. Second, the data were summarized into tables and charts. From the statistics and findings, a solution for Vietnamese students in E.D, Hulis, VNU pronunciation errors with ending sounds was worked out, using communicative teaching method. 5
  • Errors 1st year students at E.D., HULIS, VNU make with ending sounds and strategies to overcome using communicative teaching. CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE PREVIEW This second chapter provides readers with the relevant literature of the study by introducing some key concepts necessary for the best understanding of this research, as well as the review of previous studies related to the topic. There are some most crucial concepts chosen to be clarified in this part: Standard pronunciation, English ending sounds, Vietnamese ending sounds, pronunciation errors and Communicative Language Teaching. 2.1. English pronunciation Since the researcher aspires to investigate the pronunciation errors with ending sounds in English, the definition of English pronunciation is exceedingly important. In order to do errors analysis, a Standard English pronunciation should also be defined to base on. Generally speaking, pronunciation is simply put as “the way in which a language is spoken” (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Encyclopedic, 1992: 718). The American Heritage Dictionary of the English language, 4th ed. (2007) defines pronunciation as “a way of speaking a word, especially a way that is accepted or generally understood” (as cited in Nguyen, 2008:06). 2.1.1. Standard English Pronunciation Standard English is the most preferable accent in any social setting and to teach students. It is considered to be neutral, easier to remember and imitate as compared to regional accents and it is heard on radio and TV. In 1914, H.C. Wyld in his book introduced the term quot;Received Englishquot; (RP) to cover the meaning of generally accepted in the best society. Until now, this term has 6
  • Phạm Thị Cẩm Chi- 051E4, HULIS, VNU been widely used to convey the meaning quot;accepted and approvedquot; (Nguyen, 2008:07). Sometimes RP is referred to as the English of English people, which is used by BBC TV broadcasting channels. However, nowadays English has become the common mean of communication. It is no longer the own property of British people. Hence, pronunciation of English varies from place to place, and therefore, a standard pronunciation in one place may not be as much standard in others. It seems that the goal Standard English has been somewhat changing to a universally intelligible language as English is becoming international (Nihalani, 1997, as cited in Mehmet, 2008). However, it can not be denied that a native-like English pronunciation is still what non-native learners are looking forward to. In their research, Streven in Larry Smith’s edition (1983: 88) defines Standard English as “a particular dialect of English, being the non-localized dialect, of global currency without any significant variation, universally accepted as the appropriate educational target in teaching English; which may be spoken with an unrestricted choice of accent”. So Standard English pronunciation can be any dialect of English that is widely used and accepted in the world. It is common knowledge that there are two major varieties (or dialects) of English that command respect in their countries and elsewhere in the world: RP in the United Kingdom and General American (GA) English in the United States. They are the two main dialects for international broadcasts and in social and business settings. However, Vietnamese people tend to follow non-rhotic accent (like RP English) in which the /r/ sound is not pronounced at the end of words, so it is more reasonable to choose RP English as the standard one. In this paper, RP English will be used as the criteria for students’ pronunciation analyzing. The International Phonetic Alphabet will also be used to transcribe the speech sample throughout the research. 7
  • Errors 1st year students at E.D., HULIS, VNU make with ending sounds and strategies to overcome using communicative teaching. 2.1.2. English sounds There are 44 sounds in English. They are divided in to 2 groups: 20 vowel sounds including 12 vowels, 8 diphthongs and 24 consonants sounds. This paper aims to investigate just final sounds, however, sounds system in English are also presented below to support later analysis. 2.1.2.1. Vowel sounds Vowels are quot;sounds in the production of which there is no obstruction to the flow of air as it passes the larynx to the lipsquot; (Roach, 2000:10). Figure 1: Vowel chart (John, 1998:23) Diphthongs According to Kelly (2003) diphthong is quot;a combination of vowel soundsquot;. Also Kelly (2003) classifies diphthongs into 2 groups: closing and centering diphthongs. They are presented as follow: Closing diphthongs: 8
  • Phạm Thị Cẩm Chi- 051E4, HULIS, VNU 1. /1. / - make, day, mail 2. /22 - high, by, might 3. 333   - toy, boy, boil 4. 444   - go, show, close 5. 555   - how, about, out Centering diphthongs: 6. 666   - there, bare, their 7. 777   - here, hear, beer 8. 888   - sure, moor, tour 2.1.2.2. Consonant sounds According to the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Encyclopedic (1992: 192), consonants are “speech sounds made by completely or partly stopping the flow of air breathed out through the mouth”. According to Roach (2000) the term consonant can be defined as “sounds in which there is obstruction to the flow of air as it passes the larynx to the lips”. Consonant sounds differ from consonant letters. In Wikipedia Dictionary, it is said that “the number of consonants in the world's languages is much greater than the number of consonant letters in any one alphabet”. Those consonant letters like c, q and x are missing as they are found in other sounds. (The C letter is found in the k sounds and in the s sound in words like cereal, city and cent. The q letter is found in 'kw' words like backwards). Kelly (2000) and Roach (2000) categorized the 24 consonants into 6 groups: • Plosive • Nasal • Fricative • Lateral • Affricative • Approximan 9
  • Hereunder is the table of consonant sounds Table of consonant sounds Bilabial Labio Dental Alveolar Palato- Palatal Velar Glotal dental alveolar Plosive +b ++ ++ -p - -- Fricative ++ ++ +z ++ -- -- -- Affricate ++ -- ++ -- Nasal +m +n ++ Lateral +l Approximant + w ++ ++ Table 1: Table of consonant sounds 2.1.2.3. English ending sounds To ESL (English as a Second Language) learners, the term quot;ending soundsquot; is familiar as it refers to those ultimate sounds in a word. More precisely it refers to the consonant sound(s) as the word can end with one or more consonant sounds (consonant clusters). Thus quot;ending soundsquot; in English pronunciation can be defined as those consonant sounds which appear at the very end of words. They are also called Codas: quot;The coda is the final consonant or consonant cluster.quot; (Barbara and Brian, 1994) According to Rachael (2003), there can be up to 4 consonants in a coda:  If there are no consonants at the end of the word, it has a zero coda.
  •  A single consonant is called the final consonant. Any consonant except h, r, w and j may be a final coda. Eg: Final consonant sounds in English are listed as below: /p/ - rips, keep, sleep /s/ - this, miss, /b/ - rib, nib /z/ - these, has, was /t/ - right, start, cat /∫/ - crash, splash, smash /d/ - ride, /ʒ/ - beige, /k/ - pick, kick /t∫/ - church, teach // / - pig, big /dʒ/ - bridge, encourage /f/ - leaf, chief /m/ - lamb, room, gloom /v/ - leave, naïve, /n/ - than, man, happen /θ/ - earth, wreath /η/ - sing, spring, ceiling /ð/ - wreathe, breathe /l/ - pool, file, smile When there are two or more consonants standing at the end of the word, the terms quot;pre-finalquot; and quot;post-finalquot; consonants are used. Pre-final includes: /m/. /n/, /η/, /l/, /s/ Post-final includes: /s/, /z/, /t/, /d/, /θ/  Two consonant clusters o Pre-final m. n, η, l, s followed by a final consonant o Consonant plus post-final s, z, t, d, θ E.g.: ‘help, bank, edge, belt, blind, books, six etc’.  Three consonant clusters o Pre-final plus final plus post-final (e.g. helped, banks, bonds, twelfth) o Final plus post-final plus post final s, z, t, d, θ (e.g. fifths, next, lapsed)
  •  Four consonant clusters o Most are pre-final plus final plus post final plus post-final e.g. twelfths, prompts o Occasionally there is one final and three post final consonants e.g. sixths, texts.
