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    A Study On English – Vietnamese Translation Of Electronic News Headlines   Bichnguyen E17 Graduation Paper A Study On English – Vietnamese Translation Of Electronic News Headlines Bichnguyen E17 Graduation Paper Document Transcript

    • 1 VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES ENGLISH DEPARTMENT ---------------- PHUNG THI BICH NGUYEN A STUDY ON ENGLISH – VIETNAMESE TRANSLATION OF ELECTRONIC NEWS HEADLINES SUMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHALOR OF ARTS Hanoi, May 2009
    • VIETNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, HANOI UNIVERSITY OF LANGUAGES AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES ENGLISH DEPARTMENT PHUNG THI BICH NGUYEN A STUDY ON ENGLISH-VIETNAMESE TRANSLATION OF ELECTRONIC NEWS HEADLINES SUPERVISOR: NGUYEN VIET KY, M.A. SUMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHALOR OF ARTS Hanoi, May 2009
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Acknowledgements..........................................................................................i ............................................... Abstract ........................................................................................................................ii .......................................................... List of figures, tables, and abbreviations .......................................................................................................................iii .......................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1. Statement of the problem and the rationale for the study.........................1 1.2. Aims and objectives of the study..............................................................1 1.3. Scope of the study ...................................................................................2 ........ 1.4. Organization ........................................................................................................................2 .............................................................................. Chapter 2: Literature review 2.1. An overview of English electronic news headlines..................................3 ....................................................................................... 2.1.1. History of electronic news.............................................................3 .......................................................................................... 2.1.2. Definitions of English electronic news headlines... 6 2.1.3. Functions of English electronic news headlines in the article. 6 2.2. An overview of translation ......................................................................7 ................................................ 2.2.1. Definitions of translation...............................................................7 2.2.2. Translation methods and procedures.............................................7 2.3. Previous studies and remaining issues....................................................12 .......................................................................................................................... ........................................................................ Chapter 3: Methodology 3.1. Selection of subjects15 3.2. Data collection instrument.....................................................................15 3.3. Procedures of data collection.................................................................15 .......................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................... 3.4. Procedures of data analysis ....................................................15
    • 3.5. Summary .............................................................................................16 Chapter 4: Results and discussion 4.1. Distinctive grammatical characteristics of English electronic news headlines......................................................................................17 4.2. Common translation methods and techniques used in English – Vietnamese translation of electronic news headlines ...........22 CHAPTER 5: Conclusion......... 33 References......................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................... Appendices.......................................................................................................
    • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First and foremost, I would like to express my gratitude and appreciation to Mr. Nguyen Viet Ky, my supervisor, for his valuable guidance and assistance. I am indebted to Ms. Phung Ha Thanh whose interest and enthusiasm constantly encouraged and helped me to complete this study. My special thanks also extend to Ms. Nguyen Thi Minh Hue for offering me the chance to attend her useful lectures in Research Methodology course. This study would not have been completed without help and encouragement of my friends. Last but not least, words fail to express my thanks to my family whose love, care and encouragement help me fulfill this study.
    • ABSTRACT This study aims at shedding light on distinctive grammatical features of English electronic news headlines and translation methods and techniques employed in English - Vietnamese translation of electronic news headlines. The data were collected by means of electronic news headlines taken from three world-famous websites, namely http://www.time.com, http://www.economist.com, http://www.bbc.co.uk and 100 English electronic headlines having corresponding translation in Vietnamese. It was concluded that English electronic news headlines are often realized to be more phrases than sentences. Headlines in the form of sentences appear to be in present simple tense. Results also showed that omitting “to be”, article and using colon are common in English electronic news headlines. Communicative translation is the most widely used in English-Vietnamese translation of electronic news headlines. Common techniques employed in translating English electronic headlines into Vietnamese include using the simple present and simple future tense, adding some background information, omitting some information, etc. This study has pedagogical implications for students of translation and interpreting.
    • LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS, TABLES AND FIGURES SL: Source Language TL: Target Language NP: Noun Phrase VP: Verb phrase Electronic news headline: e-news headline Diagram 1: Translation methods proposed by Peter Newmark Table 1: Expressions of English e-news headlines Table 2: Tenses of English e-news headlines Table 3: Omitted elements in English e-news headlines Table 4: Translation methods employed in English- Vietnamese translation of electronic news headlines Appendix 1: Grammatical features of English news-headlines Appendix 2: Observation scheme 1 Appendix 3: English- Vietnamese translation of e-news headlines Appendix 4: Observation scheme 2
    • INTRODUCTION 1.1. Rationale The invention and development of the Internet make significant changes in society in general and in media in particular. The emergence of electronic news in the 1990s marked a milestone in media. The electronic newspaper readership has sharply increased. Nevertheless, most of latest news in the world is in English, which is supposed to be a barrier to non-natives in general and to Vietnamese in general. Also, unlike headlines on newspapers, which are presented with the body of the news on the same page, headlines on electronic news are put together in the form of links without being attached to the body of the articles. Readers often take a quick look at series of headlines and only have mouse clicks at the headlines of interest. Accordingly, in order to attract readers it is crucial for a headline to be impressive. Therefore, the translation of electronic news headlines, which catch the first sight of readers, has become one of the prime concerns of translators. In spite of that, there has been few studies focusing on the English-Vietnamese news headline translation. Some of them focused on characteristics of English headlines on newspaper without suggesting translation methods and techniques employed to deal with these distinctive features. For the above reasons, English-Vietnamese translation of electronic news headlines has become the subject of study of this graduation paper. 1.2. Objectives of the study The study aims at answering the following questions: • What are the distinctive grammatical characteristics of English electronic news headlines?
    • • Which translation methods and techniques are employed in English- Vietnamese translation of electronic news headlines to deal with these distinctive grammatical characteristics? 1.3. Scope of the study The present study only focused in two issues investigating distinctive grammatical characteristics of English electronic news headlines and translation methods commonly employed in English – Vietnamese translation of e-news headlines. 300 headlines collected from three world-famous websites, namely http://www.time.com, http://www.economist.com and http://www.bbc.co.uk. from December 2008 to February 2009 and 100 English e-news headlines and their translation were observed. Grammatical framework proposed by by Quirk and Greenbaum and translation methods introduced by Peter Newmark were used to design the observation schemes. 1.4. Organization This study consists of 5 parts: Chapter 1: Introduction gives the framework of the study including five items namely rationale, objectives, scope and design of the study Chapter 2: Literature review displays the general knowledge about news headlines, translation, previous studies and remaining issues. Chapter 3: Methodology introduces objects and procedures of the study. Chapter 4: The results draws distinctive grammatical features of English electronic headlines and translation methods and techniques widely recommended in English-Vietnamese translation of electronic news headlines Chapter 5: Conclusion reviews the implications of the study.
    • CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW This chapters gives an overview of English electronic news, overview of translation, reviews some previous studies and presents the remaining issues. 2.1. An overview of English electronic news 2.1.1. Definition of electronic news Electronic news, also known as an online newspaper, is a newspaper that exists on the World Wide Web or Internet, either separately or as an online version of a printed periodical. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_news Retrieved November 25, 2009 2.1.2. History of electronic news  According to Ruthfield on the article named The Internet's History and Development, some important points in the history of online news are presented as follow. • In 1936 the world's first functional program-controlled Turing-complete computer was invented by a German civil engineer named Konrad Zuse. In November 1985 Microsoft first introduced Microsoft Windows, a series of software operating systems and graphical user interfaces. Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market. • In the 1950s and early 1960s, prior to the widespread inter-networking that led to the Internet, most communication networks were limited in that they only allowed communications between the stations on the network. Some networks
    • had gateways or bridges between them, but these bridges were often limited or built specifically for a single use. One prevalent computer networking method was based on the central mainframe method, simply allowing its terminals to be connected via long leased lines. • In the 1970s the spread of inter-network began to form into the idea of a global inter-network that would be called 'The Internet', and this began to quickly spread as existing networks were converted to become compatible with this. This spread quickly across the advanced telecommunication networks of the western world, and then began to penetrate into the rest of the world as it became the de-facto international standard and global network. However, the disparity of growth led to a digital divide that is still a concern today. Following commercialization and introduction of privately run Internet Service Providers in the 1980s, and its expansion into popular use in the 1990s, the Internet has had a drastic impact on culture and commerce. This includes the rise of near instant communication by e-mail, text based discussion forums, and the World Wide Web, the foundation of the electronic news.  The emergence of electronic news in the world • The first newspaper service on America Online was launched by the Chicago Tribune in May 1992. But not until 1995 was the online newspaper concept of today developed with the appearance of various famous websites such as Los Angeles Times, USA Today, New York Newsday. In the same year eleven electronic newspapers in Asia including China Daily, Utusan (Malaysia), Kompas (Indonesia), Asahi Simbun (Japan) came into being. (Deuze, 2001:33) • According to the American Journalism Review there were more than 3,600 newspapers on the Internet by 1998.  The emergence of electronic news in Vietnam Nguyen, Do & Bui (n.d.) explained that On February 1998, a year after the emergence of the Internet in Vietnam, “Que huong” magazine of The Committee for overseas Vietnamese had its first news on the Internet, marking the emergence of a new kind of media in Vietnam, electronic news. Since 2001 a number of electronic news have been introduced on websites namely
    • http://www.vietnamnet.vn/, http://www.laodong.com.vn/, http://www.vnexpress.net, etc. Along with the emergence of many non-traditional news providers, the dawn of the twenty-first century continues to see a sharp upturn in the number of traditional news organizations migrating online. 2.1.3. Characteristics of electronic news. Ward, (2002:20-22) claimed that striking characteristics of online news include hypertext, multimedia and interactivity. Hyperlinks can be used to navigate through a news website and to connect the web-user to related content. This related content may be located in the web pages of the news site or elsewhere in the World Wide Web. This can supplement news stories and provide access to background material and other related information. Therefore, the hypertextual structure of news web pages involves their readers dynamically in the exploration of their content The use of multimedia is another vital element of online journalism. News stories published on the web can be complemented with graphics, photographs, animations, audio streams and video footage. Part of the reason such multimedia is available is due to the use of convergence, where sounds or images used in other mediums are repurposed for the online environment. BBC Online is a good example of a news website employing multimedia obtained by repurposing content from BBC television and radio bulletins. Interactivity is another characteristic of online journalism. There is a limited degree of interactivity in the other news mediums. Examples of this include letters to the editor in print media and calls from listeners on radio and occasionally television. The online environment, however, is even more suited to interactivity and provides many opportunities for involving and communicating with web-users (Deuze, 2003:213). There are three categories of interactivity in online journalism. Navigational interactivity allows the user to move through the sites to information of specific interest to them by clicking on relevant hyperlinks. Functional interactivity allows users to participate by interacting with other users and the journalists through
    • discussion forums and email. Deuze (2003:214) said that adaptive interactivity allows the customization of the site to a specific users preference. It also enables users to influence the type content on the website, as web traffic is monitored and the site is modified to reflect the audience’s interests. Ward (2002: 23-25) also suggested other characteristics of electronic news such as archiving ability, immediacy and non-linear structure. News websites contain archived material which is easily stored in the virtually limitless environment of the World Wide Web. This is unique to online news, as traditional mediums do not have the capability to provide readily accessible archived material. Immediacy is a critical element of online journalism. Breaking news is available to audiences from the moment it is uploaded onto the news website. This can be done quickly and at any time allowing online information to be extremely up-to- date. The consumption of information in online journalism is non-linear. Web-users can select which stories they wish to read and may ignore the rest. This differs to television and radio broadcasts where all stories are presented and ordered according to the choices of newsroom executives. 2.1.4. Headline and functions of headlines in the article 2.1.4.1 What is a headline? According to the Oxford Dictionary of Current English a headline is a heading at the top of an article or page in a newspaper or magazine indicating the subject of the article. Galperin (1971:311) wrote: “the specific functional and linguistic traits of the headline provide sufficient ground for isolating and analyzing it as a specific “gender” of journalism. Its main function is to inform readers briefly of what the news is about”. 2.1.5.2 Functions of a news headline • Introducing the topic of an article In the newspaper it is the headlines that have the highest readership. Being put at the top of article, headlines catch the first sight of readers, inform them the main
    • content of the article. According to Ungerer (as cited in Khodabandeh, 2007) a headline describes the essence of a complicated news story in a few words. Thanks to this function, readers can easily choose their favorite articles after having a quick look at headlines. For example, people who are interested in economic information especially information about stock market may read the article with the headline “How to cool the stock market?”. On the other hand, the article titled “Finding job” may be chosen by people looking for a job. • Attracting the attention of readers Apart from introducing the topic of articles, headlines also capture the attention of readers. Callahan (as cited on Headlines Make The Difference, para 3) claimed that on the average, five times as many people read the headlines as read the body text. 80 percent of people read the headline and skip the rest . As a result, a headline should compel them to read the body of the article by arousing curiosity, promising to give using information, etc. To this end, the more original a headline is, the better. 2.2. An overview of translation 2.2.1 Definition of translation According to Dubois, J., et. al.(1973:22) translation is the expression in another language (or target language) of what has been expressed in another, source language, preserving semantic and stylistic equivalences. Nida (1982:19) wrote translation consists of producing in the target language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, firstly with respect to meaning and secondly with respect to style. 2.2.2. Translation methods Newmark (1988b: 45 -47) proposed eight following translation methods.
    • Translation methods SL TL Wo fo w rd tra la rd r o ns tion Ad pta a tion Lite l tra la ra ns tion Fre tra la e ns tion Faithful tra la ns tion Id a tra la iom tic ns tion Se a tra la m ntic ns tion Com unic tivetra la n m a ns tio Diagram 1: Translation methods introduced by Peter Newmark • Word-for-word translation This is often demonstrated as interlinear translation, with the TL immediately below the SL words. The SL word order is preserved and the words translated singly by their most common meanings, out of context. Cultural words are translated literally. The main use of word-for- word translation is either to understand the mechanics of the source language or to construe a difficult text as a pre-translation process. • Literal translation The SL grammatical constructions are converted to their nearest TL equivalents but the lexical words are again translated singly, out of context. As a pre-translation process, this indicates the problems to be solved. • Faithful translation A faithful translation attempts to reproduce the precise contextual meaning of the original within the constraints of the TL grammatical structures. It
    • “transfer” cultural words and preserves the degree of grammatical and lexical “abnormality” (deviation from SL norms) in the translation. It attempts to be completely faithful to the intentions and the text-realization of the SL writer. • Semantic translation It is more flexible than faithful translation. It naturalizes a bit while faithful translation is uncompromising (but in order to achieve aesthetic effect). Semantic translation greatly focuses on aesthetic features of ST (at expense of meaning if necessary) and closely renders of metaphors, collocations, technical terms, slang, colloquialisms, unusual syntactic structures and collocations, peculiarly used words, neologism, badly written or inaccurate passages • Communicative translation It is freer than semantic translation. This method gives priority to the effectiveness of the message to be communicated and focuses on factors such as readability and naturalness. Therefore both the content and the language are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readers. • Adaptation This is the “freest” form of translation. It is used mainly for plays and poetry; the themes, characters, plots are usually preserved, the SL culture converted to the TL culture and the text rewritten. • Free translation Free translation reproduces the matter without the manner, or the content without the form of the original. Usually it is a paraphrase much longer than the original, a so-called “intralingual translation”, not translation at all • Idiomatic translation Idiomatic translation reproduces the “message” of the original but tend to distort nuances of meaning by preferring colloquialism and idioms where there do not exist in the original. 2.2.3. Translation procedures
    • According to Nida (1982) there are four translation procedures namely changes of order, omission, structure, addition. Vinay and Darbelnet (1973) first proposed seven procedures including loan, claque. literal translation, transposition, modulation, equivalence, adaptation Newmark (1988b:81-93) mentioned the difference between translation methods and translation procedures. He wrote that while translation methods relate to whole texts, translation procedures are used for sentences and the smaller units of language, and went on to refer to the following translation procedures. • Transference A SL word is directly taken into TL text with no translation to create some particular stylistic effect E.g.: - Names: names of newspapers, geographical names, street names, etc. - New technical terms that do not have equivalents in the source language Hollywood, blog, web, Internet , MC, Bluetooth • Naturalization A transferred word is adapted to the TL (pronunciation and morphology) Coffee - cà phê Turbine - tua bin • Through translation In this method, a word or normally an expression is translated literally into the target language. Through-translation should be used for already recognized terms e.g. names of organizations, common collocations. AIDS -Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Hội chứng Suy giảm Miễn dịch Mắc phải • Shift or transposition Shift or transposition involves a change in the grammar/part of speech from SL to TL. E.g.: The details of the scandal are now common knowledge. Giờ thì ai cũng biết chi tiết của vụ xì căng đan đó. • Modulation
    • Modulation means a variation in the message when it is translated into a target language due to a change in the point of view One part <-> another She cleared her throat before she began to speak. Cô ấy hắng giọng trước khi nói Passive<-> active The roof was damaged by the storm. Trận bão phá hỏng cả mái nhà. Positive <-> double-negative The vase is not totally worthless. Cái bình này cũng có chút giá trị. • Cultural equivalence A SL cultural word or expression is translated by a TL cultural word considered equivalent to it. He graduated after obtaining a degree with (high) distinction. Anh ta tốt nghiệp loại giỏi (xuất sắc). A quarter mile down the road he stopped and looked back. Đi khoảng bốn trăm mét anh ta ngoảnh lại. • Functional equivalence Functional equivalence is the using of a culture-free word/expression in a translation for a cultural word/expression in the source text. Will the Pentagon decide to terminate the program? Liệu Bộ quốc phòng Mỹ có quyết định ngừng chương trình này không? • Descriptive equivalence Descriptive equivalence means the meaning of the original word is explained in several words. It is often used with transference to translate a cultural word/expression To attend the barbecue, you must have a student ID. Để được dự bữa tiệc barbecue ( bữa tiệc ngoài trời, đồ ăn được nướng trên bếp cũng đặt ngoài trời), anh phải mang theo thẻ sinh viên.
