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Common Errors In Vietnamese – English Translation Of Heritage Interpretive Signage In Some Beauty Spots In Hanoi Ngo Ha Thu 05.1.E20 Thesis
 

Common Errors In Vietnamese – English Translation Of Heritage Interpretive Signage In Some Beauty Spots In Hanoi Ngo Ha Thu 05.1.E20 Thesis

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    Common Errors In Vietnamese – English Translation Of Heritage Interpretive Signage In Some Beauty Spots In Hanoi Ngo Ha Thu 05.1.E20 Thesis Common Errors In Vietnamese – English Translation Of Heritage Interpretive Signage In Some Beauty Spots In Hanoi Ngo Ha Thu 05.1.E20 Thesis Document Transcript

    • VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI COLLEGE OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES ENGLISH DEPARTMENT NGÔ HÀ THU COMMON ERRORS IN VIETNAMESE – ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF HERITAGE INTERPRETIVE SIGNAGE IN SOME BEAUTY SPOTS IN HANOI SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF ARTS Hanoi, May 2009
    • VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI COLLEGE OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES ENGLISH DEPARTMENT NGÔ HÀ THU COMMON ERRORS IN VIETNAMESE – ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF HERITAGE INTERPRETIVE SIGNAGE IN SOME BEAUTY SPOTS IN HANOI SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF ARTS SUPERVISOR: ĐỖ MINH HOÀNG, MA Hanoi, May 2009
    • I hereby state that I: Ngo Ha Thu, student of 05.1.E20, being a candidate for the degree of Bachelor of Arts accept the requirements of the College relating to the retention and use of Bachelor’s Graduation Paper deposited in the library. In terms of these conditions, I agree that the origin of my paper deposited in the library should be accessible for the purposes of study and research, in accordance with the normal conditions established by the librarian for the care, loan or reproduction of the paper. Signature Ngo Ha Thu Date: 04.05.2009
    • ABSTRACT Despite the increasingly growing number of foreign tourists to Hanoi, Vietnam and its importance role in heritage preservation and promotion, proper attention has not been paid to Vietnamese – English translation of interpretive signs in some beauty spots in the city. In this study, the translations of the signs were analyzed based on various theories of translation quality assessment and different frameworks of error classification in order to identify common types of errors and the most dominant errors that the translator(s) made. Thirteen interpretive signs placed in five well-known beauty spots in Hanoi were chosen as the participants of the study. Errors were acknowledged and then sorted out into two categories, errors relating to the source text and errors relating to the target text. Given the resulting data of the analysis, necessary calculation was made to figure out the proportion of the errors and the most popular errors exposed in the translation. Implications regarding etiology of the errors were also provided in the thesis. i
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would first and foremost like to thank my supervisor, Do Minh Hoang, MA for seeing me through this rewarding, yet challenging process. Thank you for your support, guidance and feedback. I would also like to extend my special thanks to Ngo Van Nghiem, MA for his expert suggestions with regards to the thesis. Finally, I would like to thank my friends, family who offered continuous support throughout the past few years, especially my parents, my younger sister Trang, my friends My, Duong, Huong, Hoa, Phuong and so many others. ii
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………… i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS…………………………………………………………. ii TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………………… iii LIST OF TABLES………………………………………………………………….. v LIST OF FIGURES…………………………………………………………………. vi LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS………………………………………………………. vii LIST OF APPENDIXES…………………………………………………………….. viii CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1. Rationale………………………………………………………………………... 1 1.2. Aims of the study……………………………………………………………….. 2 1.3. Scope of the study………………………………………………………………. 2 1.4. Methodology…………………………………………………………………….. 3 1.5. Structure of the study……………………………………………………………. 4 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Interpretation…………………………………………………………………….. 6 2.1.1. Definition………………………………………………………………... 6 2.1.2. Fundamental elements of interpretation………………………………… 7 2.2. Interpretive signage……………………………………………………………… 10 2.2.1. Definition………………………………………………………………... 10 2.2.2. Characteristics of text…………………………………………………… 10 2.2.3. Translating interpretive signage………………………………………… 11 2.3. Role of translation quality assessment…………………………………………... 12 2.4. Criteria for translation quality assessment………………………………………. 13 2.5. Translation errors………………………………………………………………... 16 2.5.1. Definitions of translation errors…………………………………………. 16 2.5.2. Typologies of errors……………………………………………………... 17 2.5.2. Impacts of errors………………………………………………………… 18 2.5.3. Etiologies of errors…………………………………………………….... 19 2.6. Summary………………………………………………………………………… 20 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 3.1. Sampling………………………………………………………………………… 22 iii
    • 3.2. Data analysis process…………………………………………………………… 23 CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 4.1. Linguistic errors ………………………………………………………………... 24 4.1.1. Errors in spelling, capitalization and punctuation………………………. 25 4.1.2. Errors in the use of articles……………………………………………… 29 4.1.3. Errors in the use of transitive and intransitive verbs……………………. 30 4.1.4. Miscellaneous errors…………………………………………………….. 33 4.2. Translational errors ……………………………………………………………... 35 4.2.1. Omission………………………………………………………………… 35 4.2.2. Equivalence……………………………………………………………… 37 4.2.3. Accuracy and Naturalness………………………………………………. 46 4.3. Summary and Implications……………………………………………………… 47 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS 5.1. Overview and summary of the thesis……………………………………………. 51 5.2. Strengths and weaknesses of the thesis………………………………………….. 52 5.3. Suggestions for further research and final comments…………………………… 53 REFERENCES APPENDIXES iv
    • LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 Spelling errors………………………………………………. 26 2 Capitalization errors………………………………………… 27 3 Punctuation errors…………………………………………... 28 4 Errors in the use of articles…………………………………. 30 5 Errors in the use of transitive and intransitive verbs……….. 31 6 Miscellaneous errors………………………………………... 34 7 Errors in equivalence at word level……………………….... 39 8 Errors in equivalence above word level…………………...... 43 v
    • LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 Major groups of linguistic errors that were identified in the translations………………………………………………… 48 2 Major groups of errors related to translation theories that were identified in the translations…………………………. 48 vi
    • LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS OALD Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary SL Source language ST Source text TL Target language TQA Translation quality assessment TT Target text vii
    • LIST OF APPENDIXES Appendix Page A Transcription of the sign ‘Văn Miếu – Quốc Tử Giám’ and its translation, which are placed in the first main gate of the spot………………………………………………... 58 B Transcription of the sign ‘Học tập tại Quốc Tử Giám’ and its translation………………………………………........... 59 C Transcription of the sign ‘Kiến trúc Văn Miếu – Quốc Tử Giám’ and its translation…………………………………. 61 D Transcription of the sign ‘Bia Tiến sĩ’ and its translation………………………………………………… 63 E Transcription of the sign ‘Khổng Tử’ and its translation………………………………………………… 65 F Transcription of the sign ‘Khu Thái Học’ and its translation………………………………………………… 67 G Transcription of the three signs introducing the biography of three Kings who made great contributions to the construction of the Temple of Literature and the National University………………………………………………… 69 H Transcription of the sign ‘Đền Ngọc Sơn’ and its translation, which are placed in front of the main gate leading to the The Huc Bridge…………………………… 72 I Transcription of the sign ‘Rùa hồ Gươm’ and its translation, which are placed in the room where the specimen of Hoan Kiem Lake’s tortoise is displayed……. 73 J Transcription of the sign ‘Đền Quán Thánh’ and its translation, which are placed in front of the main gate of the temple………………………………………………… 74 K Transcription of the sign ‘Chùa Một Cột’ and its translation………………………………………………… 75 L Transcription of the sign ‘Tượng đài Lê Thái Tổ’ and its translation, which are placed at the back of the monument, facing Le Thai To Street…………………….. 75 M Transcription of the sign ‘Chùa Trấn Quốc’ and its translation………………………………………………… 76 N Table of error classification……………………………… 77 viii
    • CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1. Rationale Since the introduction of “doimoi” in 1986, Vietnam’s tourism has witnessed numerous significant changes. Vietnam's entry into ASEAN in 1995, the BTA signed with the U.S. in 2000, and then, the integration into WTO in 2007 are expected to bring a boost to the tourism industry in the country. According to General Statistics Office of Vietnam (GSO), the number of international visitors coming to Vietnam is increasing. From 1986 to 1990, the number was negligible. From 1990 to 2005, a clear increase could be seen, from 250,000 in 1990 to 2.05 million in 2000, and 3.43 million in 2005. The most recent report by GSO showed that foreign travelers to Vietnam in 10 months of year 2008 reached nearly 3.60 million. Undeniably, from the state of having no place in international arena, Vietnamese tourism has made great leaps. It is obvious that many foreign visitors to Vietnam come from English speaking countries including the U.S, the U.K, Australia, etc. According to General Statistics Office (GSO)1, in 2008 alone, 39.31% of international tourists are English native speakers, not to mention a score of visitors, mainly self- guided, from non English speaking countries but still using English to communicate when traveling. Given that, English could be regarded as the main language to link Vietnamese tourism industry to foreign customers. 1 From http://www.vietnamtourism.gov.vn/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=5535&Itemid=127 . Retrieved November 7, 2008 1
    • However, reality has shown that English used in Vietnamese tourism especially in heritage interpretive signage in beauty spots has not met international quality standards. Most of the interpretive signage, say brochures, signs and labels in Vietnam are translation texts from Vietnamese into English. Thus, errors are unavoidable. Sadly, proper attention has not been paid to this problem yet, which could be considered as the major motivation to this study. Besides, visiting cultural heritage sites in Hanoi including the Temple of Literature, Ngoc Son Temple, etc. as my personal hobby could also be partially regarded as inspiration of this thesis. 1.2. Aims of the study The study aims at investigating English translation of heritage interpretive signage in some Hanoi’s beauty spots in the light of theories of translation quality assessment. Common errors in the translation if available will be brought to light regarding their classification and popularity. More specifically, the study is intended to address the following questions: - What may be considered as errors in the English translations of interpretive signage in the beauty spots? - What kind of errors, if traceable, may be the most dominant? 1.3. Scope of the study As a part of heritage interpretation communication, interpretive signage varies from tourist brochures, exhibit signs and labels in museums, beauty spots, etc. However, in this study concentration is put on the common errors that may be revealed in Vietnamese-English translation of heritage interpretive signs. 2
    • Besides, due to the limitation of time and capability, making assessment of all signs available in every beauty spot in Hanoi would be difficult. Thus, translation quality assessment is applied to only the system of interpretive signs in six of very popular cultural and historical beauty sites in Hanoi, the Temple of Literature, Ngoc Son Temple, Quan Thanh Temple, the One-pillar Pagoda, Tran Quoc Pagoda, and the monument of King Le Thai To. 1.4. Methodology Sampling Main interpretive signs in the six beauty spots were chosen to be assessed in this study for two reasons. Firstly, both Vietnamese version as the source text (ST) and English version as the target text (TT) of those signs are available and easy to get access to. Secondly, translation problems due to lack of linguistic competence of translators can be minimized. Data collection instrument Data were collected in the six beauty spots on November 8th, 2008. Each sign were taken photograph of both Vietnamese and English versions so that comparison between translation texts and the original texts can be made. Data collection process There are two main steps: First, both Vietnamese and English versions of each sign were transcribed from the photographs to enable comparison. Second, both texts were thoroughly read, compared and analyzed to realize errors that may be revealed in the translation texts. 3
    • Data analysis To answer the research question stated above, data analysis was carried out. Errors, if available, after being identified from the translations were categorized. Certain theoretical models presented in Literature review, and their combinations were applied as well. Some calculation was made to figure out the most popular error(s) that may be made in the translations. 1.5. Structure of the study There are 5 chapters in the study. Chapter 1: Introduction This chapter will provide readers an overview of the study including the reasons for choosing the topic, the aims, scope and the methodology used to conduct the research. Chapter 2: Literature Review Theoretical background knowledge related to interpretive signage and translation quality assessment will be discussed in this chapter. Chapter 3: Methodology Methods which were applied to conduct the research will be presented in this chapter. Chapter 4: Findings and Discussion In this chapter, necessary comparison and analysis will be done to sort out types of common errors, if available, in the translation texts. 4
    • Chapter 5: Conclusions In this chapter, a summary as well as strengths and weaknesses of the thesis will be presented References Appendixes 5
    • CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Interpretation 2.1.1. Definition Obviously, understanding thoroughly and precisely the concept of ‘interpretation’ is a prerequisite for a study on interpretive signage. The very first definition of ‘interpretation’ was introduced by Tilden, F. in his 1957 book named ‘Interpreting our heritage’. In this book, ‘interpretation’ is defined as an ‘educational activity which aims to reveal meanings and relationships through the use of original objects; by firsthand experience and by illustrative media, rather than simply to communicate factual information’. Apparently, interpretation, herein, is seen from an angle of heritage preservation, which emphasizes on the nature (educational), the purpose (to reveal meanings and relationships) and the methods (the use of original objects, etc.) of this activity. ‘Interpretation’ is also said to ‘involve translating professional ideas and concepts into a much simpler format that attracts, interests and inspires visitors2’. The implication here is a good quality interpretation, i.e. well-translated interpretation can enhance people’s understanding and enjoyment of the places they visit. 2 From http://www.interpretivesigns.qut.edu.au/role_interpret.html Retrieved November 1st 2008 6