  • 2.2. Vietnamese ending sounds In Vietnamese, the number of codas available is just limited to a certain portion. According to Nguyen (2007), there are only six consonants and two semi-vowels which can stand in world-final position. The following detail about Vietnamese final consonants is adopted from Doan (1999) cited in Nguyen (2007) làm [lam] (do) phiên [fien] (turn) iii) /N/: there are 3 allophone of this phoneme: [Nm] : blabialised, proceded by rounded vowels /u, 0. o/ xong [s0Nm] (finish) súng [SuNm] (gun) không [XoNm] ( no, not) [[ ]: corresponding to letters quot;nhquot;, proceded by front vowels /i, e, E</ bệnh [be ] (sick)
  • tình [ti ] (love) nhanh [ E<E] (fast) [N]: other cases tặng [ta<N] (give gifts) thiêng [tt ieN] (supernatural) iv) /p/: with no air released after pronunciation, in words like: úp [up] (up-side-down) Pháp [fap] (France) tiếp [tiep] (continue) v) /t/: pronounced shortly and sharply without aspiration such as: giết [ziet] (kill) ghét [gEt] (hate) vi) /k/: produced where the letter quot;cquot;, quot;chquot; is shown at the final position of a syllable and it is agreed by many linguists that this phoneme has 3 allophones which appeared in a complementary distribution. [kp] this ending sound is bilabialisted if the consonant is preceded by rounded vowels /u, 0, o/ ngọc [N0<kp] (pearl) cốc [kokp] (cup) nhục [ ukp] (insulted) [c]: preceded by front vowels /i, e, E</ performed by letters quot;chquot; nghịch [Nic] (naughty) lệch [lec] (askew) sạch [SE<c] (book) [k]: elsewhere
  • Nhác [ ak] (lazy) bực [bMk] (angry) vii) /u^/: only appear in form of letters quot;uquot; or quot;oquot; which follows vowels to make diphthongs or triphthongs: đau [dau^] (hurt) vào [va:u^] (enter) đều [deu^] (both) viii) /i^/: appears in forms of quot;iquot; or quot;yquot; and is preceded by vowels to make diphthongs and triphthongs: tay [tai^] (hand) dài [ja i^] (long) Although the two later sounds are not final consonants, they have certain influence to the production of errors with final codas. This will be discussed in the later part of this paper. From the list above, it is easy to see that Vietnamese final consonant sounds just consist of nasal sounds (/m/, /n/, / N/) and three plosive /p/, /t/, /k/, however, they are voiceless and unaspirated. It is plain to see that they are different from those in English phonetics, which are clearly aspirated. Added to this, the /N/ sound in Vietnamese seems to be similar to /s / in English excluded that /N/ is sometimes bilabialized. Also, it must be noticed that in Vietnamese, there only stand one final consonant at a time; when in English there can be up to 4 consonants at the end of words to form consonant clusters. 2.3. Pronunciation errors 2.3.1. What is pronunciation error? In language learning, making errors is an inevitable part that can not be avoided. People can not learn language without first systematically committing
  • errors (Dulay, Burt and Krashen, 1982). Before embarking on Error Analysis, it is crucial to discuss the definition of the term “errors.” In linguistic field, errors are defined by researchers as “flawed side of learner speech or writing” (Burt and Krashen, 1982:138). In pronunciation, errors are defined as the incompetence in language and incorrect pronunciation that may affect intelligibility in communication (Nguyen, 2007). Because in this new era, English is the common means of communication all over the world, it is not always defined as an error when people speak dissimilarly from native speakers. So the definition that seems more precise is according to Jenkins (2006: 36) in Nguyen (2007) pronunciation errors are “variants of pronunciation which prevent one communicator from understanding the propositional content of the other’s utterances” Until the late 1960s, errors were considered as a sign of learning failure that could not be tolerated (Little Lewood, 1984). Although nowadays people have a more tolerant view toward errors in language learning, still they should be paid particular attention so that non-native speakers can achieve the best result in communication. Richards (1971) acknowledges two different kinds of errors: performance errors, caused by, such as, fatigue and inattention, and competence errors resulting from lack of knowledge of the rules of the language. Corder (1967) in his research proposes different terminologies for these two kinds of errors and stresses that we must make a clear distinction between mistakes and errors; the former refers to non-systematic performance errors of chance circumstances, whereas the latter can be defined as “the systematic errors of the learner from which we are able to reconstruct his knowledge of the language to date, i.e., his transitional competence”. Harashima (2006: 40)
  • In another research, Ellis (1997) states that errors reflect gaps in a learner’s knowledge; they occur because the learner does not know what the correct one is. However, mistakes reflect occasional lapses in performance; they occur because in particular instance, the learner is unable to perform what she or he knows (Ellis, 1997). All in all, a mistake occurs because of a slip of the tongue, tiredness, anxiety, etc, it can be self-corrected. However, an error is a performance that a speaker who has not yet mastered the rules of the target language cannot correct by himself and this has to do with his acquired linguistic data. So, concerning errors, one can go on saying the wrong thing without knowing that he is doing it. Errors usually come up with L1, SL or FL learners; whereas, mistakes and errors can occur with everyone performing a certain speech. In this paper, I concentrate only on dealing with errors. Both performance and competence errors are mentioned in here; however, I do not make a clear distinction between the two types but focus on the sounds that students tend to mispronounce. . 2.3.2. Ending sounds errors Reviewing results of some studies of errors with consonant sounds, according to Treiman (1989), they can be classified into 6 types: 1. Cluster reduction. This is the “deletion of one or more consonants from a target cluster so that only a single consonant occurs at syllable margins” (Grunwell, 1987: 217, as cited in Treiman, 1989) 2. Cluster Simplification. The error occurs when one/some elements of a cluster being is/are produced in a different manner from the target phoneme (Grunwell, 1987, as cited in Treiman, 1989). E.g.: Green: pronounced as [gwin]
  • Bread: pronounced as [bwed] 3. Epenthesis. This is the insertion of some vowel (normally a schwa) between cluster elements (Dyson & Paden, 1983, as cited in Treiman, 1989). E.g.: Drive (/draEv/) pronounced as [dəravv]. 4. Coalescence. It occurs when the yielded pronunciation contains a new consonant composed of features from the original consonants. E.g.: Swim pronounced as [fim] It was explained that because the [+fricative] feature of /s/ co-occurs with the [+labial] feature of /w/, resulting in a labial fricative, [f] (Dyson & Paden, 1983, as cited in Treiman, 1989). 5. Omitting nasal and liquid sounds. In consonant clusters consisting of pre-final + final consonants with nasals (/n/, /m/) or liquids (/r/, /l/) as the first element, (/m, n, l, r/ + final consonant), nasals and liquids sounds are often omitted (Treiman, Zukowski, & Richmond-Welty, 1995). E.g.: went => wet belt => bet. 6. Phonetically possible spelling. In representing the first consonant of a cluster, spellers tend to spell words in an inaccurate but phonetically plausible ways (Treiman & Bourassa, 2000). E.g.: trap => chap It was explained that because quot;chquot; closely resembles the sound of the initial blend tr /ti /. Treiman (1985) explained that this quot;chquot; spelling reflects the release of /t/ in the context. Again in a research about Chinese-Speaking EFL Learners’ Performances of Processing English Consonant Clusters, Fang-chi Chang (2002) used the same way classification and find out 6 types of errors above all occurred with Chinese learners. The errors he found seemed to be predictable.
