A Study On English – Vietnamese Translation Of Electronic News Headlines Bichnguyen E17 Graduation PaperDocument Transcript
VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI
UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES
PHUNG THI BICH NGUYEN
A STUDY ON ENGLISH – VIETNAMESE
TRANSLATION OF ELECTRONIC NEWS
SUMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHALOR OF
Hanoi, May 2009
VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI
UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES
PHUNG THI BICH NGUYEN
A STUDY ON ENGLISH-VIETNAMESE
TRANSLATION OF ELECTRONIC NEWS
SUPERVISOR: NGUYEN VIET KY, M.A.
SUMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHALOR OF ARTS
Hanoi, May 2009
TABLE OF CONTENTS Page
.......................................................... List of figures, tables, and abbreviations
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1. Statement of the problem and the rationale for the study.........................1
1.2. Aims and objectives of the study..............................................................1
1.3. Scope of the study ...................................................................................2
........ 1.4. Organization
Chapter 2: Literature review
2.1. An overview of English electronic news headlines..................................3
2.1.1. History of electronic news.............................................................3
2.1.2. Definitions of English electronic news headlines... 6
2.1.3. Functions of English electronic news headlines in the article. 6
2.2. An overview of translation ......................................................................7
2.2.1. Definitions of translation...............................................................7
2.2.2. Translation methods and procedures.............................................7
2.3. Previous studies and remaining issues....................................................12
Chapter 3: Methodology
3.1. Selection of subjects15
3.2. Data collection instrument.....................................................................15
3.3. Procedures of data collection.................................................................15
3.4. Procedures of data analysis ....................................................15
3.5. Summary .............................................................................................16
Chapter 4: Results and discussion
4.1. Distinctive grammatical characteristics of English electronic
4.2. Common translation methods and techniques used in
English – Vietnamese translation of electronic news headlines ...........22
CHAPTER 5: Conclusion......... 33
First and foremost, I would like to express my gratitude and appreciation to Mr.
Nguyen Viet Ky, my supervisor, for his valuable guidance and assistance.
I am indebted to Ms. Phung Ha Thanh whose interest and enthusiasm constantly
encouraged and helped me to complete this study.
My special thanks also extend to Ms. Nguyen Thi Minh Hue for offering me the
chance to attend her useful lectures in Research Methodology course.
This study would not have been completed without help and encouragement of my
Last but not least, words fail to express my thanks to my family whose love, care
and encouragement help me fulfill this study.
This study aims at shedding light on distinctive grammatical features of English
electronic news headlines and translation methods and techniques employed in
English - Vietnamese translation of electronic news headlines. The data were
collected by means of electronic news headlines taken from three world-famous
websites, namely http://www.time.com, http://www.economist.com,
http://www.bbc.co.uk and 100 English electronic headlines having corresponding
translation in Vietnamese. It was concluded that English electronic news headlines
are often realized to be more phrases than sentences. Headlines in the form of
sentences appear to be in present simple tense. Results also showed that omitting
“to be”, article and using colon are common in English electronic news headlines.
Communicative translation is the most widely used in English-Vietnamese
translation of electronic news headlines. Common techniques employed in
translating English electronic headlines into Vietnamese include using the simple
present and simple future tense, adding some background information, omitting
some information, etc. This study has pedagogical implications for students of
translation and interpreting.
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS, TABLES AND FIGURES
SL: Source Language
TL: Target Language
NP: Noun Phrase
VP: Verb phrase
Electronic news headline: e-news headline
Diagram 1: Translation methods proposed by Peter Newmark
Table 1: Expressions of English e-news headlines
Table 2: Tenses of English e-news headlines
Table 3: Omitted elements in English e-news headlines
Table 4: Translation methods employed in English- Vietnamese translation of
electronic news headlines
Appendix 1: Grammatical features of English news-headlines
Appendix 2: Observation scheme 1
Appendix 3: English- Vietnamese translation of e-news headlines
Appendix 4: Observation scheme 2
The invention and development of the Internet make significant changes in society
in general and in media in particular. The emergence of electronic news in the
1990s marked a milestone in media. The electronic newspaper readership has
sharply increased. Nevertheless, most of latest news in the world is in English,
which is supposed to be a barrier to non-natives in general and to Vietnamese in
general. Also, unlike headlines on newspapers, which are presented with the body
of the news on the same page, headlines on electronic news are put together in the
form of links without being attached to the body of the articles. Readers often take
a quick look at series of headlines and only have mouse clicks at the headlines of
interest. Accordingly, in order to attract readers it is crucial for a headline to be
impressive. Therefore, the translation of electronic news headlines, which catch
the first sight of readers, has become one of the prime concerns of translators. In
spite of that, there has been few studies focusing on the English-Vietnamese news
headline translation. Some of them focused on characteristics of English headlines
on newspaper without suggesting translation methods and techniques employed to
deal with these distinctive features. For the above reasons, English-Vietnamese
translation of electronic news headlines has become the subject of study of this
1.2. Objectives of the study
The study aims at answering the following questions:
• What are the distinctive grammatical characteristics of English electronic
• Which translation methods and techniques are employed in English-
Vietnamese translation of electronic news headlines to deal with these
distinctive grammatical characteristics?
1.3. Scope of the study
The present study only focused in two issues investigating distinctive
grammatical characteristics of English electronic news headlines and translation
methods commonly employed in English – Vietnamese translation of e-news
headlines. 300 headlines collected from three world-famous websites, namely
http://www.time.com, http://www.economist.com and http://www.bbc.co.uk. from
December 2008 to February 2009 and 100 English e-news headlines and their
translation were observed. Grammatical framework proposed by by Quirk and
Greenbaum and translation methods introduced by Peter Newmark were used to
design the observation schemes.
This study consists of 5 parts:
Chapter 1: Introduction gives the framework of the study including five items
namely rationale, objectives, scope and design of the study
Chapter 2: Literature review displays the general knowledge about news
headlines, translation, previous studies and remaining issues.
Chapter 3: Methodology introduces objects and procedures of the study.
Chapter 4: The results draws distinctive grammatical features of English electronic
headlines and translation methods and techniques widely recommended in
English-Vietnamese translation of electronic news headlines
Chapter 5: Conclusion reviews the implications of the study.
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapters gives an overview of English electronic news, overview of
translation, reviews some previous studies and presents the remaining issues.
2.1. An overview of English electronic news
2.1.1. Definition of electronic news
Electronic news, also known as an online newspaper, is a newspaper that exists on
the World Wide Web or Internet, either separately or as an online version of a
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_news Retrieved November 25, 2009
2.1.2. History of electronic news
According to Ruthfield on the article named The Internet's History and
Development, some important points in the history of online news are
presented as follow.
• In 1936 the world's first functional program-controlled Turing-complete
computer was invented by a German civil engineer named Konrad Zuse.
In November 1985 Microsoft first introduced Microsoft Windows, a series of
software operating systems and graphical user interfaces. Microsoft Windows
came to dominate the world's personal computer market.
• In the 1950s and early 1960s, prior to the widespread inter-networking that led
to the Internet, most communication networks were limited in that they only
allowed communications between the stations on the network. Some networks
had gateways or bridges between them, but these bridges were often limited or
built specifically for a single use. One prevalent computer networking method
was based on the central mainframe method, simply allowing its terminals to
be connected via long leased lines.
• In the 1970s the spread of inter-network began to form into the idea of a global
inter-network that would be called 'The Internet', and this began to quickly
spread as existing networks were converted to become compatible with this.
This spread quickly across the advanced telecommunication networks of the
western world, and then began to penetrate into the rest of the world as it
became the de-facto international standard and global network. However, the
disparity of growth led to a digital divide that is still a concern today.
Following commercialization and introduction of privately run Internet Service
Providers in the 1980s, and its expansion into popular use in the 1990s, the
Internet has had a drastic impact on culture and commerce. This includes the rise
of near instant communication by e-mail, text based discussion forums, and the
World Wide Web, the foundation of the electronic news.