    • Overall, in the writer’s opinion, interpretation is an activity that: - takes place in a wide range of visitor contact areas such as museums, historic sites, etc. (Veverka, 2008b); - involves translating ideas and concepts from professional language into a listener-friendlier one that attracts, interests and inspires visitors and - aims to present stories or essence of the sites to the visitors by applying a communicative method, i.e. using objects, signs, etc. It should be noted that later MacFarlane (1994 in Espinoza, 2008), and Veverka (2008a) put an emphasis on the ‘communicative’ aspect of interpretation. They all suggest that interpretation is a communication process in nature. Based on interpretive techniques, i.e. methods of delivering information, interpretation may be personal and non-personal (Ham, 1992 in Jensen, 2006). Personal methods of interpretation, i.e. guided tours, roving interpretation, refer to a situation where a person is directly responsible for the delivery of interpretation. Meanwhile, non-personal interpretation uses self-guided media such as museum exhibits, wayside signage, and other types of printed materials. 2.1.2. Fundamental elements of interpretation As mentioned above, interpretation can be considered a process of communication. Accordingly, it is reasonable to say that based on basic elements of the communication process, those of interpretation can be identified and understood. This viewpoint is also shared by Espinoza, R.R.A. in his work named ‘What is interpretation?’ (2008). Based on ‘a commonly used and simple communication model’ (Berlo, 1960 in Espinoza, 2008), the author provides a 7
    • thorough description of a communication process, and then suggests an analogy with the elements of interpretation. According to Berlo (op.cit.), in order for a communication process to take place, the following six elements are fundamental: the communication source, the encoder, the message, the channel, the decoder, and the communication receiver. The communication source as Berlo (op.cit.) says is ‘some person or group of persons with a purpose, a reason for engaging in communication’. Given that, Espinoza (2008) suggests that in terms of interpretation, there are two factors that can be considered the source: the setting (encountered by the visitors) and the agency. Although ‘the setting’ is not a person as cited in the definition, it still provokes feelings, emotions and thoughts in visitors. Thus, ‘the setting’ is the communication source reasonably. By ‘the agency’, the author means ‘a group of people trying to inform, provoke an action in the visitors’ such as Ministry of Culture, Sports and Communication in Vietnam. Obviously, the two sources have direct relationship with the visitors. The visitors experience the setting directly, but the interpretation provided by the agency can help boost up this experience into a relatively deeper level (Espinoza, 2008). The second element is the encoder which is ‘responsible for taking the ideas of the source and putting them in a code’ (Berlo, op.cit.). Thus, in terms of interpretation, the encoder should be understood as the interpreter who translates or rewrites (encodes) the story of an artwork, site, etc. from the expert language to the language of ordinary visitors including both native and foreign ones. Espinoza (2008) concludes that the interpreter, as an encoder, has a relationship with the visitors, and is part of the agency. The third element is the message which is the purpose of the source (Berlo, op.cit.). In terms of interpretation, this element is equivalent to the interpretation 8
    • itself, i.e. information presented on brochures, signage or by tour guides, etc. (Espinoza, 2008). The means by which the message is delivered is called the channel by Berlo (op.cit.). The fourth element can be, says, a sign, or an interpreter’s oral presentation. Espinoza considers the channel an important element in interpretation, contributing to get the visitors across the meanings of the source. The next element in the communication process discussed by Espinoza is the receivers, the visitors. Defined as the ‘target of communication’ by Berlo, the element is a decisive factor without which no interpretation has taken place. It should, however, be noted that Espinoza discusses interpretation for native visitors or visitors with a good command of SL used to write interpretive signage. For example, visitors from English speaking countries visit Hyde Park in Great Britain. Thus, two findings regarding interpretation can be added as follows: First, it is easy to realize that Espinoza does not discuss much the last element in a communication process, the decoder. Simply put, the decoder is ‘the person receiving the message and decodes it’3 so that the receiver can get across the message. Given that and combined with the writer’s knowledge, the decoder in terms of interpretation should be realized as the translator who translates interpretation, i.e. interpretive signage, from SL to TL. The reason why the author gives less concern over this element is, as mentioned above, the author takes into consideration only interpretation for visitors who are proficient in SL. However, as a matter of fact, foreigners especially tourists that can speak and understand Vietnamese well are still rare today. Therefore, it is reasonable to say that translators play an important role in 3 From http://www.peoi.org/Courses/Coursesen/mass/mass2.html. Retrieved Feb 7th, 2009 9
    • interpreting the content of signage to foreign tourists. In other words, a good translation makes a remarkable contribution to the success of the delivery of essential information to visitors. Second, given the definitions and elements of interpretation as well as the reality in Vietnam, translation of interpretive signage can be considered a two- phase process. The first phase is done by interpreters, which is translating stories or essence or any other messages related to a site from the expert language to the common language for visitors. The second phase, dealt by translators, is to translate the text produced in the phase one from SL (i.e. Vietnamese) to TL (i.e. English). 2.2. Interpretive signage 2.2.1. Definition Interpretive signage, simply put, can be understood as a non-personal method of delivering interpretation. In comparison with personal interpretation, interpretive signage seems relatively inflexible. Apparently, the former involves face-to-face communication between interpreters / tour guides and visitors, i.e. questions by tourists can be responded to and answered immediately on the spot. Meanwhile, interpretive signage does not allow the audience to give immediate feedback or ask questions, and thus, needs to be more precise and accurate than other types of interpretation. 2.2.2. Characteristics of text The principle elements that the design may involve with include text, graphics, and photos. The arrangement of these elements into a pleasing 10
    • presentation will greatly enhance the communication process. However, given the main objectives of the thesis, only text is taken into consideration. First of all, given that signs are inflexible in that they do not allow the audience to ask questions, they therefore need to be exact and clear in the information they offer.4 The sentences should be short and involve familiar words. No jargon or overly scientific expressions are encouraged. Additionally, verbs are more favored than nouns or adjectives deprived from verbs in interpretation. Second, space for text for each sign is limited. Thus, text must be researched, written, edited and proof-read carefully to guarantee only expensive words can be presented in such a small space provided. Normally, no more than 15 words each sentence is allowed.5 2.2.3. Translating interpretive signage 2.2.3.1. An overview of translation Generally, numerous definitions of ‘translation’ have been proposed and have the problem of equivalence as their focus by and large. According to Hartman and Stork (1972 in Newmark, 1995), translation involves replacing a text in one language by an equivalent text in a second language. Dubois (1973 in Newmark, 1995) also shares the same viewpoint when defining translation as the representation in TL of a text or a message in SL providing that semantic and stylistic equivalences are preserved. Additionally, 4 Queensland University of Technology, Interpretive Signage and Practice. Making your point: Selecting text and illustrations. Retrieved Dec 16, 2008 from http://www.interpretivesigns.qut.edu.au/make_understand.html 5 Interpretive Exhibits, Inc. Interpretive signage. Retrieved December 12, 2008 from http://www.interpexhibits.com/interpretive-signage.shtml 11
    • Newmark (1995) emphasizes on the importance of preserving the author’s intention when translating his text from one language to another. So, two implications can be made from the definitions above. In order to produce a good translation, translators should find appropriate equivalences ranging from lexical level, sentence level to the level of discourse. Besides, the question whether translators should preserve form (structure) or meaning (message) of the ST is still open. Normally, meaning has the priority over form because after all, what should be translated most is still the author’s intention. 2.2.3.2. Translating interpretive signage As discussed in the previous section (see 2.1.2), translation of interpretive signage is a two-phase process, in which the first phase is done by interpreters and the second by translators. Clearly, the role of translators would not be so important in the communication process if all visitors could understand thoroughly messages sent by interpretive signage in SL. Hence, it is translators’ duty to convey the messages by transfer them from SL to the required TL. Or else, the purposes interpretive signage aims at can hardly be realized. Also, it should be noted that translators should maintain as much as possible characteristics of text (see 2.2.2). As mentioned above, in translation, priority is given to ‘meaning’ rather than to ‘form’. However, for interpretive signage, ‘form’ plays such an important role in communicating with visitors the message. Thus, attention should be equally paid to both ‘form’ and ‘meaning’ so that effectiveness of interpretive signage in TL is still well-preserved compared to that in SL. 2.3. Role of translation quality assessment 12
    • Newmark (1995) regards translation criticism or translation quality assessment (TQA) as a crucial link between translation theory and its practice and as ‘the keystone of any course in comparative literature, or literature in translation, and a component of any professional translation course with the appropriate text-types as an exercise for criticism and discussion.’ In his work, ‘A textbook of translation’ (1995), Newmark affirms that quality assessment in translation could be considered a very crucial and useful for translators for three main reasons. First of all, by criticizing others’ translations translators could perfect their competences as well as gain more essential professional experiences. Secondly, TQA could help translators expand their knowledge and understanding of linguistics regarding their mother tongues and the foreign language, as well as topics discussed in the translation. And lastly, this activity is a good chance for translators to, first, re-organize their knowledge of translation regarding translation principles and then, to sharpen their comprehension of translation theories which are inevitably crucial for professional translators. 2.4. Criteria for translation quality assessment It has been repeatedly said that the aim of each translation activity is to produce a good translation, a good TT. However, what criteria should be based on to say that one TT is a ‘good’ translation while another is ‘bad’ or ‘poor’ still remains a harsh question to answer. Schäffner (1997) states that the criteria listed are supposed to be different regarding the purpose of the assessment and on the theoretical framework which the people in charge of assessing translation quality apply. House (1997 in Schäffner, 1997) also agrees that ‘different views of translation lead to different concepts of translational quality, and hence different ways of assessing it.’ 13
    • What is a good translation? The answer to this question still remains controversial. In fact, a score of studies on this issue has been carried out. House (1986) classifies the studies into four main categories: pre-linguistic studies, response-based psycholinguistic studies, source text-based studies, and studies based on pragmatic theories of language use. Undertaken by professional translators, philologists, and poets on the subject of translation and translation quality, pre-linguistic studies put emphasis on such criteria including the faithfulness to the ST and the preservation of the ST’s ‘specific flavours’ (House, 1986). These criteria may seem valid but rather vague and impractical and they can best be summed up in the words of Cicero, ‘a translation should be free … a translation should be literal’ (op.cit.) Meanwhile, supporters of the second group consider a good translation one which accomplishes the purpose of the ST but in target language TL (Forster, 1958 in House, 1986), and the representative for this viewpoint is Nida who propounded the ‘dynamic equivalence principle’. According to Nida (1964 in House, 1986), the response of TT receptors should be similar to that of ST audience. Yet, the question is whether this criterion can be tested or else, it would remain ‘mentalistic and needs further definition’ (Newmark, 1974 in House, 1986). Though many experimental studies conducted by Nida and Taber (1969), Miller and Beebe-Center (1958), and later Carroll (1966) suggested different tests and standard to produce concrete quality statements, a score of drawbacks of the tests were recognized and thoroughly explained in House (op.cit.). The third group consists of researchers who use the ST as the basis to evaluate any translation text. A consistent model including criteria for the comprehensive description and explanation of the ST and for the evaluation of the TT should be built to overcome shortcomings of previous studies on TQA (Wilss, 1974 in House, 1986). Reiss (1973 in House, 1986) also agrees that 14
    • quality of a translation can be determined on the basis of the ST, more specifically, its function and type. The suggested models are potentially useful, however, lack of concrete ideas to be effectively applied. The last group of studies represented by House (1986) proposes a model of translation quality assessment based pragmatic theories of language use. Given clear and comprehensive linguistic theories as the foundation and specific steps, the model is built to overcome the inadequacies of previous models. Yet, it should be noted that the model requires translation critics to reach a certain level of both linguistic knowledge and professional skills to apply, which makes it hardly be widely used. In his book, Newmark (1995) also suggests another method to evaluate a translation text which is a “comprehensive criticism of a translation”. This method including five main steps6 is actually a summary by Newmark of the process that any translator must experience when translating a text. Accordingly, despite the weakness regarding theoretical grounds in comparison with House’s model, Newmark’s might have wider application. Apart from the models presented above, some criteria established by translation and interpretation organizations or international organizations for standardizations (ISO) are also available (Lê, 2006). However, those criteria are mainly used for the organizations’ own purposes of evaluation rather than for research purposes with comprehensive professional theories. Overall, various theories and models regarding translation quality assessment have been proposed by different theorists and groups. Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages in terms of either theoretical basis or 6 Five main steps are: analysing the ST, analysing the translator’s purpose, comparing the translation with the original, evaluating the translation, predicting the translation’s future (Newmark, 1995) 15
    • application or both. Thus, translators, editors or critics should apply the theories and the models flexibly when evaluating a translation text. Personally, I think that it is possible to measure translation quality, although not directly, probably. I assume that in order to establish assessment criteria in translation, the concept of translation error should be clearly defined. Obviously, this concept should be considered fundamental to research on translation assessment. 2.5. Translation errors 2.5.1. Definitions of translation errors In ‘Translation as text’ (1992), Neubert & Shreve depict translation errors as follows: What rightly appears to be linguistically equivalent may very frequently qualify as ‘translationally’ nonequivalent. And this is so because the complex demands on adequacy in translation involve subject factors and transfer conventions that typically run counter to considerations about ‘surface’ linguistic equivalence. Given this statement, defining and identifying translation errors are undeniably complicated and difficulty, particularly in the case of second language learners for translation errors may be mixed up with linguistic errors. A list of possible errors in translations is presented by Albir (1995 in Waddington, 2001) as follows: 1. Inappropriate renderings, which affect the understanding of the ST. These are divided into eight categories: countersense, faux sense, nonsense, addition, omission, unresolved extralinguistic references, loss of meaning and inappropriate linguistic variation (register, style, dialect, etc.). 16