  • Among the six types above, the first, fifth and sixth types of errors are predicted to be the problems of Vietnamese learners. In the next finding chapter, it will be discussed in detailed. 2.4. Communicative Language Teaching According to Wikipedia dictionary, quot;Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is an approach to the teaching of second and foreign languages that emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of learning a language”. It is also referred to as “communicative approach to the teaching of foreign languages” or simply the “Communicative Approach”. CLT is based on the work of sociolinguists during the 1970's, particularly that of Hymes (1972). Hymes states that knowing a language involves more than knowing a set of grammatical structures, load of words with phonetics rules, etc. In order to use the language effectively, learners need to develop communicative competence, which is the ability to use the language they are learning appropriately in a certain social situation. In fact, communication is now seen as the ultimate reason for learning a language; and for many young EFL teachers, it is quot;the only teaching method that they have experiencedquot; (Tan, 2005: 104). It can best be defined with a list of general principles. In quot;Communicative Language Teachingquot;, David Nunan (1991) lists these five basic characteristics: 1. An emphasis on learning to communicate through interaction in the target language. 2. The introduction of authentic texts into the learning situation. 3. The provision of opportunities for learners to focus, not only on language but also on the learning process itself.
  • 4. An enhancement of the learner’s own personal experiences as important contributing elements to classroom learning. 5. An attempt to link classroom language learning with language activities outside the classroom. Though CLT is widely used for over three decades, there are negative opinions toward the use of CLT in EFL class in some particular contexts. Current literature on English Language Teaching (ELT) criticizes the transfer of CLT from Western English-speaking countries to other context as in Vietnam or China. It is seen as problematic since pedagogy quot;importedquot; from abroad conflicts with the social, cultural, and physical conditions of those countries (Holliday 1994, Pennycook 1989, as cited in Pham, 2005). The solution, therefore, appears to be a modified version of CLT, made appropriate to the recipients. Hence, a deep understanding of CLT theory and its implications for classroom practice is important (Thompson 1996, Sato and Kleinsasser 1999, as cited in Pham, 2005). When the positive impacts of CLT in EFL class are unable to deny, CLT's application in pronunciation teaching is still controversial. To many scholars, pronunciation is not as important as other skills since the chief concern was regarded as the communication of meaning; and quot;pronunciation is still isolated from communication in materialsquot; (Sean, 2003: 20). It is claimed that the best method to teach pronunciation is no more than instruction and repetition, because students need to perceive a new sound through instruction before they can produce it (Jenkins, 2004). To support this, Jones (1997) in his research also states that unlike other skills, pronunciation studying requires more habit formation as it “involves both cognitive and motor functions: few would deny that repeated practice of motor functions results in increased dexterity”(105). On the other hand, the theory of Communicative Teaching and
  • its application in pronunciation is also gaining popularity from many people; and when it became popular, pronunciation instruction reduced. One supporter of this theory is Krashen (1982), who “insists that pronunciation is an acquired skill and that focused instruction is at best useless and at worst detrimental” (1982, as cited from Jones (1997); instead, it should not be taught at all. In spite of that, pronunciation is still one of the most neglected skills, especially in the general trend of CLT revolution. Sean (2003) claims that quot;while other skills have all advanced and received Swan’s ‘splendid’ activities of the communicative revolution, pronunciation, and to a large and associated extent, listening, is still isolated and stuck with listen and repeat, or just ‘listen’quot;. In Vietnamese context particularly since the late 1980s when the communicative approach flowed into Vietnam and came into vague, pronunciation is ignored by most teachers. People hoped that with this new approach learners will be much better at oral communication, yet the result was vice-versa (Ha, 2005). Pronunciation is becoming the main reason for communication breakdown. Since teaching pronunciation using CLT is still on debate, I have no desire to give it a solution. My finding in this paper just aim to provide some suggestions from my own point of view to solve the problem raised in the thesis topic: Ending sounds errors.
  • CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 3.1. Subjects Data which this study used to analyze were collected from observing 35 freshmen from 4 first year classes, K42E, English Department, Hulis, VNU. The university which specializes in Languages and International Studies is among the prestigious universities of Vietnam in teaching and studying languages. English Department is also one of the largest departments in the university. The classes were chosen randomly without any knowledge of the researcher about English level, teaching and studying situation or any special feature of these classes, so that the finding can reflect the real situation of ending sounds problems of freshmen students in the university. These subjects, English major at the college, were all at age seventeen to nineteen and graduated from high school all over Vietnam. Most of them are female, which really reflect the male-female ratio in HULIS, VNU, because more than 90 percent of students in English Department are female. Most of them had studied English for 7 years or more before entering this university, and 12% of them had studied in English center taught by native speakers at the time they participated in this study. They are from various backgrounds as coming from different part of Vietnam, so some of them had got the local dialect which relatively affects their English speaking and pronunciation. When this study was conducted, all of them had been studying in E.D, HULIS for one and a half semester and had studied Pronunciation course books: quot;Pronunciation for First year studentsquot;. Hence, these subjects had got basic ideas of pronunciation rules. Moreover, they had certain awareness of their own pronunciation problems and had been corrected by teachers.
