ដំណើរឆ្ពោះទៅទិសខាងលិច [Www.khmer mahanorkor.blogspot.com]
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

ដំណើរឆ្ពោះទៅទិសខាងលិច [Www.khmer mahanorkor.blogspot.com]

on

  • 3,505 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
3,505
Views on SlideShare
3,461
Embed Views
44

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
16
Comments
0

4 Embeds 44

http://khmer-mahanorkor.blogspot.com 21
http://khmer-mhanokor.blogspot.com 15
http://www.blogger.com 6
http://feeds.feedburner.com 2

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

ដំណើរឆ្ពោះទៅទិសខាងលិច [Www.khmer mahanorkor.blogspot.com] Document Transcript

  • 1. nYn-eXOn dMeNIreqõaHeTATisxaglic nig ²Nëècink~¬gq~S 2000 [ saklºg ] karp§ayrbs'G~kniBnì rk§asiTì eVHBumõelIkTI 1 cMnYn 2, 000 cºab' tmûl'Tuktamelx 1162 cuH«c©TI 9 v^ciÏka q~S1970 eVHenA¨kumhußneragBumõExµr Bùsù 2514 Kùsù 1970
  • 2. k Garm¸kfa v^PaKTand*v^essv^salEdlCnCatiExµrm~ak'@ Gacp¶l'cMeJHmatu¨b- eTsrbs'xÂçn edImºI[Catirbs'xÂçnenAKg'vg§Cév^tk~¬gbN¶aPUmiPaKmYyEdl¨b kbedaye¨KaHf~ak'enaH KWkarsðal't«mÂvbºFmá Gar´Fmá nigCaBiess¨bvti¶ saås¶CatixÂçnenHäg . ¨bvti¶saås¶kt'¨taTuk¨Kb'kMhus EdldUntaeyIgVn¨b¨Bwt¶rYcmkehIy k~¬gGtItkal ¨BmTSgPaBfû¬÷efûégrugerOgEdlVneFÃI[vasna¨bCaCatiExµr nig vbºFmáExµrGEN¶t¨tEstxõg'xõs' k~¬gBBk«nBnÂW¨tcH¨tcg'. GMeBIɨBwt¶ikarN_ TSgenHeTaHCap¶l'dl'¨bCaCatieyIgnUvekr¶i_eQµaHrnæWsuHsayk¶I Ék*PaBGamas muxBn'¨bmaNk¶I EdlmanEcgenAelI¨Kb'TMB&r«nBg§avtarCati k*GMeBITSgLay enaHägCaekr¶i_mrtk²tkat't«mÂVnEdleyIgTTYlGMBIdUntaeyIgmk . KWGMeBI ɨBwti¶karN_TSgenHehIy EdlbegûItnUvsmºCJï:Exµr. CnCati Exµrsm&yenH CalTìpl«nGtItkal ÉCalTìpl«nsmºCJï:ExµrenHäg . BitEmnehIyEdlfak~¬g¨bvti¶saås¶«n¨beTseyIg eyIgVnqÂgkat'nUv PaBGamasmuxy"age¨cIn cab'tSgBIstvt§TI13 rhUtdl'sm&ybcͬbºn~kal enH e¨kayBIVnsðal'PaBrugerOgGs'ry:eBld*yUr (BIstvt§TI8 mk stvt§TI13) k¶I, Et¨bCaCatieyIg, BUCsasn_eyIg, vbºFmánigGar´FmáeyIg minVnrlaysUn´ Vt'¨semalBIsaklelakeLIy. Gar´FmáCae¨cInk~¬g elakenH EdlFÂab'Vnsðal'PaBrugerOg¨tcH¨tcg'k~¬gGtItkal xÂH¨tèvTTYl vasnaGa¨kk'FÂak'cuHeTAk~¬gBiPBggwt«nkarePÂcPÂSgrbs'mnus§ Ék*rlayVt' ¨semalsUn´sugBIsmºCJï:mnus§Cati dUcmanGar´Fmákaled (Chaldée), Gas§¬IrI (Assyrie), ¨kik (Grèce), É rU"m (Rome) .l. dUec~H ¨bCaCatieyIg Gar´FmáeyIg EdlVntsUßTb'Tl'nwgkarQÂanJn ²tQb'QrGMBIG~kC^txag²tsbº¬rsFmá tSgBICag 6 stvt§rYcmkehIy Etmin¨BmcuHcaj' min¨BmTmÂak'GavuFcuHj"mvasnaGP&BÃrbs'xÂçnenaH enHCa
  • 3. x vasnad*Ót¶¬gðÓt¶mmYyNas'eTAehIy . enAstvt§TI19, ¨bCaCatiExµreyIg manbN¶aCnminVndl'mYylannak'pg ( ¨bEhlCa 800, 000 nak' ebItam Gs'elakG~k¨VCÆVrSg EdlVnmkTs§nanigsik§a¨beTseyIgCaelIkd÷- bUg ) sm&yenaH eyIgsµanEteyIgVnsðal'TIbMput«nCév^trbs'¨bCaCatieyIg rYceTAehIy EteyIgEbrCars'ranmanCév^teLIgv^j. ehIymin¨twmEtrs'eLIg v^jbu"eNöaHeT EfmTSgVnerobcMrd½eyIgGnuelameTAtamsm&yTMenIbv^T´a- saås¶eTotpg. ehIyfµé@enHeTot rbbsk¶iPUmiraCaniymp¶ac'karEdlCaTm©n' mYyF©n'Bn'¨bmaNmkelIvasnaExµr¨Kb'@rUb nigCa¨bPB«nPaBeGanfyrbs' ¨bCaCatieyIgenaHeTot, ²LèveyIgVnvaykMeTcbMpÂajrbbc«¨genH ykC&y CMnHCae¨scelIrbbenaHrYceTAehIy . m¶genH eyIgnwgsðal'Cafµém¶geTot nUvBnÂW«nesck¶I«fÂf~èr «nesck¶IkÂahan nigesrIPaB. eyIgGs'ÓbsKðGÃImkrarSgk~¬gdMeNIreyIgeTAkan'karcab'kMeNIt rs'eLIgv^j «n¨bCaCatieyIgeTotehIy . mYycMENkeTot, ¨bCaCneyIgk~¬gsm&yenHmanrhUtdl' 8 lannak', enaHebIeyIgminrab'ExµrenAeyokNamxagtºèg nigenA«fLg' EdlmancMnYnBI 3 eTA 4 laneTotpg . k~¬g 30 q~SeTot ¨bCaCnenAk~¬gEdndIkmõ¬CasBëf©enH nwgekIneTAdl' 15 lannak'ehIy. ebIy"agdUec~H, etIs¨tèvNa G~kC^txag äNa ÉmhaGMNacäNak~¬gelaknwgGackab'smÂab' bMpÂicbMpÂajCatiExµrBI 8 eTA 15 lanGs'VnEdrÉ ? vasnarbs'¨bCaCatieyIgk~¬gGnaKtkal KWeyIg¨tèvEtrs'. Et¨tg' cMNucfars'EbbNa@ enaH KW rs'¨Kan'Etrs'| Érs'k~¬gesck¶IcMerInk~¬gPaB«f f~èrenaH enHCabJúamYyeTotd*FMEdleyIgral'K~a¨tèvEtKitedaH¨say e¨JHebI rs'¨Kan'Etrs'| eday¨tehb¨thb esæIrrs'esIærsÂab' rs'k~¬gbN¶akarxÃH esck¶I«fÂf~èr Gyuti¶Fmá evTnafyefakùùù bu"eNöaHeT, enaHsÂab'eTAva¨besIrCag edImºIkuM[esck¶IlMVkevTna QWcab'exÂacp§a EdlFÂab'manGs'ry:Cag 6 stvt§eTAehIyenaHecHEtbn¶eTAeTot .
  • 4. K karerobcM¨bCaCatiExµr rd½ExµreLIgv^j ¨sbeTAtameKalkar«nlTiì¨bCa Fibety´ tampÂèvneyaVy (Démocratie Politique) nigtampÂèvsgðm (Démocratie sociale) KWCakarcSVc'CamUld½an «n¨beTskmõ¬Casm&yfµé . G~kniBnì«nesovePAd*tUcenHyl'fa drabNaKMnit¨bCaFibety´ esrI PaB sÄitenAEtelI¨kdas min¨BmkÂayeTACakarBitCak'Es¶gk~¬gkicÍkar¨btibt¶i k~¬gCévPaBral'«f©rbs'raås¶Exµr¨Kb'rUb ÉenAtamPUmiCnbTeTenaH drabenaH eyIgminGacrMedaHCnCatiExµr ɨbCaCatiExµrBIPaBVk'sºattk's¬t cuHj"mmun ¨byuTì esck¶Il©g'exÂA ÉkarKµanCMenOeTAelIxÂçnägenaHVneLIy . KµanGÃIBiVkCagkarpÂas'b¶èr eVHbg'p~t'KMnitcas'mYyEdlmanGayurab' stvt§rYcmkehIyenaHeT. EtenaHk*minEmnkicÍmYyEdleKminGacse¨mcVn enaHk*eTEdr . esck¶IkÂahan bUknigkarbuin¨bsb'rbs'G~kneyaVyExµr k~¬g ¨kbxNë«nyuTìv^FImYy Edlt¨mèvnwgcit¶KMnitExµr sgðmExµrBit¨VkdCakarBi- VkNas' EtCakarcSVc'CabzmedImºIsMercnUvbd^vt¶n_Exµr . X X X KMnitEdlelakG~kGannwgeXIjk~¬gesovePAd*tUcenH ¨bEhlCaelOn eBk Ék*hßaneBk ÉmYyk*GacbN¶al[mankar¨sgakcit¶xÂHk*swgman . G~k GanxÂHGacecaTG~kniBnìfa CaG~kmanKMnitTuTid½^niym .l. G~kniBnìTMB&rTSgenH CaExµrmYyrUbmankMeNItenAcm©ay 6 KILèEm"¨tBI Ggðrvt¶ VnTTYlkarGb'rMminq©aybu"nµanBIGgðrvt¶ Vnsðal'ehIy¨sLaj'Ggðr vt¶dUcCa¨TB´smºti¶rbs'xÂçnpæal' VnFMeBjv&ycMeNammha¨Vgðsila Ca kMNb'«nvbºFmá Gar´Fmá ¨bvti¶saås¶Exµr suTìswgCaekr¶i_mták«nPaBrugerOg sm&yedImmhanKr . CakarFmµta karsðal'nigkar¨sLaj'¨bPB«nGar´Fmá Exµr nig¨bCaCatiExµrenH C¨mujcit¶[mankarnwk¨seNaHdl'GtItkal cg' eXIj¨bCaCatiExµrkÂayeTACaBiPBmYyrugerOg¨tcH¨tcg'dUcEdlExµrFÂab'sðal' k~¬gGtItkalsm&y mhanKr| dUec~aHEdr .
  • 5. X k~¬gKMnitenH G~kniBnìKµan¨beyaCn_GÃI nwgkarJrÓt¶mKtiäNaEdlpæ¬y nwg¨beyaCn_xõg'xõs'rbs'CatipgxÂçnenaHeLIy . KW BIe¨JHEtCakarmYyEdlTak'Tgdl'GnaKtCati dl'GnaKtBUCGmºèr ExµrenHehIy EdlG~kniBnìGtÄbTenHminxÂacGÃInwglat¨tdagnUvKMnit Éeya- bl'rbs'xÂçnEdlCalTìpl«nkar¨tiHriH¨sav¨Cavrbs'xÂçnsuTìsaF CUndl'mti saFarNCnCati¨Kan'CakarBicarNa. äkarBitscÍ:enaH e¨scEtkarv^nicÏ&y yl'eXIjrbs'mtisaFarNCnCaticuH . G~kniBnìesovePAd*tUcenH manC÷enOy"agmSfa ¨bsinebIkarGanesovePA enH bN¶al[mankarBicarNa eFÃIkarv^nicÏ&yEmnenaH enaHeKaledAbMNgG~k niBnìVnsMercehIy . eKaledAFMrbs'G~kniBnì KWelIkykbJúaGnaKtExµr ykmkecaTcMeJHsmºCJï:Exµr KWbegûIt[manCabJúaeLIgedImºIKit kuM[ePÂc xÂçn k~¬gzan:xÂçnCaExµrrs'enAelIEdndIsuvNöPUmienH . sUmelakG~kGanemt¶aGP&yeTas ¨bsinebIenAelITMB&rTSgenH mankar GFibºayedaymanlaytNúaxÂH e¨JHeyIgminGacbMePÂc[sUn´QwgnUvmena seJÍtnarbs'eyIg cMeJHvasnaCatiVneLIy. KWCakarFmµtaeT EdlebHdUg mnus§m~ak'¨sJb'¨seJn kalebI¨semal«nGtItkal EdlCa¨semal«n karQWcab'rbs'CatixÂçn elceFÂamkk~¬gsmºCJï:mnus§enH bUkbJÍèlCamYy nwgPaBrnìt'jab'j&renAcMeJH muxGnaKtkalxÃHTIedA . cMeJHvasnaExµrk~¬gGnaKt, G~kniBnìesovePAd*tUcenHEtgEtEckrMElk CamYypgEdrnUvesck¶Isgôwm EdldUntaeyIgBIe¨BgnayrEmgVnciJÍwmTuk k~¬gsn¶ancit¶Exµr . esck¶IsgôwmnigC÷enOenH sÄitk~¬gJk´esÂak É Jk´TMnay mYyXÂa EdldUntaeyIgFÂab'VneJlt@K~amkfaÐ ¨sukExµrminEdlsUn´! | ( Le Pays Khmèr ne périra jamais ! ) P~MeBj Ex F~è 1970 nùXù
  • 6. g "Qu'il soit du Nord ou du Sud, il n'est pas un Vietnamien qui ne se sente solidaire du frère dont on l'a arbitrairement séparé, singulier couronnement de l'indépendence recouvrée alors que le « colonialisme » français avait poursuivi le rêve d'hégémonie de l'empereur Gia-Long et que tout son effort avait tendu vers la mise en commun de richesses inégalement réparties mais complémentaires les unes des autres. Comment nourrir la population du Nord-Vietnam sans les réserves alimentaires du Sud et comment mettre en valeur les terrains du Sud sans l'excédent de main d'œuvre du Nord? Pour comprendre le problème, imaginons, une ligne de démarcation qui couperait en France le grenier à blé de la Beauce et les paturages normands, des houillères du Nord et de la métallurgie de l'Est. Pour une superficie de rizières trois fois moindre, le Tonkin a deux fois plus de bouches à nourrir, mais il détient le charbon, le fer, les matières et les sources d'énergie nécessaires à la grande industrie. Que l'on n'objecte pas les tendances particularistes du Nord et du Sud, maintes fois relevées au cours de l'histoire. Ce serait oublier que l'Allemagne et l'Italie ont connu les mêmes dissensions intérieures et que leur unification aux XIXe siècle a conditionné leur accession au rang de grande puissance. Le problème se pose dans les mêmes termes pour l’avenir du Vietnam". André MASSON in « Histoire du Vietnam » P.U.F, Paris, 1960
  • 7. c nYn-eXOn dMeNIreqõaHeTATisxaglic nig ²Nëècink~¬gq~S 2000 ekItenA«f©TI 29 Exmkra q~S 1944 enAesomrab-Ggðrvt¶, elak nYn eXOn Vn bMeBjv^CØamF´mPUmienAv^T´al&y«nTIrYmext¶ rYceTAbn¶karsik§aenAmhav^T´al&yKruekasl´ nig enAmhav^T´al&yGk§rsaås¶ nig mnus§saås¶«nsaklv^T´al&y¨kugP~MeBjeTot . Vn¨bLgCab'Casis§salaKruekasl´Can'xõs' ( Ecole Normale Supérieure ) CMnan'TI1 k~¬gq~S 1965 rYcCab'briJïab&¨txag¨bvti¶saås¶enAq~S 1968 . sBëf©Casaås¶acar´ ¨bvti¶saås¶ . k~¬gBiPBelakmYyEdlxÃHesck¶IBit nigxÃHesÄrPaBCaGci«ån¶y_pgenaH sÄanPaBPUmi- saås¶«n¨beTskmõ¬Ca Ca¨beTsmYytUcruMB&TìCMuv^jeday¨beTsC^txagFM @ manbN¶aCne¨cIn elIslb'EbbenH KWBitCasÄanPaBmYy¨bkbedaye¨KaHf~ak'Cak'Es¶g ehIyCakarKMramkMEhg mYyd*sahaveTAelICév^t«n¨beTseyIgeTotpg . Ga¨s&yehtuenH bJúakarKg'vg§Cév^t«nrd½ Exµrk~¬gPUmiPaK²temt¶aenH ¨tèvEtCnCatiExµrm~ak'@cab'GarmµN_elIsGÃI@TSgGs'k~¬gqakCév^t rbs'xÂçn . edayVneXIjcºas'nUvmhn¶rayEdlXÂScS¨bl&yCév^t¨bCaCatiExµr elak nYn eXOn VnsresrGtÄbTenHk~¬gbMNgEtmYy KWp¶l'karriHrkeXIjCaKMnitpæal'rbs'elakCUn dl'smºCJï:CatiExµr edImºIkarBicarNaelIvasnamatu¨beTsExµrterogeTA .