    • 2.3. Previous studies Headlines are obviously one of the striking features of modern newspapers. Therefore, it is not surprising that they have been studied quite extensively not only by journalists but also by linguists. Some of the few existing linguistic studies of headlines will be reviewed below. • Straumann's approach (as cited in Khodabandeh, F.,Tahririan, M.H., 2007) was to treat the language of headlines as an autonomous language. He classified headlines in terms of neutrals, nominal, verbal and particles. The first section of his classification contains words in their common form. In the following sections he arranges them in s-forms, and in three variables, semi- variables and invariables. Classification is further arranged in d-forms, ing forms, ly-, er- and (e) st-forms. • The complexity of headlines has been investigated by Brisau. He measured complexity in terms of clauses. In 3000 headlines found 264 examples of headlines containing two or more clauses, which was less than 10% of the total number. Brisau concluded that more complex structures than two very simple clauses linked together rarely occurred in headlines. • Mardh (1980) offered a study of the characteristic features of the headlines of a range of English newspapers. She identified the following linguistic features as typical of headlines in English newspapers: the omission of articles; the omission of verbs and of auxiliaries (the verb quot;to bequot; for example); nominalizations; the frequent use of complex noun phrases in subject position (in theme position); adverbial headlines, with the omission of both verb and subject; the use of short words (quot;bidquot; instead of quot;attemptquot;); the widespread use of puns, word play. • Mouillaud and Tetu (as cited in Khodabandeh, F.,Tahririan, M.H., 2007), analysing Le Monde, suggested the following features as typical of headlines: the suppression of spatial and particularly temporal markers; the use of the present tense of verbs (where they are used) as opposed to--or in place of--any other tenses; the replacement of verbs by nominalisations; the suppression of
    • declarative verbs and the disappearance of signs of speech (quotation marks; personal pronouns). • Kniffka's (as cited in Khodabandeh, F.,Tahririan, M.H., 2007) detailed comparison of leads and headlines found a high level of structural correspondence between the two. The subeditor tends to reproduce the syntactic patterns of the lead in the headline. Kniffka (1980) found that the presence of active or passive voice in the lead was carried over to the headline. According to Kniffka, headline structures appear to be very regular across languages. He confirmed his analysis of both German and American English news texts, finding their leads and headlines structurally identical. The regularity is so consistent that he concludes there is a shared international grammar of lead and headline-writing. • Scollon (2000), in his study of five days of three editions of the same newspaper in its Chinese and English editions, argued that the English headlines, following on general western journalistic practice, putting the main point right in the headline. The Chinese headline, on the other hand, uses the headline to establish the setting but do not provide any further information about the content of the talks. In other words, the major difference lies in whether the headline focuses directly on the central topic found within the body of the story or the setting. • The use of translation methods in translating English news headlines into Russian has been mentioned in the article “The Translation City”. It suggested two reasons causing difficulties of translators in news headline translation: frequent violation of linguistic standards in them (shortened structure of the sentence, omission of articles, link-verbs and even notional verbs, other peculiarities of syntax, punctuation and word order) and not full and deep enough knowledge of the culture and realities of the country where the language studied is the native one; also superficial understanding of phraseological expressions. The author concluded that semantic transformations are inescapable when dealing with news headlines. (“The Translation City”, n.d. )
    • 2.2.4. Remaining issues As can be seen, the above mentioned studies are just a few among a large number of studies related to the issue of headline translation, each of which focuses on one aspect of the issue or views it from different angles. Most of them deal with the distinctive characteristic of English headlines and the comparison between grammatical features of headlines in English and in other languages. Especially, all of them focus on headlines on newspaper but electronic news headlines. Also, few suggestions on headline translation in general and English-Vietnamese translation in particular have been made. Therefore, this study aims at finding out common translation methods and techniques used in English- Vietnamese translation of electronic news headlines.
    • CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the information regarding the research method, materials and procedures. 3.1. Objects Headlines on three world-famous websites, namely http://www.time.com, http://www.economist.com , http://www.bbc.co.uk are the objects of the study. All these news headlines are written by the native and cover many aspects like politic, economics, education, culture, tourism, sport, fashion, etc. Therefore, these selected headlines can be considered significant to represent the huge amount of English electronic news headlines produced every day. Nevertheless, there is a fact that not all the randomly-selected headlines are translated into Vietnamese. Therefore, headlines in table 2 used for the later part of the study, the investigation of translation methods and techniques employed in English-Vietnamese translation, were chosen with careful consideration for some factors. The selection was made when it can be sure that the English articles did have corresponding version in the source language- Vietnamese. 3.2. Data collection instrument To address the research questions, an observation-based data collection process was employed. The observation schemes were designed based on the grammatical framework provided by Quirk and Greenbaum and translation methods introduced by Peter Newmark. 3.3. Data collection procedures
    • • 300 headlines of three world-famous websites, namely http://www.time.com, http://www.economist.com, http://www.bbc.co.uk were collected at random weeks. More specifically, headlines on the website http://www.time.com were collected continuously from December 23rd 2008 to December 31st 2008. To avoid the overlap in the topic headlines on the http://www.economist.com were selected from January 5th 2009 to January 12th 2009, and the headlines on http://www.bbc.co.uk were retrieved from February 1st 2009 to February 7th 2009. • 100 English e-news headlines and their corresponding headlines in Vietnamese were selected randomly. A number of these English e-news headlines were on the two websites http://www.bbc.co.uk and http://www.voanews.com which have their Vietnamese versions. The other Vietnamese e-news headlines were chosen in the world news column of some websites, namely http://vneconomy.vn, http://dantri.com.vn/, http://vietnamnet.vn/, etc. The source headlines were then traced thanks to the names of the websites, the date of publish and the content of the articles. More specifically, the name of the website containing the English article could be found at the end of most Vietnamese articles. The researcher then chose some English names or phrases in the Vietnamese article and put them in the searching box of the English website. Despite various available results, the scope of the searching could be narrowed down by comparing the date of publish of the English and Vietnamese articles. Only the English articles published several days prior the Vietnamese version were taken into consideration. Finally, the headline of the article with corresponding Vietnamese version was chosen. 3.4. Data analysis method The collected headlines were coded in the form like T1, B2, E3. In decoding the symbols the capital letters T, B, E referred to the name of the electronic news namely time.com, bbc.co.uk, and economist.com respectively. Also, the numbers 1, 2, 3, etc denoted the order of the headline in the table.
    • All selected headlines were classified in accordance with the observation schemes. The study used descriptive statistics. The data obtained from the observation schemes were calculated and transferred into numerical form. Qualitative data like techniques used to translate English electronic news headlines into Vietnamese were generalized. Some prominent grammatical characteristics of English electronic headlines and common translation methods and techniques employed in English – Vietnamese translation electronic news headline to deal with special grammatical characteristics were then found out.
    • CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1. Distinctive grammatical features of English electronic news headlines 4.1.1. Expressions of English electronic news headlines English headlines fall into two main groups, namely English headlines written in the form of phrases and English headlines written in the form of sentences.  Headlines in the form of phrases English headlines written in the form of phrases can be further classified into three basic types namely nominal, verbal, and adverbial prepositional phrases among which nominal phrases are the most popular ones. According to Quirk, Greenbaum, (1973:27 - 43), a nominal phrase is typically constructed by either a noun or a pronoun as the head and other constituents as modifiers. • Quirk (1973: 151) stated that verb phrases are words or phrases indicating an action, an event, or a state. In accordance with functions of items, complementation, possibility of admitting progressive aspect and their structure, Verb phrase is classified into different types illustrated in the following diagram.  Headlines in the form of sentences According to Quirk (1973:191) there are four kinds of simple sentence: statement, question, command, exclamation. • A statement is a sentence in which the subject is always present and generally precedes the verb. E.g.: He will do it today • A question is a sentence marked by one or more of three ways:
    • - The operator is placed immediately before the subject E.g.: Will he do it today? - The sentence begins with an interrogative word. E.g.: Who will do it today? - The sentence has rising intonation in spoken English. E.g.: He will do it today? • A command is a sentence with the verb in the imperative EXPRESSIONS OF ELECTRONIC NEWS TOTAL PERCENTAGE HEADLINES NUMBER Phrase Noun phrase 186 62% Verb phrase 15 5% Other phrase 4 1.33% Sentence Statement 80 26.66% Question 11 3.66% Command 3 1% Exclamation 1 0.33% Total 300 100% E.g.: Do it today. Do not mention it. • An exclamation is a sentence which begins with quot;whatquot;, quot;howquot; or without inversion of subject and operator. E.g.: What a noise they are making ! Table 1: Expressions of English online news headlines The table shows the expressions of English e-news headlines. As can be seen, English e-news headlines are often realized to be more phrases, 68.33 percent, than sentences, of which headlines in the form of Noun phrase account for 62 percent. Verb phrase is not as popular as noun phrase in English headlines. Normally, verb phrases in English headlines are nonfinite ones comprising infinitive, ing-participle and ed-participle. It is hardly seen English headlines written in the form of prepositional phrase and adjective phrase since they often
    • emphasize more detailed information (location, time, etc) that can surely be found in the body of the article. Also, the statement headlines, accounting for 26.66 percent outnumber interrogative and imperative headlines. The main use of declarative is informing, presenting facts, which is suitable for the main function of newspaper. It may be the reason for the dominance of statement-form headlines. 4.1.2. Tense Quirk and Greenbaum (1985:40) wrote “time is a universal, non-linguistic concept with three divisions: past, present and future; by tense we understand the correspondence between the form of the verb and our concept of time. Aspect concerns the manner in which the verbal actions is experienced or regarded (for example as completed or in progress)”. Therefore, tense and aspect are supposed to be the vital factor conveying the content of articles. TENSE TOTAL NUMBER PERCENTAGE Present tense 71 75.7% Simple past and future tense 24 24.3% Total 95 100% Table 2: Tense of English electronic news headlines The table illustrates the use of verb tense in English e-news headlines. 78.17 percent of English e-news headlines are in present tense, dominating the use of other tenses. There is a fact that headlines denoting past events are in the present tense. McCarthy (1998:94) claimed that these headlines are comprehensible due to the readers’ knowledge of the conventions of the particular register, which ensures that the present tense in the headline is correctly decoded, in spite of the manipulation and shift of deictic centers carried out by the encoding journalists. The motivation for using the present tense in the headline is essentially its orientation to enhancing the interpersonal function (i.e. its attempt to communicate topical, ‘breaking’ news). 4.1.3. Elliptical headlines
    • According to The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar ellipsis is the omission of a word or words from speech or writing that can be recovered by the listeners or readers from contextual cues. In the light of Halliday and Hasan, (1976:318) ellipsis is a linguistic phenomenon that exists in all languages. It is the omission or deletion of some items of the surface text, which are recoverable in terms of relation with the text itself. In omitting some linguistic item(s) from a sentence, a speaker or writer leaves out a part of an utterance for the listeners or readers to retrieve from the linguistic context, i.e., the elements surrounding the omitted part.Therefore, it is widely recognized that ellipsis is an effective way to save room, avoid repetition without causing misunderstanding for readers. On the other hand, it has been proved by Hoheberg (as cited in Khodabandeh, F.,Tahririan, M.H., 2007) that the ten words “a, the, and, to, of, in, I, it, is, that” account for 25 percent of English written language. As a result, using ellipsis in headlines can satisfy the strict requirements of headlines in terms of content and layout. Words often omitted in English headlines include: “Be-auxiliary” as main verb (predicative), “Be-auxiliary” with future meaning, “Be-auxiliary” in passive sentences, subject of the sentence, article, “a”, “an” “the” and relative clause. OMITTED PART TOTAL PERCENTAGE TOTAL NUMBER PERCENTAGE “Be-auxiliary” as 6 6.1% main verb (predicative) Be-auxiliary “Be-auxiliary” with 12 12.64% 21.89% future meaning “Be-auxiliary” in 3 3.15% passive sentences Article: “a”, “an”, and “the” 46 15.33% 15.33% Table 3: Omitted elements in English electronic news headlines Among the above-mentioned ellipsis, “be” ellipsis headlines are the most popular ones. The verb quot;bequot; as a main verb and as an auxiliary verb was omitted about 21.89 percent. The omission of the verb “be”, especially in headlines denoting
    • future tense makes the headlines much shorter. These omitted elements can be recovered on the basis of linguistic environment or the context. 4.1.4. Headlines using colon Oshima and Hogue (2001: 259) presented five ways to use a colon: introducing a list, introducing a quotation longer than three lines, introducing the subtitle of a book, article or play, indicating the time of day by putting the number for hours and minutes, opening a formal letter. 9.33 percent of selected headlines contain colon. In these headlines the first part tends to be a name, an event, etc and the second part offers more information. For example: Citibank: Teetering Since 1812 (From time.com, Jan 21st, 2009) 4.2. Translation methods and techniques used in English-Vietnamese translation of electronic news headlines. 4.2.1. Translation methods used in English-Vietnamese translation of electronic news headlines Translation method Number Percentage Word for word translation 0 0% Literal translation 0 0% Faithful translation 0 0% Semantic translation 9 9% Communicative translation 86 86% Idiomatic translation 0 0% Free translation 5 5% Adaptation 0 0% TOTAL 100 100% Table 4: The use of translation methods in English-Vietnamese translation of e- news headlines The table presents the use of translation methods proposed by Peter Newmark in English – Vietnamese translation of e-news headlines. As can bee seen, communicative translation proved to be the most commonly used, accounting for
    • 86 percent. The reason why communicative translation is preferred in English- Vietnamese translation of e-news headlines lies in the striking characteristics of this translation method. The distinctive features of English e-news headlines presented in 4.1 prevent translators from employing word-for-word translation, literal translation, faithful translation method in which the SL grammatical constructions tend to be converted to their nearest ST equivalence. Meanwhile, Newmark said that communicative translation gives highest priority to naturalness and readability by allowing certain changes such as removing obscurities, modifying and clarifying jargon, improving logic and the like. Also, semantic translation, comprising 9 percent, is employed when the translator try to preserve the meaning as well as the form of the source headline, especially headlines using rhetorical devices. For example: A light at the end of the tunnel? (From Economist.com Oct 13th 2008) Ánh sáng cuối đường hầm ? (From rfi.fr 13th 2008) Besides, free translation makes up 5 percent. This translation method is recommended in dealing with English e-news headlines revealing little information. Translators then might have to change the meaning and form of the source headlines to make the translation natural and readable. What's the score? (From Economist.com, Mar 12th 2009) Thế giới thật sự thay đổi sau 20 năm mạng Internet ra đời (From kinhte24h.com, Mar 16th 2009)
    • 4.2.2. Translation methods and techniques used in English - Vietnamese translation of electronic news headlines In employing three above-mentioned translation methods a number of techniques are used to make the translation natural and meet the requirements of a headline.  The use of the Verb tense • Using the simple present tense It is supposed that tenses of verbs play a decisive role in presenting the meaning of headlines. Mallette (1998:80) in “The hand book for journalists of central and Eastern Europe” said headlines should be terse, and almost always in the present tense to create a sense of immediacy. As mentioned above, present tense is widely used in English news headlines (78.17% ). Similarly, present tense is preferable in Vietnamese headlines since there is a little doubt that using present tense makes the news more up to date. Therefore, in both English and Vietnamese even headlines denoting events in the past are in present tense. For example: Dozens die in western Iran quakes (From news.bbc.co.uk, March 31st 2006) 70 người thiệt mạng trong vụ động đất ở Iran (From vietbao.vn April 1st 2006) Because the earth quake in Iran actually happened and seventy people died, the verb form normally must be the simple past tense, and the Vietnamese version is expected to include words denoting past tense like “vừa”, “đã”, etc. Nevertheless, the use of the simple present tense instead of simple past tense in both languages seems to cause no considerable difficulty for readers in understanding the headlines. It is common believe of readers that events on news occurred as the main function of news is reporting events. Obama Announces Help for Small Business