  • 3.2. Data collection procedure The necessary data were collected during April, 2009 in 4 first year classes in E.D, Hulis, VNU. Before observing the class, the observer and checked the problems to be investigated and the schedule, and decided the classes to observe. The first data collection instrument to gain access to this problem is the adoption of observation techniques since as Nunan (1989:76) said“there is no substitute for direct observation as a way of finding out about language classroomsquot;. The technique is suitable for the research as the researcher wants to make an in-depth study on students' sounds when they produce words. To prepare for observation, a detailed observation scheme was designed and tested before hand (See Apendix 1). The first part of the observation scheme aimed to take note all the information about class setting (time, place, type of class, etc) and other factors that may affect the performance of students. The next part was to sample the speech of students when they made speech individually. It was dedicated to noting all the students' pronunciation errors with ending sounds in detail, consisting of type of errors, the sounds with which students made errors and the repetition of them. Each class was carried on in a quite large classroom with 12 desks, 1 board with no computer or projector. The observer sat on a table in the class but did not take part in any activities during the lesson so that it did not make any influence to the subjects' performance. Whenever a student made a speech, the observer took note in the check list all the errors with ending sounds that she could recognize. Secondly, to make an effective and reliable data collection, tape recorders were used to collect information for take-home analysis. Audio- recording is used during class time besides visually noted. The 45-minute-long
  • class was to be all audio-taped; however, not much information could be recorded at the beginning and the end of the lessons, so most of the recordings are about 37 to 40 minutes. Because most of the time, students often went to the board to make presentation, so the tape recorder was place on the first row desk to get the best audio quality. The observer sat right at the first row table to record the subjects' voice unobtrusively in order to not distract the students' presentation. 3.3. Data analysis procedure After observing all of the 4 class in 7 lessons, all observation schemes with information collected from the subjects were used for analysis. All the errors made by students were counted in terms of types, sounds frequency and seriousness. Researcher classified those types of errors and presented them in form of charts and tables. Tape(s) recorded from classes were collected after all and given to 2 English native speakers by a third party for pronunciation evaluation. The evaluators, holding a doctorate in linguistics, were university professors unacquainted with the speaker on the tape. They had been informed of the purpose of the evaluation; so he will help evaluating the pronunciation of students' through the tapes. A check list was also given to the evaluators so that the resuilt would be more precise and suitable for the purpose of the researcher. After getting the result, they gave a written feedback to the researcher and discussed together to work out the final result. The result from recording analysis was compared with the comment and note-taking from observation. Finally, the data were processed with both statistical and interpretive methods. They were clarified and summarized into tables and charts for later synthesis and generalization. Comments and judgments were made by the researcher in connection with the relevant knowledge in previous researches
  • finding presented in chapter 2. As this study follow the methodology of error analysis (Corder, 1967), there were five main steps in processing data: identify errors, classify errors, quantify errors, identify sources of the errors and offer proper remedies. From the statistic and finding, solution for Vietnamese students in E.D, Hulis, VNU pronunciation errors with ending sounds was work out, using communicative teaching method.
  • CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Through observation conducted with 4 classes and the tapes recorded as mentioned in the previous chapter, in this part, the data were analyzed and discussed in order to answer the two research questions. The finding is an authentic clue that helps to work out an effective way of teaching pronunciation to Vietnamese students using communicative teaching method. 4.1. Errors concerned with ending sounds of first year students in E.D, HULIS, VNU First and foremost, the data helped to reveal the ending sounds errors first year students in E.D, HULIS, VNU often commit and which errors are the most common ones in their pronunciation. The most common ones are chosen dues to the number of times they appear during the observation sessions and the number of subjects that made the errors. In current study, there noted 425 pronunciation errors connected with ending sounds, including 236 errors from recordings and 189 from observation. Error of processing final consonant observed in these students can be divided into 2 main categories: Errors with codas and errors with linking sounds. Because wrong pronunciation of final sounds directly leads to wrong linking sounds, so writing about errors with ending sounds, it is better to examine the problem as well. In the later part, this type of error will be discussed in detail. 4.1.1. Final consonants errors First when looking at the former type, errors can classified into 3 groups:  Reduction (Omitting the final consonant or one element of a cluster.)
  •  Insertion (Inserting a consonant to the ending of word.)  Substitution (Replacing the target consonant (cluster) by a phonetically similar or Vietnamese sound.) There were totally 336 errors that subjects made with codas. From analysing the data collected from both observation and recordings, the result is relatively similar. Among the 3 error types, omitting the final consonant or one/some elements of a cluster outstood because of the time it appeared. Below is the chart that shows the percentage of the three types of error. 29% Reduction Insertion Substitution 6% 65% Chart 1: Types of errors Among the 336 total segmental errors found, reduction error makes up 65% (repeated 218 times), when the second type -substitution- makes up 29% ( 97 times) and the third one -insertion- 6% (21 times). The seriousness of these errors was also represented by the number of students that commit them. Of all the subjects, 100% made errors with consonant reduction once or more (35 subjects). With the second type - substitution - the percentage is 91.4% (32 subjects) and the third type 11.4% with 4 students making errors. Firstly look at the two more common errors of the subjects. 4.1.1.1. Reduction and substitution
  • In order to make a clear and deep analysis, students' ending sounds are classified into 2 categories:  Single consonant sound (one consonant as the coda)  Consonant clusters (two or more consonants form a cluster) 4.1.1.1.1. Errors with single final consonant Among 24 English consonants, the three approximant /w/, /j/, /r/ and the glottal sound /h/ can never be the final consonant. (1) In the other 20 consonants, the seriousness of error with each sound is different. From the finding, there are some sounds with which the objects rarely or never make errors, when some other sounds learners frequently make errors with. The table below shows the former ones: (2) Number Consonants Number of error(s) 1 /m/ 0 2 /n/ 0 3 // / 0 4 /p/ 1 5 /b/ 2 6 // / 0 7 // / 0 Table 2: sounds that cause less difficulty Because the data were collected from real situation in class, words with the target sounds may not appear in subjects' speech, or just with small percentage, so error was hard to find, for example /p/ and // / were predicted to be difficult to the subject, however no error was found.
  • There was no error with the three first sounds. This should be explained by the similarity between Vietnamese and English phonetics sounds. Firstly, look at the phonetic table of Vietnamese language, three nasal ending sounds /m/, /n/ and /e/ are not much different from English ones. Though in theory those sounds above in English must be aspirated, native people are quite lazy to aspirate them. It is easy to see that the three nasal consonants cause less problem to Vietnamese learners since these sounds are produced through the nose with the mouth closed, (so when they are at the end of a word, the sound produced when pronouncing that word will end with closed mouth, making no audible sound). Two other sounds that hardly cause any difficulty to Vietnamese learners of English are the two plosive-bilabial sounds /b/ and /p/. Because the number of words ending with /b/ and /p/ sounds recorded during observation stage was not as many as others, so not many errors with those final sound was made. Another reason may be because they are bilabial sounds. When the word is produced, the ending sound is also produced with two lips closed together, which is similar to Vietnamese one. Vietnamese learners do commit errors as they make little distinction between a word ending with /p/ or /b/. All words ending with /b/ could be pronounced with ending sound /p/. E.g.: Tab & tap Cab & cap Because in native English, the distinction between /b/ and /p/ are also not so clear due to speakers' laziness to aspirate them, this error is not so serious as others. From (1) and (2) this table below aims to clarify the rest 14 sounds that cause difficulties to learners. Table 3: English consonants that often cause errors from the findings
  • Bilabial Labio Dental Alveolar Palato- Palatal Velar Glottal dental alveolar Plosive +b ++ ++ . -p - -- Fricative ++ ++ +z ++ -- -- -- Affricate ++ -- ++ -- Nasal +m +n ++ Lateral +l Approxi +w ++ ++ mant Note: Sounds can not stand as coda Closed and nasal sounds Sounds rarely appeared as coda during observation Apart from the sounds in colors, the remaining 14 sounds are those which did in fact cause more perceptive and productive problems to the subjects. Some consonants errors that were found with high repetition were /t/, /d/, /z/, /s/, /k/ and /l/. Chart 2 presents the number of times the common errors took place with each consonant sound.