  • 8. 1 - esck¶Iep¶ém - etI¨beTseyokNam nwgkÂayeTACa¨beTsGalWÂm"ajÉCb"unTI 2 k~¬gPUmi PaKGasIuEb"kGeK~y_ k~¬gGnaKtenHÉ? k~¬gzan:xƬMCaCnCatiExµrmYyrUb ekItrs'sÂab'enAelImatuPUmiExµr nigk~¬g zan:CaG~ksik§a¨bvti¶v^T´a xƬMsUmÓTæisGtÄbTenH dl'karPÆak'r®k«nsmºCJï: «nCnCatiExµr nigdl'esck¶IcMerInlUtlas' «nkareyaKyl'rvagCatinigCati EdlCakt¶aEtmYyKt' «nkarrYmrs'edaysn¶iPaBk~¬gPUmiPaKeyIgenH«nBiPB elak . etICneyokNam nwgkÂayeTACaCnCatiGalWÂm"gd_k~¬gPUmiPaKGasIuEb"k GeK~y_ ehIyCaBiess cMeJHkmõ¬CaeyIgÉ? xƬMBuMGacnwgecaTnUvbJúaenHeLIg edayxÃHkarQWcab'exÂacp§ak~¬gsmº CJï:rbs'xƬMVneLIy . menaseJÍtnalnÂg'lenÂac¨segH¨segac s¶IBuMecj EtgEtekIteLIg k~¬gsmºCJï:xƬM kalebIyUr@m¶g xƬMnwkKiteTAdl'bJúad*FMeFgnigsµ¬KsµajenH CaBiessKWbJúa«nkarKg'vg§Cév^trbs'kmõ¬CaeyIg k~¬gzan:Ca¨bCaCatimYy (Nation) k~¬gPUmiPaKGasuIEb"kGeK~y_enH . m´"ageTot, enHCabJúa«nGnaKt kal EdlBiVknwg¨bemIlemIledayBit¨VkdTukCamun ehIymYycMENk eTot ¨bvti¶saås¶GacmankrNIelIkElgEdrù ù ù ù . EtebITukCay"agdUcem¶cm¶ak¶I eyIgGac¨tiHriHVncMeJHbJúaenH edayGag eTAelIFmµPaB«n¨bvti¶saås¶mnus§Cati P&s¶¬tag¨bvti¶saås¶ EdlknÂgrYcmk ehIy nigehtukarN_Casarvn¶xÂH@ EdleyIgVneXIjk~¬g{kasfµé@ Ék~¬g bcͬbºn~kalenH .l.
  • 9. 2 emeron«n¨bvti¶saås¶KWGÃI? eyIgBuMmanbMNgykTMB&renHmkbe¨gonGMBI Ts§nv^CØa«n¨bvti¶saås¶ (Philo- sophie de l'Histoire) eT EtKbºIeyIgeFÃIkarrM®kxÂH EdlmanGtĨbeyaCn_ cMeJH karyl'rbs'eyIg eyIg¨tèvecosvagnUv kareJledaymWugm"at' (le dogmatisme) EteyIg¨tèvEtCa G~k¨Vkdniym . Ts§nv^TUCae¨cInVnecaTsYrcMeJHemeron«n ¨bvti¶saås¶enHfa Ð etI¨bvti¶saås¶manemeronp¶l'mk[eyIgeT? Ék*¨bvti¶saås¶man¨beyaCn_eT? . ebI e¨sceTAtamelak EhßEhðl (Hegel) É b"Ul vaeLrI (Paul Valéry) ¨bvti¶saås¶Gac manÉKµan¨beyaCn_GÃITal'EtesaH. cMeJHeyIg eyIgyl'fa¨bvti¶saås¶man ¨beyaCn_pg ehIyKµan¨beyaCn_pg ¨bvti¶saås¶EdlKµan¨beyaCn_ Edl hßanGHGagy"agenH KWedayehtufa KµanVtuPUt¨Bwt¶ikarN_¨bvti¶saås¶äNa (Phènomènes ou évènements historiques) GacekIteLIgv^jBIrdg ehIyman lkÅN_dUcK~aeLIy (Les évènements historiques ne se répètent pas, ou tout du moins de la même façon) . karBn´l'enH Ga¨s&yedayehtufa k~¬gsm&ymYy mansÄanPaB É lkÅn¶ik: (Conditions) sgðmkicÍneyaVy vbºFmáesd½kicÍù ù ù ù EbÂkBIsm&y mYyeTot . dUec~HehIy eyIgBuMGacrkBIsÄanPaBBIr [manlkÅN:dUcK~aVneT ya"gNamij eyIgk*BuMGacTajnUvemeronGÃImYy[¨Vkd¨bCaGacykGÃICaKMrU VneLIy . KYreyIgykÓTahrN_mkBn´l' : sågðamelakelIkTI1 TukNaCaTmÂak'karxus¨tèvd*F©n'eTA¨beTsGalÂW- m"ajk¶I k*mUlehtuEdlbN¶alenHsµ¬KsµajNas' minEmnEt¨beTsGalÂW- m"ajm~ak'ägeT KWTÃIbGWrubenHägCaG~kTTYlxus¨tèv, edaybegûIt[mannUvkar ¨bNSg¨bECg (Rivalités) xagpÂèvesd½kicÍ Ós§ahkmµ JNiCØkmµ, ehIycug
  • 10. 3 e¨kaybgís' kar¨bNSg¨bECgpÂèvneyaVyTUtnigeyaFa ehIyTSgGs'k*Ca plv^Vk«nkarlUtlas'Év^vDón_ «nrbbmUlFnGn¶rCatiEdr (développement du capitalisme International) . dl's¨gðamelakelIkTIBIrpæ¬HeLIg BiPBelak hak'dUcCayl'fa ¨bvti¶saås¶fye¨kayv^j¨cMEdl (se répéter) . ¨beTsGalÂWma"jbgûsågðamelakeTotehIy EtebItamkarBiteTA, sågðamelakelIkTIBIrenH KWbN¶almYyPaKd*FMGMBIkarqûçtlIla (la folie) «n mnus§m~ak' KW hIuEt (Hitler) enHäg . rIäsgðmGalÂWm"gd_v^j BIsm&y hðIeyam TI2 (Guillaume II) mksm&y hIuEtÂr KWmankarE¨b¨bYle¨cInNas'eTAehIy. ä cMENksÄankarN_Gn¶rCatiEp~kesd½kicÍneyaVy v^T´asaås¶k*dUec~aHEdr . etITSgenHÉ EdleKsn~id½anfa¨bvti¶saås¶Kµan¨beyaCn_? enHKWCamti É CaniekÅbbT(Thèse) mYyEdr. EtebIeyIgBicarNa[e¨CA¨CHedayykFmµPaK«n karv^vDón_enHCaTIGag, eyIgBuMGackat'p¶ac'¨bvti¶saås¶Cakg'duM@(Morceaux)ecj BIK~aeLIy . bcͬbºn~kaleyIgenHCalTìpl«nGtItkalsm&yburaN.l. ehIyeKfyeTAe¨kayrhUteTAdl'kMeNIt«nBiPBelakù ù ù . CakarBitNas' vtĬk~¬gelakenH GÃI@k*edaymankarTak'TgK~ay"agC^ts~iTì (Tout est lié à tout) . y"agNamij eyIgBuMGacp¶ac'GtItkalfµé@ ÉburaNnigbcͬbºn~kal nig GnaKtkalVneLIy . dUec~H ¨bvti¶saås¶¨VkdCaBnÂWbJÍSgmkelIbcͬbºn~ kalnigGnaKtkal . KWk~¬gn&yenHehIy EdleyIgKYrelIkykbJúaedImrbs'eyIgmkedaH¨say KWbJúa«nkarKg'vg§ Cév^t¨bCaCatieyIgk~¬gPUmiPaKenH«nBiPBelak, bMPÂWdl'smºCJï:eyIgral'K~a. X X X
  • 11. 4 ¨beTseyokNamnigeyIgk~¬gGtItkal k~¬g¨bvti¶saås¶«nmnus§Cati manclna eTsn¶r¨bevsn_ (Migration) mYyEdlmanlkÅN:CaTUeTA ehIyeKsegûtmanmkehIy k~¬gsm&yGtIt kalbUraN nigfµé@enH KW dMeNIreTATisxagtºèg| (La marche vers le sud) «nCn CatiTSgLay Edlrs'enAEp~kxageCIg«nEpndI (Hémisphère Nord) . dUcenH enATÃIbGWrub CnxageCIgdUc n&rm"g' (Normands) Eh§rma"nIk (Germaniques) Vnruj¨cancuHmkxage¨kam cab'tSgBIstvt§TI5-6 rhUtmk dl'stvt§TI11-12 . enATÃIb²Nëa CnCati Gayin (Aryens) smº¬rs VncuH mkBIEb"kxagtºèg«n¨beTsrus§I mktSgenAxagtºèg«nCYr P~MhimJn¶ k~¬gTIval «n TenÂsinì¬ nig TenÂKgða (Plaine indo gangetique) ehIyruj¨canCati ²Nëa edIm smº¬rexµA (Les dravidiens) [cuHmkenAEp~kxagtºèg (Le Dekkan) . enAxageCIg nigxaglic«n¨beTs kmõ¬Ca CnCatiesom EdlmankMeNIt enAk~¬gGaNaEx¨t yUNan (Yunnan) «n¨beTscin, Vncab'ep¶Ims¨mukcuHmk xagtºèg tSgBIstvt§TI12 mkemÂ"H edayVnmktSgenAk~¬gGaNaEx¨tExµrTSg Lay xaglic¨beTs kmõ¬Ca sm&ybcͬbºn~ ehIyruj¨canrhUtdl'eTA m"aLayU rYctSgTIenAelIext¶ ma"LayU enHpg. k~¬gÓbTIÃb ²Nëècin dEdlenH Cn Cati eyokNam EdlmanedImkMeNIt enAPUmiPaK tugkwg (Tonkin) k*VneFÃIkar s¨mukcuHmke¨kamEdrÐ mkdl'cugstvt§TI14 CnCatieyokNam Vnvay deN¶ImehIytSgTIrbs'xÂçnk~¬gGaNaext¶xageCIgTSgLay «nnKr cam (Champa) manext¶ kÃagbßéj (Quang Binh) kÃag¨TI (Quang Try) ev" (Hué) ehIyrhUt mkdl' TUr"an (Tourane) sBëf© . BIstvt§TI15 mkdl'stvt§TI17 nKr cam TSgmUl rhUtmkdl' bßIjfaj' (Binh Thuan) Eb"kxagtºègbMput ¨tèvrlay Vt'eQµaHBIEpnTI«nBiPBelak (1696) .