    • (From www.voanews.com, March 16th 2009) TT Obama loan báo kế hoạch hỗ trợ tiểu thương (From www.voanews.com/vietnamese/, March 17th 2009) US House Votes Heavy Tax on Bonuses After AIG Controversy (From www.voanews.com, March 19th 2009) Hạ viện Mỹ thông qua dự luật đánh thuế tiền thưởng ( From www.voanews.com/vietnamese , March 20 2009) Floods in Namibia Take Heavy Toll (From voanews.com, March 21 2009) Gần 100 người chết vì lũ lụt ở Namibia ( From voanews.com/Vietnamese, , March 21 2009) • Using the future tense In order to use the room economically and effectively, to infinitive is used instead of “will” and “ to be going to” in the English headlines referring future actions or events. In Dan luan ngon ngu (2006:237), Nguyen claimed that in Vietnamese eleven adverbs namely “sắp”, “sẽ”,“ từng”, “vừa”, “mới”, “đã”, “rồi”, “xong”, “ chưa”, “đang” and zero are used to present tenses, among which “sắp” and “sẽ” are important in distinguishing past, present and future tense. US, China to meet on reviving N.Korea nuclear talks (From reuters.com, April 10th 2006) Hoa Kỳ và Trung Quốc sẽ có một cuộc hội đàm về vấn đề hạt nhân của Triều Tiên (From vietbao.vn, April 11th 2006)
    • World Bank says global economy to shrink 1-2 percent (From reuters.com, March 11th 2009) Ngân hàng Thế giới: Kinh tế toàn cầu sẽ tăng trưởng âm 1-2% (From vneconomy.vn, March 12th 2009) S. Korea to send advanced warship to monitor N. Korea launch (From istockanalyst.com , March 26th 2009) Hàn Quốc sẽ triển khai tàu khu trục đến Biển Nhật Bản (From dantri.com.vn, March 27th 2009) In the above example, without “sẽ” the translation would have been “Hàn Quốc triển khai tàu khu trục đến Biển Nhật Bản”, causing the misunderstanding that the action had been taken. Hence, the adverb “sẽ” is really necessary.  The use of the phrase and sentence form of the targeted headlines It can be seen in the former part, 68.33 percent of English e-news headlines are in the form of phrase. Nevertheless, there is supremacy of Vietnamese e-news headlines in sentence form. 70.7 percent of selected English e- news headlines in the forms of sentence were translated into Vietnamese headlines with the same form. 75 percent of selected English e-news headlines in the forms of phrase had their Vietnamese version in the form of sentence. In her thesis, Nguyen (2001:22) concluded that the use of sentence in Vietnamese e-news headlines prominently outnumbered that of phrase since Vietnamese phrases seem to be less expressive. Also, “The business of a statement can only be to describe some state of affairs or state some facts which must do either falsely or truly.” (Nguyen, 2001:44). With such features, statement, which is mainly used among different types of headlines in the form of sentence, appears to be very suitable with the function of
    • informing, reflecting the fact. Therefore, the following common techniques have been used in translating English e-news headlines into sentences. • Adding some background information.  Adding title English e-news headlines do not include titles of important people because of the limited space. Nevertheless, the translation would be poor without the title. Thus, in Vietnamese translation all titles are added to ensure the naturalness of translation. For example: Obama met Gorbachev in run-up to Medvedev talks (From reuters.com, March 23rd 2009) Tổng thống Mỹ Obama gặp cựu lãnh đạo Liên Xô cũ Gorbachev (From dantri.com.vn, March 23rd 2009) Rice to visit 5 Asian countries later this month (From voanews.com, Oct 13th 2006) Ngoại trưởng Rice đi Châu Á (From voanews.com/vietnamese , Oct 13th 2006) Triet to visit Washington this weekend. (From news.bbc.co.uk, May 28th 2007) Chủ tịch nước Nguyễn Minh Triết sẽ tới thăm Mỹ cuối tuần này (From bbc.co.uk/vietnamese, May 29th 2007)  Adding related information According to Newmark (1988a: 155), communicative translation method is widely used in journal translation. Giving the highest priority to the naturalness and readability, this method allows translators to add related information or to introduce some changes to make the translation comprehensible. For example: Jerry Yang stands down (From economist.com, Nov 18th 2008)
    • CEO Jerry Yang của Yahoo từ nhiệm ( http://vietnamnet.vn, Nov 19th 2008) US release more Guantanamo name (From Fboston.com, May 3rd 2006) Mỹ công bố danh sách tù nhân nhà tù Guantanamo (From vietnamnet.vn, May 4th 2006) Descriptive equivalence procedure is employed in the above translation. Guantanamo Bay is known as the location of Guantanamo prison. Nevertheless, being aware of the fact that some target readers might not be familiar with the name, the translator added back ground information to make the translation clearer. Get Out of Jail, Free (From http://www.newsweek.com, March 12th 2009) Phóng thích tù nhân vì suy thoái kinh tế (From vneconomy.vn, March 16th 2009) Will the bail-out work? (From economist.com, September 25th 2009) Kế hoạch cứu nguy 700 tỷ đôla: Hiệu quả hay không? (From vneconomy.vn, September 26th 2009) America’s government comes to the rescue of a giant insurance company (From theeconomist.com, September 17th 2008) Chính phủ Mỹ giải cứu AIG (From tgvn.com.vn September 18th 2008)
    • English headlines sometimes convey limited information, which challenges readers. Also, a phrase often plays the role of either subject or predicate in Vietnamese sentence. Therefore, more information is inserted into phrases to make sentence with enough information. Comparing cities (From economist.com, Apr 2nd 2008 ) Thành phố nào đắt đỏ nhất thế giới? (From thuongmai.com, Apr 4th 2008 ) The World's Worst Places to Work (From businessweek.com, March 9th 2009) Tp.HCM và Hà Nội có trong Top 20 thành phố có môi trường làm việc kém nhất (From vneconomy.vn, March 18th 2009) Burgeoning bourgeoisie (From economist.com, Feb 12th 2009) Lần đầu trong lịch sử, diện trung lưu chiếm nửa thế giới (From vietnamnet.vn, Feb 16th 2009) Internet companies (From economist.com, June 10th 2005) Nhiều nghi ngại về thời kỳ bùng nổ dotcom mới (From vnexpress.net, June 14th 2005) Examining the candidates (From economist.com, Oct 2nd 2008) Các nhà kinh tế “cân đong” Obama và McCain ( From vneconomy.vn, Nov 4th 2008)  Omitting some information
    • Apart from adding some necessary information, omitting details which are not very important sometimes appears to be effective strategy. In some cases, to meet the strict requirements of space some information is not included in the translation if the omission cause no misunderstanding of the headline. Unlike the headlines on newspapers, which are presented with the body of the news on the same page, the headlines on electronic news, are presented together in the form of links without attaching to the body. Nevertheless, some main headlines are followed by chapeau, introducing important content of the article. In order to attract readers it is crucial for headlines and the chapeau to be impressive. If all key information is revealed in the headline, the readers is not likely to read the whole article. As a result, a good headline is believed to be concise, to introduce the news vividly without giving too specific information since the chapeau will reveal a little more information to capture the attention of readers. Greek cities hit by fresh rioting (From news.bbc.co.uk, Aug 12th 2008) Tiếp tục xảy ra bạo loạn ở Hy Lạp (From bbc.co.uk/vietnamese, Aug 12th 2008) Credit Unions With $57 Billion in Assets Seized; 3 Banks Fail (From bloomberg.com, Mar 21st 2009) Một ngày, Mỹ đóng cửa 2 tổ chức tín dụng, 3 ngân hang (From vneconomy.vn, Mar 22nd 2009)  Recovering the omitted articles As mentioned in the previous part, article “a”, “an”, “the” are among the words omitted most frequently in English news headlines. The omission of the article seems to pose no difficulties for readers in understanding the headlines since the readers can refer to the form of the noun to know whether it is plural or singular. Eg: UN official shot near Najaf (From news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/7492456.stm)
    • Một nhân viên của LHQ đã bị bắn sát tại Najaf ( http://www.vnn.vn/thegioi/2003/9/28056/) Because “official” is in singular form, there is no doubt that an UN official was shot near Najar. Nevertheless, in Vietnamese numeral especially cardinal plays an important role in denoting the number of noun, singular or plural. If the cardinal was omitted, the translation would be “Nhân viên của LHQ đã bị bắn sát tại Najaf” The omission might cause misunderstanding for Vietnamese that some officials were shot near Najar. As a result, omitted articles are recovered and translated into “một” to avoid ambiguity. Một nhân viên của LHQ đã bị bắn sát tại Najaf (From http://www.vnn.vn/thegioi/2003/9/28056/)  The use of colon In headlines containing colon, the first part tends to be a name, an event and a place, introducing the general information. The following part of the headline is the main content. The use of the colon allows the reporter to give more information and to shorten the headline at the same time because no verb is required between the two parts. For example: Clinton: US Stands Shoulder-t-Shoulder With Mexico in Fight Against Drug Gangs (From voanews.com, March 26, 2009) Citibank: Teetering Since 1812 (From time.com, Jan 21st 2009) Flu crisis: World response (From news.bbc.co.uk, April 28th 2009)
    • These two examples can be understood as Clinton said US would stand shoulder- to-shoulder with Mexico in fight against drug gangs and the world response to the flu crisis. It can be said that the use of the colon to introduce direct speech and more specific information is effective without causing misunderstanding. For this reason, there is an increasing trend of using colon in Vietnamese headlines. Many Vietnamese headlines include colon even no colon is used in the source headlines. Half-way from rags to riches (From economist.com, Apr 24th 2008) Việt Nam: Nửa chặng đường từ đói nghèo đến giàu mạnh (From nhantainhanluc.com, May 21st 2008) Asia's other miracle (From economist.com, Apr 24th 2008) Việt Nam: Điều thần kỳ mới của Châu Á (From finland.edu.googlepages.com, Apr 26th 2008)
    • CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION 5.1. Findings Based on the results of the study, the most distinctive grammatical features of English e-news headlines include: • Dominant use of phrases: English electronic news headlines are often realized to be more phrases than sentences • Dominance of statements: Among the English e-news headlines in the form of sentences, statement headlines have overwhelming proportion. • Expansion of present simple tense: 75.78% of the headlines in the English sample are in present simple tense. • Frequent omission of words such as the verb to be (21.89%), article (15.13%) Among translation methods introduced by Peter Newmark, communicative translation is the most commonly used (86%) . Translation techniques employed in English-Vietnamese translation of e-news headlines go as follow: • Using the simple present and future tense • Recovering the omitted articles • Adding related information • Changing phrases into sentences • Omitting some information 5.2. Implications The study has pedagogical implications for teaching translation for students of translation and interpreting division as well as for learning translation.. • Implications for teaching translation.