  • /l/ 17 /k/ 11 /s/ 22 /z/ 33 /d/ 16 /t/ 30 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 (Number of times) Chart 2: Times that times common errors took place with each sound The most common errors were found with /z/ (33 times), /t/ (30 times), (For example, objects pronounced quot;environmentquot; as quot;environmenquot; (/t/ was deleted) or quot;hardquot; / hwad/ was pronounced as /hdt/.) /s/ (22 times) followed by /l/ (17 times, /d/ (16 times) and /k/ (11 times). Though there were fewer records of final /l/ than that of some others; it seems to be the most problematic one when none of the subjects can pronounce a word containing final /l/ accurately. These sounds appear frequently in English, especially in final sounds; it is obvious that more errors were found with them. There are some reasons for students to commit errors with such sounds above. In the first place, there are some consonants in the phonetics table that appear in Vietnamese phonetics table but never stand at the end of a word in Vietnamese. So Vietnamese people are not familiar with pronouncing them and tend to make errors. Below listed seven sounds in the category: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 /b/ /d/ /f/ /v/ /z/ /s/ /l/
  • Secondly, although /t/ and /k/ as well as /p/ can stand at the end of a word in Vietnamese, they are totally different form English ones. When /t/, /k/ and /p/ in English are plosive and aspirated, Vietnamese ones are not pronounced clearly when being at the coda position because they are unaspirated. Therefore, many subjects made errors with them and the frequency is quite high. Thirdly, subjects also found rather hard to pronounce those sounds that do not exist in Vietnamese. Below shows six sounds that do not appear in Vietnamese phonetics table. 1 2 3 4 5 6 // / // / // / // i // / // i / As though sounds above do not exist in Vietnamese language, it is difficult for learners to produce them rightly, especially when they are at the end of a word. For example, from the collected data, 5 errors were made with / tt /, 9 with // / and 3 with /d/ /. For example, subjects delete /d/ / in quot;messagequot;, quot;bridgequot; or change /quot;/ to /t/ in quot;bothquot;, quot;growthquot;. There are certain situations when a final sound is deleted or replaced. Firstly from the data, it is noticed that when the diphthong sound in an English word resembles a Vietnamese diphthong (vowel + u^ and vowel + i^ as mentioned in the previous chapter), subjects often delete the final consonant. In other situation, the error is substitution. For example: in the word quot;outquot; /quot;ot/ as the diphthong /t / / sounds the same as /a/ u^/ (in Vietnamese quot;aoquot;), /t/ is omitted. This is because in Vietnamese, /u^/ and /i^/ in a diphthong can play the role of the final consonant, hence no more consonant is permitted to go after, which it is totally allowed in English. Vietnamese keep this rule in mind when pronouncing English words, which lead to the lack of ending
  • consonant. From the figure above, errors with single consonant can be classified as: Closing diphthong + single consonant: reduction When the consonant goes after a closing diphthong (end with /W and / / / /) it is common that the ending consonant is mute. Some example: in while /waSl/, boil /bl / l/ or file /fl / l/, /l/ is deleted in rose /r z/ /z/ is deleted in height /ha t/ /t/ is deleted Single vowel/ centering diphthong + single consonant: substitution In most situations when a consonant goes after a single vowel, there is substitution error. Substitution of sound should result from learners' misconception that some English consonants are pronounced as Vietnamese ones. And hereunder is the way the subjects replace English sounds by Vietnamese sounds. Targeted Substitution Errors sounds /t/ /t/ and /d/ are mispronounced to become Vietnamese /d/ unaspirated /t/. E.g.: meat = mead => mE't seat = seed => s 't /z/ /z/ and /s/ are mispronounced as Vietnamese /t/. /s/ E.g.: this /E. s/ => /s / t/ buzz /b z/ => /bzt/ /k/ /k/ is unaspirated as Vietnamese /k/ kick /kkk/ => /kik/ with /k/ unaspirated /f/ /f/ and /v/ are mispronounced as unaspirated /p/ /v/ E.g.: stuff /stE. / => /st/ p/
  • // / // / and // / are mispronounced as unaspirated /t/ // / E.g.: breath /breE/ => /bret/ breathe /br / => /br/ t/ // / // / and // / are mispronounced as unaspirated /t/ or /k/ // / E.g.: bag /bEg/ => /bgk/ flash /fl / => /fl/ t/ // / / // / / and // / are often replaced by Vietnamese /t/ // / / E.g.: hedge /heE. g/ => /he/ t/ /l/ /l/ is often replaced by /n/ or the vowel standing in the front is changed. E.g.: will /wE. l/ => /wl n/ fill /f l/ => /fl n/ mill /m l/ => /ml n/ or /mn/ / Table 4: Realizations of errors with single final consonants Once again it should be noted that only 6 consonants in English can stand at the end of words in Vietnamese. That's why all other ending sounds in English are tent to be replaced by those sounds above. Vietnamese /t/ is mostly used to replace the target sounds, followed by /p/ and /n/. When writing about substitution, another notable point is that subjects not only replace English sounds by Vietnamese ones but also be confuse between similar sounds. Some examples from the data collected are: - Replacement of /- / by /s/ (8 times) - Confusion between /- / and // / (3 times) 4.1.1.1.2. Errors with final clusters
  • A consonant cluster at the end of word can consist of from 2 to 4 consonants. The table below is adapted from Christian, 2002, which presents the coda clusters: Pre- consonant Stops, Post-consonant(s) Liquids Nasals s fricatives & affricatives Max. 1 of 1 of Max. 3 of /l/ /m/ /n/ // / /s/ /t/ /d/ /s/ /z/ // / + + + /p/ + + + /b/ + + + + + + /t/ + + + /d/ + + + + + /k/ + + + // / + + + + /f/ + + + + /v/ + + + /θ/ + + + /ð/ + + + + /s/ + + /z/ + + /∫/ + + /ʒ/ + + /t∫/ + + /dʒ/ + Table 5: Component of coda clusters The major problem with cluster ending is reduction of sounds. Although there were still subjects who commit the other type of errors, the number is just minor. In here just have a look at the error of sound reduction. For the sake of clarity, these errors will be analyzed with the classification of final clusters into 2 types:  Pre + final + (post)  Final + post
  • In the former case, there are two directions to which the final clusters are mispronounced basing on the pre-final consonants: deleting the final or post-final sounds (1) or deleting the pre-final (2). Among the 5 pre-final consonants, /l/ is a liquid sound while /n/, /m/ and /c/ are nasal sounds and /s/ is a fricative. Firstly, it is noted that when a nasal sound goes as pre-final, the subjects tent to delete the final and post consonants that go after it. The phenomenon was found in 100% of the subjects. E.g.: Environment /Envi r onm / => // ent => / m (delete /t/) en/ Friends /frFndz/ => /frnn/ (delete /d/ and /z/) Thinks / s/ => /s / s/ (delete /k/) Prompts /prPmpts/ => /prm or /prm or /prm m/ ms/ mps/ (delete /m/or /p/or /t/ or all) Most of the subjects omitted all consonants after the nasal pre-final (72%). 21% of the students deleted the main final and 7% deleted the post- final(s). So the common tendency is that students delete all or keep the first and the last sound in a cluster while deleting the middle ones. Secondly, in the case when the nasal /l/ stands as the pre-final, it is the nasal sound to be omitted. E.g.: Helped /helpt/ => /hep/ Files /f lz/ => /fl zz/ World /w ld/ => /wl dd/ Child /t ld/ => /tl d/ / Films /f lmz/ => /fl mz/ This type of error was found in 100% of the subjects. The main final sound was also omitted by students (80%). There were 78% of them remembering to put the post-final(s) at the end of the word. A remarkable