  • 12. 5 karvatTItSgenAk~¬gnKr cmº"a minTan'TSgcb'e¨scVc'ehIypg, niKm Cn yYn | k*cab'ep¶ImrulsMrukcuHmke¨kameTot edImºImkdl'Tl'Edn kmõ¬Ca e¨kam Etm¶g . EdndId*manCéCati smºèNáeTAedayFnFanxagksikmµ man ¨sUv ¨tI nigdMNS¨Kb'Ebby"agenAEdndIsN¶ (Delta) «nTenÂemKgð nigbN¶a CnCatiExµrEdlmancMnYnticenAeLIy (tamsiÄtiEdlmannacugstvt§TI 17 manCnCatiExµr¨bEhl 40, 000 ¨KYsar KW¨bEhl 200 000 nak' Et bu"eNöaH elI«pædICag 60, 000 Km2 )(1) ehtuTSgenHäg VnTak'TajGarmµN_ dl'GaNaniKmyYnCaxÂSg EdlCae¨cInstvt§mkehIy VnXÂatkan'Etq©ay eTAGMBIEdndIsN¶«nTen¨khm (Delta du Fleuve Rouge) CaPUmiPaKkMeNItrbs' xÂçn ¨bkbedayFnFanksikmµ dUcCaEdndIsN¶TenÂemKgðEdr . Ga¨s&yehtuenHehIy eKalbMNgykPUmiPaKxagtºèg«nkmõ¬Ca ¨tèv cat'CaKMeragkarEdl¨tèvGnuvt¶PÂam@ «nCnCatievotNam cab'tSgBIstvt§TI 17 mkemÂ"H. enAedImstvt§TI17 eKk*cab'ep¶ImcUlmktSgenAedayes©¿ms©at' CaFmµta k~¬gcMeNamGaNaext¶Exµr Eb"kxagekIt«nEdndI kmõ¬Cae¨kam KWPUmiPaK Vero (Baria) ebonhÃa (Bien Hoa) , «¨BnKr sBëf©enH. kartSgTIenH eFÃIeTAVnk* edaysarEtkareFÃs¨bEhs «nraCkarExµreyIgk~¬gext¶TSgLayenaH, ehIy Ga¨s&ym´"ageTot mkGMBIsågðamk~¬g¨sukrvagK~aäg k~¬gkarv^vaTdeN¶ImblÂ&gû raC´«nk§¨tExµr. k~¬gq~S 1651 CnCatiExµrVneTAsUmC÷nYyGMBIes¶c egÿg ev¯g (Hien Vuong) edImºITb'Tl'nwgk§¨tdeN¶ImraC´mYyGgð . egÿg ev¯g k*¨bjab' ¨bjal'bJØènkgT&BmYyBlFMeTACYy ehIyeq¿t{kasenaH eFÃIkarbgÅMdeN¶Im ykGaNaext¶Vero nigebonhÃaEtm¶geTA TukCasKuN«nC÷nYyenaH. neya- VyGn¶raKmn_«pæk~¬g«nCnCatiyYn ecHEtmanbn¶eTAeTot¨sbtamclacl Edlmanjy@ k~¬g¨beTs kmõ¬Ca . ehtuenHehIy k~¬gq~S 1696 GaNaext¶«¨B (1) eyageTAtamesovePArbs' (Lế Thánh Khōi, Le Viet-Nam, Editions de Minuit, Paris, 1955.)
  • 13. 6 nKr k*¨tèvFÂak'eTAk~¬gkN¶ab'«dCnCatiyYn ehIymkdl'edImstvt§TI18 kar vatTItSgenH Vnmkdl'TenÂemKgðCae¨sc. naedImstvt§TI18 edaysMGag eTAelIkicÍkarJrrbs'xÂçn¨bqSgnwgesom eTAelIGaNaext¶ExµrEb"kxaglic «n kmõ¬Cae¨kam ext¶ Jm (Ha Tien) raCa (Rach Gia) sBëf©enH CnCatiyYnk*mkeFÃI Gn¶raKmn_fµéeTot eTAelIext¶TSgenaH . q~S 1739 ¨BHmhak§¨tExµr¨Tg'VneFÃI sågðamykext¶Jmmkv^j EtBuMVnse¨mcdUcbMNg . tBIenHeTA GaNaext¶ Eb"kkN¶al«nkmõ¬Cae¨kam manext¶ ems (My Tho) v^jL¬g (Vinh Long) (1731) p§arEdk (Sa Dec) nig mat'¨Cèk (Chau Doc) (1757) k*rebHBImatuPUmiExµrm¶gmYy@ FÂak'eTAk~¬gkN¶ab'«d«nCnCatiyYn, GaNaniKmB¨gIkTwkdI fÃIebImankartva" nig tsUßGMBIraCblÂ&gû¨kugÓt¶¬gðk*eday . naq~S 1765 EdndIkmõ¬Cae¨kamTSgmUl FÂak'eTACaEdndIGaNaniKmyYn elIkElgEtext¶¨TSg (Soc Trang) nig e¨Cay TwkexµA (Camau) EdlTal'EtC^tmYystvt§eTot KWq~S 1840 eTIbFÂak'eTAk~¬g GMNacyYnCadac'e¨sc . ù ù ù BIeBlenaHmk ¨bvti¶saås¶«n kmõ¬Cae¨kam dUcCa¨bvti¶saås¶«n nKrcmºa" Edr k*rlaycUlCamYynwg¨bvti¶saås¶«n¨bCaCatievotNamrhUtmkTl'«f©enH . X X X
  • 14. 7 GaNaniKmniymTSg3 b"HTgðicK~aenA²Nëècin karEdleyIgykGtItkald*CUrct'enH mkrM®kk~¬gTIenHeqÂIynwgeKal bMNgmYycºas'las'Nas' KWedImºIbMPÂWdl'karv^vDón_«n¨bvti¶saås¶k~¬gPUmi PaK«nBiPBenHEtbu"eNöaH ¨Kan'CaBnÂWdl'smºCJï: «neyIgral'K~a. karv^nicÏ&y [t«mÂÉdak'eTas eTAelICnNam~ak' ¨bCaCatiNamYy Épæ¬yeTAv^j kar sresrk¶I ÉkarjSug[mankarsíb'exõIm rvagCatimYynigCatimYyeTotùùù TSg Gs'enHminEmnCaeKaledA«n¨bvti¶v^TUeT. dUcenH karrM®kCakarcSVc'xagpÂèv bJïa (Besoins de l'intelligence) edImºIBn´l'Etb"ueNöaH . tSgBIedImerogmk GaNaniKmniymnigkarB¨gIkTwkdIniym «n esom ehIynig yYn CakarKMramkMEhgd*e¨KaHf~ak'bMput dl'GayuCév^t«n¨beTs kmõ¬Ca nig lav . munkarmkdl'«nCnCatiEsºksk~¬gPUmiPaKenH enAedImstvt§TI 19 kmõ¬Ca nig lav swgEtsðal'nUvvasnaGP&Bën cmº"a nig¨beTsd*e¨cIneTot«n BiPBelakeTAehIy. EteBlenaH ¨bvti¶saås¶hak'dUcCaedIrelOn, ¨sbeTA tamelº¯n«n¨bvti¶saås¶ nigbecÍkeTs«nbcÍwm¨beTs. k~¬graC´¨BHVT mij m"ag (Minh Mang) (1820-1841) ¨beTskmõ¬Ca TSgmUl¨tèvEbgEckCaBIrPaK EdlmanTl'EdnenA¨tg'Ex§bnæat'x&NëEx¨teJFi sat'nigVt'dMbg ehIyEx§enHqÂgbwgTenÂsabeLIgeTAdl'mÂ諨B munnwgt¨mg' eqõaHeTAsæwgE¨tg eTAdl'¨BM¨beTsExµr-evotNamsBëf©enH. dUcenH dI1PaK3 «nkmõ¬CaPaKxageCIgTenÂsabkÂayeTACaGaNaEx¨tesom. 2PaK3 «nEpndI Exµr e¨kamEx§bnæat'dEdlenaHkÂayeTACaGaNaEx¨tyYn eQµaH ¨tan tay faj' (Tran Tay Thanh) EdlmanemT&B e¨TOg mij y"ag (Truong Minh Giang) Caes¶c ¨taj'manFanIenA NSy"ag (P~MeBj) . enH¨VkdCa dMeNIreqõaHmkTisxaglic v^j edayehtu dMeNIrsMrukcuHmke¨kam Vnse¨mcdl'eKaledA e¨JHeday TwkexµA (Camau) CaEdndIxagtºègbMput«n
  • 15. 8 ²Nëècin Vn¨tèvFÂak'eTAk~¬gkN¶ab'«dyYnrYceTAehIy. EtGaNaEx¨tfµé ¨tan tay faj' enHBuMmanGayuyWnyUreT e¨JHkarGnuvt¶n_neyaVytwgruwg bJÍèl Exµr[eTACayYn (politique d'assimilation forcée) bN¶al[man¨btikmµy"agxÂSg BIsMNak'mhaCnExµr. karbHeVr¨bqSgbMVt'yYnC^HCan'dwknSeday ¨BHGgðdYg edaymanCMnYyesompg VneFÃI[GMNacyYnmankarxUcxaty"age¨cIn ehIy e¨TOg mij y"ag k*dkxÂçnfyeTAenA Gan y"ag k~¬gq~S 1841 . neyaVyeFÃI Exµr [eTACa yYn k*¨tèvTTYlbraC&yy"agCak'Es¶g . CamYyK~aenH karmkdl'«n BYkVrSgcab'BIq~S 1858 eTA, enAEdndIkUsSgsIunVnebIkyuKfµémYyeTot k~¬g ¨bvti¶saås¶«n²Nëècin. GaNaniKmniymyYn k*¨tèvQb'esÂHmYyGenÂIsinùùùù, e¨JH¨beTsyYnxÂçnäg ¨tèvkÂayeTACaEdndIGaNaniKmVrSgm¶gv^j . cMENkäPUmiPaKesom«n kmõ¬Ca manVt'dMbg esomrab mÂ諨B TenÂreBA nigsæwgE¨tg esom¨tçt¨tarhUtdl'q~S 1907 eTIb¨bKl'mk[Exµrv^j eday sarkarsgût'sgû^nxagpÂèvTUtnigpÂèveyaFa«n¨beTsVrSgGaNaniKm Edlb¶èr EdndITSgenaHCamYynwgEx¨t¨tatnigcnætabßun CaGaNaEx¨tesom Tl'muxnwg Ex¨tekaHkugbcͬbºn~enH . cMeJHälavv^j k*sÄankarN_minxusBIkmõ¬CaEdr . BITl'Edncinmkdl' Exµr ¨beTslav¨tèvEbgEckenAedImstvt§TI19 eTACaGaNaext¶esom nig yYn ehIyenAsl'EtraCaNac¨ktUc «n hÂçg¨BHVg nig cMV""sak' EdlenArg'cS karEbgEckbn¶eTAeTotbu"eNöaH . k*bu"En¶dUc kmõ¬Ca Edr karmkdl'«nGaNaniKm niymVrSgVne¨sac¨sg' lav [putBImhn¶rayù ù ù . enHCakarBit, GaNaniKmniymVrSg KWCa¨hÃSgd*sk¶isiTìi Tb'GaNa niKm B¨gIkTwkdIesomnigyYnenAstvt§TI19 min[elbEdndIExµrniglavteTA eTotVn . X X X
  • 16. 9 äNae¨KaHf~ak' ? etIe¨KaHf~ak'eyIgenAäNa ? yYnÉesom ? etI¨beTsesomCamhae¨KaH f~ak'dl'GnaKt«n kmõ¬Ca EmnÉ ? ¨beTsesomsm&ybcͬbºn~enH Ca¨bCaCati mYyFM ( Cag 30 lannak' ) EdlmanTItSgenAkN¶al«nÓbTÃIbGasuIGeK~y_dI eKak elIEdndImYyEdlmanTenÂemNam (= emTwk) hUrkat'CakN¶al ehIy Edl¨bkbeTAedayCICati ehIynigFnFanksikmµy"agFMeFg . TItSgenA kN¶aly"agenH «n¨beTsesomelIvalTMnabs¶¬ks¶m¸ (au milieu d'une plaine riche) Gacp¶l'[¨beTsesomnUvnaTImYyy"agFM k~¬gPUmiPaKenH«nBiPBelak . EtkarBit hak'dUcmindUec~HesaH . ¨beTsesommanlkÅN:CaEdndI mYy EdlmankarlatsnìwgCaGtibrmaeTAehIy BIxageCég KWTl'Ednesom lav- PUma mkdl'xagtºègTl'Ednesom-ma"LayU mancm©ay¨bEhl 2000 KILèEm"¨t ehIy¨beTsenHxÃHäkPaBxagPUmisaås¶ (absence de l'unité géographique) neyaVynigesd½kicÍpg . PUmiPaK¨bkbedayFnFanKWdIsN¶ «nTenÂemNam EdlmanbeN¶ay¨bEhl 460 Kùmù nigTTwg 200 Kùmù . dIenH KWCaC¨guk¨sUv«n¨beTsesom, CaebHdUgesd½kicÍCati . PUmiPaKep§gBIenH CaPUmiPaKbnæab'bn§M cMeJHCnCatiesomehIyG~k Edlrs'enAenaH minEmnCaCnCatiesomsuTìsaFpg- tMbn'xageCIg KWBBYkCn CatiPaKtic kaern, cam, lav xageCIgeqogxagekIt KW lav nig Exµr xagtºègeqog xagekIt KW Exµr yYn nig cin äxagtºègmanCnCati ma"LayU kan'sasna²sÂam . CnCatibreTsTSgenHEdlrs'enACuMv^jTenÂemNam mankarGak'Gn'cit¶CaxÂSg edayCnCatiesomTukBYkTSgenH Ca Blrd½bnæab'bn§M (Citoyens de second zone) | ehIykarlUtlas'xagesd½kicÍeTotesat k*yWtyUrfyefakCae¨cIn ebIe¨bobeFobnwgPUmiPaK¨kugVgkk nigtam«dTenÂemNam EdlCnCatiesom nigcinrs'enAedaykkkuj . ehtukarN_TSgenaHbN¶al[manclnaG~kCati niym (Mouvements Séparatistes) enAtamEdndITSgenaH Cae¨KaHf~ak'mYyy"agFM cMeJHäkPaBxagneyaVy«n¨beTs .