    • 2. Inappropriate renderings, which affect expression in the TL. These are divided into five categories: spelling, grammar, lexical items, text and style. 3. Inadequate renderings, which affect the transmission of either the main function or secondary function of the ST. 2.5.2. Typology of errors Until now, how to classify translation errors remains controversial for there is no unified framework of error classification. Newmark (1995) simply divides most of the ‘mistakes’ into two types: referential and linguistic. In his categorization, referential mistakes refer to all mistakes relating to facts or information in the real world. Linguistic mistakes, on the other hand, result from the translator’s lack of proficiency in the foreign language. Linguistic mistakes include words, collocations, and idioms. Meanwhile, American Translation Association (ATA)7 suggests a list of 22 types of errors that should be used as criteria for marking errors and evaluating work done by professional translators: 1) Incomplete passage, 2) Illegible handwriting, 3) Misunderstanding of the original text, 4) Mistranslation into target language, 5) Addition or omission, 6) Terminology, word choice, 7) Register, 8) Too freely translated, 9) Too literal, word-for-word translation, 10) False cognate, 11) Indecision in word choice, 12) Inconsistent, 13) Ambiguity, 14) Grammar, 15) Syntax, 16) Punctuation, 17) Spelling, 18) Accents and other diacritical marks, 19) Case (upper case/lower case), 20) Word form, 21) Usage and 22) Style 7 From http://www.atanet.org/certification/aboutexams_presentation.php Retrieved April 23, 2009. 17
    • Undeniably, the framework covers all different types of possible errors that translators might encounter. However, the list seems to focus more on linguistic aspect of the translation tasks. Moreover, it also concentrates more on sentence- level errors rather than text-level errors. Although Melis and Albir (2001) do not provide specific classification of errors, the two authors present major questions that in their views should be taken into account in order to make clear-cut categorization. Four questions are as follows: 1. Difference between errors relating to the ST (opposite sense, wrong sense, nonsense, addition and suppression) and errors relating to the TT (spelling, vocabulary, syntax, coherence and cohesion) (Kupsch-Losereit, 1985; Delisle, 1993; Albir, 1995, 1999 in Melis and Albir, 2001). 2. Difference between functional errors and absolute errors. The former deals with the infringement of specific functional aspects of specific translation tasks meanwhile the latter involves an unjustified violation of cultural and linguistic rules, or of the use of a given language (Gouadec, 1989; Nord, 1996 in Melis and Albir, 2001). 3. Difference in individual translators between systematic errors and random errors. 4. Difference between errors in the product and errors in the process. The four questions inevitably provide a comprehensive approach to the translation texts as both the perspectives of the ST and the TT are taken into consideration. Additionally, the process of translation is also a criterion to evaluate the translations. Yet, it would be better and more convenient for translators and evaluators if a more specific list of error types is created. 18
    • 2.5.3. Impacts of errors The seriousness and impacts of errors still remain controversial. Melis and Albir (2001) present several different views and approaches regarding this issue provided by a few of authors including Nord (1996), Larose (1989), Dancette (1989), etc. These authors classify errors based on ‘a scale of more to less serious’ with either syntax approach or pragmatic approach, ST-oriented approach or TT-oriented approach. However, both Melis and Albir assume that it is not the nature of an error that determines its gravity. Instead, errors should be assessed based on their importance in relation to: 1. The text as a whole (whether the errors affect a key idea or a subordinate idea) 2. The coherence and cohesion of the TT 3. The degree of difference from the sense of the ST, particularly if this difference is likely to remain undetected by the reader of the translation 4. The functionality on a communicative level of the TT 5. Consequences regarding the purpose of the translation 2.4.3. Etiology of errors In order to find a comprehensive remedy, causes of errors should be discovered and analyzed. Gile (1992 in Melis and Albir, 2001) assumes errors in translation are made due to three main causes: lack of knowledge (extra-linguistic, in the SL and the TL); lack of methodology; and lack of motivation. 19
    • In my opinion, the lack of knowledge and the inadequate application of translation methods are the main causes of translation errors especially those are encountered during translation process. 2.6. Summary So far, in this chapter, the following issues have been discussed. First, an overview of interpretation including definition, fundamental elements as well as the problem of translating interpretive signage have been presented. Interpretation consists of six main fundamental elements which are the setting and the agency (the source), the interpreter (the encoder), the interpretation (the message), the channel, the translator (the decoder), and the visitor (the receiver). It should be noted that this conclusion is drawn out regarding the real situation in Vietnam where the visitors can have difficulties understanding interpretation in SL and thus, translators are needed. Second, translation of interpretive signage plays such an important role in communicating with the visitors and more importantly, is a two-phase process given the reality in Vietnam. Second, role of TQA and criteria to determine quality of a translation have been discussed. As for translation, it should be noted that without some means to assess the translation quality, it is not possible to improve translation quality, linguistic competence for example. Criteria for evaluating, however, still remain controversial. Different researchers with different views and different approaches have suggested numerous theoretical frameworks as well as systems of criteria. Reality has it that no theory is flawless despite each has its own strength. Translators as well as translation critics should bear that in mind and thus, have right decisions to choose an appropriate theoretical model to apply. 20
    • Third, a fundamental aspect in translation assessment study, the analysis translation errors, has been presented as well regarding major issues including typology, gravity and etiology of errors in translation. Through the considerably thorough discussion by Melis and Albir, I believe that it is much easier to determine what forms an error than what constitutes ‘quality’. So, it is reasonable to assess translation quality by identifying various types of errors and deficiencies presented in the translated version; for example, errors of terminology, grammar, spelling, meaning, and others. Hence, it is also the reason why I attempt to study common errors, if traceable, in the translations of sample interpretive signage and thus, to be able to make indicative judgments regarding translation quality. 21
    • CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3.1. Sampling Samples were collected on November 8th, 2008 in six well-known historic and cultural spots in Hanoi, including the Temple of Literature, Quan Thanh Temple, Ngoc Son Temple, the One-pillar Pagoda, Tran Quoc Pagoda and the monument of King Le Thai To. 13 interpretive signs were chosen for the study. All of the signs are located in places that are easy to approach by visitors, and provide visitors historical and cultural information related to the beauty spots. The samples were selected for two reasons. First, the six beauty spots are all considerably popular with visitors at home and abroad. Thus, both Vietnamese version as the source text (ST) and English version as the target text (TT) of those signs are available and easy to get access to. Besides, regarding the importance of those beauty spots, socially and culturally, it is possible to assume that translators that produced the translations of the signs have a good command of both English and Vietnamese, and thus, the risk of linguistic incompetence of translators can be minimized. The process of collecting samples consists two main steps. First, photographs of each sign in both Vietnamese and English were taken to enable comparison between translation texts and the original later. Second, the content 22
    • of the signs was transcribed from the photos and saved in the format of printable word documents (Appendix A-M). 3.2. Data analysis process Obviously, translation can be understood either as a process, i.e. the activity of translating, or as a product, i.e. the text that has been translated. It should be noted that translation activity is hardly of just applying different translation methods to convey the message of the ST. Linguistic knowledge, particularly grammar, is also crucial to quality of a translation. Accordingly, in order to have a comprehensive analysis, the English version of each sign was examined from two different perspectives: as a product of translation activity and as an independent text. In the first approach the original text, i.e. the Vietnamese version and other relevant documents were also used as the basis for comparison. The purpose of this approach is to identify errors relating to translation methodology. In the second approach the TT was considered separate from the ST and was analyzed in terms of grammar, coherence, cohesion, etc. Linguistic knowledge formed the basis for this approach. After the analysis of the signs, identified errors were categorized in different groups regarding their nature. A table of error classification (see Appendix N) was used in this step. It should be noted that one error could fall into several different types, so some errors in the sentences listed in the table were labeled with one or more than one cross () in the error columns. After 23
    • finishing the error classification, the number of () marks was counted to see what types of errors were the most dominant in the translations. Implications regarding the relation between linguistic errors and translation errors, and possible etiology of the errors were also drawn after the analysis. 24
    • CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION Of the 13 interpretive signs which were analyzed in the study, 61 cases, in the form of either a sentence or a paragraph, had errors identified. The total number of errors that were sorted out was 115, exceeding the number of investigated cases. This implies that there might be an intersection between linguistic errors and translational ones, and that the errors have interrelationship. It should also be noted that the analysis was carried out under two presumptions. First, 13 interpretive signs were collected from six different beauty spots in Hanoi. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that they were not translated by the same translator or the same group of translators. Consequently, differences in writing and translating styles might be unavoidable. Second, visitors to the beauty spots are assumed to follow a complete and correct route, i.e. from the very first main gate to the interior of each spot. In other words, the interpretive signs are supposed to be read in order of subsequence. The presumption is crucial to the analysis of some certain errors, i.e. misusage of articles, mistranslation of proper names, etc. As discussed in 2.4.1, four major questions presented by Melis and Albir (2001) are considered the foundation for the analysis in this chapter. 4.1. Linguistic errors As seen in the table of error classification (Appendix N), this group of errors consists of 11 types which are interrelated with each other. In other words, an error in this type can entail one or more errors in several types. 1
    • 4.1.1. Errors in spelling, capitalization and punctuation 4.1.1.1. Errors in spelling In this study, spelling errors are referred to those errors caused by the translators’ ignorance of how a given word is spelled. Other errors, i.e. possible mis-carved words, are therefore left aside on purpose. The first group of misspelled words that were identified involves Vietnamese proper names and their translations. Vietnamese proper names in seven signs in the Temple of Literature8 (Appendix A-G) were translated with diacritical marks being maintained. The proper names include names of countries and cities (i.e. Việt Nam, Đại Việt, Hà Nội), names of kings, scholars and dynasties (i.e. King Lý Thánh Tông, Chu Văn An, Lê Dynasty …), names of places and architectural works (i.e. Văn Miếu – Quốc Tử Giám, Khuê Văn pavilion …), names of examinations (i.e. Hương, Hội, Đình), and book titles (i.e. Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư, Hồng Đức law …). In fact, how to translate Vietnamese proper names into English, i.e. personal names, geographical names, etc. still remains controversial. Undeniably, one of the most significant characteristics of Vietnamese is the system of diacritical marks (i.e. unmarked [-], grave [], acute [/], hook [’], tilde [~], dot below [.], and circumflex [^]). Recently, a few documents and works, particularly the series of bilingual handbooks on Vietnamese culture by Huu Ngoc and Lady Borton9, the diacritics in Vietnamese proper names are kept in the translation. In ‘Journal of Vietnamese Studies Style and Usage Guidelines’ published on January 1, 2009, Vietnamese spelling is also recommended for Vietnamese 8 Due to the large number of Vietnamese proper names in the translation, the names are not listed in the table of classification (Appendix N). For reference, see Appendix A-G 9 Huu Ngoc is a cultural scholar and the author of many books and articles on Vietnamese culture and of A Handbook for Translators of English. Lady Borton is the author of After Sorrow: An American Among the Vietnamese. The two authors are general editors of the series of 10 hand-books ‘Vietnamese culture: Frequently asked questions’ published in 2003 by Thế giới [World] Publishers. 2
    • proper names. Yet, so far in numerous documents, Vietnamese proper names have been translated into English with the diacritics being omitted. For example, ‘Vietnam, Hanoi, Da Nang’ are used instead of ‘Việt Nam, Hà Nội, Đà Nẵng’. This thesis does not attempt to criticize which way is better. Yet, the latter way has been obviously more favored by and popular to the international community. Based on documents about Vietnam which have been posted on the official website of Embassy of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in the United States as well as The World Bank translation style guide – English edition (2004), the Vietnamese proper names, particularly names of the country and its cities, should be translated without diacritical marks. Accordingly, in this thesis, the proper names in the seven signs in the Temple of Literature are considered spelling errors, which might create certain difficulties for foreign visitors in reading the information. The second group of misspelled words in the signs includes pairs of words that might be easily mistaken of each other due to the similar pronunciation or spelling. The most significant pairs that were sorted out are as follows: Appendix Misspelled word Correct word F [the] status [of Chu Van An] statue I [the tortoise] genius genie [an important historic-cultural] J, K relic relics M [lying on a small] peninsular peninsula Table 1: Spelling errors Those misspelled words undeniably create confusion over understanding the sentences that include the words due to the differences in the words’ meaning. For example, according to Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (2001), ‘relics’ is defined as ‘someone’s dead body’ while ‘relic’ means ‘an old object or custom that reminds people of the past’. When put in the 3