    • Most of non-natives in general and students in particular face many difficulties in understanding and translating English news headlines. It is advisable for teachers of translation to provide their students with grammatical features of English headlines and techniques to overcome difficulties regarding these distinctive characteristics. • Implications for learning translation. This study illuminated that the omissions of certain words can create barriers for comprehending the English headlines. Knowledge of study can aid the students in understanding the English headlines. In order to have full understanding of headlines and good English-Vietnamese translation of news headlines, it is important for students to master English grammar and translation methods. Also, reading English newspaper frequently and making constant effort in their study are necessary. 5.3. Suggestions for further study Limited budget of time and knowledge prevents this study from covering all grammatical features of English headlines and techniques employed in English- Vietnamese translation of economic news headlines. Accordingly, many related topics left untouched. Therefore, students who are interested in this field may wish to compare and contrast English and Vietnamese headlines. Besides, translation methods to overcome the difficulties regarding semantic features of English electronic news headlines are worth studying.
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    • CFID=190538015&CFTOKEN=44502262&jsessionid=66303b768e896ee6042a6e5b6a6 1c7f38433 Wolfson, P. ( 2009, March 20). Obama Calls for 'New Beginning' in Message to Iran. Retrieved March 20, 2009 from http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2009-03/2009-03-20-voa5.cfm? CFID=183163247&CFTOKEN=29545780&jsessionid=0030458c0d1920d1afcb4665412 f69826862 Anonymous . (2009, March 20). Afghan, US Troops Kill 33 Militants in Helmand Province. Retrieved March 20, 2009 from http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2009-03/2009-03-20-voa10.cfm? CFID=183163467&CFTOKEN=69544770&jsessionid=0030a91b8f6d041431572244403 f785a3268 Robinson, D. (2009, March 19). US House Votes Heavy Tax on Bonuses After AIG Controversy . Retrieved March 19, 2009 from http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/ 2009-03/2009-03-19-voa60.cfm? CFID=182638418&CFTOKEN=60907957&jsessionid=8430250d353f5bb2d1db51e182c 6ae264401 Anonymous . (2009, March 19). Southern African Nations Refuse to Recognize Madagascar Leader. Retrieved March 19, 2009 from http://www.voanews.com/english/ archive/2009-03/2009-03-19-voa68.cfm? CFID=187243134&CFTOKEN=16173417&jsessionid=de3056ce61cbbd22b3d3637c6a7 13d7d86c2 Anonymous . (2009, March 19). US Long-Term Jobless Claims Hit Another Record High. Retrieved March 19, 2009 from http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2009-03/2009-03-19-voa28.cfm? CFID=182638644&CFTOKEN=44316022&jsessionid=8430fe6fe068af2b74387056676 9425e94e2 Bryant, L. ( 2009, March 19). EU Summit Focuses on Economic Stimulus. Retrieved March 19, 2009 From http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2009-03/2009-03-19- voa39.cfm? CFID=183044866&CFTOKEN=96328655&jsessionid=84305c37966f4e6166d17274104 d6f40391f
    • Ryu, A. (2009, March 19). New Bin Laden Tape Calls for Somali President's Ouster. Retrieved March 19, 2009 from http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2009-03/2009-03-19-voa15.cfm? CFID=183045068&CFTOKEN=49588832&jsessionid=8430ca564017a34197b5563e3a7 85a181a41 Jensen, K. (2009, March 19). Hong Kong's Second-Hand Luxury Goods See Sales Increase Retrieved March 19, 2009 from http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2009-03/2009-03-19-voa17.cfm? CFID=187651507&CFTOKEN=81527854&jsessionid=de30f3ee29a6c829d3d37657773 66c194e49 Achin, K. (2009, March 21). North Korea Confirms Detention of 2 US Journalists Retrieved March 21, 2009 from http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2009-03/2009-03-21-voa5.cfm? CFID=187651634&CFTOKEN=48914131&jsessionid=de30b16fe40b13cff39117755bf6 e72696f6 Schlein, L. (2009, March 21). Floods in Namibia Take Heavy Toll . Retrieved March 21, 2009 from http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2009-03/2009-03-21-voa14.cfm? CFID=183585854&CFTOKEN=35377258&jsessionid=0030ede473d4463a9ccc166a563 14f4601eb Yeranian, E. (2009,March 21). Iran's Supreme Leader Dismisses Obama's Appeal. Retrieved March 21, 2009 from http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2009-03/2009-03-21-voa6.cfm? CFID=183586118&CFTOKEN=40384035&jsessionid=0030104c65b4380b10385d721c 30c252c151 Anonymous. (2009, March 22). Obama Sees Hope for US Economy. Retrieved March 23, 2009 from http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2009-03/2009-03-22- voa27.cfm? CFID=183056593&CFTOKEN=45700209&jsessionid=84303b3b412244a42562545f6a3 22e2f3c4a Anonymous. (2009, March 22). Pakistan's Top Judge Returns to Work. Retrieved March 22, 2009 From http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2009-03/2009-03-22-voa4.cfm?
    • CFID=183057729&CFTOKEN=20321880&jsessionid=8430b17193425295e17c332449 37496d5e2c Anonymous. (2009, March 24). Obama Urges G-20 to Take Bold Economic Action Retrieved March 24, 2009 from http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2009-03/2009-03-24-voa6.cfm? CFID=183066234&CFTOKEN=84543405&jsessionid=84302e733ef0788713fd5f6a5f2f 800435f5 Klein, K. ( 2009, March 24). Australian PM to Visit White House. Retrieved March 24, 2009 from http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2009-03/2009-03-24-voa7.cfm? CFID=187672649&CFTOKEN=85444545&jsessionid=de307ddbd5499983423a6c2b58 7d44271764 Gollust, D. (2009, 26 March ). Clinton: US Stands Shoulder-to-Shoulder With Mexico in Fight Against Drug Gangs. Retrieved 26 March, 2009 from http://www.globalsecurity.org/security/library/news/2009/03/sec-090326-voa01.htm Anonymous. (2009, March 28). Karzai Applauds New US Afghan Strategy Retrieved March 28, 2009 from http://www.voanews.com/english/2009-03-28-voa4.cfm Anonymous. (2009, March 28). Obama Vows Defeat of Militants in New Afghan, Pakistan Strategy. Retrieved March 28, 2009 from http://www.voanews.com/english/2009-03-28-voa3.cfm Anonymous. (2009, March 27). Obama Meets With Top US Bankers. Retrieved March 27, 2009 from http://www.voanews.com/english/2009-03-27-voa28.cfm Anonymous. (2008, December 5). Bangkok airport resumes operation Retrieved December 5, 2008 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7766390.stm 3.1 Anonymous. (2008, December 6). America’s government comes to the rescue of a giant insurance company. Retrieved December 6, 2008 from (http://www.tgvn.com.vn/Story.aspx?lang=vn&zoneparent=0&zone=17&ID=3256) 4 Anonymous. (2008, December 8). Markets surge on stimulus hopes. Retrieved December 8, 2008 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/7770823.stm 5 Anonymous. (2008,Oct 16). China to Pakistan's rescue? Retrieved January 25, 2009 from http://www.voanews.com/vietnamese/archive/2008-10/2008-10-16-voa30.cfm? CFID=76158118&CFTOKEN=50881018 Finn, P. (2007, November 27). Putin Accuses U.S. of Interference. Retrieved November 27, 2007 from htp://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-
    • dyn/content/article/2007/11/26/AR2007112600573.html? nav=rss_world&p=1&ac=1&cmp=22&wpsrc=AG0000434&KEYWORD=russia %20news&cre=1803331176&st=c&s_kwcid=ContentNetwork|1803331176t Hiroko Tabuchi. ( 2009, April 22). Japan Pays Foreign Workers to Go Home. Retrieved April 22, 2009 from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/23/business/global/23immigrant.html? scp=1&sq=kitsui,%20kitanai,%20kiken&st=cse Gandel, S. (2009, April 21). Wall Street's Elite Head to Campus — for Jobs. Retrieved April 21, 2009 from http://www.time.com/time/business/article/0,8599,1892371,00.html Dash, E. (2009, April 16). Banking Industry Showing Signs of a Recovery. Retrieved April 16, 2009 from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/17/business/17bank.html?scp=4&sq=JPMorgan %20Chase&st=cse Anonymous. (2008, December 16). Fed Cuts Key Interest Rate To Near Zero. Retrieved December 16, 2009 from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=98338518&ft=1&f=1003 Anonymous. (2006, May 29). 75 Guantanamo Bay Prisoners on Hunger Strike. Retrieved March 29, 2009 from http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2006-05/2006-05-29-voa38.cfm Hulse, C. and Herszenhorn, D.M. (2009, March 19). House Approves 90% Tax on Bonuses After Bailouts. Retrieved March 19, 2009 from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/20/business/20bailout.html? _r=1&scp=3&sq=PMorgan%20Chase&st=cse 6 Anonymous.(2009, March 9). Geithner faces economic tsunami without a fully staffed department. Retrieved March 11, 2009 from http://www.iht.com/articles/2009/03/09/business/geithner.php Anonymous.(2009, March 11) Is Europe 'in denial' on depth of crisis? Retrieved March 16, 2009 from http://www.iht.com/articles/2009/03/11/business/denial.php Anonymous.(2009, March 8). Despite U.S. woes, dollar is riding high. Retrieved March 10, 2009 from http://www.iht.com/articles/2009/03/08/business/dollar.php Anonymous.(2009, March 8). World Bank offers dire forecast for world economy. Retrieved March 9, 2009 from http://www.iht.com/articles/2009/03/08/business/econ.php Anonymous. (2009, March 6). Ngân hàng Thế giới bi quan về kinh tế toàn cầu. Retrieved March 6, 2009 from http://www.usatoday.com/money/industries/banking/2009-03-06-fdic-shuts-freedom- bank_N.htm