  • 17. 10 bJúaFM EdlecaTsBëf© KWkarekInd*qab'rh&s (une démographie galopante) «nCnCatiesom . EdndIsN¶«nTenÂemNamnwgBuMGacTb'Tl'dl' Tm©n'd*kan'EtF©n'eLIg@enHeT . dUec~H edImIºedaH¨saybJúaenH eK¨tèvB¨gIknUv FnFanksikmµ ädIEdlenACuMv^jEdndIsN¶ CadI¨kTSgGs' . enHehIyEdl eFÃI[CnCatiesomnwkKiteTAdl'TIvalTMnab«nTenÂemKgð nigTenÂsabmanEx¨t Vt'dMbgExµrCaedIm EdlsmºèreTAedayFnFanksikmµ GacciJÍwmmnus§e¨cIn lannak' . fÃIebIsm&ybcͬbºn~enH Ke¨magEpnkarenHhak'dUcGnuvt¶minse¨mc edayehtufa esommanbJúa«pæk~¬gù ù ù k*bu"En¶eTAGnaKteT ebIesd½kicÍesom minVnlUtlas'[¨sbeTAtamkarekIny"agqab'rh&s«nbN¶aCneT karvay deN¶ImykEb"kxaglic«n¨beTskmõ¬Ca GaceTACakarBitVn . enHe¨sceTAelIkarv^vDón_«n¨bvti¶sa¨s¶ . k~¬gbcͬbºn~enH esomenATn' ex§ayxag«pæk~¬g BuMGaclatsnìwgVneToteT ebImindUec~aHeT äkPaBesom cºas'Ca¨tèvTTYlkarKMramkMEhg BICnCatiPaKticy"agF©n'F©rminElgeLIy . karlatsnìwghYsmaD nwgnSmk[esomnUvPaBTn'ex§ayv^jeT . Ga¨s&y ehtuenHehIy ebItameyabl'rbs'eyIg e¨KaHf~ak'rbs'eyIgminEmnenATis xaglic KWxagekItCa¨Vkd . ¨beTseyokNamrYbrYmK~aùùù e¨KaHf~ak'dl'kmõ¬Ca ! ebI¨beTseyokNamxageCég nigxagtºègrYbrYmK~av^j ¨beTsenHnwgeTA Ca¨beTsCatiy"agFM«nGasuIPaKGeK~y_ (40 lannak') . ebI¨bsinNaCacMnYnbN¶aCnCakt¶amYybnæab'bn§M cMeJHmhiTiìriTìneya Vy (la puissance politique) «nrd½nImYy@ KuNsmºti¶«n¨bCara¨s¶ (les qualités d'un peuple) nigkarv^vDón_«nbN¶aCn (L'évolution de la population) ¨VkdCakt¶a EdlsMxan'CageKbMput . cMENkäkt¶aTSg3enH CnCatievotNammanTSg Gs' eday²t¨bEkkVn -TI1 bN¶aCne¨cInGacelb²NëècineTAGnaKtVn, TI2 karekInd*elOnrh&s«nbN¶aCnenH, nigTI3 sMxan'bMputKWKuNsmºti¶Ca Biess«n¨bCaraås¶evotNamenHäg . cMeJHkrNIxage¨kayenH ebImanCn CatiäNa EdleKGac¨bdUcVnCamYynwgCnCatiyYn KWCnCatiCb"unnigGalÂW- m"g'enHäg . CnCatieyokNam Ca¨bCaraås¶mYy¨bkbeday¨VCÆafamBl
  • 18. 11 esck¶IkÂahannigBiessbMputcit¶tsUß .l. ¨bvti¶saås¶«nCnCatieyokNamenH Ca ¨bvti¶saås¶«nsågðamEdl¨bCaraås¶eyokNamVneFÃIeday²t¨sak¨san¶CamYynwgbreTs enACitxag man cin cmº"a lav esom ExµrnigrvagK~anigK~axageCIgTl'nwgxag tºèg . karenHekItmaneLIgCae¨cInstvt§mkehIy ehIyhak'dUcCaKµansJïa äNabJØak'fa sågðamenHnwgQb'esÂHehIy eTaHCae¨kaykarbJÎb'sågðam enAeyokNamsBëf©enHk¶I . vasna«n¨beTseyokNamCavasna«n¨bCaCatimYyEdl B¨gIkTwkdIedaysågðam ehIyEdl¨tèveKeFÃIsågðameTAGnaKteTot . sågðamjwkjy y"agenH Vnse¨mceFÃI[CnCatieyokNammancritrwgbwug ecHGt'Fµt'esck¶I lMVk mankartsUßedaysÃitsÃaj KWlkÅN:TSgenHäg EdlCaPaBGnue¨KaH dl'kar¨byuTìedayv^FIhig§a . enHCakt¶axagpÂèvcit¶saås¶ Edlsar:sMxan' cMeJHkaryl'rbs'eyIg . cUreyIgnwkKiteTAdl'¨bvti¶saås¶ etICn¨bePTNaEdlmkvatTItSgenA cmº"a nigenA kmõ¬Cae¨kam? KWCnGanafa¨klMVketaky"ak G~keTasEdleKedj BIEb"kxagelI [cuHmkrkTItSgdIfµéenAPUmiPaKxage¨kam G~kTSgenHmkCa Tahanpg CaniKmCn (Colons) pg . mundMbUgmktSgenAedayes©¿ms©at' rYcehIyk*tSgbgûerOgehtuTal'Et mÍas'dIdkxÂçnecjBITIenaHeTAùùù. ²LèvenH¨Bwti¶karN_enHcab'manCafµéeLIgv^j ehIy sBëf©enHenAkmõ¬CaeyIg, y"agenHKYrEteyIgmanbuBÃehtu«nesck¶I¨Bçy Vrm¸rbs'eyIg(1) . (1)-GtÄbTenHsresrk~¬gq~S1969 KWmunGn¶raKmn_«nkgT&BeyokNamxagtºègk~¬g¨beTskmõ¬Cae¨kay «f©TI18mIna1970
  • 19. 12 GaNaniKmniymB¨gIkTwkdI É GaNaniKmniymesd½kicÍ ( Colonialisme territorial ou Colonialisme économique ? ) karQÂanJnvaydeN¶ImykTwkdI edaykmÂSgT&Bk~¬gsm&ystvt§TI 20 enH hak'dUcCahYssm&yniymeTAehIy . nabcͬbºn~kalenH sÄab&nCa e¨cIn«nmnus§Cati manGgðkarsh¨bCaCati, mtisaFarNCnGn¶rCati Ggðkar karJrsn¶iPaB neyaVysmõnìmit¶ .l. suTìswgEtCakmÂSgxagpÂèvcit¶ Ca ÓbsKðdl'karrMelaPdeN¶ImykTwkdIeday¨sYl GMBIsMNak'CatimYy eTAelI CatimYyeTot . k*bu"En¶GaNaniKmniymsm&yfµé EdleyIgKYrVrm¸ KWGaNaniKmtam ry:esd½kicÍ . eyokNamxageCég ¨bkbedayÓs§ahkmµd*xÂSgkÂa nig eyok NamxagtºègsmºèrN_FnFanksikmµ GacbMeBjK~aeTAv^jeTAmk ehIykÂay eTACaesd½kicÍmYylUtlas'elOn«nGasIuPaKGeK~y_ . PaBsmºèNáeTAeday vtĬFatuedImCatiEr" nigfamBl PaBcMerInlUtlas'«nv^T´asaås¶ p§ard*FMeFg KuNsmºti¶rbs'ksikmµ .l. EdleKsegûteXIjmanenA¨beTseyokNam sBëf©enH suTìswgCakt¶a«nkarrIkcMerInlUtlas'«nÓs§ahkmµCati «n¨beTs enH . fÃIebIb"unµanq~SenH ¨beTseyokNam¨tèvxUcxatexæcxæIswgEtTSgGs' nUv sgÅarN:¨Kb'Ebby"agk¶I shrd½GaemrikminGaccakecjBIeyokName¨kay Edlsågðamcb' ehIyedayTuk[¨beTsenHsÄitk~¬gsÄanPaBdundabdUec~H eLIy . sùrùGaù ¨VkdCasÄabnaeyokNameLIgv^j edImºIlublagxÂçn cMeJH¨bvti¶saås¶mnus§Cati . dUec~HehIy esd½kicÍeyokNammuxCaelb esd½kicÍ«n¨beTsd«T@ CitxagminElgeLIy . enHCaCMhaneTAkan'karVt' bg'nUväkraCPaB«neyIg . KWeBlenHehIy Edl¨bvti¶saås¶nwgEcgnUv dMeNIreqõaHmkkan'Tisxag lic| «n¨bCaraås¶eyokNamCaBit¨Vkd . X X X
  • 20. 13 neyaVy Çmha¨beTseyokNamÈ ? La politique du Grand Vietnam? eyIgBuMhßansn~id½anGÃITukCamun [¨Vkd¨bCa nwgGacykCakºçnt¨ma ¨twm¨tèv cMeJHGnaKt«nvasnaCatieyIg enaHvaBitEmnehIy EteyIg¨tèvEt mankatBÃkicÍeBjeljk~¬gbJúaenH edImºITajnUvemeronxÂH@ Edl¨bvti¶sa¨s¶ VnFÂab'sðal' mankarBiesaFn_rYcmkehIy . ÓTahrN_ EdlmanlkÅN: Casarvn¶enaH minxÃHeTk~¬g¨bvti¶saås¶ «nBiPBelakeyIgnasm&yGtItkal fµé@enH . eyIgenAcSy"agCak'Es¶g k~¬gsµartIeyIgm~ak'@ enAeLIyfa k~¬g sm&ymunsågðamelakelIkTI2 ¨beTsGalÂWma"j (Allemagne) Vnp¶l'cMeJH mnus§CatinUvemeronmYyCadMNM. karGÃIEdleKsµanfaBuMGacekItmaneLIgesaH CYnkalk*GacekItman eLIgVnEdr ehIykarenHvae¨sceTAelIeTs:kal:nakalsm&ypg e¨sc eTAelIqnæ:«nG~kneyaVyCatienaHpg . ¨beTsGalÂWm"aj VnGnuvt¶nUv¨Tws¶I neyaVyrbs'G~kdwknSeQµaHhIuEtÂr (Hitler) TamTar[¨bCaCatiGalÂWm"gð man siTìirs'enAelIEdndImYyFM ehIyEdleKcat'EdndIenH CaGayuCév^trbs'eK (Théorie de l'Espace Vital) . clna«nkarTamTarB¨gékTwkdéenH CnCatiGalÂWm"gðeKVneFÃIeLIg eday GageTAelIKMnitxusmYyEdlEcgfa ¨bCaCatiGalÂWm"gð Ca¨bCaCatixÂSgBUEkxõg' xõs'dac'eKäg eTAelICnCatid«TeTot manCnCatisÂav (Slaves) nigLatSg (Latins) TSgLayEdlrs'enAk~¬gTÃIbGWr"ubEb"kxagekIt nigGWr"ubEb"kxaglicCa edémenH . ebI¨bsinCaCnCatiGalÂWm"gð CaCatixÂSgBUEky"agenHehIy FmµCati ¨tèvEt¨bKl'eTA[¨bCaCatiGalÂWm"gðnUvEdndémYyFMlµm Gac[¨bCaCatirs' eday¨sçl (Lebensraum)! . kt¶aCasarvn¶mYyeTot KWkarcMerInlUtlas'd* GsÍar´ nigmhiTìiòTì «nÓs§hkmµnigesd½kicÍTUeTA «n¨beTsGalÂWm"gðenHäg ehIyCamYynwgkmÂSgesd½kicÍenH kmÂSgeyaFaKYr[¨BWxÂac«n¨beTsenHeTot pg EdlC÷ruj[G~kdwknSneyaVyGalÂWm"gðsm&yNasuIs¶ Gnuvt¶edayKµan
  • 21. 14 xÂacrEGg nUv¨Tws¶I B¨gékTwkdéniym d*c«¨gGBmgðlenH . edémºIse¨mcnUveKal bMNgGP&BÃenH G~kneyaVyGalÂWm"gð cab'ep¶ém¨bkasTamTart¨mèv[v^l cUlmkk~¬gmha¨KçsarGalÂWm"gð nUvEdndIbreTs naGWr"ubEb"kkN¶alnigxag ekItTSgLayNa EdlmanCnCatiPaKticGalÂWm"gðrs'enA ehIyEdlniyay PasaGalÂWm"gðpg . KWk~¬gKMnitd*exµAggwtenHäg EdlG~kneyaVyGalÂWm"gð bMbHbMeVrbgûbegûétCaclacl ÉKNbk§GalÂWm"gðNasIu k~¬gcMeNamBBYk GalÂWm"gðTSgLay EdlenAäbreTs KWk~¬g¨beTsC^txagenHEtm¶g . kalebI manCaGgðkarTamTarsÃ&yt (Mouvements autonomistes) ÉclnaTamTarkarp¶ac' ecj (Mouvements séparatistes) EdlmansJØatiGalÂWm"gð ehIyclnaTSgenH EtgVnGMJvnav[matu¨beTsGalÂWm"aj CYye¨CamE¨CgGgðkarxÂçnedayeFÃI Gn¶raKmn_pÂèvswk neyaVyÉTUtCaedém . KWeTs:kal:enHägehIy Edlhuc{kaslí[G~kdwknSGalÂWm"gðsMerc nUvbMNgd*Ga¨kk'«n¨Tws¶Irbs'xÂçn . k~¬gn&yenH ¨beTsGU¨TIsTSgmUl (l'Autriche) ¨tèvFÂak'eTAk~¬gkN¶ab'«d«nBYkNasuIs¶niymk~¬gq~S 1936 . Edndé Eb"kxaglic«n¨beTseqkUsÂèva"KI KWtMbn'sußyEdt (La région des Sudètes) Edl manCnCatiGalÂWm"gðrs'enA BIcMnYnCag 3 lannak' ¨tèvkÂayeTACaGaNaEx¨t GalÂWm"gð . e¨kaymk KW¨beTseqkUsÂèva"KITSgmUleTot k*¨tèvkÂayeTACaEdndé GaNaB´aVlGalÂWm"gðeTot .l. ÓTahrN_enH manlkÅN:Cak'Es¶gNas'ehIy. etIeyIgGacsYrfa etI¨Bwti¶karN_d*exµAggwtenH EbbGacekIteLIgsafµéeTot É k~¬g¨bvti¶saås¶«n mnus§Cati . CakarBitNas' CYnkal¨bvti¶saås¶v^lcuHv^leLIg ¨tLb'mk e¨kayv^jk*manù ù ù ù . karEdleyIg¨Kan'Et¨keLkemIleTACnCatiGasIu Eb"k kN¶al (Les Peuples de l'Asie Centrale) EdlsBëf©enH sÄitenAe¨kamkar¨Kb' ¨KgTSg¨sug«n¨kugmU"sðè (Moscou) b"ueNöaHeyIgk*GacmanKMnitxÂHEdrehIy GMBI ehtu«nkmÂSgesd½kicÍneyaVynigeyaFa «nmha¨beTsmYyeTAelI¨bCaCati tUctac . cuHenAÓbTÃIb²Nëècinv^j etIÓTahrN_ GalÂWm"gð|GacmaneLIgsaCafµéeT enAk~¬g tMbn'eyIgenH ? karenHe¨sceTAelI¨bvti¶saås¶¨Vb'eyIgk~¬gGnaKtcuHù ù ù eyIg
  • 22. 15 ¨Kan'EtsUmp¶l'nUv v^PaK «nsÄankarN_neyaVynigesd½kicÍk~¬ge¨Cay²Nëècin Etb"ueNaH edImIºCakarBicarNateTA Ð ¨bCaCati É ¨bCaraås¶eyokNam Ca¨bCaCatimYyEdleKGaccat'Tuk edayKµanlak'elomfa man famBl (dynamisme) manKuNsmºti¶xagpÂèvbJïa (les qualités Intellectuelles) ¨Kb'¨Kan' .l. esd½kicͨbeTsevotName¨kaysågðam Ca esd½kicÍEdlnwgmankmÂSgek¿vkÂa ¨sbCamYynwgkMritxõg'xõs'xagkarGb'rMv^T´a saås¶ nigbecÍkeTs«nCnCatienH . m´"ageTot xagpÂèveyaFa, ¨beTseyok- NamnwgmankgT&Bd*xÂSgBUEk k~¬gcMeNam¨bCaCatiTSgLay enAe¨Cay²Nëè cinnigk~¬gGasuIPaKGeK~y_enH . k*bu"En¶ehtukarN_mYyeTot EdleyIgmankar Vrm¸Bn'eBkenaH KWCakarEdlmanGaNaniKmCnCatiyYn (les colonies vietnamiennes) y"agsMxan' k~¬g¨beTsC^txagTSgLay : enA¨beTskmõ¬Ca - Cag 500 000 nak' (1) ¨beTslav-Cag50 000nak' (ebIbUkrYmnwgTahaneyokNamxageCég) ¨beTsesom - Cag 50 000 nak' . enA¨beTskmõ¬CaeyIg ¨Kan'EtcMnYn«nCnbreTsyYnenH eFÃI[eyIgman karVrm¸enaHBn'eBkNas'eTAehIy . ehIy¨bsinebIkarlYccUlmkkan'Et e¨cInbn¶eTAeTot eKBiVknwgsn~id½anNas'cMeJHplv^Vk xagpÂèvesd½kicÍk* dUcCaxagpÂèvneyaVyEdl¨beTseyIg¨tèvTTYlrge¨KaH . CaBiessNas' eTAeTot CnCatiyYnTSgenHBuMgaynwgrlaycUleTAk~¬gsgðmCatinanaTSgenaH eLIy eKenAEfrk§a¨b«BNI TMenomTmÂab'yYn nwgbMNgxagpÂèvcit¶ÉneyaVy CamYynwgmatu¨beTsedémkMeNIt . KWk~¬gKMnitenHehIy EdleK¨tèvcat'TukCn CatiyYnfaCa e¨KaHf~ak'y"agFM mYyxagEp~kneyaVy . karEdl¨beTsev¿tNam nwg¨tèvlUtlas'duHdale¨kaysm&y sågðamenHeTA nwgGaceFÃI[bMNgpÂèvcit¶nigpÂèvneyaVy«nCnCatiyYnTSgenH rwtEtmanlkÅN:mSTSxÂSgeLIgCaBuMxan . äcMeJHbJúaCnCaticink~¬g¨beTs (1) e¨kay«f©18 mIna1970, CnCatiyYnCag 100 000 nak' ¨tLb'eTA eyokNamxagtºègv^j .