    • context that describes Quan Thanh Temple, the mistake apparently changes the meaning of the document. The case of ‘peninsular vs. peninsula’ even leads to a different error in misuse of part of speech. In short, although the misspelled words in the second group are not many, the grammatical and semantic impacts they have on the signs are relatively serious compared to the first group. 4.1.1.2. Errors in capitalization Capitalization is another commonly made mistake in the translations and the capitalization errors in fact, more or less, relate to several other types of errors that were recognized in the translations such as errors in the use of articles. However, those errors will be discussed thoroughly in the later parts of this chapter. Common capitalization errors in the translations are: 1. No capitalization (a) of titles of persons king Le Thai To (b) of directional adjectives contained in the west lake the name of a place (c) of common nouns in a proper noun i. Quan Thanh / Doi Can ward, Ba phrase Name + common noun Dinh precinct, Shandong province … ii. the Văn lake, the Giám park … [1] (d) of the first word in a quote “four guard[s] of old Thang Long” NOTE: [1]: for further explanation, see 4.1.2 Table 2: Capitalization errors 4.1.1.3. Errors in punctuation 4
    • According to Quirk and Greenbaum (1987), punctuation has two main functions which are (1) separation of successive units and included units, and (2) specification of language function. Thus, punctuation is crucial in English writing. Misuse of punctuation marks undeniably reduces the readability of a document as well as the linguistic proficiency of a writer. Punctuation errors revealed in the translation mostly relate to basic punctuation marks including full stop [.], comma [,], semi-colon [;] and colon [:]. Here are main punctuation errors identified in the translations: 1. comma used instead of stop in the end i. The third courtyard is used for housing of a sentence 82 doctors’ stelae symmetrically lined up on the two sides of Thiên Quang well, leading to the fourth courtyard is the Đại Thành gate, flanked by two smaller gates […]. ii. Văn Miếu, the Temple of Literature, was built in 1070 […], Crown Princeses studied there. 2. Missing punctuation marks (stop or Lê Thánh Tông was a poet he founded the ơ semicolon) between two independent Tao Đàn association. clauses without a conjunction 3. colon followed by a subject-less He was a great reformer: reformed appositive clause of the independent government structure, gave prominence to clause preceding the colon jurisdiction, promulgated the Hồng Đức law, ordered to make the map Hồng Đức. Table 3: Punctuation errors Further explanation should be included for the case 3. Technically, colon is used as a mark of introduction. It may introduce a list of items, an explanation, or 5
    • a long or formal quotation; or it may introduce apposition of the independent clause preceding the colon. For the last function, it should be noted that the apposition might also be an independent clause. In the sentence extracted from the translation, the clause following the colon is not an independent one and thus, is considered a grammatical error. 4.1.2. Errors in the use of articles The usage of articles in the translations of the signs also poses a serious grammatical problem. The identified errors fall into two categories as follows: 1. the used instead of θ (a) before plural nouns in the questions (Appendix B) generalizations the cultural and scientific activities (Appendix F) the valuable traditions (Appendix F) (b) before proper names the Văn Miếu (Appendix F) (c) before names of lakes, parks the Văn lake (Appendix C) the Giám park (Appendix C) 2. the used instead of a before a singular noun mentioned for the brick wall (Appendix C) the first time 3. Omission of a before class nouns defined by adjective the One-Pillar Pagoda is cultural and historic relics, […] (Appendix K) 4. Miscellaneous errors related to (a) capitalization the Văn lake, the Giám park … Table 4: Errors in the use of article 6
    • As mentioned in 4.1.1.2, more attention should be paid to the use of definite article with proper nouns which have the structure of Name + common noun. In Quirk and Greenbaum (1987), most of the proper nouns with the pattern of Name + common noun which denote buildings, streets, bridges, etc. are not usually preceded by the definite article the. Several examples given by the two authors are: Madison Avenue, Park Lane, Kennedy Airport, etc. Additionally, they also suggest the difference between an ordinary common noun and a common noun turned name is that ‘the unique reference of the name has been institutionalized’ (op.cit.). Simply put, only when the common noun (i.e. canal) has it initial letter capitalized (i.e. Canal), does it together with the provided proper name (i.e. Suez) create a proper noun phrase (i.e. Suez Canal) and thus, denote ‘unique reference’. And consequently, the phrase can retain the ‘phrasal definite article’ (i.e. the Suez Canal) (op.cit.). Hence, it is reasonable to imply that such words like Thái Học courtyard, Tao Đàn association, etc. in order to have the definite article the preceded as in the translations should have had the initial letters of the common nouns, i.e. courtyard, association, capitalized. Thus, the definite article the was apparently misused in the translations. 4.1.4. Errors in the use of transitive and intransitive verbs The most significant feature to distinguish a transitive verb from an intransitive verb is simply explained by Hewings (1999) that the former is followed by an object while the latter is not. Young (2006) provides a more detail definition of the two types of verbs. According to her, both transitive verbs and intransitive verbs refer to action verbs that either do direct action (transitive verbs) or do not direct action (intransitive verbs) toward someone or something named in the same sentence. 7
    • Obviously, the grammatical difference above affects the usage of the two types of verbs in order to produce a grammatically correct sentence, particularly when making a passive sentence. However, this should have been forgotten by the translators of the signs; and consequently, a number of errors related to the use of transitive and intransitive verbs has been identified in the translations. 1. to order (a) He [King Le Thanh Tong] was a great reformer […] ordered to make the map Hồng Đức […]. (b) He [King Le Thanh Tong] ordered to reconstruct Văn Miếu and enlarge Quốc Tử Giám […] (c) He [King Le Thanh Tong] was also the king who ordered to erect the first doctor stelae. (d) He [King Le Thanh Tong] ordered also to revise many great historic works […]. (e) [He] ordered the National examination held every three years. 2. to retain (a) The existing constructions retain from the last repair work in the 19th century […]. 3. to contribute to (a) Contributing to train thousands of scholars for the nation, it [Quoc Tu Giam] was worthy of being called the first National University of Việt Nam. Table 5: Errors in the use of transitive and intransitive verbs The first and most dominant error involves the misuse of the verb ‘order’. According to Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (2001), ‘order’ can be either a transitive verb or an intransitive verb. As a transitive verb, this verb is followed by either a noun phrase or a clause. According to Quirk and Greenbaum (1987), clauses that act as direct object include finite clauses (i.e. that-clause), non-finite clauses with or without 8
    • subject (cf. Quirk & Greenbaum, 1987, pp.360-3). Technically, ‘order’ can be followed by either a that-clause, for example: A grand jury has ordered that Schultz be sent for trial. (Longman, 2001) Or by a to-infinitive clause with subject, for example: The commandant ordered them to line up against the wall. (Longman, 2001) Additionally, ‘order’ is often used in passive voice, for example: The diamonds are ordered according to size. (Longman, 2001) However, in the translations, the translators should have ignored the basic rules related to direct object of the verb ‘order’ and thus, kept making regrettable errors. The second error relates to the verb ‘retain’. According to Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (2001), ‘retain’ is a transitive verb which is followed by a noun phrase. However, in the translation, ‘retain’ was regarded as an intransitive verb. The third error in this group concerns the verb ‘contribute’. ‘Contribute’ is a transitive phrasal verb as it is always followed by the preposition ‘to/towards’. Direct object of this verb is usually a noun phrase. Yet, in the translation, ‘contribute’ was followed by a to-infinitive clause without subject, which obviously poses a grammatical error. 4.1.5. Miscellaneous errors 1. Errors in the use of tenses (a) past tense vs. present perfect tense Since then the lake had a new name: ho Hoan Kiem (Lake Hoan Kiem or […]). 9
    • 2. Errors in the use of singular and plural nouns (a) buffalos vs. buffaloes/buffalo He [King Lý Nhân Tông] concerned about farm work, forbade the killing of cows and buffalos, […]. (b) four guard vs. four guards Quan Thanh is one of the relics of the “four guard of old Thang Long”. (c) an architecture vs. architecture With an architecture in harmony with nature, […]. [1] (d) pagoda vs. pagodas It is the oldest of all pagoda in Hanoi. 3. Errors in the use of verb in passive sentence (a) Bare infinitive verb used instead of Ho Guom tortoises are closely attach to past participle the legend the King Le returned the precious sword […] (b) Omission of to be “The Four Books” […], recording his teachings and doctrine compiled by his disciples. 4. Errors in the use of relative clause (a) Misplaced relative clause The tortoise is one of the country’s four holy creatures, along with the dragon, unicorn and phoenix (Long – Ly – Quy – Phượng) which can live a long and healthy life. [2] (b) Missing of in the prepositional Ho Guom tortoises are closely attach to phrase as a post-modifier of a noun the legend the King Le returned the phrase precious sword […]. 5. Errors in the use of genitive (a) Omission of ‘s Ho Guom tortoises are closely attach to the legend the King Le returned the precious sword […]. [3] 6. Errors in the use of part of speech 10
    • (a) witness Time and again several tortoises in ho Guom have turned up with the witness of many Hanoians as well as tourists…[4] Table 6: Miscellaneous errors [1] This error can also be categorized as an error in the use of article for an was used instead of θ before an uncountable noun. [2] A relative clause is a subordinate clause that gives more information about someone or something referred to in a main clause (Hewings, 1999). Technically, a relative clause usually follows the noun it modifies to avoid ambiguity. Quirk and Greenbaum (1987) also put the emphasis on ‘ordering of constituents in a noun phrase’ in order to have the reader interpret ‘all (and only)’ the writer’s intention precisely. The first example is one significant illustration for ambiguity caused by misplacing relative clause. In Oriental culture, particularly in Vietnam and China, the Four Saint Beasts including Dragon (Long), Qilin (Lan/Ly), Tortoise (Quy) and Phoenix (Phuong) are considered symbols of imperial power, compassion, longevity and high virtue, respectively. Hence, the relative clause apparently modifies the head noun ‘the tortoise’; however, its position might indicate a different meaning. [3] Considering this sentence, the reader might understand that the name of the tortoises living in Hoan Kiem Lake is ‘Ho Guom’ while in fact the noun should be understood as the living environment of the tortoises. [4] According to OALD, as a countable noun, ‘witness’ only indicates a person who either see something happen or gives evidence in the court. In the translation, ‘witness’ was however used to denote an action, which is obviously an error. 4.2. Translational errors 11
    • As seen in the table of error classification (Appendix N), this group of errors consists of four groups including omission, equivalence, accuracy and naturalness. Translation theories, particularly translation methods, are crucial to the analysis of the errors. 4.2.1. Omission Given the translations of the signs, omission in translation is divided into two major types in this thesis as follows: - No translation of a certain piece of information in the ST and the information does not included in the TT (1) - No translation of a certain piece of information in the ST and the information is directly taken into the TT, having its spelling in SL remained (2) It should be noted that the information hereby indicates knowledge that is crucial for visitors to understand comprehensively the content of the signs; and thus, omission of such information is unacceptable and should be considered an error in translation. Type 1 consists of sentences or paragraphs that were omitted by the translators. It is crucial to understand that the criterion to determine whether a sentence or a group of sentences is one error of omission is the message that sentence/group conveys fully and completely. For example: (1) Giám sinh được chia làm ba hạng: - Thượng xá sinh được cấp 10 tiền một tháng. - Trung xá sinh được cấp 9 tiền một tháng. - Hạ xá sinh được cấp 8 tiền một tháng. 12
    • (2) Văn Miếu môn là kiến trúc cổng tam quan hai tầng, phía ngoài có đôi rồng đá cách điệu thời Lê, bên trong có đôi rồng đá thời Nguyễn. The example (1) comprises four complete sentences but all of them express only one idea, the classification of students of Quoc Tu Giam, or the School of the Sons of the State. Thus, they all are regarded as one error, equal to the example (2), which includes only one complete sentence. Type 2 involves omission of proper nouns, particularly Sino-Vietnamese nouns. It is the common knowledge that numerous Vietnamese proper nouns, especially names of historical figures and architectural works derive from Chinese. In the translations appear many such Sino-Vietnamese proper nouns; however, not all of them were translated. Technically, Newmark (1995) suggests that proper names, i.e. people’s names, be transferred, preserving their nationality, and assuming that their names have no connotations. In fact, the meanings of the Sino-Vietnamese words usually reflect intention and knowledge of people coming up with the names. Simply put, the names can even be considered a significant cultural characteristic, crucial to the heritage interpretive signage. Besides, the reader is required to have certain knowledge of Chinese to understand the proper nouns comprehensively. Accordingly, transference might not be the best procedure to translate those nouns. Instead, the application of descriptive equivalence might be more appropriate. In fact, some of the translations of signs did use this translation procedure to translate the proper names of architectural works such as Van (Literature) lake, Suc Van (Crystallization of Letters), The Huc (Welcoming Sunshine) bridge, etc. Obviously, given the procedure, the information was conveyed more effectively. 4.2.2. Equivalence Undoubtedly, equivalence is the central issue in any discussion on translation. However, the definition, relevance, and applicability of equivalence 13
    • still remain controversial. Given different points of view and various perspectives, many different theories of the concept of equivalence have come into being. Generally, equivalence can be understood as the relationship between a ST and a TT that allows the TT to be considered as a translation of the ST. It is a relationship between two texts in two languages rather than between the two languages themselves. According to Jakobson (1959), equivalence is always possible regardless of the differences in culture and grammar between SL and TL since the translator can choose several translation methods to deal with the so- called nonequivalence such as loan-translations, neologism, semantic shifts, and circumlocutions. Baker (1992) also shares the same idea when she provides certain solutions regarding translation methods to cope with non-equivalence at and above word level due to the gap between SL and TL. Given different criteria that the scholars based on, there are many ways to classify equivalence in translation, including form-based equivalence (i.e. equivalence at word, sentence, or text level), meaning-based equivalence (i.e. denotative, connotative, pragmatic, formal), function-based equivalence (i.e. dynamic equivalence, formal equivalence), and quantitative equivalence (one-to- one, one-to-many, one-to-part-of one, nil equivalence)10. In my opinion, the categories of equivalence introduced by Baker (1992) are relatively comprehensive for it takes into consideration a translation from different perspectives, syntactically and pragmatically. Considering the various characteristics of the equivalence-related errors recognized in the translations, in this thesis, Baker’s classification system was chosen to form the foundation for the analysis of the errors. 4.2.2.1. Errors in equivalence at word level 10 Adapted from the slides for the lecture on Translation Equivalence, English Department, CFL-VNU 14