    • 7 Anonymous. (2009, Marh 4). As UBS saga continues, Swiss banking is shaken. Retrieved March 8, 2009 from http://www.iht.com/articles/2009/03/04/business/swiss.php Liedtke, M. (2009, March 3). Google pays seven-figure bonuses to 4 top execs. Retrieved March 3, 2009 from http://www.wtop.com/?nid=108&sid=1615266 Dwyer, M. ( 2009, February 27). Asia’s Economies Stumble as Global Slump Hits Exports. Retrieved February 27, 2009 from http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=aT4yrz33T1wI Chadbourn, M. and Levy, A.. ( 2009, March 21). Credit Unions With $57 Billion in Assets Seized; 3 Banks Fail. Retrieved March 21, 2009 from http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=a.ZsPab..qrI Anonymous. (2009, March 23). Obama met Gorbachev in run-up to Medvedev talks. Retrieved March 23, 2009 from http://www.reuters.com/article/politicsNews/idUSTRE52M2RG20090323 Anonymous. (2009, March 27). Indonesia dam burst kills dozens. Retrieved March 27, 2009 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7967205.stm Anonymous. (2009, March 26). LEAD: S. Korea to send advanced warship to monitor N. Korea launch: Yonhap. Retrieved March 26 , 2009 from http://www.istockanalyst.com/article/viewiStockNews/articleid/3148857 NELSON, D. S. ( 2009, February 14). Job Losses Pose a Threat to Stability Worldwide. Retrieved February 14, 2009 from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/15/business/15global.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=Naomi %20Runquist-Ohayon%20&st=cse Anonymous. (2009, March 12). What's the score? Retrieved March 12, 2009 from http://www.economist.com/science/displaystory.cfm?story_id=13277389 Anonymous. (2008, April 24). Two wheels good, four wheels better. Retrieved April 24, 2008 from http://www.economist.com/specialreports/displaystory.cfm?story_id=11041626 Baer, R.(2007, August 24). How Washington Missed 9/11. Retrieved August 24, 2007 from http://www.time.com/time/politics/article/0,8599,1655995,00.html Powell, B. (2008, October 28). Emerging Economies Hit Hard by the Financial Crisis. Retrieved October 28, 2008 from http://www.time.com/time/business/article/0,8599,1854541,00.html Walsh, B. (2007, December 1). Can We Save the World by 2015? Retrieved December 1, 2007 from http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1689985,00.html Anonymous. (2006, March 31). Dozens die in western Iran quakes. Retrieved March 31, 2006 fromhttp://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/4863372.stm
    • Anonymous (2005, November 24). Sensible reforms in Vietnam. Retrieved November 24, 2005 from http://www.economist.com/world/asia/displaystory.cfm? story_id=E1_VNNDVDT Anonymous (2005, November 24). Sensible reforms in Vietnam. Retrieved November 24, 2005 from http://www.economist.com/world/asia/displaystory.cfm? story_id=E1_VNNDVDT Anonymous (2009, March 19). The end of the free lunch—again. Retrieved March 19, 2009 from http://www.economist.com/opinion/displaystory.cfm? story_id=13326158 Anonymous (2009, March 5 ). In need of some snake-blood Retrieved March 5, 2009 from http://www.economist.com/world/asia/displaystory.cfm? story_id=13240694 Anonymous (2009, February 26). Seeking success. Retrieved February 26, 2009 from http://www.economist.com/business/displaystory.cfm?story_id=13185891 Anonymous (2009, February 5). The return of economic nationalism. Retrieved February 5, 2009 from http://www.economist.com/opinion/displaystory.cfm? story_id=13061443 Anonymous (2008, November 13). Light revival. Retrieved November 13, 2008 from http://www.economist.com/science/displaystory.cfm?story_id=12592264 Anonymous (2008, November 6). Lump together and like it. Retrieved November 6, 2008 from http://www.economist.com/world/international/displaystory.cfm? story_id=12552404
    • APPENDICES
    • APPENDIX 1: DISTINCTIVE GRAMMATICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ENGLISH E-NEWS HEADLINES Source Headlines T1.In the Doldrums %7cBTWN+20081223+20081231&N=0&btnSearch.x=30&Nty=1 %29&Ntk=WithBodyDate&btnSearch.y=5&Ntx=mode+matchallpartial&btnSearch=Search&Nf=p_date_range %28p_record_type%3aOther%2cp_record_type%3ablog%2cp_record_type%3aArticle Retrieved January 26, 2009 from http://www.time.com/time/searchresults?No=10&sid=11EC526A94D0&Nr=OR T2.The Battle over Gaza T3.China's Consumers: Not Ready to Save the World T4.Israel Versus Hamas: How to Shape a Cease-Fire T5.Night Skiing at Jisan Forest T6.Pakistani Troops Kill Militants in Operation T7. Strategic Price of Israel's Gaza Assault T8.Artwork at the Ritz-Carlton T9. Griffith Park Observatory T10.Spain: Bomb Blast at Bilbao TV Station T11.Building a Better Kidney Transplant T12.Putting Bernie Madoff On The Couch T13.History of Sesame Street T14.Country Music Shrine to Keep Historic Instruments T15.Farewells 2008: Unforgettable Personalities T16.Monaco's Michelin-Starred Mix Master T17.Wait a Second: Why 2008 Was a Long Year %2020081223%2020081231&N=0 %20matchallpartial&btnSearch.y=5 No=30&sid=11EC526A94D0&Ntk Retrieved January 26, 2009 from ht T18.Grooming: Edge of Extinction T19.Change of a Dress T20. New Course for S renstam T21. Blagojevich Lawyer to Submit Obama Report
    • Source Headlines
    • E1. More war for peace http://mail.google.com/mail/?hl=vi&shva=1#inbox/11eb2e86a9479317 Retrieved January 7, 2009 from E2. New broom for the CIA E3. Company woe E4. The long tail E5. KAL's cartoon E6. Fish heads and tales E7. A new leaf E8. Cold shoulders E9. The Rod and Roland show E10.Rich man, poorer man E11.Booms and busts E12.Unguided democracy E13.Now the ground war E14.Eastern crossing E15.Another awful jobs report E16.Commerzbank's mixed blessing E17.India's Enron E18.Schemers and squinters E19.The customary gas stand-off E20.The past year E21.Eastern crossing E22.Belly of the beast E23.The limits of diplomacy E24.Thorns in the east E25.Panditmonium E26.The year ahead
    • 7.1.3 E28.Pilgrims in Rhineland hl=vi&shva=1#inbox/11ecc5ddf856f841 Retrieved January 12, 2009 from http://mail.google.com/mail/? E29.Bone in a bottle E30.Uncomfortably close in Ghana E31.Max Weber E32.Eastern crossing E33.Change management E34.Transfer deadline day as it happened E35.Pummelling the Palestinians E36.Combating the recession E37.Hacking the hybrid E38.Saving the seas E39.Taking liberties E40.Turning the gas tap back on E41.Waiting for Obama
    • 7.1.6 7.1.5 7.1.4 E42.Delving into bunker 'bat caves' Retrieved http://mail.google.com/mail/?hl=vi&shva=1#inbox/11ead4e41a3183d5 E43.Everybody does it E44.Iceland faces the worst of times E45.The bond bubble? E46.A giving recession? E47.Gulfstream on the cheap E48.Don’t take it out on the bellhops E49.Speeding up Britan’s trains E50.Light, Camera, Loyalty card E51.The recent recession on the road E52.Living it up in Vienna E53.Should Europeans cancel transatlantic travel plans? E54. Problem with air miles E55.Hey United: Do something about those empty seats E56.Business travel for women E57.United Airlines and its larger passengers E58.Flying cats and dogs E59. Trains in the Gulf E60.Delta's new charge
    • 7.1.9 E61.Possibly the best restaurants in the world 11eb7a8f1858fded http://mail.google.com/mail/?hl=vi&shva=1#inbox/ Retrieved January 9, 2009 from E62.Chain reaction E63.Heathrow's power stations E64.Avoiding slips 'twixt cup and lip E65.Business travellers still fleeing premium classes E66.Obama's rail plans and Amtrak E67.Obama's high-speed rail plans E68.Business travel and nursing E69.Qantas taking a beating in bad economy E70.Is Mexico more dangerous than Pakistan? 7.1.10 Retrieved January 7, 2009 from http://mail.google.com/mail/? E71.Will Cisco's quot;Telepresencequot; kill business travel? hl=vi&shva=1#inbox/11eb13d059f41ad7 E72.Red Lion wants your guests E73.More details on Southwest's entry into the New York market E74.Should we rest before flights? E75.Nine and a half hours on the tarmac... E76.Slower than you might expect E77.Fighting the good fight E78.What’s in the journal E79.Management idea: the long tail E80.Generation Y goes to work E81.Audio: Philanthropy E82.Management idea: Balanced scorecard E83.More war for peace E84.Panditmonium
    • E85.Saving the seas E86.The week ahead E87.Taking liberties hl=vi&shva=1#inbox/11eda971b0861a6d Retrieved January 15, 2009 from http://mail.google.com/mail/? E88.Barack Obama's sober speech E89.Back in the game E90.Schemers and squinters E91.An Italian lifeline E92.Pilgrims in Rhineland E93.Beijing puzzle E94.Light relief E95.The cost of war E96.A mind map E97.Felipe Calderon and Barack Obama meet E98.India's extended family E99.Trial period in South Africa E100.Too Late for Palestine?