  • 23. 16 eyIg manlkÅN:ep§g edaysarsÄanPaBPUmisaås¶neyaVy«n¨beTs eyIg (La situation géo-politique) nigedaysarCnCaticinTSgenaH yUrÉqab'Gac ¨Cçt¨CabrlaycUlnwgsgðmCatieyIgbn¶icm¶g@ . ehtudUec~HehIy VnCa eyIgGacGHGagedayKµanrEGgfa mhae¨KaHf~ak'dl'GayuCév^t¨bCaCatiExµr eyIgk~¬gGnaKtxagmux BIkarlUtlas'duHdalCasafµéeLIgv^j «n¨bCaCatieyok NamenHäg ( la renaissance nationale vietnamienne ) ehIyCabzm, k~¬gbcͬbºn~ kal k*dUck~¬gGnaKtkalC^t@enH, snæ¬H«nesd½kicÍ nigkareXasnap§BÃp§ay «nmenaKmv^CØabd^vt¶enHEtm¶g . X X X
  • 24. 17 etIeyIg¨tèveFÃIdUcem¶c ? karEdleyIgelIkyke¨KaHf~ak'd*FMeFgenH mkBicarNaBn´l'bMPÂWdl'smº- CJï:«neyIgral'K~ay"agdUec~H minEmnVnesck¶Ifa eyIgcat'¨bCaCatieyokNam Cas¨tèvBIdUntaGs'mYyCév^tCatieyIgeLIy (Ennemi hériditaire) . äeyIgv^j k* dUec~aHEdr eyIgmin[¨bCaraås¶yYndEdlenH cat'eyIgTukCas¨tèvGs'mYyCév^t dUcK~aEdr . GtItkalKWGtItkal eyIgmin¨tèv¨cLMGtItkal CamYynwgbcͬbºn~ kalÉGnaKtkalesaHeLIy . Ót¶mKtieyIg k*dUcCaÓt¶mKtiCnCati manGar´- Fmánanak~¬gelakEdr eyIgedAeTArkkarksag GnaKtmYyEdlPÂWsÃag Edllí ¨b«B edayBwgEpíkeTAelIkareyaKyl'K~aeTAv^jeTAmkrvagCatinigCati . kar TSgenHnwg¨tèvse¨mceLIgedayeyageTAtamemeron¨bvti¶saås¶ EdleyIgmin cg'[¨bvti¶saås¶enH vilfye¨kayesaHeLIy . eyIghak'dUcCaVnTTYlkar kk'ek¶Ae¨cInNas' GMBIsMNak'G~kneyaVy¨beTsyYnsm&yenH edayeK Vnsn´afanwgmineFÃI GukL¬k| dl'¨beTseyIgeLIy(1) eKnwgeKarBTTYl sðal'GFibety´PaBnigbUrNPaBTwkdIeyIg . eyIgk*yl'EdrnUvsn¶ancit¶«n G~kC^txageyIgenH . EtKYrKbIºeyIgyl'faenHCa bcͬbºn~kal cuHdl' GnaKtkal yUreTA ? etIyuvCnɨbCaraås¶yYnenH enAEtrk§anUvesck¶IeKarB nigkarTTYlsðal'enHteTAeTot ? sm&ymYyxussm&ymYyeTot ehIykar edaH¨saybJúak*sMerceTAelI karvivt¶n_ enHEdr . k*bu"En¶CakarBitNas' Tuk NaCaG~kdwknSyYnTSgLayenHmansn¶ancit¶lídUcem¶cm¶ak¶I cMeJHeyIg k*G~kTSgenH BuMGacrarSgXat'XSg min[e¨KaHf~ak'enHmancMeJHmatu¨beTseyIgVneLIy e¨JHenH Cacºab'FmµCati CalTìpl«nkarvivt¶n_Gar´FmáBIr Edlmant«mÂmindUcK~a (Ce serait l'aboutissement logique d'un long processus d'évolution de deux civilisations voisines de valeur inégale). (1)- GtÄbTenHsresrmun«f©18mIna1970
  • 25. 18 ehtudUec~H ¨bsinebIe¨KaHf~ak'enHmanPaBCak'Es¶g ehIyEdlGackÂay eTAfakarKMramkMEhgd*kacsahavcMeJHvasnaCatieyIg eyIg¨tèvEtykbJúa enH mkcgcSp¶^tCab'k~¬gsµartInigk~¬gsmºCJï:«n¨bCaCatieyIg . GavuFEdl v^essv^saläNa BuMGaceFÃI[eKalbMNgmnus§se¨mceCaKC&yVneLIy ebImnus§Edlkan'GavuFenHxÃH smºCJï: ¨Kb'¨Kan' cMeJHe¨KaHf~ak'EdlGac ¨bl&yCév^txÂçnnigcMeJH katBÃkicÍ Casarvn¶rbs'xÂçnägy"agenH . dUec~HehIy cMeJH¨bCaCatieyIg GavuFEdlsk¶isiTì bMputGacCYyeyIg[putBImhn¶rayVn KW smºCJï:Cati | enHägehIy (la conscience nationale) . mansmºCJï:Cati KW sðal't«mÂd*v^essv^sal«nCatixagpÂèvvbºFmák*dUcCaxagpÂèvsgðm (la valeurs socio-culturelles) . m´"ageTot mansmºCJï:Cati KWmin¨Kan'EtB¨géknUvkar es~haCati (le patriotisme) b"ueNöaHeT EfmTSgB¨géknUvlTìi Catiniym (le nationalisme) enHeTot . lTiìCatiniymxagpÂèvneyaVy nigpÂèvesd½kicÍCaGavuF«nkarKg'vg§Cév^t «n¨bCaCatieyIg (le nationalisme politique et économique constitue l'unique arme de notre survie en tant que nation dans cette partie du monde) lTiì CatiniymCa¨Tws¶I neyaVy minEmn¨Kan'EtVnesck¶Ifa kars~haCati Edl¨Kan'EtCamenaseJÍtnamYy k~¬gcMeNammenaseJÍtnaTSgLay «n mnus§m~ak'@eLIy . lTiìCatiniym CalTiìEdledAeTAelIkar elIkt«mÂxõg'xõs'«n lkÅNCati «nmenaKmv^CØaCati nigGÃI@TSgLayEdlTak'TgcMeJH¨bCaCati . TSg Gs'enH KWeFÃI[se¨mcnUv Ót¶mKtid*xõg'xõs'rbs'CatidUcCakar lUtlas' karrIk duHdal«nkmÂSgrbs'Cati xagpÂçvneyaVydUcCaxagpÂèvesd½kicÍÉeyaFaEdr . KWk~¬gÓt¶mKtienHehIy EdlkatBÃkicÍCabzmrbs'eyIg KW karB¨gwg«n lTiìCatiniymrbs'eyIg (Renforcer notre nationalisme) eFÃI[lTiìenHman¨KwHmSmYn (Fondements solides) GackÂayeTACamenaKmv^CØaCati¨bkbeday¨bsiTìiPaBCak' Es¶g . KWebIniyay[xÂé KWeFÃI[Jk´ ÇCatiniymÈ man n&yeBjelj . m´"ageTot lTiìenHGaclUtlas'elOneTAmuxVn k*Ga¨s&yeTAelIkarlUt las' lTiì¨bCaFibety´ (la démocratie) EdlGnuJïat[¨bCara¨s¶GaccUlrYb rYmBit¨Vkd k~¬gkicÍkarrd½ (la participation réelle et profonde du peuple dans les
  • 26. 19 affaires de l'Etat ) ehIyGa¨s&yeTAelIkarduHdal«nyuti¶FmápÂèvsgðm ( la justice sociale ) Cak'Es¶g . ebIkt¶aCasarvn¶TSgBIrKµaneT Jk´Catiniym ɨsLaj' Cati¨Kan'EtCasðrkMEbkEtbu"eNöaH BuMGacykCaduMkMPYnGÃIVneLIy . kt¶a mnus§| ( le facteur humain ) Cakt¶aFMbMputku~¬gkicÍkarksagCatieTArk esck¶IcMerIndl'kMritxõg'xõs'«nGar´FmáCati . kalebIkt¶amnus§mansPaB«fÂfÂaehIy karsÄabnaesd½kicÍCati CakatBÃkicÍ cuge¨kaybgís' . eFÃI¨beTskmõ¬Ca[kÂayeTACa¨beTslUtlas' mankmÂSg esd½kicͨKb'¨Kan' GacQmmuxTb'Tl'nwgkmÂSgp§BÃp§ay«nesd½kicͨbeTs CitxageyIg enHehIyEdlCaesck¶I¨Vf~acuge¨kay«n¨bCaCatieyIg . eK niyayfa esd½kicÍdwknSneyaVy ( L'économie dirige la politique ) . ehIyeK niyayeTotfa ebIesd½kicÍeyIgex§ay eyIgBuMGacnwgse¨mcVnnUv äkraC´ neyaVy VneLIy ( L'indépendance politique ) . Vnesck¶Ifa ebIesd½kicÍ eyIgex§ay Jk´äkraC´neyaVy | enH KW¨Kan'EtJk´TeT Kµansar: sMxan'GÃIesaH . eyIgkuMniyayeLIydl'eTAcg'se¨mc[man äkraC´esd½kicÍ ( L'indépendance économique ) eBjelj BIe¨JHenH¨Kan'EtJk´esÂakEt bu"eNöaH . sm&yenHminEmnsm&y Edlrs'enABwgEpíkeTAelIxÂçnägTSg¨sug (L'autarcie) bMVt'karTak'TgxagpÂèvesd½kicÍCamYybreTs ù ù ù . manEtmha GMNacmYy É BIrbu"eNöaHk~¬gelakenHeT EdlGacse¨mcnUväkraC´esd½kicÍ enHVn edayGageTAelIePaK¨TB´d*²tKNna EdlFmµCatielakVn¨bTan mk[¨beTsTSgenH . cuHcMeJH¨beTseyIg EdlKµanFnFanBIFmµCatiGÃIb"unµan e¨kAGMBI dIlºb'TenÂemKgð ¨bkbeTAeday CICati nig Twkd*bribUNá ²tKNna nig kMedA¨BHGaTit´ KWeyIgmanEt FnFanTSg 3 bu"eNöaHesaH (dI Twk kMedA) . ehtu y"agenHehIyVnCa mUld½an«nesd½kicÍCatieyIg KW ksikmµenHäg . eyIgmanFnFan 3 ehIy xÃHEtmYyeTotbu"eNöaH edImIºse¨mcnUvkar lUtlas'Vn KWkarGb'rMksikreyIgeTAtambecÍkeTs nigv^T´asa¨s¶TMenIb (l'information technique des agriculteurs) ¨bsinebIksikmµeyIglUtlas'eBj TMhwgehIy ¨beTsnwgGackÂayeTACa ÇkMBUlÈ k¬~gPUmiPaKGasuIGeK~y_eyIg enH ( le Cambodge serait "roi" de l' Asie du Sud-Est ) . etIVtuPUtTSgenHÉ EdlCa
  • 27. 20 mUld½and*v^essv^sal ¨T¨Tg'nUvlTiìCatiniymesd½kicÍrbs'rd½ExµreyIg ? eyIgman¨Kb'¨Kan'ehIymUld½anTSgenH eyIgenAxÃHEtqnæ: e¨bobVnnwgEdk É kareb¶CÆacit¶TSg¨sugEtbu"eNöaHeToteT Edlesd½kicÍksikmµeyIgnwg¨tèvcab' ep¶émedIreTAmux . 10 É 20 q~SeTot neyaVyenH¨VkdCa[plCak'Es¶gCa Bit¨Vkd . m´"ageTot 30q~SeTot bN¶aCneyIgekIndl'eTA 15lannak' ¨beTs eyIgnwgkÂayeTACa¨beTsFMsmºèrsbºaymYy Camha¨beTsmYyk~¬gPUmiPaK GasuIEb"kxagtºègminElgeLIy . eBlenaHehIy Edl¨bCaCatieyIgQb'mane¨Bob eGanfyCageK (Complexe d'infériorité) manmuxmat'Ca¨beTsmYy EdlmanC&yCMnHeTAelIPaB x§t'ex§ay VnerIb¨mHecjBInwm«n¨bvit¶sa¨s¶ e¨kaysm&ymhanKr ( Ce sera la libération définitive de notre peuple de tant de siècles de décadence et d'écrasement physique et moral ) . eFÃIy"agenH KW¨VkdCaeyIg¨bKl'eTA[¨bCaCatieyIgv^jnUvesck¶IkÂa han famBl nigesck¶I«fÂf~èrEdlVt'bg'Gs'ry:eBlCag 6 stvt§rYc mkehIy . X X X