The emergence of electronic news in the world
• The first newspaper service on America Online was launched by the Chicago
Tribune in May 1992. But not until 1995 was the online newspaper concept of
today developed with the appearance of various famous websites such as Los
Angeles Times, USA Today, New York Newsday. In the same year eleven
electronic newspapers in Asia including China Daily, Utusan (Malaysia),
Kompas (Indonesia), Asahi Simbun (Japan) came into being. (Deuze, 2001:33)
• According to the American Journalism Review there were more than 3,600
newspapers on the Internet by 1998.
The emergence of electronic news in Vietnam
Nguyen, Do & Bui (n.d.) explained that On February 1998, a year after the
emergence of the Internet in Vietnam, “Que huong” magazine of The Committee
for overseas Vietnamese had its first news on the Internet, marking the emergence
of a new kind of media in Vietnam, electronic news. Since 2001 a number of
electronic news have been introduced on websites namely
http://www.vnexpress.net, etc. Along with the emergence of many non-traditional
news providers, the dawn of the twenty-first century continues to see a sharp
upturn in the number of traditional news organizations migrating online.
2.1.3. Characteristics of electronic news.
Ward, (2002:20-22) claimed that striking characteristics of online news include
hypertext, multimedia and interactivity.
Hyperlinks can be used to navigate through a news website and to connect the
web-user to related content. This related content may be located in the web pages
of the news site or elsewhere in the World Wide Web. This can supplement news
stories and provide access to background material and other related information.
Therefore, the hypertextual structure of news web pages involves their readers
dynamically in the exploration of their content
The use of multimedia is another vital element of online journalism. News
stories published on the web can be complemented with graphics, photographs,
animations, audio streams and video footage. Part of the reason such multimedia is
available is due to the use of convergence, where sounds or images used in other
mediums are repurposed for the online environment. BBC Online is a good
example of a news website employing multimedia obtained by repurposing
content from BBC television and radio bulletins.
Interactivity is another characteristic of online journalism. There is a limited
degree of interactivity in the other news mediums. Examples of this include letters
to the editor in print media and calls from listeners on radio and occasionally
television. The online environment, however, is even more suited to interactivity
and provides many opportunities for involving and communicating with web-users
There are three categories of interactivity in online journalism. Navigational
interactivity allows the user to move through the sites to information of specific
interest to them by clicking on relevant hyperlinks. Functional interactivity allows
users to participate by interacting with other users and the journalists through
discussion forums and email. Deuze (2003:214) said that adaptive interactivity
allows the customization of the site to a specific users preference. It also enables
users to influence the type content on the website, as web traffic is monitored and
the site is modified to reflect the audience’s interests.
Ward (2002: 23-25) also suggested other characteristics of electronic news such
as archiving ability, immediacy and non-linear structure. News websites contain
archived material which is easily stored in the virtually limitless environment of
the World Wide Web. This is unique to online news, as traditional mediums do not
have the capability to provide readily accessible archived material.
Immediacy is a critical element of online journalism. Breaking news is available
to audiences from the moment it is uploaded onto the news website. This can be
done quickly and at any time allowing online information to be extremely up-to-
The consumption of information in online journalism is non-linear. Web-users
can select which stories they wish to read and may ignore the rest. This differs to
television and radio broadcasts where all stories are presented and ordered
according to the choices of newsroom executives.
2.1.4. Headline and functions of headlines in the article
184.108.40.206 What is a headline?
According to the Oxford Dictionary of Current English a headline is a heading at
the top of an article or page in a newspaper or magazine indicating the subject of
Galperin (1971:311) wrote: “the specific functional and linguistic traits of the
headline provide sufficient ground for isolating and analyzing it as a specific
“gender” of journalism. Its main function is to inform readers briefly of what the
news is about”.
220.127.116.11 Functions of a news headline
• Introducing the topic of an article
In the newspaper it is the headlines that have the highest readership. Being put at
the top of article, headlines catch the first sight of readers, inform them the main
content of the article. According to Ungerer (as cited in Khodabandeh, 2007) a
headline describes the essence of a complicated news story in a few words. Thanks
to this function, readers can easily choose their favorite articles after having a
quick look at headlines. For example, people who are interested in economic
information especially information about stock market may read the article with
the headline “How to cool the stock market?”. On the other hand, the article titled
“Finding job” may be chosen by people looking for a job.
• Attracting the attention of readers
Apart from introducing the topic of articles, headlines also capture the attention of
readers. Callahan (as cited on Headlines Make The Difference, para 3) claimed
that on the average, five times as many people read the headlines as read the body
text. 80 percent of people read the headline and skip the rest . As a result, a
headline should compel them to read the body of the article by arousing curiosity,
promising to give using information, etc. To this end, the more original a headline
is, the better.
2.2. An overview of translation
2.2.1 Definition of translation
According to Dubois, J., et. al.(1973:22) translation is the expression in another
language (or target language) of what has been expressed in another, source
language, preserving semantic and stylistic equivalences.
Nida (1982:19) wrote translation consists of producing in the target language the
closest natural equivalent of the source language message, firstly with respect to
meaning and secondly with respect to style.
2.2.2. Translation methods
Newmark (1988b: 45 -47) proposed eight following translation methods.
Wo fo w rd tra la
rd r o ns tion Ad pta
Lite l tra la
ra ns tion Fre tra la
e ns tion
Faithful tra la
ns tion Id a tra la
iom tic ns tion
Se a tra la
m ntic ns tion Com unic tivetra la n
m a ns tio
Diagram 1: Translation methods introduced by Peter Newmark
• Word-for-word translation
This is often demonstrated as interlinear translation, with the TL
immediately below the SL words. The SL word order is preserved and
the words translated singly by their most common meanings, out of
context. Cultural words are translated literally. The main use of word-for-
word translation is either to understand the mechanics of the source language
or to construe a difficult text as a pre-translation process.
• Literal translation
The SL grammatical constructions are converted to their nearest TL
equivalents but the lexical words are again translated singly, out of
context. As a pre-translation process, this indicates the problems to be
• Faithful translation
A faithful translation attempts to reproduce the precise contextual meaning
of the original within the constraints of the TL grammatical structures. It
“transfer” cultural words and preserves the degree of grammatical and
lexical “abnormality” (deviation from SL norms) in the translation. It
attempts to be completely faithful to the intentions and the text-realization of
the SL writer.
• Semantic translation
It is more flexible than faithful translation. It naturalizes a bit while faithful
translation is uncompromising (but in order to achieve aesthetic effect).
Semantic translation greatly focuses on aesthetic features of ST (at expense of
meaning if necessary) and closely renders of metaphors, collocations, technical
terms, slang, colloquialisms, unusual syntactic structures and collocations,
peculiarly used words, neologism, badly written or inaccurate passages
• Communicative translation
It is freer than semantic translation. This method gives priority to the
effectiveness of the message to be communicated and focuses on factors such as
readability and naturalness. Therefore both the content and the language are
readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readers.
This is the “freest” form of translation. It is used mainly for plays and
poetry; the themes, characters, plots are usually preserved, the SL culture
converted to the TL culture and the text rewritten.
• Free translation
Free translation reproduces the matter without the manner, or the content
without the form of the original. Usually it is a paraphrase much longer than
the original, a so-called “intralingual translation”, not translation at all
• Idiomatic translation
Idiomatic translation reproduces the “message” of the original but tend to
distort nuances of meaning by preferring colloquialism and idioms where
there do not exist in the original.
2.2.3. Translation procedures
According to Nida (1982) there are four translation procedures namely changes of
order, omission, structure, addition.
Vinay and Darbelnet (1973) first proposed seven procedures including loan,
claque. literal translation, transposition, modulation, equivalence, adaptation
Newmark (1988b:81-93) mentioned the difference between translation methods
and translation procedures. He wrote that while translation methods relate to
whole texts, translation procedures are used for sentences and the smaller units of
language, and went on to refer to the following translation procedures.
A SL word is directly taken into TL text with no translation to create some
particular stylistic effect
E.g.: - Names: names of newspapers, geographical names, street names, etc.