    • The errors are divided into three main groups based on their nature as follows: Group ST Translation Suggestion (a) [Khổng Tử] tên Chinese name + Tabooed given name [là Khâu], tự [là 1 + courtesy name / social Trọng Ni] name (a) Tế tửu Director Principal / Rector (b) Tư nghiệp Vice – director Vice-principal / Vice rector (c) [Lê Thánh Tông] Pen-name + social name / courtesy tự [là Tư thành] name (d) [Văn Miếu – [Văn Miếu – Quốc successful candidates / Quốc Tử Giám lưu Tử Giám has doctorates 2 giữ 82 tấm bia tiến preserved 82 stelae sỹ ghi họ tên, quê of doctorates which quán] 1307 Tiến sĩ recorded the names của 82 khoa thi… and native places of] 1,307 graduates of 82 Royal exams… (a) [truyền thuyết] [the legend of] return(ing) 3 “trả gươm thần” retrieving the magic sword Table 7: Errors in equivalence at word level [1] The group includes the words that were translated by a general equivalent even though they do have specific English equivalents. (a) tên, tự vs. Chinese name In the past, in some Asian countries like China and Vietnam, a person normally had at least two names, one was his given name assigned by his parents 15
    • and one was courtesy name either assigned by his parents or adopted by himself when he reached adulthood. The given name was traditionally reserved for oneself and one’s elders; and it is a taboo to call someone by his given name. Accordingly, the name in Vietnamese is ‘(tên) húy’ in which ‘húy’ indicates ‘taboo’. Meanwhile the courtesy name (tự) was used as a social name replacing the given name. So, obviously there is a clear-cut difference between the two types of names and both of them have English equivalents (i.e. tabooed given name, courtesy name respectively) which have been used in a variety of documents on this issue (e.g. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Wikipedia). However, the translator(s) used a general noun for both of the names, which undeniably affects the understanding of the reader regarding the cultural aspect. [2] The group involves Vietnamese cultural-specific concepts that are unknown in English and that the translator(s), therefore, had to use cultural substitution to translate. (a), (b) Tế tửu, Tư nghiệp vs. Director, Vice-director The two words, ‘Tế tửu, Tư nghiệp’, are obviously of Vietnamese culture, or more specifically, of the language of Sino-Vietnamese. It is clear that the translator(s) applied a translation procedure named cultural equivalent (Newmark, 1995) to substitute the words, which generally speaking can be considered a wise choice. However, the problem here is the equivalents are not precise. According to Tu dien tieng Viet 1997 (Vietnamese Dictionary 1997), ‘Te tuu, Tu nghiep’ are two titles of academic administration. Meanwhile, ‘director, vice-director’ usually indicate the positions in a business rather than a university. In OALD, the definition of ‘director’ though relates to a position in a college, it refers to a person in charge of a particular department in a college, rather than the whole 16
    • college as ‘Te tuu’ indicates. Thus, the two English words are non-equivalent to the SL words. The thesis, however, provides a suggestion for this case. Historically, Van Mieu was considered the National University; and thus it is possible to apply the university administration in modern days, particularly, the structure of Western countries, to translate the two titles. The Tu dien Viet – Anh (Vietnamese- English Dictionary) by Bui Phung suggests the English equivalents for the words are ‘principal, vice-principal’ respectively. Besides, the words ‘rector, vice- rector’, which are British English counterparts of ‘dean, vice-dean’ in American English, can also be good choices. (c) tự vs. pen-name The third word in this group also faces the similar problem: being translated by an incorrect equivalent. According to OALD, ‘pen-name’ refers to a name used by a person, i.e. a writer, instead of his real name. However, the SL word ‘tự’, as discussed above, indicates one’s courtesy name. Hence, the equivalent that the translator(s) chose is incorrect. (d) Tiến sĩ vs. graduates Obviously, the most suitable equivalent for the word ‘Tiến sĩ’ is doctorate which has been widely used in the handbook on Vietnamese royal exams by Huu Ngoc and Lady Borton. Besides, the noun phrase of ‘successful candidates’ is acceptable. However, the translator(s) chose ‘graduates’ to be the equivalent. Apart from the obvious semantic difference, in English, the word ‘graduate’ however, refers to a person who has a university degree or has completed their school studies rather than a person who successfully completes an exam. [3] The group involves errors concerning mismatching in meaning components between the SL words and their equivalents. 17
    • (a) trả vs. retrieve or return According to Tu dien tieng Viet 1997 (Vietnamese Dictionary 1997), ‘trả’ as a verb has five meanings in total; however, only the first and second meaning are appropriate with the context. trả đg. 1. Đưa lại cho người khác cái đã vay, mượn của người ấy. Trả nợ. Trả sách cho thư viện. 2. Đưa lại cho người khác cái đã lấy đi hoặc đã nhận được của người ấy. Trả lại tiền thừa. Trả tự do cho người bị bắt. Accordingly, ‘trả’ when literally translated into English means to give back to the owner something that you took away or received from him/her. In the translation, the word ‘to retrieve’ was used as the equivalent to ‘trả’. According to OALD, ‘to retrieve sb/sth’ means ‘to bring or get sth back, especially from a place where it should not be’; and the verb usually goes with ‘from sb/sth’. Based on componential analysis (cf. Newmark, 1995:115-124), it is easy to recognize the semantic difference between ‘trả’ and ‘to retrieve’. The former is of perspective of the borrower while the later of the lender. So, the choice made by the translator(s) is not good. Instead, the verb ‘to return’ should be used. ‘To return sb/sth’ means ‘to bring, give, put or send sth back to sb/sth’ and usually goes with ‘to sb/sth’ (OALD). Undeniably, this verb is a better match with the verb ‘trả’. 4.2.2.2. Errors in equivalence above word level Group ST Translation Suggestion 1 (a) Rùa hồ Gươm Time and again resurface thỉnh thoảng vẫn xuất several tortoises in hiện trước sự chứng ho Guom have kiến của biết bao turned up with the 18
    • người dân Hà Nội và witness of many khách thập phương… Hanoians as well as tourists… (a) [… công lao của] [… the exploit of Future king Le vua Lê Thái Tổ [tức the national hero Thai To vị anh hùng dân tộc Le Loi (1385 – Lê Lợi (1385 – 1433)], later king 1433)] Le Thai To […] 2 (b) […] nhà vua […] At this exam, the […] ranked the phân hạng Tiến sĩ. King himself […] doctorates in order ranked those of their grades passed the Royal exam into different grades. 19
    • (a) Quá trình học tập […] the students […] the students chủ yếu là nghe paid special paid special giảng sách, bình văn attention to the attention to book và làm văn. discussion on lectures, literature literature, and discussions and wrote poetry as poetry writing. well. (b) Lê Thánh Tông He was also both a […] a talented […] văn võ song talented scholar scholar and an elite toàn. and a warrior. warrior. 3 (c) Nay Văn Miếu This vestige is […] the backdrop […] là nơi tổ chức used for organizing for traditional các hoạt động văn cultural and cultural and hóa khoa học truyền scientific activities scientific activities thống mang đậm nét […] and the and the cultural bản sắc văn hóa Việt cultural place of heritage for visiting Nam, đồng thời là interest, study and and doing research điểm du lịch văn hóa, scientific research […] tham quan, học tập […] và nghiên cứu […] Table 8: Errors in equivalence above word level [1] This group involves with errors in using phrasal verbs. (a) In OALD, the phrasal verb ‘turn up’ has three meanings as follows: 1. to be found, especially by chance, after being lost E.g.: Don’t worry about the letter. I’m sure it’ll turn up. 2. (of a person) to arrive E.g.: We arranged to meet at 7:30, but she never turned up. 3. (of an opportunity) to happen, especially by chance 20
    • E.g.: He’s still hoping something will turn up. Based on componential analysis, obviously the phrasal verb is synonymous with the verb ‘appear’ (+ suddenly) (cf. Newmark, 1995). However, with the subject of ‘tortoises’ as in the translation, the phrasal verb is not semantically precise. [2] This group deals with errors in equivalence regarding translation of collocation. (a) Obviously, in this example, the translator(s) applied the procedure of modulation to translate, which should be considered a good choice. However, the problem lies in the phrase ‘later king Le Thai To’. According to Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, ‘later’ as an adjective (only before noun) indicates: - the state of coming after something else or at a time in the future. E.g.: The role of marketing is dealt with in a later chapter. - the most recent state E.g.: The engine has been greatly improved in later models. It is possible to realize that the noun phrases that ‘later’ modifies does not refer to human beings but often objects, things or a period of time. Thus, ‘later’ does not collocate with ‘king’. In fact, the adjective ‘future’ as in the collocation ‘future wife/husband etc.’ might be a better collocation with ‘king’. (b) In this sentence, the translator(s) used the wrong collocation of ‘rank’ for this verb does not collocate with the preposition ‘into’. The sentence therefore has its meaning changed more or less. Instead, as the suggestion provided above, 21
    • the translator(s) should use the phrase ‘to rank sth in order of’ to convey the message more precisely. [3] The group includes errors related to textual equivalence, particularly cohesion. In ‘In other words’ (1992), Baker asserts that textual equivalence is the equivalence between a SL text and a TL text in terms of information and cohesion. The concept of cohesion is thoroughly discussed by Nguyen (2000). According to the author, cohesion has three types including grammatical, lexical and logical; however, only grammatical cohesion is the focus of this part’s discussion. Nguyen (2000) classifies grammatical cohesion into four main categories, one of which is structural parallelism. Technically, structural parallelism is a means of connecting sentences by using lexical equivalence and implications of semantic relationship. For example: Wherever there’s despair, we bring hope. Wherever there’s fear, we bring confidence. Structural parallelism in fact is popular in Vietnamese as well. Many great works of literature consist of numerous sentences written in the format of ‘biền ngẫu’, the Vietnamese equivalent to the term ‘structural parallelism’. Theoretically, in order to achieve equivalence at text level, the translator should manage to remain the parallel structure of the ST in the TT. Given the two examples in this group, it is easy to realize that the parallelism was not successfully preserved in the TT. In the example (a), the structure ‘to pay attention to’ is followed first by a noun (i.e. discussion) but then a past-tensed verb (i.e. wrote). In the example (b), an adjective should have been included in front of ‘warrior’ to create parallelism with the phrase ‘a talented scholar’. 22
    • Similarly, in the example (c), the gerund ‘organizing’ does not parallel with the noun ‘the cultural place of interest …’ 4.2.3. Accuracy and Naturalness Walter Benjamin (1892 – 1940), a German literary critic and philosopher, wrote in his essay “The Task of the Translator” (1923), one of the best-known theoretical texts about translation: It is the task of the translator to release in his own language that pure language which is under the spell of another, to liberate the language imprisoned in a work in his re- creation of that work. For the sake of pure language he breaks through decayed barriers of his own language. (Venuti, 2000) In his preface to Tianyanlun, Yan Fu (1853 – 1921), a Chinese scholar famous for introducing Western thoughts into China during the late 19th century, explained the three problems in achieving an ideal translation: the “faithfulness to the original text (xin), communication of the ideas (da), and literary elegance (ya)” (Wright, 2001). Both Benjamin and Yan Fu, though belonging to two different cultures, agree that the translator should have the ability to not only thoroughly understand the SL text and convey the same understanding in the TL but also make his “re- creation” sound natural and pure enough to be accepted by readers of the TL. However, for some reasons, the translator may fail to fulfill his tasks and the outcome turns out to be an inaccurate and rough combination of words. In this part, errors related to accuracy and naturalness that were identified in the translation should be mentioned. First, it should be noted that the thesis is concerned with accuracy from the perspective of translators and readers, not that of linguistic scholars. Thus, given that a sentence is grammatically incorrect, if its message as a proposition is well transferred from the SL to the TL, the sentence will not be evaluated inaccurate. Second, naturalness in the translations is 23
    • observed from the linguistic angle. In other words, a translation may be criticized as unnatural due to the clumsy use of words, expressions, grammatical structures, etc. As stated in the beginning of the chapter, the errors are inter-related. Accordingly, every error that has been discussed in the previous parts, from errors in spelling, punctuation to errors in the use of articles, number or errors in equivalence has a certain influence on the accuracy and naturalness of the translation. To avoid unnecessary repetition, no redundant discussion is provided in this part. For more reference, see Appendix N. 4.3. Summary and Implications So far in this chapter, the analysis of the errors identified in the translations of the 13 interpretive signs has been presented according to two main categories, errors relating to the TT and errors relating to the ST. The former group consists of four sub-groups, namely errors in spelling, capitalization and punctuation; errors in the use of articles; errors in the use of transitive and intransitive verbs; and miscellaneous errors. Generally, the category involves fundamental linguistic concepts and the translations are perceived as independent pieces of writing. The group of errors relating to the ST includes omission errors, errors concerning equivalence at and above word level, accuracy and naturalness. It is translation theories that laid the foundation for the analysis of the errors in this group. In the course of the analysis, some implications have been made regarding the answers to the two research questions and on top of that, the possible etiology of the errors revealed in the translations. First, the answers to the research questions should be mentioned. (1) What may be considered as errors in the English translations of interpretive signage in the beauty spots? 24
    • (2) What kind of errors, if traceable, may be the most dominant? 16 types of errors have been found in the translations, two-thirds of which are categorized as linguistic errors; errors related to translation theories account for only 30%. The following figures show the structure of the two error categories as two individual groups. 17% 12% Spelling, Capitalization, Punctuation Articles Transitive/Intransitive verbs 23% Others 48% Figure 1: Major groups of linguistic errors that were identified in the translations 16% Omission 34% 15% Equivalence at word level Equivalence above word level Accuracy 22% 13% Naturalness Figure 2: Major groups of translational errors that were identified in the translations Clearly seen from the figures, the five most dominant types of error in the translations of the 13 interpretive signs are errors in spelling, capitalization and punctuation (22%), errors related to accuracy (17%), errors related to equivalence (15%), errors related to omission (10%), and errors in the use of articles (9%). 25