  • 28. 21 esck¶IbJÍb' enAk~¬gBiPBmYyEdlkmÂSgesd½kicÍ E¨bkÂayeTACakmÂSgelIslb'k~¬g kar¨T¨Tg'nUvkarKg'vg§Cév^t ( la survie ) Cati, ehIym´"ageTot enAk~¬gPUmiPaKenH EdlsPaBrMeBItrMeBInxÃHesÄrPaBCaGci«ån¶y_ eFÃI[eyIgBiVk¨bemIlnUvGna- Ktkal ¨beTskmõ¬CasÄitenAk~¬gsÄanPaBPUmisa¨s¶nigneyaVymYy Edl manlkÅN:sµ¬Ksµaj rkGÃI¨bdUcminVneLIy . sÄanPaBenH BitCae¨KaHf~ak' mYyEdlKMramkMEhg¨beTseyIgral'CMhan «nkarv^vt¶n_«n¨beTs . edImIºnwg karJrmatu¨beTs¨bqSgnwge¨KaHf~ak'enH eyIg¨tèvEt¨bmUlnUvkmÂSgcit¶kmÂSg kay edImIºsÄabna¨beTskmõ¬Ca[kÂayeTACa ¨beTsmYylUtlas' mankmÂSg esd½kicͨKb'¨Kan' GacTb'Tl'nwgkarp§BÃp§ay«nkmÂSgesd½kicÍrbs'¨beTs Citxag EdlsuTìswgEtCa¨beTsFM@ mankmÂSgesd½kicÍnigneyaVyKYr[ eyIgmankar¨BYyVrm¸ . karKg'vg§Cév^t«n¨bCaCatieyIg k~¬gsÄankarN_d*lMVkenH vae¨scTSg ¨sugeTAelImUld½anEdlmanlkÅN:¨Vkdniym ehIymSTSrwgbuwgeTotpg . ämUld½anenaH eyIgrM®km¶gehIym¶geTotcuH KWKµanGÃIe¨kABIFnFanksikmµ eLIy. ksikmµeyIglUtlas' Vnesck¶Ifaesd½kicÍCatieyIglUtlas' Vnesck¶I eTotfa eyIgmanGavuF¨Kb'¨Kan' edImIº¨byuTì¨bqSg niwg karsgût'sgûin xag pÂèvesd½kicÍGMBIsMNak' «nc¨kBti¶niym nig GaNaniKmsm&yfµé nigGMBI sMNak'«nG~kC^txageyIg . eyIgsUmdk¨sg'Jk´bNëitenru ( Nehru ) edImIºbJÍb'GtÄbTenH Ð
  • 29. 22 Ç drabNaesd½kicÍeyIgenATn'ex§ay drabenaH eyIgrs'enA hak'bIdUcCaKµan neyaVye¨kA¨beTseLIy e¨JHeyIgminTan'tSgxÂçnCaecAhÃayelIxÂçneyIgVnenA eLIy . ä äkraC´neyaVy| enaHesateTot ¨Kan'EtCaÓt¶mKtienAeLIys¨mab' lYgcit¶eyIg kuM[eyIgxkcit¶Etb"ueNöaH È . nYn eXOn P~MeBj «f©TI 24 kJïa 1969
  • 30. dMeNIreq<a¼ eTATisxaglic(1)
  • 31. 23 k~¬gelxe¨kaybgís'«nTs§navd¶é (Etude Cambodgienne) EdlVneVHBumõ eLIgeday¨ksYgeXasnakarCati, elak súal Emeyor ( Charles Meyer ) k~¬g TMB&rv^carNkfaVnsresrk~¬g¨kbx&Në «nkarTak'Tg Exµr eyokNam Ca GaTidUcteTAenH : Ç vt¶man«nCnCatiyYn eTAelITwkdIExµrCae¨KaHf~ak'xagpÂèv neyaVy ehIyplv^Vk«nehtukarN_enHVnelceFÂa [eXIjrYcmkehIy enAtamtMbn'xÂH@ . eKVnsegûteXIjfaBBYkG~keFÃIkareXasnayYnmanskmµ PaBy"agsMxan' enAtamPUmiCnbTExµrnana ehIyEfmTSgVn ENnSnigdwknS dl'BBYkbHeVrEdl¨bkan'menaKmv^CØaEbbyYnenHeTotpgù ù ù È . q©aymk eTot G~kniBnìdEdlenH VnsresreTotfa Ð Ç lkÅN:d*F©n'F©rmYyeTot «n bJúa Exµr-yYn KWkarmktSgenAedayes©¿ms©at' «nCnCatiyYnenAelITwkdI«n kmõ¬Ca ( L'implantation pacifique des émigrés Vietnamiens en territoire Khmer ) È Ç ¨Kçsarrab'ry¨Kç edaysarkarTmÂak'¨Kab'Ebk«nyn¶ehaHGaemrikSg bgÅ÷[eKcakecallMenAkMeNItrbs'xÂçn, Vnmks~ak'Ga¨s&yenA¨beTs kmõ¬Ca . mYyPaKFM«nG~kTSgLayenH VnxitxMvatTItSg enAe¨kaykarbJÍb' sågðameTot ehIykarEdlKYr¨bhak'¨bEhlmYyeTot KWfanwgmanCnCatiyYn xÂH EdlFÂab'Vn¨tèvr"UvCamYynwgGaemrikSg nigGaCÆaFr«n¨kug«¨BnKr kal sågðamcb'ehIy nwgqÂgkat'¨BMEdnmk¨CkenAelIEdndIExµreTotù ù ù ehIykar TSgenHnwg¨VkdCabegûét[mannUvesck¶I¨BçyVrm¸mYyy"agFMeFg k~¬gbN¶a ¨bCara¨s¶ExµrenAtam¨BM¨bTl'Edn È . esck¶IEtbu"eNöH eyIgGacyl'Vne¨sceTAehIyfa etIe¨KaHf~ak'PÂam@ nigeTAGnaKtrd½ExµreyIgKW¨tg'Na ? dUceyIgFÂab'VnykbJúa«ndMeNIreqõaH mkTisxaglic «nCnCatiyYnenHmkecaTrYcmkehIy clnamkTisxaglic enH min¨twmEtmanlkÅN:neyVy nigmenaKmv^CØaeT KWEfmTSgCalTìpl y"agCak'Es¶g «nkarv^vd¶«n¨bvti¶sa¨s¶«nEpndIGtIt²NëècinVrSgess . mun (1) GtÄbTenHVncuHp§ayk¬~gsarBátman ÇnKrFMÈ BI«f© 20 eTA 28 F~è 1969 - KW 5 ExmunsågðamekIt eLIgk~¬g¨beTseyIg . nùXù
  • 32. 24 dMbUg CnCatiyYnTSgenHVneFÃIdMeNIrmkBITisxagtºègCahUrEh tamCYrP~M GNöam ( Les Cordilières annamitiques ) ehIyk~¬gdMeNIrenH EdlmanGayue¨cIn stvt§ VnelbVt'eTAehIy nKrcmº"a¨BmTSgEdndIkmõ¬Cae¨kameTotpg enA edImstvt§TI19 (k~¬grvagq~S1840) . ehtuy"agenHehIy VnCae¨CayTwkexµA ( Camau ) CadIxagtºègbMput«n²Nëècin ¨tèvCnCatiyYnmkvatTItSgenA . dUec~HebI«f©mux mankarvatTItSgeTot KWdMeNIreqõaHeTATisxaglic ehIy mkb"Hnwg¨beTskmõ¬CaeyIgEtm¶g . ²Lèv¨Bwti¶karN_enH edaysarmansågðam enAeyokNam tSgBIq~S1945 rhUtmkdl'bcͬbºn~kalenH Cakt¶ay"agFM, VnmanrYcmkehIy ehIy¨VkdCanwgmankan'EtFMeLIg@ eTA«f©muxeTot ebI v^FankarEdlnwgcat'BuMman¨bsiTìPaB¨Kb'¨Kan'eTenaH . lkÅN:F©n'F©rmYyeTot«nbJúasµ¬KsµajenH KWkarEdlbN¶aCnyYnenH mankarbegûéncMnYnmYyy"agelOnKYr[¨beTsC^txag mankar¨BçyVrm¸CacS Vc' . ebI¨bsinCaeyIgyksÄiti EdleKVneFÃIeLIgedayv^FIv^T´asaås¶mk Binit´karN_enH rwtEtKYr[eyIgeXIjCak'Es¶gNas'eTAeTot Ð PaKry«n kMeNIncMnYn¨bCaCnExµreyIg man¨twmEt 2,5 eTA 2,6 PaKryEtb"ueNöaH ( le taux d'accroissement démographique ), äcMENkyYn ebItamG~kCMnajkar PaKry enHeLIgdl'eTA 3 PaKryelIseyIgeTAeTot . m´"ageTotdl'e¨kaysågðam cb' PaKry«nkarbegûInenH¨bhak'¨bEhlCanwgeLIghYsBI 3 PaKryenHeTA eTot . ehtukarN_enH Gacmanplv^VkCaF©n'F©rBn'eBk mkelI¨beTseyIg nig¨beTsC^txag : m´"ageTotk~¬g¨beTsyYn karekInd*elOn«nbN¶aCnenH GacecaT[manCabJúadIFÂI ( problèmes agraires ) Edl¨tèv[manTMhM¨Kb'¨Kan' edImIºGacciJÍwmmnus§kan'Ete¨cIneLIg@ . ¨Kan'EtsBëf©enH cMnYn¨bCaCn xageCIgnigxagtºègbJÍèlK~a Cag 40 lannak'eTAehIy ehIybJúadIFÂImanecaT xÂH@rYcmkehIy, cuHdl' 20 É 30 q~SeTot ¨bCaCnenH¨tèvKuNnwgBIr BI 70 eTA 80 lannak' ! etIbJúaenHnwgmanTMhMFMdl'NaeTA ? elIkElgEtGnaKt esd½kicÍyYn kÂayeTAeTACaesd½kicÍÓs§ahkmµy"aglUtlas'xÂSgNas' eTIb GacedaH¨saybJúaenHVn ebIminy"agenHeT CnCatiyYnTSgenHnwg¨tèvcak ecjBI¨beTsxÂçnmkenAelIdITSgLayEdlenATMenr ehIydIEdlenATMenrTSgenaH
  • 33. 25 KWEdndIExµreyIgEtm¶g . äcMENkEdndI¨beTslavCadIP~M ehIyebItam¨bvti¶ saås¶eTot CnCatieyokNamenH Camnus§EdlcUlcit¶rs'enAelIvalTMnab ( l'homme de la plaine ) KWEdndIsN¶«nTenÂemKgðEtm¶g ( le Delta ou la vallée du Mékong ) . m´"agv^jeTot cUreyIgkuMePÂcfa ebIdl'q~S 2000 ¨bCaCnExµreyIgekIn dl'eTA15 lannak' enHebItamkarsµantamkmµv^FIv^T´asaås¶, ä¨beTseyok Nam nwgekIndl'BI70eTA80lannak'eTAehIy . m´"ageTot ebIkar¨saybJúa¨bCa CnenHBMuVn¨sçleT enaHeyIgVrm¸xÂacE¨kgEtnwgmankarbegûétk~¬gcMeNam bJïavn¶yYnEdlmanKMnitCatiniymhYsehtu ( l'ultra-nationalisme ) nUv¨Tws¶I B¨gIkTwkdIniym edImIº[¨bCaraås¶eKGacrs'enAVn ( une nouvelle théorie de l'Espace Vital ) . ehIyebI¨Tws¶IenHekIteLIgEmnenaH, plv^VknwgmanlkÅN: F©n'F©r«¨kElg mkelIGnaKt¨beTskmõ¬CaeyIg . m´"agv^jeTot äk~¬g¨beTseyIg CnCatiyYnEdlrs'k~¬g¨sukExµr eyIg k*ekIneLIgmindac'Edr . sBëf©enH GaNikCnCatiyYnTSgenaH mancMnYnBI 450,000 eTA 500,000 nak' eTAehIy(1) KWCiteTA 7 PaKry«nbN¶aCnExµreyIgTSgmUl . ehIyPaKry«n karekIncMnYn¨bCaCnyYnenAk~¬g¨sukeyIgeTot k*elIsPaKry«nkMeNIt¨bCa CneyIgEdr dUec~HehIy karekInenH¨tèvEtelOneTAmuxCadrab edaybUkbJÍèlCa mYypgnUvkarlblYccUlmkenA elIdIExµreyIg eday²tcºab'TmÂab'enaHeTot. eyIg VnsegûteXIjCaTUeTAfa CnCatiyYnEdlenA¨sukExµreyIg PaKe¨cInCaG~k¨kI ¨k ehIyPaB¨kI¨kenH GacbegûéteLIgnUvbJúaxagpÂèvsgðmy"agF©n'F©r manecar kmµ Xatkmµ PaB²tkareFÃI ElºgsIusg karlk'sm¹s§xÂçnedImIºrs' .l. ehIyedayehtufaExµrnigyYnrs'enAC^t@K~a CYnkalmankarTak'TgK~aeTAv^j eTAmkpgk*man plv^VkenH nwg¨tèvFÂak'mkelIsgðmExµreyIg²tebI¨bEkk VneLIy. enHCabJúaxagsgðmv^T´a ( un problème sociologique ) KbIºEteyIg cab'GarmµN_edImIº[sgðmExµrrk§anUvPaBsíatsíMPaBbrisuTì . ¨Bwti¶karN_mYyeTot EdleyIgKYrcab'GarmµN_CaBiess karbegûéncMnYn kan'Ete¨cIn «nGaNikCnbreTsyYnelIEpndIeyIg ehIyebIeyIgbUkbJÍèl (1) mun 18mIna 1970 .