- New technical terms that do not have equivalents in the source language
Hollywood, blog, web, Internet , MC, Bluetooth
A transferred word is adapted to the TL (pronunciation and morphology)
Coffee - cà phê
Turbine - tua bin
• Through translation
In this method, a word or normally an expression is translated literally into the
target language. Through-translation should be used for already recognized terms
e.g. names of organizations, common collocations.
AIDS -Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Hội chứng Suy giảm Miễn dịch Mắc phải
• Shift or transposition
Shift or transposition involves a change in the grammar/part of speech from SL to
E.g.: The details of the scandal are now common knowledge.
Giờ thì ai cũng biết chi tiết của vụ xì căng đan đó.
Modulation means a variation in the message when it is translated into a target
language due to a change in the point of view
One part <-> another
She cleared her throat before she began to speak.
Cô ấy hắng giọng trước khi nói
The roof was damaged by the storm.
Trận bão phá hỏng cả mái nhà.
Positive <-> double-negative
The vase is not totally worthless.
Cái bình này cũng có chút giá trị.
• Cultural equivalence
A SL cultural word or expression is translated by a TL cultural word
considered equivalent to it.
He graduated after obtaining a degree with (high) distinction.
Anh ta tốt nghiệp loại giỏi (xuất sắc).
A quarter mile down the road he stopped and looked back.
Đi khoảng bốn trăm mét anh ta ngoảnh lại.
• Functional equivalence
Functional equivalence is the using of a culture-free word/expression in a
translation for a cultural word/expression in the source text.
Will the Pentagon decide to terminate the program?
Liệu Bộ quốc phòng Mỹ có quyết định ngừng chương trình này không?
• Descriptive equivalence
Descriptive equivalence means the meaning of the original word is explained
in several words. It is often used with transference to translate a cultural
To attend the barbecue, you must have a student ID.
Để được dự bữa tiệc barbecue ( bữa tiệc ngoài trời, đồ ăn được nướng trên bếp
cũng đặt ngoài trời), anh phải mang theo thẻ sinh viên.
2.3. Previous studies
Headlines are obviously one of the striking features of modern newspapers.
Therefore, it is not surprising that they have been studied quite extensively not
only by journalists but also by linguists. Some of the few existing linguistic studies
of headlines will be reviewed below.
• Straumann's approach (as cited in Khodabandeh, F.,Tahririan, M.H., 2007)
was to treat the language of headlines as an autonomous language. He
classified headlines in terms of neutrals, nominal, verbal and particles. The first
section of his classification contains words in their common form. In the
following sections he arranges them in s-forms, and in three variables, semi-
variables and invariables. Classification is further arranged in d-forms, ing
forms, ly-, er- and (e) st-forms.
• The complexity of headlines has been investigated by Brisau. He measured
complexity in terms of clauses. In 3000 headlines found 264 examples of
headlines containing two or more clauses, which was less than 10% of the total
number. Brisau concluded that more complex structures than two very simple
clauses linked together rarely occurred in headlines.
• Mardh (1980) offered a study of the characteristic features of the headlines of a
range of English newspapers. She identified the following linguistic features as
typical of headlines in English newspapers: the omission of articles; the
omission of verbs and of auxiliaries (the verb quot;to bequot; for example);
nominalizations; the frequent use of complex noun phrases in subject position
(in theme position); adverbial headlines, with the omission of both verb and
subject; the use of short words (quot;bidquot; instead of quot;attemptquot;); the widespread use
of puns, word play.
• Mouillaud and Tetu (as cited in Khodabandeh, F.,Tahririan, M.H., 2007),
analysing Le Monde, suggested the following features as typical of headlines:
the suppression of spatial and particularly temporal markers; the use of the
present tense of verbs (where they are used) as opposed to--or in place of--any
other tenses; the replacement of verbs by nominalisations; the suppression of
declarative verbs and the disappearance of signs of speech (quotation marks;
• Kniffka's (as cited in Khodabandeh, F.,Tahririan, M.H., 2007) detailed
comparison of leads and headlines found a high level of structural
correspondence between the two. The subeditor tends to reproduce the
syntactic patterns of the lead in the headline. Kniffka (1980) found that the
presence of active or passive voice in the lead was carried over to the headline.
According to Kniffka, headline structures appear to be very regular across
languages. He confirmed his analysis of both German and American English
news texts, finding their leads and headlines structurally identical. The
regularity is so consistent that he concludes there is a shared international
grammar of lead and headline-writing.
• Scollon (2000), in his study of five days of three editions of the same
newspaper in its Chinese and English editions, argued that the English
headlines, following on general western journalistic practice, putting the main
point right in the headline. The Chinese headline, on the other hand, uses the
headline to establish the setting but do not provide any further information
about the content of the talks. In other words, the major difference lies in
whether the headline focuses directly on the central topic found within the
body of the story or the setting.
• The use of translation methods in translating English news headlines into
Russian has been mentioned in the article “The Translation City”. It suggested
two reasons causing difficulties of translators in news headline translation:
frequent violation of linguistic standards in them (shortened structure of the
sentence, omission of articles, link-verbs and even notional verbs, other
peculiarities of syntax, punctuation and word order) and not full and deep
enough knowledge of the culture and realities of the country where the
language studied is the native one; also superficial understanding of
phraseological expressions. The author concluded that semantic
transformations are inescapable when dealing with news headlines. (“The
Translation City”, n.d. )
2.2.4. Remaining issues
As can be seen, the above mentioned studies are just a few among a large
number of studies related to the issue of headline translation, each of which
focuses on one aspect of the issue or views it from different angles. Most of
them deal with the distinctive characteristic of English headlines and the
comparison between grammatical features of headlines in English and in other
languages. Especially, all of them focus on headlines on newspaper but electronic
news headlines. Also, few suggestions on headline translation in general and
English-Vietnamese translation in particular have been made. Therefore, this study
aims at finding out common translation methods and techniques used in English-
Vietnamese translation of electronic news headlines.
CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents the information regarding the research method, materials and
Headlines on three world-famous websites, namely http://www.time.com,
http://www.economist.com , http://www.bbc.co.uk are the objects of the study.
All these news headlines are written by the native and cover many aspects like
politic, economics, education, culture, tourism, sport, fashion, etc. Therefore, these
selected headlines can be considered significant to represent the huge amount of
English electronic news headlines produced every day.
Nevertheless, there is a fact that not all the randomly-selected headlines are
translated into Vietnamese. Therefore, headlines in table 2 used for the later part
of the study, the investigation of translation methods and techniques employed in
English-Vietnamese translation, were chosen with careful consideration for some
factors. The selection was made when it can be sure that the English articles did
have corresponding version in the source language- Vietnamese.
3.2. Data collection instrument
To address the research questions, an observation-based data collection process
was employed. The observation schemes were designed based on the grammatical
framework provided by Quirk and Greenbaum and translation methods introduced
by Peter Newmark.
3.3. Data collection procedures
• 300 headlines of three world-famous websites, namely http://www.time.com,
http://www.economist.com, http://www.bbc.co.uk were collected at random
weeks. More specifically, headlines on the website http://www.time.com
were collected continuously from December 23rd 2008 to December 31st
2008. To avoid the overlap in the topic headlines on the
http://www.economist.com were selected from January 5th 2009 to January
12th 2009, and the headlines on http://www.bbc.co.uk were retrieved from
February 1st 2009 to February 7th 2009.
• 100 English e-news headlines and their corresponding headlines in
Vietnamese were selected randomly.
A number of these English e-news headlines were on the two websites
http://www.bbc.co.uk and http://www.voanews.com which have their
The other Vietnamese e-news headlines were chosen in the world news column
of some websites, namely http://vneconomy.vn, http://dantri.com.vn/,
http://vietnamnet.vn/, etc. The source headlines were then traced thanks to the
names of the websites, the date of publish and the content of the articles. More
specifically, the name of the website containing the English article could be
found at the end of most Vietnamese articles. The researcher then chose some
English names or phrases in the Vietnamese article and put them in the searching
box of the English website. Despite various available results, the scope of the
searching could be narrowed down by comparing the date of publish of the
English and Vietnamese articles. Only the English articles published several
days prior the Vietnamese version were taken into consideration. Finally, the
headline of the article with corresponding Vietnamese version was chosen.