    • However, it should be noted that the assessment of the translations might be subjective for it is more or less affected by the constraint of time and my proficiency in both languages, English and Vietnamese. Second, implications concerning the possible causes of the errors should be discussed. In my opinion, there are two main groups of causes, namely subjective and objective causes. To begin with, subjective causes should be mentioned. A translation of high quality must be the work of a skillful translator. To be able to produce good translation, the translator must be competent in both the SL and TL and have extensive cultural background. First and foremost, the practice of translation belongs to the linguistic realm. Thus, the primary reason of a poor translation must be the insufficiency of the translator’s language competence. The incompetence may be of Vietnamese, the SL in Vietnamese-English translation, and/or of English, the TL. Language incompetence can be observed in two broad areas: the vocabulary and the grammatical structures. Insufficient knowledge on either of the two areas may lead to translations of poor quality. As seen from the analysis of the errors, a significant number of the identified errors are regarded as linguistic errors, ranging from misspelling, misuse of punctuation marks, articles, tenses, number, etc. The translator should bear in mind that those errors are inter-related; one error may easily lead to another error and as the domino effect, the quality of translations may be seriously affected. Inadequate cultural background may also prevent the translator from producing a good translation. Obviously, the information conveyed in the signs is related to historical and cultural knowledge of Vietnam. Besides, numerous Sino- Vietnamese are used in the ST. Given that, the translator without a good 26
    • command of socio-cultural background can hardly translate precisely and persuasively. On the other hand, translators, evaluators and especially readers should not forget objective causes. The very first object cause involves linguistic differences between Vietnamese and English. It is a common knowledge that the English language belongs to the Indo-European language family, and the Vietnamese language to the Austro-Asiatic family. Therefore, the two languages have various differences in terms of vocabulary and grammatical rules. For example, the Vietnamese language does not always use articles and the rules are not as clear as those of English language. Or English verbs, particularly transitive and intransitive verbs, can pose a problem for the translators. Moreover, this problematic area may also lead to the misuse of voice in Vietnamese-English translation. Cultural differences can also create difficulties for translators. Numerous concepts which are familiar with the Vietnamese may be alien to the English- speaking readers. That undeniably poses a serious difficulty for translators, especially in choosing equivalence. The last objective cause is concerned with the special format of the translations. Due to the constraint of the size of the signs as well as the characteristics of interpretive signage (see 2.2.2), the number of words that can be carved into the sign is limited. This fact might lead to intentional omission in the translations, which more or less affect the faithfulness of the TT to the ST. 27
    • CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS This chapter provides a conclusion for this thesis. Firstly, a brief overview and a summary of the main chapters are provided. Secondly, the strengths and weaknesses of the thesis are discussed. Finally, suggestions for further research and a final comment are made. 5.1. Overview and summary of the thesis Since its very beginning, translation has not ceased to play its indispensable role of transferring messages across languages and cultural barriers. Although the practice of translation is honored for its noble task, huge efforts are needed to improve the quality of translations. Thus, the study on translation as the transformation of a written text in one language to that in another language has been carried out long before the formation of this thesis and undoubtedly will be continued ever after. What I attempt to do in this thesis is to contribute my humble study to that great research work by pointing out the common errors in Vietnamese – English translations of interpretive signage, which is very close to my everyday learning and yet culturally meaningful regarding Vietnamese heritage and culture preservation and promotion. Apart from the chapter 1 which can be considered a brief yet informative introduction to the thesis, the study is divided into four main chapters. Existing literature on basic concepts discussed in the thesis is mentioned in Chapter 2, including an overview of interpretation and interpretive signage, the role of TQA and criteria to determine quality of a translation, and the analysis 28
    • translation errors regarding major issues including typology, gravity and etiology of errors in translation. This chapter attempted to provide the readers fundamental theories critical to the analysis of the study. Chapter 3 deals with the methods that were applied in the course of the thesis. A brief summary of the participants of the study and basic steps including collecting, analyzing data as well as the reasons why such steps are crucial to the study are mentioned. Chapter 4 can be considered a classification of major errors that were identified in the translations. The errors can be in the realm of linguistics or translation studies. Specific examples are taken from the translations. By the classification and examples cited, the thesis attempted to help readers of this thesis be fully aware of what kinds of errors that the translators of the signs made and even translators in general may easily make. Implications are also provided in the chapter, including the possible causes of the errors. 5.2. Strengths and weaknesses of the thesis Though there have been many books on translation so far, few of them discuss Vietnamese – English translation and particularly, common errors that translators may make. Additionally, translations of interpretive signs in beauty spots and the quality of the translations have not received much attention so far. This thesis, however, discusses in detail the issues with relevant examples. It is organized in a way that helps readers find it easy to get the general ideas about the problems. Nevertheless, there are some limitations in this study that may affect the final results. First, due to the limited time of research, a survey to investigate the impacts that the errors might have on the reader (i.e. visitors, tourists) was not carried out. Hence, the analysis is only of perspective of translators, which can 29
    • hardly provide a comprehensive approach to the issue. Second, due to the researcher’s limited knowledge in the realm of linguistics and translation studies, mistakes in the course of analysis are unavoidable. Finally, the signs that were chosen to be analyzed are relatively old, which might affect comprehensiveness of the study in terms of translation quality. 5.3. Suggestions for further research and final comments In the time to come, Vietnam will further integrate into the world economy and culture. Heritage preservation and promotion therefore becomes increasingly important; and interpretation concerning brochures, signs, documents and websites is required being of international standards. This progress requires translations of high quality, both from Vietnamese to English and vice versa. Thus, more studies should be carried out to identify and how to cope with common errors in these translations. These studies should touch upon translations from different perspectives, especially the impacts of the translations on their readers because it is the readers that are the final and most important assessors of translations. In conclusion, I would like to contribute to the study of Vietnamese – English translations in universities and on the media through this thesis. In my opinion, it can be considered a companion of all people who are seeking to improve their Vietnamese – English translation skills as well as the quality of their translations. Hopefully, readers of this thesis can find it useful in their future work and study or at least see it as a reference worth looking at. 30
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    • APPENDIXES Appendix A. Transcription of the sign ‘Văn Miếu – Quốc Tử Giám’ and its translation, which are placed in the first main gate of the spot ST TT Văn Miếu – Quốc Tử Giám Văn Miếu – Quốc Tử Giám Văn Miếu – Quốc Tử Giám là khu di tích Văn Miếu – Quốc Tử Giám (Temple of lịch sử văn hóa cấp quốc gia. Literature – National University) is a historical and cultural vestige at national level. Văn Miếu xây dựng năm 1070 dưới triều vua Văn Miếu, the Temple of Literature, was built Lý Thánh Tông, là nơi tôn kính Khổng Tử in 1070 under King Lý Thánh Tông, dedicated và các bậc Tiên Hiền, Tiên Nho, Hoàng Thái to Confucius, sages, Confucian scholars, tử đến học ở đây. Crown Princes studied there. Quốc Tử Giám xây dựng năm 1076 dưới Quốc Tử Giám, the first National University of triều vua Lý Nhân Tông, là trường đại học Việt Nam, was constructed in 1076 during the đầu tiên, nơi đào tạo nhân tài cho đất nước. reign of King Lý Nhân Tông for trainng the talented men for the nation. Trải qua gần 1000 năm lịch sử, Văn Miếu – For nearly 1000 years, it has preserved its Quốc Tử Giám vẫn giữ được dáng vẻ cổ ancient architectural style of many dynasties kính với đặc điểm kiến trúc của nhiều triều and precious relics as the sanctuary, Khuê Văn đại và nhiều hiện vật quí giá như: Điện Đại pavilion, statues, stelae of doctors, ink stone Thánh, Khuê Văn Các, bia Tiến sĩ, nghiên stands, stone brushes and secular trees, which mực, bút lông, tượng thờ… cùng những cây have witnessed many offering ceremonies, cổ thụ đã từng chứng kiến việc tế lễ, học study sessions and strict exams of the Đại Việt hành, thi cử của nước Đại Việt. country. Nay Văn Miếu – Quốc Tử Giám là một trong Today Văn Miếu – Quốc Tử Giám is one of the những di tích lịch sử văn hóa tiêu biểu và most important historical and cultural sites of quan trọng bậc nhất của Thủ đô Hà Nội và Hà Nội capital in particular and of the country cả nước, là nơi tổ chức các hoạt động văn in general. This vestige is used for organizing hóa khoa học truyền thống mang đậm nét cultural and scientific activities with traditional bản sắc văn hóa Việt Nam, đồng thời là điểm characteristics of Vietnamese culture and the du lịch văn hóa, tham quan, học tập và cultural place of interest, study and scientific nghiên cứu của nhiều du khách trong nước research of visitors at home and abroad. và quốc tế. 58
    • Appendix B. Transcription of the sign ‘Học tập tại Quốc Tử Giám’ and its translation 59
    • ST TT Học tập tại Quốc Tử Giám Study at the Quốc Tử Giám Việc tổ chức giảng dạy – học tập tại Quốc The organization of instruction and learning at Tử Giám bắt đầu từ năm 1076 dưới triều the Quốc Tử Giám (National University) began Lý (thế kỷ XI), phát triển và hoàn thiện in 1076 under the Lý dynasty and further dưới triều Lê (thế kỷ XV). developed in the 15th century under the reign of the Lê dynasty. Đứng đầu Quốc Tử Giám là Tế tửu (Hiệu The Quốc Tử Giám was headed by a Tế Tửu trưởng) và Tư nghiệp (Phó hiệu trưởng). (Director) and a Tư nghiệp (Vice director). The Phụ trách việc giảng dạy có các chức: Giáo professors of the Quốc Tử Giám had different thụ, Trực giảng, Trợ giáo và Bác sĩ. titles: Giáo thụ, Trực giảng, Trợ giáo and Bác sĩ. Giám sinh (học trò Quốc Tử Giám) chủ yếu Most of the Giám sinh (Students of the Quốc là những người đã đỗ kỳ thi Hương, qua Tử Giám) had passed the Hương (Regional) một kỳ kiểm tra ở Bộ Lễ vào Quốc Tử exam. Giám học tập để chuẩn bị dự kỳ thi Hội và kỳ thi Đình. Giám sinh được chia làm ba hạng: - Thượng xá sinh được cấp 10 tiền một tháng. - Trung xá sinh được cấp 9 tiền một tháng - Hạ xá sinh được cấp 8 tiền một tháng. Thời gian học tập tối thiểu là 3 năm, tối đa During the course of study, the students paid là 7 năm. Quá trình học tập chủ yếu là nghe special attention to the discussion on literature, giảng sách, bình văn và làm văn. Sách and wrote poetry as well. Their textbooks were dùng cho việc học tập là Tứ thư (Đại Học, “The Four Books” (The Great Study, The Trung Dung, Luận Ngữ, Mạnh Tử), Ngũ Golden Means/Mean, The Analects, Mencius), kinh (Thi, Thư, Lễ, Xuân Thu, Dịch), các “The Five Pre-Confucian Classics” (The Book tuyển tập thơ, phú, cổ văn. of Odes, The Book of Annais, The Book of Rites, The Book of Spring and Autumn, The Book of Changes), ancient poetry, and Chinese history… The students had to learn at the Quốc Tử Giám from 3 to 7 years. Giám sinh mỗi tháng có 1 kỳ tiểu tập, một They had minor tests each month and four năm có 4 kỳ đại tập. Nếu đủ các kỳ học, major tests each year. If they completed enough sau khi trình Bộ Lễ xem xét, đạt tiêu chuẩn their terms their study results were approved by mới vào thi Hội. the Ministry of Rites to qualify for the Hội (National) exam. Phép thi Hội có 4 kỳ: - Kỳ đệ nhất: Thi kinh nghĩa - Kỳ đệ nhị: Thi chế, chiếu, biểu - Kỳ đệ tam: Thi thơ phú - Kỳ đệ tứ: Thi văn sách (trình bày kiến thức mưu lược, kế sách của mình nhằm giải đáp câu hỏi của nhà vua trong đề thi). Các nho sinh trúng thi Hội mới vào thi The candidates needed to pass the National Đình. Thi Đình được tổ chức ở Hoàng exam to sit for the Đình (Royal) exam held at cung, nhà vua ra đề thi, chấm duyệt lần the court. At this exam, the King himself posed cuối và phân hạng Tiến sĩ. the questions, responded to the candidates’ answer and then ranked those who passed the 60 Royal exam into different grades. Những người đỗ thi Đình được xếp thành ba hạng:
    • Appendix C. Transcription of the sign ‘Kiến trúc Văn Miếu – Quốc Tử Giám’ and its translation 61
    • SL TL Kiến trúc Văn Miếu – Quốc Tử Giám Architecture of Văn Miếu – Quốc Tử Giám Văn Miếu- Quốc Tử Giám nằm ở phía Văn Miếu – Quốc Tử Giám is situated to the Nam thành Thăng Long (nay là Hà Nội) south of Thăng Long Citadel. It covers an area quay mặt về hướng Nam, có diện tích of 54,331m2, including the Văn (Literature) 54.331m2 gồm: Hồ Văn, vườn Giám và nội lake, Giám park and the interior courtyards tự được bao quanh bằng tường gạch vồ. surrounded by the brick wall. Phía trước cổng lớn là tứ trụ. Hai bên có In front of the Great Portico are four high hai bia “Hạ mã”(xuống ngựa). pillars. On either side of the pillars are two stelae commanding horsemen to dismount. Văn Miếu môn là kiến trúc cổng tam quan hai tầng, phía ngoài có đôi rồng đá cách điệu thời Lê, bên trong có đôi rồng đá thời Nguyễn. Nội tự chia làm năm khu vực: The interior of the site is divided into 5 courtyards: Khu thứ nhất: Từ cổng Văn Miếu đến cửa Đại Trung. Cổng Đại Trung ba gian lợp The first courtyard extends from the Great ngói. Hai bên là hai cổng nhỏ Thành Đức Portico to the Đại Trung (Great Middle) gate, và Đại Tài. which is flanked by two smaller gates: Đạt Tài (Attained Talent) and Thành Đức (Accomplished Virtue). Khu thứ hai: Nổi bật với Khuê Văn Các- The second courtyard is notable the Khuê Văn Một công trình kiến trúc độc đáo xây dưng pavilion, a unique architectural work, built in năm 1805, gồm hai tầng, 8 mái, tầng dưới 1805, a symbol of Hà Nội capital today. To the là bốn trụ gạch, tầng trên là kiến trúc gỗ, sides of the Khuê Văn pavilion are Súc Văn bốn mặt đều có cửa sổ tròn với những con (Crystallization of Letters) gate and Bí Văn tiện tỏa ra bốn phía tượng trưng cho hình (Magnificence of Letters) gate, which praise the ảnh sao Khuê tỏa sáng, Văn Các được lấy beauty of the content and form of literature. làm biểu tượng của thủ đô Hà Nội. Khu thứ ba: Là nơi lưu giữ 82 bia Tiến sĩ The third courtyard is used for housing 82 dựng từ năm 1484 đến năm 1780 ghi họ doctors’ stelae symmetrically lined up on the tên, quê quán của 1307 vị Tiến sĩ của 82 two sides of Thiên Quang well . Leading to the khoa thi, nằm đối xứng hai bên giếng Thiên fourth courtyard is the Đại Thành (Great Quang. Tiếp đến là cổng Đại Thành mở synthesis) gate, flanked by two smaller gates: sang khu thứ tư. Hai bên có cổng nhỏ là Kim Thanh (Golden Sound) and Ngọc Chấn Kim Thanh và Ngọc Chấn. (Jade Vibration). Khu thứ tư: Chính giữa là sân Đại Bái, hai In the fourth courtyard, on the right and left bên là hai dãy nhà Tả Vu và Hữu Vu, trước sides of the ceremonial court stand two houses, đây thờ bài vị của 72 học trò xuất sắc của originally used to house the altars to the 72 Khổng Tử và Tư nghiệp Quốc Tử Giám most honored disciples of Confucius and Chu Chu Văn An-Danh nhân văn hóa Việt Nam Văn An, Diroctor of Quốc Tử Giám. In the nổi tiếng thời Trần. Bái đường là nơi hành center is the Bái Đường (House for ceremonies) lễ trong các kỳ tế tự, có nhiều bức hoành where ceremonies took place at the festive time. phi, câu đối ca ngợi Nho học và Khổng Tử. Điện Đại Thành gồm 9 gian, phía trước cửa The next building is Đại Thành sanctuary, bức bàn, 2 đầu bít đốc, là nơi thờ Khổng where Confucius and his four closest disciples: Tử và Tứ phối ( Nhan Hồi, Tử Tư, Tăng Yanhui, Zengshen, Zisi, and Mencius are Sâm và Mạnh Tử) và bài vị của 10 vị hiền worshipped. The sanctuary also houses altars to triết. 10 honored philosophers. Khu thứ năm: Nhà Thái học vốn là Quốc The fifth courtyard, originally the first National Tử Giám xưa. Trường đại học quốc gia đầu University, was used for the instructions and tiên của Việt Nam gồm giảng đường, nhà studies of Confucian scholars. tam xá cho học sinh ở, thư viện, kho để đồ 62 tế khí. Đầu thế kỷ 19, triều Nguyễn định đô ở Huế và cho xây dựng Văn Miếu- Quốc Tử Giám