  • point founded from the data is that the deletion of post-final sounds has certain relation with their function. When the post-final sounds represent the plural form (/s/, /z/) or the past form (/t/, /d/) of verbs, only 20% of the subjects delete the sounds. It seems that many subjects remember to pronounce /s/, /z/, /t/ or /d/ at the end if it changes the form of word, for example: /s/ in quot;helpsquot;, /z/ in quot;filmsquot;. Whereas in other cases, the post-final was more often neglected as more than 70% of the subjects omitted those sounds. One example is the /d/ sound in quot;childquot;. It can be explained that /s/, /z/, /t/ and /d/ in the first case are morphological as they are suffixes added later in subjects' words forming process which can make change to the meaning, so people often remember to pronounce them. On the contrary, be cause of the influence of mother tongue, most of students are unaware that the post ending sounds should be pronounced as well, so they were simply omitted. Thus, from the data above, one common error is the deletion of liquid sound in a final cluster. * Note: /r/ sound presents in spelling, but is absent from pronunciation of many dialects, including the standard (British English or RP), or rather it combines with the preceding vowel, subjects' not pronouncing /r/ sound was not counted as an error here. Thirdly, when the post-final sound is /s/, some subjects delete the /s/ sound when some others tend to delete the final sounds. For example, when observing the same object, in the word quot;bestquot; the /s/ sound was deleted while in quot;modestquot;, the sound deleted was /t/. So even to the same subject the deletion applied to pre-final /s/ or the followed consonants was unpredictable. In the later case, when there are final plus post-final(s) to combine a cluster, hardly any deletion of the final consonant was found. Normally, the second element of two-element clusters and third of three-element clusters are always the ones deleted. Many subjects just pronounced the first consonants of
  • the long cluster and delete the followed consonants. For instant, next /nekst/ was pronounced as /nek/ (/s/ and /t/ were deleted) or /s/ and /w were deleted in / quot;sixthquot; /siksquot;/. There were a few cases of omitting a second element of three- element clusters, for example effects /e'f' f es/ was pronounced as /s 'f' f s/ (/t/ was deleted) 4.1.1.2. Insertion errors Those insertion just makes up a small percentage in all three types (6%), it is also a notable error found during the research procedure (13 out of 35 subjects commit this type of error). 14%  1   53%  33% Chart 3: Sounds inserted at final position The common ways were the insertion of schwa /T/ and /s/ sounds at the end of words. Statistic shows that 11 errors concerned with /s/ (53%) while there were 8 times subjects added /t / at the end. Only 3 errors concerned with other sounds. Some examples from observation are: /ot t hez/ (it means) was changed to /chs s an/, /b/ / /  (better) was produced as / b ( bs, /, d/ (and) was pronounced as /pr dd/ or /h/ v/ (have) as /hvvv/. The insertion of /s/ or /z/ sounds may result from the accidental wrong placement of suffix quot;squot; when subjects form plural nouns or verb in single form. This type of error tends to be productive (also called performance
  • errors) because when producing one part of the speech, speakers process the next part in their mind; when students try to talk continuously and smoothly and the time is not enough to process, errors like that can occur. It can also be the habit of some students to put quot;squot; at the end of many words. Another sound added by subjects to the ending of words was the /A/ sound. It was often added to conjunctions or auxiliary verbs to fill in the silent between utterances. This can also be considered as performance errors occurred when speakers producing a speech. Added to this, there were three times subjects added /t/ and /d/ and /k/ at the end. However it just occurred once, which is not typical compared to other sounds. 4.1.2. Linking sounds errors This part discusses the pronunciation of linking sounds between two words in English especially when the second word begins with a vowel sound. Total 89 errors were noted with linking sounds. It is the subjects' deletion and mispronunciation of final sounds that possibly lead to the lack or wrong linking sounds. Some examples are: - Tell you Linking sound deleted: /l/ - Each E other Linking sound deleted: /t / - About A it Linking sound deleted: /d/ According to Ann Cook (1991: 59), words are connected in four main situations: 1. Consonant / Vowel: Words are connected when a word ends with a consonant sound and the next word begins with a vowel sound
  • 2 Consonant / Consonant: There is a link between two words when the first word ends in a consonant sound and the other starts with a consonant that is in a similar position. 3 Vowel / Vowel: words are connected when a word ending in a vowel sound is next to the one beginning with a vowel sound. They are connected with a glide (either a slight [y] sound or a slight [w] sound) between the two vowels. 4 T, D, S, or Z + Y: When a word ending with sound /t/, /d/, /s/ or /z/ is followed by a word starting with Y (or its sound), they are connected. That clear classification helps the investigation of students' linking sounds errors become more clearly. However, because of the quality of tape recorded and observation environment, it was hard to take note the errors in the second and the third cases. Moreover, considering the seriousness of each type of error, the first type is the most typical one with the subjects. Therefore, only Consonant / Vowel connection will be discussed in this part. Consonant / Vowel Words are connected when a word ends in a consonant sound and the next word starts with a vowel sound, including the semivowels W, Y, and R (Ann Cook, 1991). For example: quot;Hold onquot; can be pronounced as [hol don] quot;Turn overquot; can be pronounced as [tur nover] It is also notable that on personal pronouns, it is common to drop the / h/ sound. For instance: tell him: /th/ s /, miss her: /m/ , /. Most of the subjects made this type of error as they forget the coda and none of them pronounced the silent /h/ correctly. As a result, words were unconnected. Statistic shows that one hundred percent of the subjects made this error. Below is some subjects' mispronunciation:
  • - /d/ was deleted in quot;made ofquot; so /m- / / became // êê / - /l/ was deleted in quot;tell himquot; so /t- / l / / was pronounced as // wh h/ 4.2. Strategies to overcome using communicative teaching method In much of the preceding discussion, the fundamental errors of learners with final sounds have been revealed. In this part, I would like to give some recommendations on the use of CLT in teaching pronunciation in order that the problem with final sounds could be lessen to become less serious. When this study was just an outline, it was my intention to investigate the use of CLT in pronunciation in other context and find out which is the most effective way to use CLT in pronunciation class. However, after finishing literature review, I realized that what should be presented in this part are: - My suggestions of what should be alert to teachers when using CLT in teaching pronunciation in general and to solve problem of ending sounds in particular - Sample activities that could be used to teach ending sounds Because each teacher have his own techniques toward similar errors, which suit particular class environment and students' ability. So below are my personal advices that can apply in any particular situation whenever it can bring effect. 4.2.1. Suggestions when using CLT 4.2.1.1. CLT is used along with teachers' instruction An outstanding feature of pronunciation learning and teaching is that the amount of time for students to use the target language must be relatively high, so that they can have enough time to practice. However, one problem of Vietnamese teaching environment that can be drawn from observation is that