3.4. Data analysis method
The collected headlines were coded in the form like T1, B2, E3. In decoding the
symbols the capital letters T, B, E referred to the name of the electronic news
namely time.com, bbc.co.uk, and economist.com respectively. Also, the numbers
1, 2, 3, etc denoted the order of the headline in the table.
All selected headlines were classified in accordance with the observation
The study used descriptive statistics. The data obtained from the observation
schemes were calculated and transferred into numerical form.
Qualitative data like techniques used to translate English electronic news
headlines into Vietnamese were generalized.
Some prominent grammatical characteristics of English electronic headlines
and common translation methods and techniques employed in English –
Vietnamese translation electronic news headline to deal with special grammatical
characteristics were then found out.
CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1. Distinctive grammatical features of English electronic news
4.1.1. Expressions of English electronic news headlines
English headlines fall into two main groups, namely English headlines written in
the form of phrases and English headlines written in the form of sentences.
Headlines in the form of phrases
English headlines written in the form of phrases can be further classified into three
basic types namely nominal, verbal, and adverbial prepositional phrases among
which nominal phrases are the most popular ones.
According to Quirk, Greenbaum, (1973:27 - 43), a nominal phrase is typically
constructed by either a noun or a pronoun as the head and other constituents as
• Quirk (1973: 151) stated that verb phrases are words or phrases indicating an
action, an event, or a state.
In accordance with functions of items, complementation, possibility of admitting
progressive aspect and their structure, Verb phrase is classified into different types
illustrated in the following diagram.
Headlines in the form of sentences
According to Quirk (1973:191) there are four kinds of simple sentence: statement,
question, command, exclamation.
• A statement is a sentence in which the subject is always present and generally
precedes the verb.
E.g.: He will do it today
• A question is a sentence marked by one or more of three ways:
- The operator is placed immediately before the subject
E.g.: Will he do it today?
- The sentence begins with an interrogative word.
E.g.: Who will do it today?
- The sentence has rising intonation in spoken English.
E.g.: He will do it today?
• A command is a sentence with the verb in the imperative
EXPRESSIONS OF ELECTRONIC NEWS TOTAL PERCENTAGE
Phrase Noun phrase 186 62%
Verb phrase 15 5%
Other phrase 4 1.33%
Sentence Statement 80 26.66%
Question 11 3.66%
Command 3 1%
Exclamation 1 0.33%
Total 300 100%
E.g.: Do it today.
Do not mention it.
• An exclamation is a sentence which begins with quot;whatquot;, quot;howquot; or without
inversion of subject and operator.
E.g.: What a noise they are making !
Table 1: Expressions of English online news headlines
The table shows the expressions of English e-news headlines. As can be seen,
English e-news headlines are often realized to be more phrases, 68.33 percent,
than sentences, of which headlines in the form of Noun phrase account for 62
percent. Verb phrase is not as popular as noun phrase in English headlines.
Normally, verb phrases in English headlines are nonfinite ones comprising
infinitive, ing-participle and ed-participle. It is hardly seen English headlines
written in the form of prepositional phrase and adjective phrase since they often
emphasize more detailed information (location, time, etc) that can surely be found
in the body of the article.
Also, the statement headlines, accounting for 26.66 percent outnumber
interrogative and imperative headlines. The main use of declarative is informing,
presenting facts, which is suitable for the main function of newspaper. It may be
the reason for the dominance of statement-form headlines.
Quirk and Greenbaum (1985:40) wrote “time is a universal, non-linguistic concept
with three divisions: past, present and future; by tense we understand the
correspondence between the form of the verb and our concept of time. Aspect
concerns the manner in which the verbal actions is experienced or regarded (for
example as completed or in progress)”. Therefore, tense and aspect are supposed
to be the vital factor conveying the content of articles.
TENSE TOTAL NUMBER PERCENTAGE
Present tense 71 75.7%
Simple past and future tense 24 24.3%
Total 95 100%
Table 2: Tense of English electronic news headlines
The table illustrates the use of verb tense in English e-news headlines. 78.17
percent of English e-news headlines are in present tense, dominating the use of
There is a fact that headlines denoting past events are in the present tense.
McCarthy (1998:94) claimed that these headlines are comprehensible due to the
readers’ knowledge of the conventions of the particular register, which ensures
that the present tense in the headline is correctly decoded, in spite of the
manipulation and shift of deictic centers carried out by the encoding journalists.
The motivation for using the present tense in the headline is essentially its
orientation to enhancing the interpersonal function (i.e. its attempt to
communicate topical, ‘breaking’ news).
4.1.3. Elliptical headlines
According to The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar ellipsis is the omission
of a word or words from speech or writing that can be recovered by the listeners or
readers from contextual cues.
In the light of Halliday and Hasan, (1976:318) ellipsis is a linguistic phenomenon
that exists in all languages. It is the omission or deletion of some items of the
surface text, which are recoverable in terms of relation with the text itself. In
omitting some linguistic item(s) from a sentence, a speaker or writer leaves out a
part of an utterance for the listeners or readers to retrieve from the linguistic
context, i.e., the elements surrounding the omitted part.Therefore, it is widely
recognized that ellipsis is an effective way to save room, avoid repetition without
causing misunderstanding for readers.
On the other hand, it has been proved by Hoheberg (as cited in Khodabandeh,
F.,Tahririan, M.H., 2007) that the ten words “a, the, and, to, of, in, I, it, is, that”
account for 25 percent of English written language. As a result, using ellipsis in
headlines can satisfy the strict requirements of headlines in terms of content and
layout. Words often omitted in English headlines include: “Be-auxiliary” as main
verb (predicative), “Be-auxiliary” with future meaning, “Be-auxiliary” in passive
sentences, subject of the sentence, article, “a”, “an” “the” and relative clause.
OMITTED PART TOTAL PERCENTAGE TOTAL
“Be-auxiliary” as 6 6.1%
Be-auxiliary “Be-auxiliary” with 12 12.64%
“Be-auxiliary” in 3 3.15%
Article: “a”, “an”, and “the” 46 15.33% 15.33%
Table 3: Omitted elements in English electronic news headlines
Among the above-mentioned ellipsis, “be” ellipsis headlines are the most popular
ones. The verb quot;bequot; as a main verb and as an auxiliary verb was omitted about
21.89 percent. The omission of the verb “be”, especially in headlines denoting
future tense makes the headlines much shorter. These omitted elements can be
recovered on the basis of linguistic environment or the context.
4.1.4. Headlines using colon
Oshima and Hogue (2001: 259) presented five ways to use a colon: introducing a
list, introducing a quotation longer than three lines, introducing the subtitle of a
book, article or play, indicating the time of day by putting the number for hours
and minutes, opening a formal letter.
9.33 percent of selected headlines contain colon. In these headlines the first
part tends to be a name, an event, etc and the second part offers more information.
Citibank: Teetering Since 1812
(From time.com, Jan 21st, 2009)
4.2. Translation methods and techniques used in English-Vietnamese
translation of electronic news headlines.
4.2.1. Translation methods used in English-Vietnamese translation of
electronic news headlines
Translation method Number Percentage
Word for word translation 0 0%
Literal translation 0 0%
Faithful translation 0 0%
Semantic translation 9 9%
Communicative translation 86 86%
Idiomatic translation 0 0%
Free translation 5 5%
Adaptation 0 0%
TOTAL 100 100%
Table 4: The use of translation methods in English-Vietnamese translation of e-
The table presents the use of translation methods proposed by Peter Newmark in
English – Vietnamese translation of e-news headlines. As can bee seen,
communicative translation proved to be the most commonly used, accounting for
86 percent. The reason why communicative translation is preferred in English-
Vietnamese translation of e-news headlines lies in the striking characteristics of
this translation method. The distinctive features of English e-news headlines
presented in 4.1 prevent translators from employing word-for-word translation,
literal translation, faithful translation method in which the SL grammatical
constructions tend to be converted to their nearest ST equivalence. Meanwhile,
Newmark said that communicative translation gives highest priority to naturalness
and readability by allowing certain changes such as removing obscurities,
modifying and clarifying jargon, improving logic and the like. Also, semantic
translation, comprising 9 percent, is employed when the translator try to preserve
the meaning as well as the form of the source headline, especially headlines using
rhetorical devices. For example:
A light at the end of the tunnel?