  • 34. 26 TSgGaNikCnbreTscinmkeTotpg nwgGacmanplv^VkmYyeTotF©n'F©r«¨k Elg k~¬gGnaKtkal. ¨Kan'EtsBëf©enH CnbreTsTSgLayenH mancMnYn C^t ÉCagmYylannak'eTAehIy k~¬gcMnYnbN¶aCneyIgTSgGs'Cag8lannak' . ebIeyIg niyay[Vncºas'eTAeTot KWk~¬gExµrTSgGs' 7 nak' manbreTscin-yYn 1 nak' . ehtukarN_enH GacnwgbN¶al[maneLIgCa bJúasasn_ ( un problème racial ) ehIyEdlnwgmanlkÅN:CabJúapÂèvsgðmeTotpg . enA¨beTs ma"LayUfµé @ enH manpæ¬HerOgsasn_enH bN¶al[mankarvwkvr xUcxatnUvesÄr PaBxagpÂèvneyaVy ehIysBëf©enHk¶I bJúaenHk*minTan'cb'sBèKb'eTA ehIyEdr . GaNikCnbreTsCatiyYn enA¨sukeyIgsBëf©enH BuMEmnenA es©¿ms©at'bu"nµaneLIy eKmanGgðkarsm©at'¨Kb'Ebby"ag xagpÂèvsasna k*dUc CaxagpÂèvneyaVy . erOgGs'enHnrNak*dwg¨Kb'@ K~aehIyEdr . sBëf©enH eKeXIjBYkeK enAhak'dUcCaes©¿ms©at' BIe¨JHeBlenH yYn kMBugCab'eFÃIsågðam enA¨beTsev¿tNam ehIyCa ¨beyaCn_rbs'eKFMNas' Edlt¨mUv [eKmankarTak'Tgy"ag¨b«B CamYyGaCÆaFrExµreyIg . cuHdl'eKcb'sågðameTA ¨beTseKrYbrYmK~av^jÉeT ? ebIminrYbrYmxagpÂèvneyaVyk*xagpÂèvesd½kicÍ vbºFmáEdr ehIy¨beTs eKnwgkÂayeTACamhaGMNacGasIumYy EdlBiPBelakVnTayrYcmkehIy enaH CnCatiev¿tNamenA¨sukExµr cºas'CanwgmansmºCJï: cMeJHkmÂSgrbs' xÂçnminElgeLIy ( La prise de conscience de leur force en tant que minorité ethniquement et politiquement dominante ) ehIynigmankarTamTarGÃIep§g@ xag pÂèvsgðm ÉpÂèvneyaVyminElgeLIy . enHCae¨KaHf~ak'mYyFMGenk BIe¨JHnwgGacbN¶al[karlík' k~¬gkarTak' TgExµr-yYn eTAGnaKtkalminecHcb' minecHehIy. VnCaeyIghßanGHGag y"agenH minEmnedayeyIgmanKMnitsíb'CnCatiyYnBIdUnta ( une haine hérédi- taire ) enaHmkeT KWmkGMBIkarEdleyIgeFÃIv^PaKk~¬gbJúaExµr-yYnenHEtm¶g. enH Cakarv^vt¶imYy EdlmanlkÅN:CakarcSVc' e¨JH¨bvti¶saås¶mnus§Cati Vn ¨bTHbJúaEbbenHe¨cInNas'mkehIy k~¬gstvt§TI 20 enHEtm¶g .
  • 35. 27 äNakaredaH¨say ? karedaH¨sayEdl¨b«B minEmnkare¨bI ÇFmáek¶AÈ enaHeT e¨JHfaebI e¨bIFmáek¶A nwgbN¶al[man¨btikmµlkÅN:Ca ÇFmáek¶AÈ tbmkv^j mincb' minehIy nigeFÃI[e¨CaHrvag ExµrnigyYn kan'EtmanTMhMFMeLIg@ Gs'man esÄrPaBneyaVy k~¬g²NëècinCa¨Vkd . eyIgniyay ÇFmáek¶AÈ enH KWcg' niyaydl'karbgÅM[GaNikCnyYnTSgenH v^l¨tLb'eTA¨sukkMeNItv^j (le rapatriement forcé) . . v^FankarenH bN¶al[manplv^VkGa¨kk'eTAelIesd½kicÍ Cati Ð eyIgnwgVt'bg'nUv¨kbxNëesd½kicÍ nigbecÍkeTse¨cIn, EfmTSgp§ar k~¬g¨beTseyIgy"agsMxan'eTot EdlCakarcSVc'cMeJHGnaKt karlUtlas' Ós§ahkmµnigesd½kicͨbeTskmõ¬CaeyIg . ehIyeTaHbIkarbgÅM[v^leTA¨suk kMeNItv^j GaceFÃIeTAekItvanwgbN¶al[manbJúad*FM EdlnwghYssmtÄPaB rbs'eyIgeTotpg. dUec~H v^FankarEdleyIgGacGnuvt¶eTAVn edayminbegûét CabJúaF©n'F©reBkeT KWkar¨tçt¨ta[Vnditdl' dl'skmµPaB¨Kb'Ebby"ag xagpÂèv sasna k¶I xag pÂèvsgðm É neyaVy k¶I EdlGaNikCnCatiyYnTSgGs' mank~¬g¨beTseyIg edImIºGac[eyIgrMgab'Tan' ( neutraliser ) nUv¨Kb'bMNg Ga¨kk'TSgLay EdlnwgGaccab'p¶çcep¶émeLIg . ehIysMxan'CagenHeTAeTot KWkarbiTTl'Edn[Vnrwgbwug KYr[mankar Tukcit¶ Qb'[mankarlYcnScUlbreTsmktamv^FIJNiCØkmµ É edaykarsuß÷ ¨KlMxÃHsmºCJï: . eyIgKYryl'fa ebImankarlblYccUlmkm¶gmYykal (Temporaire) enaHminEmnCae¨KaHf~ak'xÂSgkÂabu"nµaneT e¨KaHf~ak'EdlFM KWkarmk tSgTIlMenACanicÍkal ( Implantations permanentes ) edaymankarsg'pæHsEmºg cab'¨bkbksikmµ ÉmuxrbrGÃIep§g@eTot e¨JHCn¨bePTenH Edlman ÇòsÈ Cab'nwgdIeyIgehIy nwgmankUnecA mit¶Pk¶i mingay¨tLb'eTAv^jäg@ eLIy. ehIyebIy"agenHeTA Tl'EdneyIgnwg¨tèvbreTsyYnmktSgenAkkkuj rYc ehIyk*bN¶al[manCemÂaH rkerOgehtuCamYynigbgbíènExµreyIg begûét[ mankarBiVkrs'enA äExµreyIgCaCatisÂèt¨tg' minCaG~krkerOgehtueK k*¨tèv
  • 36. 28 eVHbg'ecalTIenaH rt'mkenAq©ay@eTot .l. enH¨VkdCakardeN¶ImTwkdI edayv^FIes©¿ms©at' EdleyIgKYrcab'GarmµN_[VnCak'cºas' . dUceyIgVneFÃIkarEvkEjkrYcmkehIy esck¶IsgwômeyIgTSg¨sugsÄit enAelIrd½aPiVle¨sac¨sg' Cati EdlnwgmansmºCJï:cºas'las' cMeJHe¨KaHf~ak'd* FMeFgenH dl'matu¨beTskmõ¬Carbs'eyIg . ebIbJúaTSgenHminVnTTYlkaredaH¨say KYrCa TIkk'ek¶AeT GnaKtrbs'eyIgnwgmanBBkexµAggwtmkVMgminxaneLIy k~¬g¨kbxNë«nkarv^vt¶i neyaVyTUeTA k~¬gPUmiPaK²Nëècind*rMeCIbrMCYlenH . sù m"anI P~MeBj «f©TI23 F~è 1969
  • 37. 29 }NÚÐcin kñúgqñaM2000¿¿¿
  • 38. 30 KMnit ɨTws¶IEdlEcgfa bN¶aCn ( la population ) nigkarv^vt¶n_«nbN¶aCn enHman naTId*sMxan' mYyenAk~¬gCévPaB neyaVyCati nigGn¶rCatienHminEmn CaKMnit ɨTwsI¶efµagfµéeT . CakarBitEmnehIy EdleKeJlfa Çmnus§È CamUld½ansarvn¶«n¨Kb'rbb¨Kb'¨KgneyaVy«n¨bCaCati Ésgðmmnus§TSg Lay . ehtudUec~HVnCacMnYnmnus§eJlKWbN¶aCnk~¬g¨beTsnimYy@ Ék~¬g tMbn'PUmiPaKnimYy@, ¨tèvEtman²TiìBlCakarcSVc'eTAelIsÄanPaB ÉkicÍdwknS neyaVy k~¬g¨beTsÉk~¬gPUmiPaKEdl¨bmUlp¶¬÷¨beTsTSgenaH . dUec~H ebI eyaleTAtam¨Tws¶IenH cMnYnbN¶aCnnigkardwknSneyaVy BuMGac¨tèveKGar kat'p¶ac'ecjBIK~aVneLIy . bN¶aCne¨cInhYsmaD La surpopulation edayeyageTAtam¨Tws¶IxagelIenH ¨bvti¶v^TUnigsgðmv^TU ( Sociologue ) PaKe¨cInVnBn´l'GMBIbuBÃehtu«nsågðamrvagCatinigCati ( Causes des guerres ) nig clnabd^vt¶n_ (mouvements révolutionnaires) EdlVncab'kMeNIteLIgk~¬g ¨beTsÉPUmiPaKnimYy@ «nBiPBelak edayBwgEpíkeTAelIsÄanPaBnigclna «nkarv^vt¶n_«nbN¶aCnenHEtm¶g . ¨bvti¶saås¶rbs'mnus§Cati hak'dUcCaVn kt'sMKal'nUv¨Bwt¶ikarN_ CaKMrUxÂHrYcmkehIy EdlGac[eyIgykmkbJØak' bk¨sayBn´l'nUv¨Tws¶IxagelIenH Ð k~¬grvagq~S 1930, ¨beTsGalÂWm"aj sm&yhuIEtÂr enATÃIbGWru"b, nig¨beTsCb"unsm&yeyaFaniymenATIÃbGasuI, Vn eFÃIneyaVyeyaFaniymd*eXareXA bgûbegûIt[mansågðamk~¬gBiPBelak ¨BmTSgVnp§BÃp§aynUvesck¶Ie¨kom¨kM nigkarexÂacp§aGs'ry:Cae¨cInq~S mk elImnus§Cati . ¨beTsTSgBIrenH k¬~gsm&yenaH suTìswgCa¨beTsEdlmanbN¶aCn e¨cInhYsmaDhYssmtÄPaB«nkaredaH¨saysamJï«n¨beTsTSgBIr Ð ä
  • 39. 31 neyaVyB¨gIkTwkdIniym nigsågðamQÂanJneTAelI¨bCaCatiCitxag Edl ¨beTsTSgenHVnbgûbegûéteLIg KWBitCaenAk~¬geKalbMNgneyaVymYy y"agcºas'las' KWvaydeN¶ImykTwkdIbreTsmkeFÃICarbs'xÂçn edImIºCa meF´aVyGac[¨beTsxÂçnmanEdndI¨Kb'¨Kan' ( Espace vital ) sMrab'ciJÍwm bN¶aCnrbs'¨beTseK Edlkan'EtekIncMnYne¨cIneLIg@CalMdab'erogral'q~S@ KWk¬~geKalbMNgenHehIy EdldMbUgeLIg¨beTs Cbu"n VncºSgvaydeN¶Im ykEdndI kUer" ( Corée ) nig m"g'CUrI ( Mandchourie ) na¨beTscinEb"kxageCIg, ¨BmTSgKMramkMEhgdl'GaNaext¶xÂH«nshPaBsUevotpg ehIybN¶al[ ekItmansågðamy"agyUr BIq~S 1936 eTATl'nwgq~S 1945 rvagcinnigCb"un . ä¨beTsGalÂWm"ajv^j k*VnGnuvt¶neyaVyQÂanJnTwkdItSgBIq~S 1938 mkdl'q~S 1945 edayVnvaydeN¶Imyk¨beTs GU¨TIs, b"ULèj nig1PaKFM«nmha¨beTs rus§I .l. CaBiesseTAeTot eKVnkt'sMKal'fa mankMeNIncMnYnbN¶aCneTÃk~¬g TIÃbGWru"bBIq~S 1814 mkdl'q~S 1914 ehIy¨sab'EtenA edImstvt§r_TI20enHEtm¶g TÃIbGWru"bVnqÂgkat'nUvsm&ymYyd*rMeCIbrMCYl ehIy ¨bTHnUvmhasågðamdl'eTABIrelIk ¨Kan'Etk~¬gry:Jk'kN¶al«n stvt§r_TI20 Etb"ueNöaH . CaTIbMputeKsegûteXIjm´"ageTotfa k~¬gsm&ybcͬbºn~enH ¨Kb'¨beTs x§t'ex§ayTSgLay«nttiyelak ( les pays sous développés ) EdleTIbnwg Vnsðal'nUvkMeNIncMnYnbN¶aCn d*elOnhak'bIdUcCasnæ¬H¨Bçj kMBugEtCYb ¨bTHnUv clnabd^vt¶n_ mYyEdlkMBugEtraldalp§BÃp§ay¨Kb'TisTI edayman Ggðkar kumµ¬ynis¶niymGn¶rCati CYye¨CamE¨Cgpg . ehIyclnarMeBItrMeBInTSg enH ¨tèvVneKerobcMeLIgk~¬geKalbMNgnwgrMlMrbb neyaVyesd½kicÍ sgðm cas'TamTar[manrbbfµé ¨bkbedaylkÅN:bdivt¶n_ EdleKyl'fanwgGac edaH¨saybJúasgðmmnus§Vneday¨bsiTìPaB Biess bJúaEdlTak'Tg eTAnwgkMeNInd*elOnhYs¨bmaN «nbN¶aCnenHäg . KWk~¬g¨kbxNë«n¨Tws¶I enHägeTot EdlmanG~k¨VCÆxÂHmanelak kúass¶¬gbßUFul ( Gaston Bouthoul ) Casgðmv^TUnig¨bvti¶v^TUCatiVrSg Vncat'Tuk ÇsågðamÈ CaVtuPUtmYyd*sMxan'