  • teacher talking time is too much in comparison with student talking time. Most of the time student can just listen and repeat in chorus, or speak when the teacher call upon. This can not enable all students to talk and practice but just several individuals, who normally have better competence compared with others. This also creates a fear of speaking in the slow students. To solve this, communicative approach provides students more time to speak using target language and without the control of teachers. Of course it is agree among many teachers that students can not produce a word when they do not have a sample and instruction. Students can also easily mispronounce it into a similar mother tongue sound. Especially to many Vietnamese pre-intermediate and intermediate students, final sounds problems seem to be within their conscious. So what I suggest here is that communicative teaching should be use in accompany with the traditional method of giving instruction, drills may or may not be used. It can increase students talking time, so they have more time to practice in pairs or in groups, where every student can raise their voice. It's best to consider talk time in the following percentages. Students should speak for 70% of the lesson while teachers should speak for 30% of the time. (Hue, 2005) The percentage above can be varied according to different characteristic of EFL classes; however, it is necessary that student talk more than teacher himself. Teacher talking time is used to give instruction and provide students with sample and notes. Below is an example of lesson plan which aim to teach the final /l/. LESSON PLAN Skill: Pronunciation
  • Time: 45 minutes I. Objectives: 1. Educational aim: Practice the final sound /l/ 2. Knowledge: - Students will be able to produce the sound accurately. - Ss can use words containing the sound to form sentences and use them in conversation. 3. Skills: Accuracy in pronouncing sound. Fluency is not very highly required. II. Method: Integrated, giving instruction (30%) and communicative (70%) III. Anticipated problem: level of students may be different, maybe time have to be given more to those slow ones. IV. Teaching aids: Board, chalk, handout. V. Procedures: Teacher’s activities Student’s activities 1. Introduce the sound and give instruction Introduction: - Look at the board - Writes a set of words on the board: - Listen to the teacher Fulfill, file, fuel, feel, drill, smile, etc - Answer T's questions - Asks some Ss to read aloud the words - Asks Ss what the common point of these sounds above is => Raises Ss' awareness about ending /l/: which most Ss fail to produce. Giving sample and instruction: - Read the words and let Ss read after in chorus - Read the words in - Reviews how to pronounce /l/: A partial closure chorus and then
  • is made by the blade of the tongue against individually. the alveolar ridge. Air is able to flow around the sides of the tongue. The soft palate is raised. /l/ is voiced. (explains in Vietnamese as Ss may not understand) - Explains that when /l/ stands at the end of word, - Listen to T and take it is still pronounced and be audible. note. E.g.: File: breaks it into two parts: /f l/= /fl / /+/l/ There's a glide between / / and /l/ Fuel: start by working on the ‘y’ glide between the ‘f’ and the vowel, the word - Practice the words was just like ‘you’ but with ‘f’ and ‘l’ individually. Some Ss added at initial and final position. read aloud as T requires. - Calls some Ss to read aloud the words and makes correction. 2. Activities Listen to teacher's (Role play between a waiter and a customer in a instruction. restaurant) - Asks Ss to work in pairs. In a pair, a student - Work in pairs. Practice will act as waiter and the other customer. Each the sound by acting out pair work on a menu provided by T, which the role play using the includes words ending with /l/. Below is the menu provided. sample menu.
  • 4.2.1.2. Groups work must be used effectively With CLT teaching, many teachers think that their role is not significant as students will work in groups and then all teachers have to do is listen and comment. However, the important thing when using group work is that teacher should understand his students, so that can divide them into group in the best way. To solve ending sounds problems when using groups work, teacher should know each individual's strong and weak points. A group should consist of: - Students with different ability and competence. The slower students will automatically learn from those who are better. - Students who are good at producing different ending sounds. For example a student with fewer errors with final /l/ could be assigned in a group with students who are not aware of that particular sound but good at producing others, so that she can be a good sample for other to practice this /l/ sound and vice versa. Because learners are well-aware of their peers' errors as well as strong points and have a sense of self-correct, it is very helpful. 4.2.1.3. Authentic native-nonnative communicating in class Another necessary point that must be counted in here is the necessity of authentic non-native to native speakers' conversation. It is acknowledge that CLT activities include a lot of talking between learners with real communicative purpose, which means what they have the need to exchange information. However, unlike other multi-culture EFL class in which people from various backgrounds and speak many languages. Therefore, the influence of mother tongues to their English is also different from one individual to another. The situation is not the same in Vietnam when learners share the
  • same language and receive the same influence of Vietnamese to English. Then interaction in English is restricted to classrooms, where a Vietnamese student interacts with another Vietnamese. That is why final sound errors which can highly cause communication breakdown between a Vietnamese and a foreigner hardly make any difficulty for Vietnamese people. In class, many possible pronunciation problems that might threaten intelligibility are left unnoticed, or dismissed and untreated in activities that draw on implicit learning. Many foreign teachers in E.D, HULIS, VNU said that in many cases when students can understand each others, they can not even guess the meaning. Even for Vietnamese teachers it is not easy to point out all students' errors with ending sounds, because they are so not obvious as other errors/mistakes. Thus both teachers and students tend to forgive the errors. For real communicative purpose, I strongly recommend teaching pronunciation should involve with native teachers. 4.2.1.4. Prediction of students' errors First, a teacher must understand the characteristics of his students. One of the advantages of Vietnamese teachers is that they share the same first language with their students, so final sounds errors connected with L1 is actually predictable, because most of the errors seem to be typical of Vietnamese English under the influence of mother tongue. This can help teachers to design suitable tasks to focus on the most outstanding problems. When some teachers tend to correct the error only when it arises, I suggest not waiting. Rather than teaching pronunciation drills which might be boring or can not focus on the problem itself, teachers from analysis may be aided in noticing students’ problems by being aware of which features may present
  • difficulties to them. Once a problem is identified, the teacher starts with awareness raising (perception) and help students to produce the sound correctly. Then, teacher will focus on practicing including imitating the sound. Next, students should practice the sound in conversation. A teacher may have to create situations using words containing the target sounds in order for the students to practice producing the sounds in conversation. For example, a role play is useful in this situation (E.g.: students act as waiter and customer in a restaurant, and a shopping list or a menu would be helpful). Lastly, teachers need to refer back to those sounds in future lessons. 4.2.2. CLT activities to deal with final sounds errors It is stated in the previous discussion that the difficulty with ending sounds should result from teachers' neglect and the negative influence of mother tongue. In order to clear away these stumbling-blocks, there should be carefully organized activities and certain techniques that would be used in class. When students are aware of the sounds and have more changes to practice, they will enhance them more quickly. Like other skills, when applying CLT in teaching, communication is strongly emphasized. However, as pronunciation requires accuracy in students so that they can produce sounds accurately, errors of students must be corrected right away. What is different from other skill is that in pronunciation, teacher should control the language used by students, while in other cases language use is unpredictable. There are some principles when choosing an activity in pronunciation teaching.  Focus on the targeted words and sounds  Practice small samples of language  Do not require meaningful communication