(From Economist.com Oct 13th 2008)
Ánh sáng cuối đường hầm ?
(From rfi.fr 13th 2008)
Besides, free translation makes up 5 percent. This translation method is
recommended in dealing with English e-news headlines revealing little
information. Translators then might have to change the meaning and form of the
source headlines to make the translation natural and readable.
What's the score?
(From Economist.com, Mar 12th
Thế giới thật sự thay đổi sau 20 năm mạng Internet ra đời
(From kinhte24h.com, Mar 16th 2009)
4.2.2. Translation methods and techniques used in English - Vietnamese
translation of electronic news headlines
In employing three above-mentioned translation methods a number of techniques
are used to make the translation natural and meet the requirements of a headline.
The use of the Verb tense
• Using the simple present tense
It is supposed that tenses of verbs play a decisive role in presenting the meaning of
headlines. Mallette (1998:80) in “The hand book for journalists of central and
Eastern Europe” said headlines should be terse, and almost always in the present
tense to create a sense of immediacy.
As mentioned above, present tense is widely used in English news headlines
(78.17% ). Similarly, present tense is preferable in Vietnamese headlines since
there is a little doubt that using present tense makes the news more up to date.
Therefore, in both English and Vietnamese even headlines denoting events in the
past are in present tense.
Dozens die in western Iran quakes
(From news.bbc.co.uk, March 31st 2006)
70 người thiệt mạng trong vụ động đất ở Iran
(From vietbao.vn April 1st 2006)
Because the earth quake in Iran actually happened and seventy people died, the
verb form normally must be the simple past tense, and the Vietnamese version
is expected to include words denoting past tense like “vừa”, “đã”, etc.
Nevertheless, the use of the simple present tense instead of simple past tense in
both languages seems to cause no considerable difficulty for readers in
understanding the headlines. It is common believe of readers that events on
news occurred as the main function of news is reporting events.
Obama Announces Help for Small Business
(From www.voanews.com, March 16th 2009)
TT Obama loan báo kế hoạch hỗ trợ tiểu thương
(From www.voanews.com/vietnamese/, March 17th 2009)
US House Votes Heavy Tax on Bonuses After AIG Controversy
(From www.voanews.com, March 19th 2009)
Hạ viện Mỹ thông qua dự luật đánh thuế tiền thưởng
( From www.voanews.com/vietnamese , March 20
Floods in Namibia Take Heavy Toll
(From voanews.com, March 21 2009)
Gần 100 người chết vì lũ lụt ở Namibia
( From voanews.com/Vietnamese, , March 21 2009)
• Using the future tense
In order to use the room economically and effectively, to infinitive is used instead
of “will” and “ to be going to” in the English headlines referring future actions
In Dan luan ngon ngu (2006:237), Nguyen claimed that in Vietnamese eleven
adverbs namely “sắp”, “sẽ”,“ từng”, “vừa”, “mới”, “đã”, “rồi”, “xong”,
“ chưa”, “đang” and zero are used to present tenses, among which “sắp” and
“sẽ” are important in distinguishing past, present and future tense.
US, China to meet on reviving N.Korea nuclear talks
(From reuters.com, April 10th 2006)
Hoa Kỳ và Trung Quốc sẽ có một cuộc hội đàm về vấn đề hạt nhân của Triều
(From vietbao.vn, April 11th 2006)
World Bank says global economy to shrink 1-2 percent
(From reuters.com, March 11th 2009)
Ngân hàng Thế giới: Kinh tế toàn cầu sẽ tăng trưởng âm 1-2%
(From vneconomy.vn, March 12th 2009)
S. Korea to send advanced warship to monitor N. Korea launch
(From istockanalyst.com , March 26th 2009)
Hàn Quốc sẽ triển khai tàu khu trục đến Biển Nhật Bản
(From dantri.com.vn, March 27th 2009)
In the above example, without “sẽ” the translation would have been
“Hàn Quốc triển khai tàu khu trục đến Biển Nhật Bản”, causing the
misunderstanding that the action had been taken. Hence, the adverb “sẽ” is
The use of the phrase and sentence form of the targeted headlines
It can be seen in the former part, 68.33 percent of English e-news headlines are in
the form of phrase. Nevertheless, there is supremacy of Vietnamese e-news
headlines in sentence form.
70.7 percent of selected English e- news headlines in the forms of sentence were
translated into Vietnamese headlines with the same form.
75 percent of selected English e-news headlines in the forms of phrase had their
Vietnamese version in the form of sentence.
In her thesis, Nguyen (2001:22) concluded that the use of sentence in Vietnamese
e-news headlines prominently outnumbered that of phrase since Vietnamese
phrases seem to be less expressive.
Also, “The business of a statement can only be to describe some state of affairs
or state some facts which must do either falsely or truly.” (Nguyen, 2001:44).
With such features, statement, which is mainly used among different types of
headlines in the form of sentence, appears to be very suitable with the function of
informing, reflecting the fact. Therefore, the following common techniques have
been used in translating English e-news headlines into sentences.
• Adding some background information.
English e-news headlines do not include titles of important people because of the
limited space. Nevertheless, the translation would be poor without the title. Thus,
in Vietnamese translation all titles are added to ensure the naturalness of
translation. For example:
Obama met Gorbachev in run-up to Medvedev talks
(From reuters.com, March 23rd 2009)
Tổng thống Mỹ Obama gặp cựu lãnh đạo Liên Xô cũ Gorbachev
(From dantri.com.vn, March 23rd 2009)
Rice to visit 5 Asian countries later this month
(From voanews.com, Oct 13th 2006)
Ngoại trưởng Rice đi Châu Á
(From voanews.com/vietnamese , Oct 13th 2006)
Triet to visit Washington this weekend.
(From news.bbc.co.uk, May 28th 2007)
Chủ tịch nước Nguyễn Minh Triết sẽ tới thăm Mỹ cuối tuần này
(From bbc.co.uk/vietnamese, May 29th 2007)
Adding related information
According to Newmark (1988a: 155), communicative translation method is widely
used in journal translation. Giving the highest priority to the naturalness and
readability, this method allows translators to add related information or to
introduce some changes to make the translation comprehensible.
Jerry Yang stands down
(From economist.com, Nov 18th 2008)
CEO Jerry Yang của Yahoo từ nhiệm
( http://vietnamnet.vn, Nov 19th 2008)
US release more Guantanamo name
(From Fboston.com, May 3rd 2006)
Mỹ công bố danh sách tù nhân nhà tù Guantanamo
(From vietnamnet.vn, May 4th 2006)
Descriptive equivalence procedure is employed in the above translation.
Guantanamo Bay is known as the location of Guantanamo prison. Nevertheless,
being aware of the fact that some target readers might not be familiar with the
name, the translator added back ground information to make the translation
Get Out of Jail, Free
(From http://www.newsweek.com, March 12th
Phóng thích tù nhân vì suy thoái kinh tế
(From vneconomy.vn, March 16th 2009)
Will the bail-out work?
(From economist.com, September 25th
Kế hoạch cứu nguy 700 tỷ đôla: Hiệu quả hay không?
(From vneconomy.vn, September 26th 2009)
America’s government comes to the rescue of a giant insurance company
(From theeconomist.com, September 17th 2008)
Chính phủ Mỹ giải cứu AIG
(From tgvn.com.vn September 18th 2008)
English headlines sometimes convey limited information, which challenges
readers. Also, a phrase often plays the role of either subject or predicate in
Vietnamese sentence. Therefore, more information is inserted into phrases to make
sentence with enough information.