    • Appendix D. Transcription of the sign ‘Bia Tiến sĩ’ and its translation SL TL Bia Tiến sĩ Doctors’ stelae Văn Miếu- Quốc Tử Giám lưu giữ 82 tấm bia Văn Miếu- Quốc Tử Giám has preserved 82 tiến sĩ ghi họ tên, quê quán 1307 Tiến sĩ của 82 stelea of doctorates which recorded the khoa thi từ năm 1442 đến năm 1779 ( 81 khoa names and native places of 1,307 graduates triều Lê, 1 khoa triều Mạc) of 82 Royal exams (81 exams held by Lê dynasty and one exam by Mạc dynasty) held from 1442 to 1779. Bia được khởi dựng năm 1484 dưới triều vua The stelea were first set up in 1484 under Lê Thánh Tông nhằm biểu dương nhân tài, King Lê Thánh Tông to honor the talents khuyến khích việc học tập đương thời và hậu and encourage the study of contemporary thế. generations and generations to come. Bia thường được dựng sau khoa thi, hoặc từng The stelea, erected soon after the exams or đợt sau nhiều khoa thi. some years later, were carved of dark blue Bia Tiến sĩ khắc trên loại đá có màu xanh, kích stone of different sizes and engraved with thước không đều nhau, chạm khắc hoa văn tinh elaborate motifs. xảo The works of literature engraved on each Trên mỗi tấm bia khắc một bài văn bằng chữ stele in ancient Chinese praise the merits of Hán với nội dung ca ngợi công đức của triều the King and cite the reason for holding vua, lý do mở khoa thi, mục đích dựng bia, số Royal exams. Also included on the stele lượng thí sinh, họ tên, chức vụ của những were the number of candidates and the người được giao trách nhiệm tổ chức kỳ thi, names and birthplaces of successful người soạn văn bia, nhuận sắc, viết chữ và họ candidates. tên quê quán những người đỗ khoa thi đó. Bia Tiến sĩ khoa Nhâm Tuất niên hiệu Đại Bảo thứ 3 (1442) đã nêu rõ tầm quan trọng của việc đào tạo nhân tài cho đất nước và khuyến khích kẻ sĩ: “Hiền tài là nguyên khí của quốc gia. Nguyên khí thịnh thì thế nước mạnh mà hưng thịnh. Nguyên khí suy thì thế nước yếu mà thấp. Vì thế các bậc đế vương thánh mình chẳng ai không coi việc kén chọn kẻ sĩ, bồi dưỡng nhân 63
    • tài, vun trồng nguyên khí quốc gia làm công việc cần kíp. Vì kẻ sĩ có quan hệ trọng đại với quốc gia như thế, cho nên được quý chuộng không biết nhường nào, đã được đề cao bởi khoa danh, lại thêm long trọng bằng tước trật. Ơn ban đã nhiều mà vẫn coi là chưa đủ… Nay Hoàng đế thánh minh lại cho rằng việc lớn tốt đẹp tuy đã vẻ vang một thời, nhưng lời khen tiếng thơm chưa đủ để lưu truyền lâu dài cho hậu thế. Vì vậy, lại cho khắc đá đề tên dựng ở cửa nhà Thái Học để cho kẻ sĩ bốn phương chiêm ngưỡng, hâm mộ phấn chấn, rèn luyện danh tiết hăng hái tiến lên giúp rập Hoàng gia. Há phải chỉ là chuộng hư danh, sính hư văn mà thôi đâu”. Bia được đặt trên lưng rùa. Rùa là một trong The stelae of doctor laureates were placed bốn linh vật: Long, Ly, Quy, Phượng . Rùa on tortoise shells. The tortoise is one of the sống lâu, có sức khỏe. country’s four holy creatures, along with the dragon, unicorn and phoenix ( Long- Ly- Quy-Phượng), which can live a long and healthy life. Đặt bia Tiến sĩ trên lưng rùa đá biểu hiện sự The placement of the doctors’ stelae shows tôn trọng hiền tài và trường tồn mãi mãi. Mỗi everlasting respect to talent. The shape of thời kỳ rùa đá có một dáng vẻ riêng. the tortoise changed with the passing of time. 82 tấm bia được chia làm 3 loại: - 14 tấm bia dựng từ năm 1484 đến năm 1536: Kích thước bia nhỏ. Trán bia khắc hình hoa lá, mây, trăng. Rùa có đầu ngẩng cao, dáng mỏ chim, khối tròn chải chuốt. - 25 tấm bia dựng năm 1653: Nghệ thuật trang trí phong phú hơn, trán bia xuất hiện hình rồng chầu mặt nguyệt. Rùa đá có hình cổ rụt, đầu hơi chúc, mặt bẹt, sống mũi uốn cao. - 43 tấm bia dựng từ năm 1717 đến năm 1780: Điêu khắc đề tài sinh động, hiện thực. Rùa đá cổ ngắn, mai cong vồng lên, có gò sống lưng, có chạm hình sáu cạnh Bia Tiến sĩ là nguồn sử liệu quí giá để nghiên The doctors’ stelae are a valuable historical cứu lịch sử, văn hóa, giáo dục và nghệ thuật resource for the study of culture, education điêu khắc Việt Nam. and sculpture in Việt Nam. 64
    • Appendix E. Transcription of the sign ‘Khổng Tử’ and its translation 65
    • ST TT Khổng Tử (551-479 TCN) Confucius (551-479 B.C) Khổng Tử tên là Khâu, tự là Trọng Ni, sinh tại Confucius, whose Chinese name was Qiuo ấp Trâu, Khúc Phụ, nước Lỗ, nay thuộc tỉnh or Zhong Ni, was born in Zouyi, Qufu Sơn Đông, Trung Quốc district of Lu state, now a part of Shandong province, China. Ông là người thông minh, ôn hòa, ham học từ Confucius was clever, kind and fond of nhỏ, chưa đến 30 tuổi đã nổi danh học vấn, học studying. He became well known for his trò gần xa đến theo học ngày càng đông. learning at the age of 30, and attracted disciples from near and far. Từ năm 54 tuổi, ông cùng học trò chu du nhiều When he was 54, he and his disciples started nước, vừa học vừa truyền bá những hiểu biết to travel from one state to another to learn của mình về Lễ, Nhạc, Xạ, Thư và thuyết phục and teach rites, music, archery, riding, các nhà cầm quyền thi hành đường lối Đức trị. calligraphy, and mathematics, and to persuade Emperors to implement his politics of governing by ethics. Năm 68 tuổi, ông trở về nước Lỗ viết sách, dạy When 68 he returned to Lu State to write học. books and teach. Học trò theo học có tới trên 3000 người. During his lifetime he had nearly 3000 students. Ông mất năm 73 tuổi. He died at the age of 73. Khổng Tử đã biên soạn và san định Ngũ kinh Confucius revised and edited the “The Five (Thi, Thư, Lễ, Dịch và Xuân Thu). Pre-Confucian Classics” (Book of Odes, Book of Annals, Book of Rites, Book of Spring and Autumn, Book of Change). Các sách do môn đồ biên soạn ghi lại lời giảng “The Four Books” (The Great Study, The và học thuyết của ông là Tứ thư (Luận ngữ, Golden Means, The Analects, Mencius), Đại học, Trung Dung, Mạnh Tử). recording his teachings and doctrine compiled by his disciples. Tứ thư và Ngũ kinh là những sách kinh điển The Five Pre-Confucian Classics and The của Nho giáo. Four Books are Confucian Canons. Nho giáo (Khổng giáo) về cơ bản là một học Confucianism (Confucius’ doctrine) is, in thuyết về đạo xử thế của người quân tử: Tu brief, a theory on the ethical behaviour of a thân, tề gia, trị quốc, bình thiên hạ. gentleman: educating the self, organizing the family, governing the state, and ruling all nations. Để tu thân, con người phải có đức Nhân. Nhân là gốc. Nhân là yêu người, cái gì mình không muốn thì đừng làm cho người khác. Nhân gồm có Trung, Hiếu, Đễ, Thứ. Để ổn định trật tự xã hội, Nho giáo đề ra thuyết Chính danh, mọi người phải theo đúng danh phận của mình : Vua, tôi, cha, con. Để củng cố trật tự xã hội, Nho giáo đề ra Tam cương và Ngũ thường. Tam cương là ba mối quan hệ chính : Vua tôi, cha con, vợ chồng. Ngũ thường là năm đức tính : Nhân, Nghĩa, Lễ, Trí, Tín. Nho giáo góp phần quan trọng trong việc tổ Confucianism’s most important contribution chức xã hội phong kiến có nề nếp, kỷ cương, lies in making feudal society organised and dạy con người có trách nhiệm với gia đình, với lawful by teaching people how to behave xã hội. and educate themselves, and take 66 responsibility for their family and society. Khổng Tử là người hăng say và quyết tâm học tập, « Không lấy làm xấu hổ khi học hỏi người
    • Appendix F. Transcription of the sign ‘Khu Thái Học’ and its translation ST TT Khu Thái học Thái Học courtyard Khu Thái học được xây dựng năm 2000 trên Thái Học courtyard was constructed in 2000 nền của Quốc Tử Giám xưa (còn gọi là Thái on the former ground of the Quốc Tử Giám Học đường) là nơi tôn vinh truyền thống văn (National University) to honor the national hóa giáo dục của Việt Nam. traditions of culture and education of Việt Nam. Năm 1076, vua Lý Nhân Tông cho xây dựng In 1076, King Lý Nhân Tông ordered the trường Quốc Tử Giám và chọn quan viên, văn construction of Quốc Tử Giám and selected chức biết chữ vào học. literate mandarins as its students. Năm 1236, trường được mở rộng, đổi tên là In 1236, it was enlarged and named as Quốc Quốc Tử Viện, sau là Quốc Học Viện, dưới Tử Viện, then Quốc Học Viện. Under the Lê triều Lê, đổi gọi là Thái Học Viện với qui mô dynasty, it was called as Thái Học Viện and kiến trúc khang trang gồm: Cửa Thái Học, nhà reconstructed on a large scale, including Minh Luân, giảng đường phía Đông và phía Minh Luân house, west and east classrooms, Tây, kho Bí thư chứa ván gỗ đã khắc thành storehouse of wooden printing blocks, and sách và 2 dãy Tam xá ở hai bên nhà Thái Học, two lines of three 25-room dormitories for mỗi bên 3 dãy, mỗi dãy 25 gian để làm chỗ cho students. học sinh nghỉ ngơi. Quốc Tử Giám tồn tại hơn 700 năm và trở thành trung tâm giáo dục cao cấp lớn nhất của Việt Nam. Năm 1802, triều Nguyễn định đô ở Huế, sau đó In 1802, Nguyễn Kings set Huế as capital of cho xây dựng Quốc Tử Giám Huế. Việt Nam and built another Quốc Tử Giám there. Lúc này Quốc Tử Giám Thăng Long bị thu hẹp Quốc Tử Giám in Thăng Long then was dần và trở thành trường học của phủ Hoài Đức, narrowed and narrowed, became a school of sau xây điện Khải Thánh thờ cha mẹ của Hoài Đức district. Then Khải Thánh shrine Khổng Tử. was built there to honour Confucius’ parents. 67
    • Năm 1946, khu vực này bị chiến tranh phá hủy This courtyard was completely destroyed by hoàn toàn. war in 1946. Công trình Thái học được thiết kế theo kiến The designs of the Thái Học courtyard were trúc truyền thống dân tộc, hài hòa với cảnh based on the traditional architecture in quan và các công trình kiến trúc cổ, có diện harmony with the surrounding sights of the tích sử dụng 1530m2 trên diện tích mặt bằng Văn Miếu. With an area of 1530m2 out of a 6150m2, gồm: Nhà Tiền đường, Hậu đường, total 6150m2, the Thái Học courtyard Tả vu, Hữu vu, nhà chuông, nhà trống và các consists of the front building, the rear công trình phụ trợ. building, left and right buildings, bell house, drum house and other buildings. Vật liệu được sử dụng chủ yếu là: Gỗ lim, ngói mũi hài, gạch đất nung… - Nhà Tiền đường: Nơi tổ chức kỷ niệm danh The front building is used for organizing nhân văn hóa, hội thảo khoa học và các hoạt ceremonies in memory of cultural scholars, động văn hóa dân tộc. scientific and cultural activities. - Nhà Hậu đường 2 tầng: Tầng dưới ở chính The rear building consists of two storeys. giữa đặt tượng thờ Tư nghiệp Quốc Tử Giám The ground floor is used for displaying the Chu Văn An – Nhà giáo dục Nho học Việt status of Chu Văn An, Director of Quốc Tử Nam và trưng bày về “Lịch sử Văn Miếu – Giám to honor him and the exhibits on the Quốc Tử Giám và chế độ học hành thi cử Việt history of Văn Miếu – Quốc Tử Giám and Nam”. on Confucian education in Việt Nam. Tầng 2 là nơi thờ 3 vị vua – Những danh nhân The upper floor is dedicated to three Kings văn hóa có công sáng lập Văn Miếu – Quốc Tử who contributed most to the foundation of Giám và đóng góp cho sự nghiệp phát triển Văn Miếu – Quốc Tử Giám and to the giáo dục Nho học Việt Nam: development of Confucian education in Việt Lý Thánh Tông (1023 -1072): Sáng lập Văn Nam. King Lý Thánh Tông (1023-1072) Miếu năm 1070 who founded Văn Miếu in 1070, King Lý Lý Nhân Tông (1066-1128): Sáng lập Quốc Tử Nhân Tông (1066-1128) who founded Quốc Giám năm 1076 Tử Giám in 1076, King Lê Thánh Tông Lê Thánh Tông (1442-1497): Dựng bia Tiến sĩ (1442-1497) who ordered the erection of năm 1484 stone stelae of doctor laureates in 1484. Nhà chuông, nhà trống xây hình vuông ở hai In both sides of the rear building are square bên nhà Hậu Đường. houses for a drum and a bronze bell. Bên trong có treo quả chuông cao 2,1m, đường The drum’s diameter is 2.01m wide; it is kính 0,99m đúc năm 2000 và quả trống sấm, 2.65m high, 700kg heavy; its volume is tang trống có chiều cao 2,65m, đường kính mặt 10m3. The bell was cast in 2000 with the trống 2,01m, thể tích 10m3, nặng 700kg. high of 2.1m; its diameter is 0.99m wide. Khu Thái học xưa là trường học, nay là nơi tôn In the past Thái học courtyard was a school. kính các danh nhân của đất nước, nơi tổ chức Today Thái Học courtyard is where the các hoạt động văn hóa khoa học nhằm kế thừa talents of country are honoured, where the và phát huy những truyền thống quí báu của cultural and scientific activities take place in dân tộc, góp phần xây dựng nền văn hóa Việt order to inherit and bring into play the Nam tiên tiến đậm đà bản sắc dân tộc. valuable traditions of the Nation, contributing to the formation of the modern culture with traditional cultural characters of Việt Nam. 68
    • Appendix G. Transcription of the three signs introducing the biography of three Kings who made great contributions to the construction of the Temple of Literature and the National University (G-1) ST TT Lý Thánh Tông (1023 – 1072) Lý Thánh Tông (1023 – 1072) Lý Thánh Tông người châu Cổ Pháp (nay là King Lý Thánh Tông was a native of Cổ Pháp xã Đình Bảng huyện Tiên Sơn tỉnh Bắc district, which now belongs to Đình Bảng Ninh), húy là Nhật Tôn, con trưởng của vua commune, Tiên Sơn district, Bắc Ninh Lý Thái Tông. province. His forbidden name was Nhật Tôn and he was the eldest prince of King Lý Thái Tông. Năm 1028 được phong làm Đông Cung Thái In 1028 he became Đông Cung Crown Prince. tử. Khi Lý Thái Tông băng hà, ông lên ngôi, ở When King Lý Thái Tông passed away he took ngôi 18 năm (1054-1072). the throne and his reign lasted 18 years (1054 – 1072). Ông là vị vua anh minh và nhân từ, đã có He was a wise and charitable king, set forth những chủ trương sáng suốt trong việc xây wise directions to build a powerful country dựng đất nước thành một quốc gia hùng such as decreasing punishments, attaching mạnh như: Khoan giảm hình luật, coi trọng much importance to farming, developing nghề nông, mở mang việc học, củng cố và education, consolidating and strengthening the tăng cường phòng thủ đất nước từ Bắc chí national defense from the north to the south. Nam Năm 1070, ông cho xây dựng Văn Miếu để In 1070 he ordered the erection of Văn Miếu thờ Khổng Tử và các Tiên Hiền, Tiên Nho. (Temple of Literature) to worship Confucius, sages, Confucian scholars. Hoàng Thái tử Lý Càn Đức đến học ở đây. The Crown Prince Lý Càn Đức studied here. 69
    • (G-2) ST TT Lý Nhân Tông (1066-1128) Lý Nhân Tông (1066 – 1128) Lý Nhân Tông húy là Càn Đức, con trưởng His given name was Càn Đức. He was the first của vua Lý Thánh Tông và Nguyên phi Ỷ son of King Lý Thánh Tông and Queen Ỷ Lan. Lan. Lên ngôi khi mới bảy tuổi, ở ngôi 56 năm At the age of seven he became king and ruled (1072-1128). for the next 56 years (1072 – 1128). Ông là bậc vua giỏi, sáng suốt, thần võ, trí He was a brilliant, humanitarian, tuệ, hiếu nhân, thông hiểu âm luật, giỏi chế knowledgeable king. He was also good at tác ca nhạc, đánh Nam, dẹp Bắc thắng lợi, music, composition, and military. He succeeded chăm lo công việc nhà nông, xuống chiếu in defeating enemies from the north and the cấm giết trâu bò, đước các bề tôi và dân south. He concerened about farm word, forbade chúng hết lòng phụ giúp. the killing of cows and buffalos, so he was supported by all mandarins and people with all their hearts. Năm 1075, ông mở khoa thi Minh Kính Bác In 1075 he held the Minh Kinh Bác Học exam, Học – Khoa thi mở đầu lịch sử khoa cử Việt which was the first exam in Việt Nam history. Nam, đồng thời đóng góp vào việc xây dựng In 1076 he ordered the building of Quốc Tử văn hóa nước nhà. Giám (the first National University) setting up the foundation for development of Confucianism in Việt Nam, making great contribution to the construction of national culture. 70