  •  Choice of language is controlled In the theory of CLT, its techniques usually involve three typical types: information gap, role-play and tasks. The goal of these communicative techniques is to get students to interact with each other, and from then improve their competence. In this paper I list some sample activities and tasks which seem to be old, but may be redesign to fit the aim of practicing ending sounds. Sample techniques: Brainstorming Ask students to think of words that contain the target sound of the lesson. When students provide a quite enough number of words, give them communicative activities so that they can practice the sound using those words. In this way, students can focus on the sounds and be more aware of it. The practice process also helps them form a habit when pronouncing this sound. The following example is a brainstorming task to practice the final sound /t/ - Ask students to find any verb that end with /t/ - Remind them that /t/ at the end of word is an aspirated sound, or in other words it is clearly audible. The instruction should insist the different between Vietnamese and English ending /t/.
  • - Follow up activity: Work in pairs. Tell your partner what you did yesterday using those verbs you have listed above. Chain stories In turn, learners contribute sentences containing words or phrases with the sounds being practiced to make a story. Give each student a paper containing a word with the target ending sound. The first student will be call upon to make the first sentence and begin the story. All other member's task is to make another sentence to continue the story using the word they have. When another student read out his sentence, others keep thinking how to keep the story on going. Exaggeration Demonstrate a sound by exaggerating the actions and position of the tongue, teeth, lips, and mouth. This activity is used to revive those sounds studied in previous lessons.
  • Divide the class into small groups. Each group member will choose a flash card with words containing a target ending sound. Each member in turn makes a speech using those words. He or she must try to exaggerate the sounds so that other members can guess which the final sound in his/her flash card is. Other group members do the same until everyone has talked. Sound picture This is a pair work activity. Prepare a pair of for each pair of students in the class. The two picture are similar but for some differences. Divide the class in to pairs. Give one member of each pair one picture and the other member the second one. Students should not look at each other's picture. For each picture, give students the key sound, explaining that the differences lie in words that contain the sound. Students work in pairs, describe the pictures and find out the differences. For example, with the pair of picture below, the purpose of the activity is to practice /dt  and tt /. This activity is adopted from Hancock (2004). /d/ : bridge, giraffe, jacket, jet, jug, message, orange, (cage, fridge) /t/ /: chair, cheese, chicken, church, matches, picture, vulture, (chocolate) Many other interesting activities could be used in teaching. What needed is to make it fit the aim of the lesson.
  • CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION Throughout the paper, my goal has been to take a closer look at the most prominent error of first year students in E.D, HULIS, VNU. In general, the paper has successfully achieved its aim -which is stated in the research questions- to highlight the seriousness and causes of ending sound errors and provide its ways to overcome learners' difficulty using Communicative teaching. Firstly, from the data there are three major types of error that first year students often commit:  Reduction: Which is the omitting of final consonants or consonant clusters when producing words.  Substitution: it is the replacement of a final consonant sound by a Vietnamese similar sound.  Insertion: it is when students add one more sound (maybe consonant or vowel sounds) at the end of words. The first type -reduction error- is committed by most of the first year students as in the data collected, every subject made this error once or more. Also it is the most to appear with high frequency. As the influence of mother tongue that all final sounds are unaspirated and there must be no more than one consonant at the final position, students often delete that consonant sounds, or omit one or more elements of the final clusters. Especially because in Vietnamese, /u^/ and /i^/ in a diphthong can play the role of the final consonant, any word in English that contain the closing diphthongs (ending with // / or // /) will be pronounced without final consonant. In the second type is substitution, the influence of students' first language on their English is also obvious. In English there are sounds that never appear in Vietnamese phonetics table, never stand as final position in a
  • Vietnamese word, and sounds that are similar to Vietnamese ones. That is why students often replace them by similar sounds in Vietnamese. Because /t/, /k/, / p/ in Vietnamese can stand at the final position but unaspirated, any sound created in the same general location in English is replaced by Vietnamese /t/, /k/ and /p/. /t/ is most used to make substitution by students. The last type those not typical but also worst mention as it is also error with ending sounds. Students often use /s/ or schwa sounds as inserter. Another significant part of the paper is the application of CLT to pronunciation teaching, and particularly to overcome ending sounds errors of students. It provides some noticeable points when using CLT in teaching pronunciation and sample activities that could be helpful in helping students be aware of and correct their errors with final sounds. Although the part can not be a guideline, it somehow contributes to the ongoing discussion on pronunciation and communicative teaching. However, from a critical point of view, the paper still remains certain limitations. Firstly, the observation procedure should have been done more seriously and for longer time. During observation many errors within the research field could not be noted carefully, and also some recordings are not clear enough to clarify all of their features. In addition, because the records as well as observation just investigate students' speeches naturally in class, some other errors with certain sounds might not appear in. Thus in the research there are not many errors with /p/ although the sound is predicted to be problematic. As concerning final sound errors, this paper could be reference for later research on contrastive analysis of differences between Vietnamese English and the English of other countries. Also with the same aim to point out Vietnamese learners' problem, a more careful look at initial sounds, vowel sounds and other components of pronunciation like stress, intonation are also
  • suggested. Moreover, as the systematic final sound errors of Vietnamese students is one of the main reason for conversation breakdown, much more research should be carried out to find out effective teaching methods so that students can surmount this obstacle in the near future.
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