(From economist.com, Apr 2nd 2008 )
Thành phố nào đắt đỏ nhất thế giới?
(From thuongmai.com, Apr 4th 2008 )
The World's Worst Places to Work
(From businessweek.com, March 9th 2009)
Tp.HCM và Hà Nội có trong Top 20 thành phố có môi trường làm việc kém nhất
(From vneconomy.vn, March 18th 2009)
(From economist.com, Feb 12th 2009)
Lần đầu trong lịch sử, diện trung lưu chiếm nửa thế giới
(From vietnamnet.vn, Feb 16th 2009)
(From economist.com, June 10th 2005)
Nhiều nghi ngại về thời kỳ bùng nổ dotcom mới
(From vnexpress.net, June 14th 2005)
Examining the candidates
(From economist.com, Oct 2nd 2008)
Các nhà kinh tế “cân đong” Obama và McCain
( From vneconomy.vn, Nov 4th 2008)
Omitting some information
Apart from adding some necessary information, omitting details which are not
very important sometimes appears to be effective strategy. In some cases, to meet
the strict requirements of space some information is not included in the translation
if the omission cause no misunderstanding of the headline.
Unlike the headlines on newspapers, which are presented with the body of the
news on the same page, the headlines on electronic news, are presented together
in the form of links without attaching to the body. Nevertheless, some main
headlines are followed by chapeau, introducing important content of the article. In
order to attract readers it is crucial for headlines and the chapeau to be impressive.
If all key information is revealed in the headline, the readers is not likely to read
the whole article. As a result, a good headline is believed to be concise, to
introduce the news vividly without giving too specific information since the
chapeau will reveal a little more information to capture the attention of readers.
Greek cities hit by fresh rioting
(From news.bbc.co.uk, Aug 12th 2008)
Tiếp tục xảy ra bạo loạn ở Hy Lạp
(From bbc.co.uk/vietnamese, Aug 12th 2008)
Credit Unions With $57 Billion in Assets Seized; 3 Banks Fail
(From bloomberg.com, Mar 21st 2009)
Một ngày, Mỹ đóng cửa 2 tổ chức tín dụng, 3 ngân hang
(From vneconomy.vn, Mar 22nd 2009)
Recovering the omitted articles
As mentioned in the previous part, article “a”, “an”, “the” are among the words
omitted most frequently in English news headlines. The omission of the article
seems to pose no difficulties for readers in understanding the headlines since the
readers can refer to the form of the noun to know whether it is plural or singular.
UN official shot near Najaf
Một nhân viên của LHQ đã bị bắn sát tại Najaf
Because “official” is in singular form, there is no doubt that an UN official was
shot near Najar.
Nevertheless, in Vietnamese numeral especially cardinal plays an important role in
denoting the number of noun, singular or plural. If the cardinal was omitted, the
translation would be
“Nhân viên của LHQ đã bị bắn sát tại Najaf”
The omission might cause misunderstanding for Vietnamese that some officials
were shot near Najar.
As a result, omitted articles are recovered and translated into “một” to avoid
Một nhân viên của LHQ đã bị bắn sát tại Najaf
The use of colon
In headlines containing colon, the first part tends to be a name, an event and a
place, introducing the general information. The following part of the headline is
the main content. The use of the colon allows the reporter to give more
information and to shorten the headline at the same time because no verb is
required between the two parts. For example:
Clinton: US Stands Shoulder-t-Shoulder With Mexico in Fight Against Drug
(From voanews.com, March 26, 2009)
Citibank: Teetering Since 1812
(From time.com, Jan 21st 2009)
Flu crisis: World response
(From news.bbc.co.uk, April 28th 2009)
These two examples can be understood as Clinton said US would stand shoulder-
to-shoulder with Mexico in fight against drug gangs and the world response to the
flu crisis. It can be said that the use of the colon to introduce direct speech and
more specific information is effective without causing misunderstanding.
For this reason, there is an increasing trend of using colon in Vietnamese
headlines. Many Vietnamese headlines include colon even no colon is used in the
Half-way from rags to riches
(From economist.com, Apr 24th 2008)
Việt Nam: Nửa chặng đường từ đói nghèo đến giàu mạnh
(From nhantainhanluc.com, May 21st 2008)
Asia's other miracle
(From economist.com, Apr 24th 2008)
Việt Nam: Điều thần kỳ mới của Châu Á
(From finland.edu.googlepages.com, Apr 26th 2008)
CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION
Based on the results of the study, the most distinctive grammatical features of
English e-news headlines include:
• Dominant use of phrases: English electronic news headlines are often realized
to be more phrases than sentences
• Dominance of statements: Among the English e-news headlines in the form of
sentences, statement headlines have overwhelming proportion.
• Expansion of present simple tense: 75.78% of the headlines in the English
sample are in present simple tense.
• Frequent omission of words such as the verb to be (21.89%), article (15.13%)
Among translation methods introduced by Peter Newmark, communicative
translation is the most commonly used (86%) . Translation techniques employed in
English-Vietnamese translation of e-news headlines go as follow:
• Using the simple present and future tense
• Recovering the omitted articles
• Adding related information
• Changing phrases into sentences
• Omitting some information
The study has pedagogical implications for teaching translation for students of
translation and interpreting division as well as for learning translation..
• Implications for teaching translation.
Most of non-natives in general and students in particular face many difficulties in
understanding and translating English news headlines. It is advisable for teachers
of translation to provide their students with grammatical features of English
headlines and techniques to overcome difficulties regarding these distinctive
• Implications for learning translation.
This study illuminated that the omissions of certain words can create barriers for
comprehending the English headlines. Knowledge of study can aid the students in
understanding the English headlines.
In order to have full understanding of headlines and good English-Vietnamese
translation of news headlines, it is important for students to master English
grammar and translation methods. Also, reading English newspaper frequently and
making constant effort in their study are necessary.
5.3. Suggestions for further study
Limited budget of time and knowledge prevents this study from covering all
grammatical features of English headlines and techniques employed in English-
Vietnamese translation of economic news headlines. Accordingly, many related
topics left untouched. Therefore, students who are interested in this field may wish
to compare and contrast English and Vietnamese headlines. Besides, translation
methods to overcome the difficulties regarding semantic features of English
electronic news headlines are worth studying.
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2009 from http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2009-03/2009-03-21-voa14.cfm?
Yeranian, E. (2009,March 21). Iran's Supreme Leader Dismisses Obama's Appeal.
Retrieved March 21, 2009
Anonymous. (2009, March 22). Obama Sees Hope for US Economy. Retrieved March
23, 2009 from http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2009-03/2009-03-22-
Anonymous. (2009, March 22). Pakistan's Top Judge Returns to Work. Retrieved
March 22, 2009
Anonymous. (2009, March 24). Obama Urges G-20 to Take Bold Economic Action
Retrieved March 24, 2009 from
Klein, K. ( 2009, March 24). Australian PM to Visit White House. Retrieved March 24,
2009 from http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2009-03/2009-03-24-voa7.cfm?