    • (G-3) ST TT Lê Thánh Tông (1442 – 1497) Lê Thánh Tông (1442 – 1497) Lê Thánh Tông tự là Tư Thành, húy Hạo, His given name is Hạo, his pen-name is Tư con thứ tư của vua Lê Thái Tông, ở ngôi 37 Thành. He was the fourth son of King Lê Thái năm (1460 – 1497) với 2 lần đặt niên hiệu là Tông. He was the king for 37 years (1460 – Quang Thuận và Hồng Đức, là vị vua anh 1497), and gave 2 reign titles: Quang Thuận minh, quyết đoán, văn võ song toàn. and Hồng Đức. He was a clear-sighted, decisive king. He was also both a talented scholar and a warrior. Nước Đại Việt dưới thời Lê Thánh Tông trị Under his rule, Đại Việt country was vì là một quốc gia độc lập, thống nhất và independent, united and powerful: the culture hùng mạnh, văn hóa giáo dục phát triển rực and education highly developed. rỡ. Lê Thánh Tông là nhà cải cách lớn: Cải tạo He was a great reformer: reformed government bộ máy nhà nước, đề cao pháp quyền, ban structure, gave prominence to jurisdiction, hành luật Hồng Đức, cho vẽ bản đồ Hồng promulgated the Hồng Đức law, ordered to Đức – Bộ bản đồ đầu tiên của quốc gia Đại make the map Hồng Đức – the first map of Đại Việt. Việt country. Năm 1483, ông cho xây dựng lại Văn Miếu He ordered to reconstruct Văn Miếu and và mở rộng Quốc Tử Giám thành một quần enlarge Quốc Tử Giám in 1483 into the thể kiến trục khang trang, cho phát triển sự spacious architectural complex, developed nghiệp giáo dục và khoa cử theo Nho học, Confucian education and examination, ordered định lệ 3 năm 1 kỳ thi Hội. the National examination held every three years. Ông là người đầu tiên đặt lệ dựng bia Tiến sĩ He was also the king who ordered to erect the ở Văn Miếu để biểu dương nhân tài và first doctor stelae in Văn Miếu to honour the khuyến khích học trò dùi mài kinh sử để lưu talent and encourage students to learn dành bảng vàng tại Nhà Thái Học. Confucianism to have names recorded in the golden board in Thái Học house. Lê Thánh Tông còn là nhà thơ, người sáng Lê Thánh Tông was a poet he founded the Tao lập ra hội Tao Đàn, người minh oan và thu Đàn association, vindicaded Nguyễn Trãi and 71
    • thập di cảo của Nguyễn Trãi, đồng thời ông collected his remains. He ordered also to revise còn cho biên tập nhiều bộ sử thi lớn như: Đại many great historic works such as: Đại Việt sử Việt sử ký toàn thư, Thiên Nam dư hạ tập… ký toàn thư, Thiên Nam dư hạ tập… Appendix H. Transcription of the sign ‘Đền Ngọc Sơn’ and its translation, which are placed in front of the main gate leading to the The Huc Bridge ST TT Đền Ngọc Sơn Ngoc Son Temple Đây là một quần thể di tích lịch sử văn hóa This is a famous place of historical and cultural nổi tiếng ở trung tâm thành phố. interest at the heart of the city of Hanoi. Ngôi đền được dựng trên đảo Ngọc, thờ các Being built on the Ngoc (Jade) Islet and thần Nho giáo, Đạo giáo và vị anh hùng dân dedicated to Confucian and Taoist philosophers tộc Trần Hưng Đạo. and the national hero Tran Hung Dao, the temple dates back from time immemorial and was expanded in 1865 with many works that we can see today – Thap But (Pen Tower), Dai Nghien (Ink-slab), The Huc (Welcoming Shunshine) Bridge, Dac Nguyet (Moon Contemplation) Pavilion and Dinh Tran Ba (Pavilion against Waves) – each of them has a significant meaning. Di tích Ngọc Sơn có từ xa xưa, tới năm 1865 được mở rộng quy mô, xây thêm nhiều công trình như chúng ta thấy ngày nay: tháp Bút, đài Nghiên, cầu Thê Húc (đậu nắng mai), lầu Đắc Nguyệt (được trăng), đình Trấn Ba (chắn sóng)… mỗi công trình mang một ý nghĩa đặc sắc. Cùng với hồ Hoàn Kiếm, quần thể di tích Together with Ho Hoan Kiem (Sword-Restored Ngọc Sơn đã trở thành một thắng cảnh mỹ lệ Lake), it has become a beauty spot, beautiful và giàu tính lịch sử của Thủ đô Hà Nội. and historic, of the capital of Hanoi. 72
    • Appendix I. Transcription of the sign ‘Rùa hồ Gươm’ and its translation, which are placed in the room where the specimen of Hoan Kiem Lake’s tortoise is displayed ST TT Rùa Hồ Gươm Ho Guom Tortoises Rùa Hồ Gươm gắn liền với truyền thuyết vua Ho Guom tortoises are closely attach to the Lê Lợi trả thanh bảo kiếm cho thần Rùa trên legen the King Le returned the precious sword hồ Lục Thủy vào đầu thế kỷ thứ 15. to the tortoise genius of ho Luc Thuy (the former name of ho Guom during that period of time) in the 15th century. Từ đấy hồ mang tên hồ Hoàn Kiếm (Hồ trả Since then the lake had a new name: ho Hoan gươm) với tên thường gọi là hồ Gươm. Kiem (Lake Hoan Kiem or Lake of Sword Restored) or Ho Guom for short. Hơn 5 thế kỷ qua, người đời vẫn tin rằng đâu Over the past five centuries, people have still đó thăm thẳm trong lòng hồ vẫn còn cất giữ believed that the sacred sword was buried deep thanh kiếm của tổ tiên. somewhere in the lake. Rùa hồ Gươm thỉnh thoảng vẫn xuất hiện Time and again several tortoises in ho Guom trước sự chứng kiến của biết bao người dân have turned up with the witness of many Hà Nội và khách thập phương như nhắc đến Hanoians as well as tourists as if they remind trang sử oai hùng chống giặc ngoại xâm của lookers on of the historical pages in the heroic dân tộc Việt Nam. struggles of the Vietnamese people. Tiêu bản rùa hồ Gươm có từ năm 1968, lúc A specimen of ho Guom tortoise was made in đó cân nặng 250kg, chiều dài 2,10m, chiều 1968, it was then 250kg in weight with a rộng 1,2m. length of 2,10m and a width of 1,20m 73
    • Appendix J. Transcription of the sign ‘Đền Quán Thánh’ and its translation, which are placed in front of the main gate of the temple ST TT Đền Quán Thánh Quan Thanh Temple Di tích lịch sử - văn hóa quan trọng, thuộc It is an important historic – cultural relics in đất phường Quán Thánh, quận Ba Đình, Quan Thanh ward, Ba Dinh precinct, Ha Noi. Thành phố Hà Nội. Được tạo dựng từ đời vua Lý Thái Tổ Quan Thanh temple was built during the reign (1010 – 1028) để thờ thánh Huyền Thiên of king Ly Thai To (1010 – 1028). It is Trấn Võ – vị thần trấn giữ phương Bắc. dedicated to HUYEN THIEN TRAN VO or the God who guarded and administered the North. Vì thế còn có tên là Đền Trấn Võ, Quán That is why it is also known as Tran Vo temple, Thánh Trấn Võ hay “Quan Thánh”. the temple of Quan Thanh Tran Vo or “Quan Thanh”. Tọa lạc bên Hồ Tây trong một khuôn viên Situated on a large and beautiful area by the đẹp đẽ và rộng lớn, trang nghiêm gần ngay west lake near the northern gate of the old cửa Bắc kinh thành, đây là một trong bốn Thang Long capital, Quan Thanh temple is one “Thăng Long tứ trấn” ngày xưa. of the relics of the “four guard of old Thang Long”. Các bộ phận kiến trúc hiện thấy là kết quả The existing constructions retain from the last của lần trung tu lớn hồi thế kỷ 19 bao gồm: repair work in the 19th century including the Tam quan, sân, ba lớp nhà tiền tế, trung tế, triple gate, the yard, the front and the central hậu cung. worshipping chambers and the shrine. Ở đây có pho tượng bằng đồng đen cao gần There is a bronze statue nearly 4 meters in 4m, nặng khoảng 4 tấn đúc năm 1677 để height and almost 4 tons in weight. It was cast thể hiện oai linh của thánh Huyền Thiên in 1677 to dedicated to the impressively holy Trấn Võ. Huyen Thien Tran Vo. 74
    • Appendix K. Transcription of the sign ‘Chùa Một Cột’ and its translation ST TT Chùa Một Cột One-Pillar Pagoda Thuộc phường Đội Cấn, quận Ba Đình, Situated in Doi Can ward, Ba Dinh precinct, Ha Thành phố Hà Nội, đây là di tích lịch sử văn Noi, the One-Pillar Pagoda is a cultural and hóa lâu đời và độc đáo hàng đầu của đất historic relics, unique for its architectural work nước. in the country. Xây dựng từ năm 1049 ở phía tây Hoàng It was first built in 1049 under the Ly dynasty thành Thăng Long đời Lý, chùa có tên gốc là on the west of ancient Thang Long capital. Its “Diên Hựu”, nảy sinh từ ý muốn được kéo original name was Dien Huu which expressed dài cuộc sống của vị Hoàng Đế thứ hai của the wish of the second Ly King for longevity. nhà Lý. Kết cấu hình bông sen nở trên một cuống The pagoda has the shape of a lotus blooming sen của ngôi chùa là sự mô phỏng hình on its stem. It is a description of a dream of tượng mà vua Lý Thái Tông (1028 – 1054) King Ly Thai Tong (1028 – 1054): the king đã thấy trong mơ: Phật Quan Âm dắt Vua was led to the lotus cup by Analoketecvary lên đài sen! (Goddess of Mercy)! Chùa một Cột, như đang thấy ở đây, là kiến The One- Pillar Pagoda as being seen now is trúc phục hiện và thu nhỏ của một quần thể the recreation and miniature of a large ancient kiến trúc cung đình và Phật giáo, ngày xưa royal and Buddhist construction. The existing rất đồ sộ khang trang và bao gồm cả ngôi nearby pagoda was also a part of this ancient chùa ở liền bên, cũng là bộ phận di tồn của and extraordinary architectural complex. quần thể kiến trúc cổ kính và kỳ lạ này. Appendix L. Transcription of the sign ‘Tượng đài Lê Thái Tổ’ and its translation, which are placed at the back of the monument, facing Le Thai To Street ST TT Tượng đài vua Lê Thái Tổ Monument of king Le Thai To Đây là công trình văn hóa – tưởng niệm để This is a cultural work in memory of the ghi nhớ công lao của vua Lê Thái Tổ tức vị exploits of the national hero Le Loi (1385 – anh hùng dân tộc Lê Lợi (1385 – 1433), 1433), later king Le Thai To, the leader of the người đã lãnh đạo cuộc kháng chiến đánh resistance against the invaders to liberate the đuổi giặc ngoại xâm, giải phóng đất nước country in the 15th century. vào thế kỷ XV. Tượng đài vua Lê Thái Tổ được dựng vào Built in 1896, this monument is closely 75
    • khoảng năm 1896 gắn với truyền thuyết connected with the legend of retrieving the “trả gươm thần” trên hồ Hoàn Kiếm. magic sword on Lake Hoan Kiem. Appendix M. Transcription of the sign ‘Chùa Trấn Quốc’ and its translation ST TT Chùa Trấn Quốc Tran Quoc pagoda Đây là ngôi chùa có lịch sử lâu đời nhất ở Hà It is the oldest of all pagoda in Hanoi. Nội. Khởi dựng từ thế kỷ 6, đời Lý Nam Đế, chùa The Pagoda was constructed in the 6th century có tên là Khai Quốc (mở rộng) và nằm ở phía during the reign of King Ly Nam De and was ngoài đê Yên Phụ. then named Khai Quoc which means “founding the country”. It was first built outside the Yen Phu dyke, Sau dời vào trong nhưng vẫn nằm trên sóng , then moved inside the dyke, to a peninsular nước Hồ Tây, chùa có thêm các tên: An on the West Lake. It has been named An Quoc, Quốc, Trấn Quốc, Trấn Bắc… Tran Quoc, and Tran Bac. Và các công trình kiến trúc hài hòa với cỏ With an architecture in harmony with nature, cây, mây nước, tạo nên một cảnh quan tuyệt the Pagoda creates a beautiful scenery on the đẹp và một di tích tín ngưỡng Phật giáo nổi Lake. This famous Buddhist Pagoda is situated tiếng của Thủ đô, bên đường Thanh Niên, by Thanh Nien Road, Yen Phu Ward, Tay Ho thuộc phường Yên Phụ, quận Tây Hồ. district. Những bộ phận kiến trúc đang thấy hiện nay The existing architectural buildings were là sản phầm của lần trùng tu lớn (năm 1815), retained from the last repair work in 1815, gồm: tam quan, chùa chính, nhà khách, nhà including the triple gate, the main pagoda, the tổ, vườn tháp… sitting room, the ancestor monks worshipping chamber and the tower garden. Tất cả đều nằm gọn trên một bán đảo xin All these constructions were lying on a small xắn, soi bóng trên mặt nước Hồ Tây diễm lệ. peninsular, mirroring themselves in the dazzlingly beautiful West Lake. 76
    • Appendix N. Table of error classification Typologies of errors Linguistic errors Translational errors App. Case T/I Equiv. Spellg Captl Punct. Art. verb Tense Num. Voice Rel. Cl Geni PoS Omis. Acc. Nat. At w/l Abv w/l A Văn Miếu, the Temple of Literature, was built in 1070 under King Lý Thánh Tông,  dedicated to Confucius, sages, Confucian scholars, Crown  Princes studied (stop) there. A […] ink stone  stands, stone brushes and secular trees, which have witnessed many offering ceremonies,  study sessions and strict exams […] A This vestige is   used for organizing cultural and scientific activities […] and the cultural place of interest, study and […] B The professors of the Quốc Tử Giám had different titles: Giáo thụ, Trực giảng, Trợ giáo and Bác sĩ.   B Giám sinh được   77
    • chia … một tháng. B Thời gian học   tập … 7 năm. B […] the students paid special attention to the discussion on  literature, and wrote poetry as well. B Phép thi Hội   […] đề thi) B At this exam, the King himself posed the  questions, responded to the candidates’ answer and then ranked those passed the Royal exam into  different grades. B Những người đỗ   thi Đình […] Tam Nguyên B Contributing to  train thousands of scholars […] the first University of Việt Nam.  C It covers an area of 54,331m2, including the Văn (Literature)   lake, Giám park and the interior  courtyards surrounded by the brick wall.  C Văn Miếu môn   […] thời Nguyễn. C […], leading to  the fourth (stop) courtyard is the Đại Thành […] C […]the altars to 78
    • the 72 most honored disciples of Confucius and Chu Văn An,   Diroctor of  Quốc Tử Giám. C Đầu thế kỷ 19   […] phủ Hoài Đức C đặt tượng tưởng   niệm […] hàng trăm năm. D Văn Miều – Quốc Tử Giám has preserved 82 stelae of doctorates which recorded the names and native places of 1,307 graduates  of 82 Royal exams [...] D Also included on the stele were the number of candidates and the names and  birthplaces of successful candidates. D Bia Tiến sĩ khoa  Nhâm Tuất … mà thôi đâu”. D The tortoise is one of the country’s four holy creatures, along with the dragon, unicorn and phoenix (Long – Ly – Quy – Phượng), which can live a long and healthy  life.  D The shape of the  tortoise changed with the passing 79
    • of time. D 82 tấm bia được   chia … hình sáu cạnh D The doctors’ stelae are a valuable historical resource for the study of culture, education and sculpture in Việt  Nam. E Confucius, whose Chinese   name was Qiuo or Zhong Ni, was born in […] E “The Four Books” […], recording his teachings and doctrine compiled by his  disciples. E Ông là người …   năm 73 tuổi E Để tu thân …   Thứ E Để ổn định …   Tín F The designs of the Thái Học  courtyard were  based on the traditional architecture in harmony with the surrounding sights of the Văn Miếu.  F The ground floor is used for displaying the status of Chu   Văn An,  Director of Quốc Tử Giám […] and on 80
    • Confucian education in Việt Nam.  F In both sides of the rear building are square houses for a  drum and a bronze bell. F Today Thái Học courtyard is where the talents of country are honoured, where the cultural and scientific  activities take place in order to inherit and bring into play the valuable  traditions […] G-1 He was a wise and charitable king, set forth wise directions  to build a powerful country such as decreasing punishments, attaching much importance to  farming, […] G-2 He concerned about farm work, forbade the killing of cows and buffalos, so he was supported  by all mandarins and people with all their hearts. G-2 In 1075, he held the Minh Kính  Bác Học exam, which was the first exam in Việt Nam 81
    • history.  G-3 His given name is Hạo, his pen- name is Tư   Thành. G-3 He was the king   for 37 years (1460-1497), and gave 2 reign titles […] G-3 He was also both a talented scholar and a  warrior. G-3 He was a great reformer: reformed government structure, […], ordered to make the map Hồng  Đức […] G-3 He ordered to  reconstruct Văn Miếu and enlarge Quốc Tử Giám in 1483 into the spacious architectural complex, […], ordered the National  examination held every three years. G-3 He was also the king who ordered to erect  the first doctor stelae […] G-3 Lê Thánh Tông was a poet he founded the Tao  (stop) Đàn association.  G-3 He ordered also  to revise many […] such as:  Đại Việt sử ký (colon) toàn thư, Thiên Nam dư hạ 82
    • tập… H […] Thap But  (Pen Tower) I Ho Guom  tortoises are closely attach to  the legend the King Le returned the   precious sword to the tortoise genius of ho Luc Thuy (the former name of  ho Guom during that period of time) in the 15th century. I Since then the lake had a new name: ho Hoan  Kiem (Lake Hoan Kiem or Lake of Sword restored) or ho Guom for short. I Over the past  five centuries, people have still believed that the sacred sword was buried deep somewhere in the lake. I Time and again several tortoises in ho Guom have turned up with the witness    of many Hanoians as well as tourists as if they remind lookers on of the historical pages in the heroic struggles of the Vietnamese people. I A specimen of ho Guom 83
    • tortoise was made in 1968, it was then 250kg in weight with a length of 2,10m   and a width of 1,20m J It is an important historic – cultural relics in Quan Thanh  ward, Ba Dinh  precinct, Ha Noi   J Situated on a large and beautiful area by the west lake  […] Quan Thanh is one of the relics of the “four guard of  old Thang  Long”. J The existing constructions retain from the  last repair work in the 19th century including the triple gate, […] J It was cast in  1677 to dedicated to the […] K Situated in Doi Can ward, Ba Dinh precinct,  Ha Noi, the   One-Pillar Pagoda is cultural and historic relics, unique for its  architectural work in the country. L This is a cultural 84
    • work in memory of the exploits of the national hero Le Loi (1385-1433), later king Le   Thai To, […] L Built in 1896, this monument is closely connected with the legend of retrieving the magic sword on Lake Hoan    Kiem. M It is the oldest of  all pagoda in Hanoi. M […], then moved inside the dyke, to a peninsular on  the West Lake. M With an   architecture in harmony with nature, […] M All these constructions were lying on a small peninsular, […]  85