    • Source Headlines B1.Warning over new form of C.diff B2.Redknapp reassures Bent on future %202009&tab=ns&order=relevance&scope=all http://search.bbc.co.uk/search?q=News%2031%20January Retrieved February 15, 2009 from order=relevance&tab=ns&q=News%2031%20January%202009&scope=all&start=3 B3.Quinn snaps up Plummer and Gracey B4.Westley picks up managerial award B5.Davis joins Palace for one month B6.Defender Naylor seals Leeds move B7.McDonald reveals Scotland dilemma B8.BSkyB keeps Premier League rights B9.Weale and Price crash in Swansea B10.AFC thrash continue titleBowl Old Boys Fylde St Mary's at charge Retrieved February 15, 2009 from http://search.bbc.co.uk/search? B11.Bank of England lent banks £185bn B15.Holdsworth backs Garner to shine B12.Six million meet tax deadline B16.Camara completes Stoke loan move B13.Bluebirds complete Chopra signing B17.Forest fail in move for Adebola B14.Concern over force's caution rate B18.Wrexham face Ebbsfleet in Trophy B19.Ex-Villa player Birch dies at 46 B20.Paternostro praises team effort B21.Pugh praises Pulis transfer coups B22.Heavy snow hits much of England B23.You have been reading... B24.Portsmouth reject bid for Davis B25.Pompey sign striker Gekas on loan B26.Cardiff bid to bolster front line B27.Arsenal need to strengthen - Dein B28.Australia unveils economic boost B29.US rescue deal clause 'dangerous' B30.Australia unveils economic boost
    • B31. Australia cleric gets jail term %202009&scope=all&start=4 order=relevance&tab=ns&q=News%2031%20January Retrieved February 16, 2009 from http://search.bbc.co.uk/search? B32. US skydiver lands dead instructor B33. MP Conway apologises for payments B34. Keane seals £12m Tottenham return B35 Checking service for citizenship B36. Twelve nations bid for World Cup B37. Jo completes Everton loan switch B38. Fulham wrap up Dacourt loan deal B39. Slide in oil price hits BP profit B40. Weak pound helps Vodafone results B41. Macy's announces 7,000 job cuts B42. Obama predicts more bank failures B43. France unveils stimulus package B44. Obama admits errors over cabinet B45. S Lanka leader predicts rapid win B46. Obama wants to avoid 'trade war' B47. Colombia's Farc free ex-governor B48. Iran satellite move sparks fears B49. Snow continues to close schools B50. Minister holds 'burglary summit' B51. Lampard wins appeal over red card B52. India triumph despite Murali feat
    • scope=all %202009&tab=ns&order=date&start=29& %2031%20January http://search.bbc.co.uk/search?q=News Retrieved February 16,2009 from B54. Timeline: Iceland economic crisis B55. IPL charges 'upset' England stars B56. Benitez explains Keane departure B57. Panasonic set to cut 15,000 jobs B58. Flu crisis: World response B59. Animal charity in donations clash B60. Write-downs knock Alcatel-Lucent B61. Checking service for citizenship B62. Vikings A on course in title race B63. Spencer not for sale, says Allen B64. Leaders Bodmin upset by Torpoint %2031%20January%202009&tab=ns&order=relevance&scope=all eved February 16,2009 from http://search.bbc.co.uk/search?q=News Retri B65. Vale eager to hold on to Richards B66. Harte happy after Tyrone victory B67. Improved system for fire service B68. Pulse rate clue to heart attacks B69. Snow to bring further disruption B70. Injured Defoe to undergo surgery B71. Tuesday's gossip column B72. Kyrgyzstan 'to shut key US base' B73. Six-nation talks to discuss Iran B74. Slideshow: Iranian revolution 1979 B75. Italy woman sent to clinic to die B76. Afghanistan casualty named by MoD B77. Swine flu: Your experiences B78. Glover frustrated by postponement B79. Bolton's Mendes enquiry rebuffed B80. S Lanka hospital 'attacked again' B81. Country profile: Somalia B82. Police 'asked to see' MP's e-mail B83. Cancun killings linked to cartels B84. 'Memory clinics' plan on dementia B85. Miner BHP sees profits fall 25% B86. No consensus on Africa unity plan %202009&tab=ns&order=releva http://search.bbc.co.uk/search?q= Retrieved February 16,2009 from B87. Surge in voting by Iraqi Sunnis B88. 'Dozens dead' in S Lanka fighting B89. Country profile: Bolivia B90. EU to investigate electric bills B91. Timeline: The Netherlands B92. Country profile: Iceland B93. The tenacity of hope
    • APPENDIX 2: OBSERVATION SCHEME 1 Characteristics Headlines Expressions Phrase of English e- news Np headlines Vp Other Phrase Sentence Statement Question Declaration Exclamation The use of Simple Present tense of tense English e- Simple Past tense news headlines Simple Future tense Other tenses Omission in Be auxiliary “Be-auxiliary” as main English e- verb (predicative news headlines Be-auxiliary with future meaning Be-auxiliary in passive sentences Article: “a”, “an”, and “the” Other characteristics
    • APPENDIX 3: TRANSLATION METHODS EMPLOYED IN ENGLISH-VIETNAMESE TRANSLATION OF E- NEWS HEADLINES English headlines Vietnamese headlines Translation Method 1 Ánh sáng cuối đường hầm ? 2 A light at the end of the tunnel? Semantic (From www.rfi.fr October 13, 2008) translation 3 ( From economist.com, October 13, 2008) 2 The O team Tổng thống tân cử Barack Obama công bố (From economist.com, December 1, 2008) thành phần Hội đồng An ninh Quốc gia Communica From http://www.rfi.fr, December 1, 2008 tive translation 3 Managed to death Cái chết được báo trước của loài cá ngừ vây Communica xanh From thiennhien.net December 2, tive From economist.com, October 30, 2008 translation 2008 4 Adapt or die Thích nghi hay diệt vong trước biến đổi khí hậu Communica From nea.gov.vn, October 18, 2008 tive From economist.com, September 11, 2008 translation 5 Việt Nam: Nửa chặng đường từ đói nghèo đến giàu Communica Half-way from rags to riches tive mạnh translation From economist.com, Apr 24th , 2008 From nhantainhanluc.com, April 25, 2008 6 Bài học từ lịch sử sóng gió của Citigroup Communica Citibank: Teetering Since 1812 tive From vneconomy.vn, February 26, 2008 translation From time.com, January 21, 2009 7 Mỹ tung 5 tỷ USD cứu ngành công nghiệp phụ trợ Communica Billions for Auto Suppliers' Bailout tive ôtô translation From businessweek.com, March 19, 2009 From vneconomy.vn, March 20, 2009 8 So sánh suy thoái hiện nay và Đại suy thoái 1930 Communica Another Great Depression? tive From vneconomy.vn, March 19, 2009 translation From newsweek.com, March 19, 2009 9 Cuộc chiến chống… nút bấm Semantic The War on Buttons translation From vneconomy.vn, March 20, 2009 From time.com, March 19, 2009
    • APPENDIX 4: OBSERVATION SCHEME 2 Translation method Headlines Word for word translation Literal translation Faithful translation Semantic translation Communicative translation Idiomatic translation Free translation Adaptation