Gollust, D. (2009, 26 March ). Clinton: US Stands Shoulder-to-Shoulder With Mexico in
Fight Against Drug Gangs. Retrieved 26 March, 2009 from
Anonymous. (2009, March 28). Karzai Applauds New US Afghan Strategy
Retrieved March 28, 2009 from http://www.voanews.com/english/2009-03-28-voa4.cfm
Anonymous. (2009, March 28). Obama Vows Defeat of Militants in New Afghan,
Pakistan Strategy. Retrieved March 28, 2009 from
Anonymous. (2009, March 27). Obama Meets With Top US Bankers. Retrieved March
27, 2009 from http://www.voanews.com/english/2009-03-27-voa28.cfm
Anonymous. (2008, December 5). Bangkok airport resumes operation
Retrieved December 5, 2008 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7766390.stm
3.1 Anonymous. (2008, December 6). America’s government comes to the rescue of a giant
insurance company. Retrieved December 6, 2008 from
4 Anonymous. (2008, December 8). Markets surge on stimulus hopes. Retrieved
December 8, 2008 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/7770823.stm
5 Anonymous. (2008,Oct 16). China to Pakistan's rescue? Retrieved January 25, 2009
Finn, P. (2007, November 27). Putin Accuses U.S. of Interference. Retrieved November
27, 2007 from htp://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-
Hiroko Tabuchi. ( 2009, April 22). Japan Pays Foreign Workers to Go Home. Retrieved
April 22, 2009 from
Gandel, S. (2009, April 21). Wall Street's Elite Head to Campus — for Jobs. Retrieved
April 21, 2009 from http://www.time.com/time/business/article/0,8599,1892371,00.html
Dash, E. (2009, April 16). Banking Industry Showing Signs of a Recovery. Retrieved
April 16, 2009 from
Anonymous. (2008, December 16). Fed Cuts Key Interest Rate To Near Zero. Retrieved
December 16, 2009 from
Anonymous. (2006, May 29). 75 Guantanamo Bay Prisoners on Hunger Strike.
Retrieved March 29, 2009 from
Hulse, C. and Herszenhorn, D.M. (2009, March 19). House Approves 90% Tax on
Bonuses After Bailouts. Retrieved March 19, 2009 from
6 Anonymous.(2009, March 9). Geithner faces economic tsunami without a fully
staffed department. Retrieved March 11, 2009 from
Anonymous.(2009, March 11) Is Europe 'in denial' on depth of crisis? Retrieved March
16, 2009 from http://www.iht.com/articles/2009/03/11/business/denial.php
Anonymous.(2009, March 8). Despite U.S. woes, dollar is riding high. Retrieved March
10, 2009 from http://www.iht.com/articles/2009/03/08/business/dollar.php
Anonymous.(2009, March 8). World Bank offers dire forecast for world economy.
Retrieved March 9, 2009 from
Anonymous. (2009, March 6). Ngân hàng Thế giới bi quan về kinh tế toàn cầu.
Retrieved March 6, 2009 from
7 Anonymous. (2009, Marh 4). As UBS saga continues, Swiss banking is shaken.
Retrieved March 8, 2009 from
Liedtke, M. (2009, March 3). Google pays seven-figure bonuses to 4 top execs.
Retrieved March 3, 2009 from http://www.wtop.com/?nid=108&sid=1615266
Dwyer, M. ( 2009, February 27). Asia’s Economies Stumble as Global Slump Hits
Exports. Retrieved February 27, 2009 from
Chadbourn, M. and Levy, A.. ( 2009, March 21). Credit Unions With $57 Billion in
Assets Seized; 3 Banks Fail. Retrieved March 21, 2009 from
Anonymous. (2009, March 23). Obama met Gorbachev in run-up to Medvedev talks.
Retrieved March 23, 2009 from
Anonymous. (2009, March 27). Indonesia dam burst kills dozens. Retrieved March 27,
Anonymous. (2009, March 26). LEAD: S. Korea to send advanced warship to monitor
N. Korea launch: Yonhap. Retrieved March 26 , 2009 from
NELSON, D. S. ( 2009, February 14). Job Losses Pose a Threat to Stability Worldwide.
Retrieved February 14, 2009 from
Anonymous. (2009, March 12). What's the score? Retrieved March 12, 2009 from
Anonymous. (2008, April 24). Two wheels good, four wheels better. Retrieved April 24,
Baer, R.(2007, August 24). How Washington Missed 9/11. Retrieved August 24, 2007
Powell, B. (2008, October 28). Emerging Economies Hit Hard by the Financial Crisis.
Retrieved October 28, 2008 from
Walsh, B. (2007, December 1). Can We Save the World by 2015? Retrieved December
1, 2007 from http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1689985,00.html
Anonymous. (2006, March 31). Dozens die in western Iran quakes. Retrieved March
31, 2006 fromhttp://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/4863372.stm
Anonymous (2005, November 24). Sensible reforms in Vietnam. Retrieved
November 24, 2005 from
Anonymous (2005, November 24). Sensible reforms in Vietnam. Retrieved
November 24, 2005 from
Anonymous (2009, March 19). The end of the free lunch—again. Retrieved March
19, 2009 from http://www.economist.com/opinion/displaystory.cfm?
Anonymous (2009, March 5 ). In need of some snake-blood
Retrieved March 5, 2009 from http://www.economist.com/world/asia/displaystory.cfm?
Anonymous (2009, February 26). Seeking success. Retrieved February 26, 2009
Anonymous (2009, February 5). The return of economic nationalism. Retrieved
February 5, 2009 from http://www.economist.com/opinion/displaystory.cfm?
Anonymous (2008, November 13). Light revival. Retrieved November 13, 2008 from
Anonymous (2008, November 6). Lump together and like it. Retrieved November 6,
2008 from http://www.economist.com/world/international/displaystory.cfm?
APPENDIX 1: DISTINCTIVE GRAMMATICAL CHARACTERISTICS
OF ENGLISH E-NEWS HEADLINES
T1.In the Doldrums
Retrieved January 26, 2009 from http://www.time.com/time/searchresults?No=10&sid=11EC526A94D0&Nr=OR
T2.The Battle over Gaza
T3.China's Consumers: Not Ready to Save the World
T4.Israel Versus Hamas: How to Shape a Cease-Fire
T5.Night Skiing at Jisan Forest
T6.Pakistani Troops Kill Militants in Operation
T7. Strategic Price of Israel's Gaza Assault
T8.Artwork at the Ritz-Carlton
T9. Griffith Park Observatory
T10.Spain: Bomb Blast at Bilbao TV Station
T11.Building a Better Kidney Transplant
T12.Putting Bernie Madoff On The Couch
T13.History of Sesame Street
T14.Country Music Shrine to Keep Historic Instruments
T15.Farewells 2008: Unforgettable Personalities
T16.Monaco's Michelin-Starred Mix Master
T17.Wait a Second: Why 2008 Was a Long Year
Retrieved January 26, 2009 from ht
T18.Grooming: Edge of Extinction
T19.Change of a Dress
T20. New Course for S renstam
T21. Blagojevich Lawyer to Submit Obama Report
E1. More war for peace
Retrieved January 7, 2009 from
E2. New broom for the CIA
E3. Company woe
E4. The long tail
E5. KAL's cartoon
E6. Fish heads and tales
E7. A new leaf
E8. Cold shoulders
E9. The Rod and Roland show
E10.Rich man, poorer man
E11.Booms and busts
E13.Now the ground war
E15.Another awful jobs report
E16.Commerzbank's mixed blessing
E18.Schemers and squinters
E19.The customary gas stand-off
E20.The past year
E22.Belly of the beast
E23.The limits of diplomacy
E24.Thorns in the east
E26.The year ahead
E28.Pilgrims in Rhineland
Retrieved January 12, 2009 from http://mail.google.com/mail/?
E29.Bone in a bottle
E30.Uncomfortably close in Ghana
E34.Transfer deadline day as it happened
E35.Pummelling the Palestinians
E36.Combating the recession
E37.Hacking the hybrid
E38.Saving the seas
E40.Turning the gas tap back on
E41.Waiting for Obama
E42.Delving into bunker 'bat caves'
E43.Everybody does it
E44.Iceland faces the worst of times
E45.The bond bubble?
E46.A giving recession?
E47.Gulfstream on the cheap
E48.Don’t take it out on the bellhops
E49.Speeding up Britan’s trains
E50.Light, Camera, Loyalty card
E51.The recent recession on the road
E52.Living it up in Vienna
E53.Should Europeans cancel transatlantic travel plans?
E54. Problem with air miles
E55.Hey United: Do something about those empty seats
E56.Business travel for women
E57.United Airlines and its larger passengers
E58.Flying cats and dogs
E59. Trains in the Gulf
E60.Delta's new charge
E61.Possibly the best restaurants in the world
Retrieved January 9, 2009 from
E63.Heathrow's power stations
E64.Avoiding slips 'twixt cup and lip
E65.Business travellers still fleeing premium classes
E66.Obama's rail plans and Amtrak
E67.Obama's high-speed rail plans
E68.Business travel and nursing
E69.Qantas taking a beating in bad economy
E70.Is Mexico more dangerous than Pakistan?
7.1.10 Retrieved January 7, 2009 from http://mail.google.com/mail/?
E71.Will Cisco's quot;Telepresencequot; kill business travel?
E72.Red Lion wants your guests
E73.More details on Southwest's entry into the New York market
E74.Should we rest before flights?
E75.Nine and a half hours on the tarmac...
E76.Slower than you might expect
E77.Fighting the good fight
E78.What’s in the journal
E79.Management idea: the long tail
E80.Generation Y goes to work
E82.Management idea: Balanced scorecard
E83.More war for peace
E85.Saving the seas
E86.The week ahead
Retrieved January 15, 2009 from http://mail.google.com/mail/?
E88.Barack Obama's sober speech
E89.Back in the game
E90.Schemers and squinters
E91.An Italian lifeline
E92.Pilgrims in Rhineland
E95.The cost of war
E96.A mind map
E97.Felipe Calderon and Barack Obama meet
E98.India's extended family
E99.Trial period in South Africa
E100.Too Late for Palestine?
B1.Warning over new form of C.diff
B2.Redknapp reassures Bent on future
Retrieved February 15, 2009 from order=relevance&tab=ns&q=News%2031%20January%202009&scope=all&start=3
B3.Quinn snaps up Plummer and Gracey
B4.Westley picks up managerial award
B5.Davis joins Palace for one month
B6.Defender Naylor seals Leeds move
B7.McDonald reveals Scotland dilemma
B8.BSkyB keeps Premier League rights
B9.Weale and Price crash in Swansea
B10.AFC thrash continue titleBowl
Old Boys Fylde St Mary's at charge
Retrieved February 15, 2009 from http://search.bbc.co.uk/search?
B11.Bank of England lent banks £185bn
B15.Holdsworth backs Garner to shine
B12.Six million meet tax deadline
B16.Camara completes Stoke loan move
B13.Bluebirds complete Chopra signing
B17.Forest fail in move for Adebola
B14.Concern over force's caution rate
B18.Wrexham face Ebbsfleet in Trophy
B19.Ex-Villa player Birch dies at 46
B20.Paternostro praises team effort
B21.Pugh praises Pulis transfer coups
B22.Heavy snow hits much of England
B23.You have been reading...
B24.Portsmouth reject bid for Davis
B25.Pompey sign striker Gekas on loan
B26.Cardiff bid to bolster front line
B27.Arsenal need to strengthen - Dein
B28.Australia unveils economic boost
B29.US rescue deal clause 'dangerous'
B30.Australia unveils economic boost
B31. Australia cleric gets jail term
Retrieved February 16, 2009 from http://search.bbc.co.uk/search?
B32. US skydiver lands dead instructor
B33. MP Conway apologises for payments
B34. Keane seals £12m Tottenham return
B35 Checking service for citizenship
B36. Twelve nations bid for World Cup
B37. Jo completes Everton loan switch
B38. Fulham wrap up Dacourt loan deal
B39. Slide in oil price hits BP profit
B40. Weak pound helps Vodafone results
B41. Macy's announces 7,000 job cuts
B42. Obama predicts more bank failures
B43. France unveils stimulus package
B44. Obama admits errors over cabinet
B45. S Lanka leader predicts rapid win
B46. Obama wants to avoid 'trade war'
B47. Colombia's Farc free ex-governor
B48. Iran satellite move sparks fears
B49. Snow continues to close schools
B50. Minister holds 'burglary summit'
B51. Lampard wins appeal over red card
B52. India triumph despite Murali feat
Retrieved February 16,2009 from
B54. Timeline: Iceland economic crisis
B55. IPL charges 'upset' England stars
B56. Benitez explains Keane departure
B57. Panasonic set to cut 15,000 jobs
B58. Flu crisis: World response
B59. Animal charity in donations clash
B60. Write-downs knock Alcatel-Lucent
B61. Checking service for citizenship
B62. Vikings A on course in title race
B63. Spencer not for sale, says Allen
B64. Leaders Bodmin upset by Torpoint
eved February 16,2009 from http://search.bbc.co.uk/search?q=News
B65. Vale eager to hold on to Richards
B66. Harte happy after Tyrone victory
B67. Improved system for fire service
B68. Pulse rate clue to heart attacks
B69. Snow to bring further disruption
B70. Injured Defoe to undergo surgery
B71. Tuesday's gossip column
B72. Kyrgyzstan 'to shut key US base'
B73. Six-nation talks to discuss Iran
B74. Slideshow: Iranian revolution 1979
B75. Italy woman sent to clinic to die
B76. Afghanistan casualty named by MoD
B77. Swine flu: Your experiences
B78. Glover frustrated by postponement
B79. Bolton's Mendes enquiry rebuffed
B80. S Lanka hospital 'attacked again'
B81. Country profile: Somalia
B82. Police 'asked to see' MP's e-mail
B83. Cancun killings linked to cartels
B84. 'Memory clinics' plan on dementia
B85. Miner BHP sees profits fall 25%
B86. No consensus on Africa unity plan
Retrieved February 16,2009 from
B87. Surge in voting by Iraqi Sunnis
B88. 'Dozens dead' in S Lanka fighting
B89. Country profile: Bolivia
B90. EU to investigate electric bills
B91. Timeline: The Netherlands
B92. Country profile: Iceland
B93. The tenacity of hope
APPENDIX 2: OBSERVATION SCHEME 1
of English e-
The use of Simple Present
tense of tense
English e- Simple Past tense
headlines Simple Future tense
Omission in Be auxiliary “Be-auxiliary” as main
English e- verb (predicative
headlines Be-auxiliary with
Be-auxiliary in passive
Article: “a”, “an”,
APPENDIX 3: TRANSLATION METHODS EMPLOYED IN ENGLISH-VIETNAMESE TRANSLATION OF E-
English headlines Vietnamese headlines Translation
1 Ánh sáng cuối đường hầm ?
2 A light at the end of the tunnel? Semantic
(From www.rfi.fr October 13, 2008) translation
3 ( From economist.com, October 13, 2008)
The O team Tổng thống tân cử Barack Obama công bố
(From economist.com, December 1, 2008) thành phần Hội đồng An ninh Quốc gia
From http://www.rfi.fr, December 1, 2008 tive
Managed to death Cái chết được báo trước của loài cá ngừ vây Communica
xanh From thiennhien.net December 2, tive
From economist.com, October 30, 2008 translation
Adapt or die Thích nghi hay diệt vong trước biến đổi khí hậu Communica
From nea.gov.vn, October 18, 2008 tive
From economist.com, September 11, 2008 translation
5 Việt Nam: Nửa chặng đường từ đói nghèo đến giàu Communica
Half-way from rags to riches tive
From economist.com, Apr 24th , 2008 From nhantainhanluc.com, April 25, 2008
6 Bài học từ lịch sử sóng gió của Citigroup Communica
Citibank: Teetering Since 1812 tive
From vneconomy.vn, February 26, 2008
From time.com, January 21, 2009
7 Mỹ tung 5 tỷ USD cứu ngành công nghiệp phụ trợ Communica
Billions for Auto Suppliers' Bailout tive
From businessweek.com, March 19, 2009 From vneconomy.vn, March 20, 2009
8 So sánh suy thoái hiện nay và Đại suy thoái 1930 Communica
Another Great Depression? tive
From vneconomy.vn, March 19, 2009
From newsweek.com, March 19, 2009
9 Cuộc chiến chống… nút bấm Semantic
The War on Buttons translation
From vneconomy.vn, March 20, 2009
From time.com, March 19, 2009
APPENDIX 4: OBSERVATION SCHEME 2
Translation method Headlines
Word for word translation