  • 40. 32 mannaTICaG~keFÃI[sMerceLIgnUvsmta ( l'équilibre ) k~¬gsgðmmnus§TSgLay «nBiPBelak . enA²Nëècin bN¶aCnExµrGacTb' nwgbN¶aCnyYnnigesomVnÉeT ? edImIºyl'[Vncºas'las' nUvTMhM«ne¨KaHf~ak'CaGci«ån¶y_ EdlKMram kMEhg¨beTskmõ¬Ca k~¬gGnaKtkalxagmuxenH KbIºeyIgrM®kdl'sÄankarN_ ¨bvti¶saås¶Cak'Es¶g (Situation de fait ) xÂHTukCaeKaledACabzm . k~¬gkar v^vt¶n_CahUrEhmkehIy k~¬g¨bvti¶saås¶«n¨beTsTSgbI Exµr esom yYn TMnas'Exµr esom, rYcTMnas'Exµr-yYn ehIycuge¨kaybMput KWTMnas'esom-yYn Ca¨Bwti¶karN_mYymanlkÅN:CaGci«ån¶y_ ( Une permanence historique ) k~¬g ¨bvti¶saås¶«n¨bCaCati²Nëècin Gs'kale¨cInstvt§r_rYcmkehIy . ¨beTs esomCa¨bCaCatimYy¨bkbedayyuvPaB ( ¨beTsesomcab'kMeNIteLIgna stvt§r_TI 14 ) e¨kayBIVnvatTItSgelIEdndIExµr mYyPaKy"agFMenAEb"kxag eCIg nigxaglic¨beTskmõ¬Cabcͬbºn~ rYcehIyk*VnxitxMeFÃIneyaVy¨bTak' ¨bTaj¨beTsExµr [cUleTAk~¬gkar¨Kb'¨KgpÂèvneyaVyrbs'esom KWeFÃI ¨beTsExµr[eTACaGaNaB´aVlesomEtm¶g ( Faire du Cambodge un protectorat Siamois ) edImIºTukEdndIenHCa¨Tnab'Tb'Tl' nwgkarvatTItSgrbs' s¨tèvfµémYy«nxÂçn KWyYnenHäg . dUec~HTMnas'esom-Exµr manlkÅN:CaCemÂaH rvag¨bCaCatiekµg nig¨bCaCatiburaNmYy ehIyCakarFmµtaGar´FmáEdlman yuvPaBEtgEtmanfamBl e¨bobeTAelIGar´FmámYyeTotEdlmanv&ycas' . ehtuenHehIyVnCaeyIgVt'bg'Gs'GaNaext¶Cae¨cIn . pæ¬yeTAv^j CnCati yYnk~¬gdMeNIrrbs'xÂçncuHmkTisxagtºègtambeN¶ayeq~rsmu¨Tcam nigkmõ¬Ca e¨kam maneKalbMNgnwgvatTItSgykEdndI¨tg'@Etm¶g KWminEmn¨Kan'Etcg'
  • 41. 33 ykGaNac¨kExµr eFÃICaEdndIGaNaext¶yYneT EtmanbMNgbMVt'sasn_Exµr Gar´FmáExµr, eJlKWeFÃI¨beTsExµr[kÂayeTACaEdndIfµérbs'yYnenHEtm¶g . enHehIyCaehtukarN_ EdlGacBn´l'eyIg[yl'nUvneyaVyyYn EdlVn¨b¨Bwti¶mkelICnCatiExµr enAstvt§r_TI 18-19 nigenAstvt§r_TI 20 k~¬gEdndIkmõ¬Cae¨kamsBëf©enH . buBÃehtuCaCe¨mA «nneyaVyB¨gIkTwkdI yYn enAEdndI²Nëècin KWkMeNIncMnYnbN¶aCnyYn ehIynigkgÃHxatEdndIEdl manCICatis¨mab'ciJÍwmbN¶aCnEdlrIkcMerIny"agqab'rh&s. KYr[kt'sMKal' pgEdrfa k~¬gkar ÇEhkdIExµrEckK~aÈ enHehIyEdlesomnigyYnb"HTgðicK~a ä karb"HTgðicK~aenHk*manCahUrEhmkehIyEdrelIEdndIlav. CnCatiesomk*kan' EtmankarminTukcit¶xÂSgeLIgcMeJHKUs¨tèvfµé KWyYnenHäg . k~¬gkrNIenH k~¬g GnaKtkal ebIesomnigyYnmanCemÂaHK~a KWenAelITwkdIExµr ÉlavenHEtm¶g . X X X
  • 42. 34 15ù000ù000 nak'dl' Kùsù 2000 ! eyIgVnniyayCa¨tçs@rYcmkehIy GMBIEdndIPUmiPaKxÂHk~¬gBiPBelak eyIgenH EdlVnsðal'nUvkMeNInbN¶aCnCaGtibrma ¨BmTSgplv^Vk«n ¨Bwti¶karN_enHeTotpg. eyIgk*GacBicarNadl'plv^VkEbbenHEdlnwgGac ekItmaneLIg enAelIPUmiPaK²Nëècin ebI¨bsinCakarv^vt¶n_bN¶aCnenAelIEdndI enHmanlkÅNCaFmµta ( un évolution normale ) KWfaebIKµansågðamÉGsn¶isux ɨBwti¶karN_d«TeTot mkeFÃI[sÄankaB«nkarv^vt¶n_enHpÂas'b¶èreT . EdleyIgrM®kdl'bJúaenH minEmneyIgyl'sb¶ienaHeT, KWeyIgniyay k~¬gzan:Camnus§ EdlmansmºCJï:¨Kb'¨Kan'Camnus§ ÇFmµtaÈ Edl BicarNarkehtupl . eyIgGacKn'KUreFÃIelxrkcMnYnbN¶aCnExµreyIg k~¬grvagq~S 2000 Vn edayykG¨ta«nkMeNInbN¶aCn ( le taux d'accroissement démographique ) 2,5 É 2,6 PaKry(1) mkeFÃImUld½an. ehtudUec~HeyIgGacsµantamv^FIv^T´asaås¶ fa rvagq~S 2000 bN¶aCneyIgnwgeLIgeTAdl' 14 É 15 lannak'ehIy enH ¨bsinebIKµansågðamelak ÉGsn¶isuxNamYymkrMxankarv^vt¶n_enHeTenaH. ä cMnYnbN¶aCneyIgnwgeLIgeTAdl'80nak'k~¬g 1 Kùmù eTÃKuN . ebIy"agenHEmn eyIgGacsn~id½anVnfa k~¬g30q~SeTotEdndIeyIgmincegí¿tcgíl'enAeLIyeT. m´"ageTotEdndIeyIgCavalTMnab smºèreTAedayClFa manTenÂemKgðCaedIm, eyIgnwgGaceFÃIrebobGaCévkmµksikmµ( méthodes d'exploitation agricole ) rwtEt ¨besIreLIg edayeFÃI[se¨mcnUvkarVcTwkbJÍèlE¨s ( l'irrigation ) ädIdS dMNSeyIgenAesssl'e¨cIn . sBëf©enH dIdSdMNSeyIgmanEt 18% «n«pæ (1) eyageTAtamsÄitiq~S 1962, G¨taenHman 2,3% Etb"ueNöaH EtebItamG~kC÷najkar G¨taEdl¨twm ¨tèvCag KW 2,5% É 2,6% enHäg sUmemIl ( Les facteurs de croissance démographique au Cambodge thèse de doctorat de 3e cycle, Sorbonne Paris 1967.)
  • 43. 35 ¨kLaTSgGs'Etb"ueNöaH . eyIgnwgGacbegûéneTAeTot ebIbN¶aCneyIgekIn e¨cIneLIg@ . ehtudUec~HeyIgsgwômfa EdndIeyIgminTan'cegí¿tcgíl'eT k~¬g 30 q~S É 50 q~SxagmuxenH, eyIgnwgGacB¨gIkplitplksikmµEfmeTot . e¨JHfa k~¬g GnaKtkal meF´aVybecÍkeTseyIgk*kan'EtmanlkÅN:¨besIreLIgCahUr EhEdr . eyIgnwgminrnìt'cMeJHGnaKteyIg e¨JH¨beTseyIgnwgGacciJÍwm eday¨Kb'¨Kan'nUvbN¶aCnrbs'eyIgVnCa¨Vkd . ¨beTseyIgmincSVc' nwgGnuvt¶n_ neyaVyB¨gIkTwkdIniymeTAelI¨beTsC^txageLIy . EtkarEdleyIgKYrP&yVrm¸ KWeyIgecaTsYrxÂçneyIgfa : etIG~kC^txag eyIg, xagekIteyIgk¶I xagliceyIgk¶I, nwgTuk[eyIgsðal'sn¶iPaBCaerogdrab É ? ebI 30 É 50 q~SeTot EdndIrbs'eKnwgeBje¨Bob, e¨bobhak'dUcCaTwk EdleBjlíageTAehIy @ hUrehorecjmke¨kA t¨mg'eTArkTITMnabd«TeTot. etIeyIgKYrcat'Tukfa TITMnabEdlminTan'dk'TwkTSgenH man valTMnabTenÂemKgð nigTenÂsab ( la vallée du Mékong ) eJlKW¨beTskmõ¬CaeyIg GaceCosputBI e¨KaHf~ak'enHÉ ? X X X
  • 44. 36
  • 45. 37 e¨KaHf~ak'rbs'eyIgenATisxagekIt Cag 80ù000ù000 nak'rs'enAelIEpndImYyy"agcegí¿tcgíl' enATisxagekItnigxagtºèg¨beTskmõ¬CaeyIg CnCatiyYnVncuHs¨muk mkBITisxageCég tameq~rsmu¨TGtItnKrcmº"a ehIyVneFÃIkarTånæanluk luydeN¶ImdIFÂIBIdUntaeyIg tSgBIcugstvt§r_TI 17 mkemÂ"H ¨Kan'Etk~¬gry: 150 q~SVÂyEtb"ueNöaH yYnVnmkvatTItSg ¨BmTSgkÂayxÂçneTACamÍas'TwkdI kmõ¬Cae¨kam eBjTICae¨sc (k~¬g Kùsù 1840). KYrEteyIgrM®kEdrfa CnCati yYnTSgenHEdlVnelbsIuTwkdIeyIgmYyPaKy"agFM manTMhM 64ù000 Kùmù eTÃKuNKWesµInwg¨beTslgûa (Ceylan) TSgmUlenHVn k*edaysarsm&yenaH bN¶aCneyIgenAkmõ¬Cae¨kam mancMnYnticBn'eBkNas' fÃIebIEdndItMENldUn taeyIgenH CaEdndImYyEdl¨bkbeTAedayCICatid*v^essv^sal rkdIäNa mk¨bdUcBuMVneLIyk*eday . cMENkäkarEdlyYns¨mukcuHmkxagtºègenaH bN¶almkBIbuBÃehtufa bN¶aCnekIte¨cIneBk yYnBuMGacmandIlí¨Kb'¨Kan's¨mab'ciJÍwmK~aeKVn eLIy . ehtuenHehIyVnCayYnVneFÃIneyaVyB¨gIkTwkdIniym mkelI raCaNac¨kExµr²tQb'Qr rhUtdl'sm&ybcͬbºn~kalenHeTot k*yYnBuM¨Bm bJÎb'GMeBIlYccUlmktSgenAelIdIEdlTMenrrbs'eyIgeLIy . sBëf©enH ¨beTsevotNamman«pæ¨kLa¨bEhl 330ù000 Kùm2 KWFM Cag¨beTseyIgcMnYnC^t2dg. KWCa¨beTsmYyEdlmanbeN¶ayd*EvgcMgay BIxageCIgmktºègC^tEt 2ù000 Kùmù . naq~S 1970 bN¶aCnTSgGs'«n¨b eTsenH mancMnYnC^teTA 40ù000ù000 nak' KW 20 lan Eb"kxageCIg nig 18 lan Eb"kxagtºèg . ¨beTsevotNam CaEdndImYysmºèreTAeday«¨B¨Bwk§a nigP~M. «¨BnigP~MenH¨KbdN¶b'elI«pædI 80% «n«pæ¨kLaTSgGs' KWesµInwg«pæ ¨kLa 260ù000 Kùmù eTÃKuN . ehtudUec~HehIyVnCa, mnus§TSg 38 lan nak'enHrs'enAelI«pædIEt 20% Etb"ueNöaH KWesµInwg«pæ¨kLa 60ù000 Kùm
  • 46. 38 eTÃKuN . k~¬gkrNIe¨kayenH dg'suIet ( densité ) eLIgeTAdl' 600 nak' k~¬g 1 Kùm2 . dUceyIgeXIj¨sab' sBëf©enH dI¨beTseyokNamenHcegí¿tcgíl' Nas'eTAehIy. cMENkplitpl¨sèvGgûr k*swgEtmin¨Kb'¨Kan'pg . C¨guk ¨sèvd*FM«n¨beTsenHKWEdndIsN¶ ( le Delta ) «nTenÂemKgð nigdIsN¶Ten sug«k ( le Delta du Fleuve Rouge ) . EdndIsN¶TenÂemKgðGacp¶l'¨sèvGgûrCa mF´m 6 lanetank~¬gmYyq~S ehIydIsN¶TenÂsug«kp¶l'[ 4 lanetanCa mF´mEdr . bUkeTAVn¨twmEt 10 lanb"ueNöaH, dUec~HeTA «f©mux¨sèvGgûrenH ¨VkdCaminGacbMeBjesck¶I¨tèvkarrbs'bN¶aCnyYn EdlkMBugekIncMnYn y"agelOnesaHeLIy . k~¬gcMeNam¨beTsGasIuTSgLay yYnmanG¨ta«nkMeNIn¨bCaCn (taux d'accroisement démographique) xõs'CageKäg(1) KWmanrhUtdl'eTACag3% . ebIeyageTAtamPaKryenH k~¬gq~S 1970 bN¶aCnyYnrYmTSgxageCégnigxag tºèg nwgeLIgdl'eTA 40ù000ù000 nak' . k~¬glkÅN:enH ¨bsinebIkarv^vt¶n_rbs'¨bCaCnenH manelº¯neTAmux eTotedayKµan¨Bwti¶karN_FMduMGÃImkrMxaneT bN¶aCn¨beTseyokNamnwgeLIg rhUteTA Cag 80ù000ù000 nak' k~¬g 30 q~SeTot . äkmõ¬CaeyIg dl'q~S 2000 man¨twmEt 15 lannak'b"ueNöaH . X X X (1)-eyageTAtamesovePA :- Ç Les Deux Viet-Nam, Bernard Fall, Payot Paris, 1967.È ebItamelak B. Fall, G¨ta«nkMeNInenH eLIgdl'eTA 3,5% ebItamsÄitip¶l'BIkarCMerOn¨bCaCnq~S1960 enA¨beTseyokNamxageCIg. cMeJHeyokNamxagtºèg elak B. Fall niyay¨twmEt 3 PaKryEt b"ueNöaH .
  • 47. 39 etInwgmanplviVkF©n'F©rGÃIxÂH - eyIgKYrecaTsYredayq©l'fa Ð etIdI 20 PaKry«n«pæ¨kLaTSgGs' 330ù009 Kùm2 Ék*dI¨twmEt 60ù000 Kùm2 b"ueNöaH Gacp¶l'Gahar¨Kb' ¨Kan'[dl'mnus§Cag 80 lannak'VnÉeT ? eqÂIyv^jPÂamfaÐ ¨twmEtsBëf© 40 lannak'b"ueNöaH BiVknwgciJÍwm [ Vnrs'k~¬gPaB¨Kb'¨Kan'eTAehIy cuHdl'eTA 80ù000ù000 etInwgekItCabJúa FMy"agNaeTA ? etI¨beTseyokNamnwgkÂayeTACa ÇCb"unÈ TI2 k~¬gTÃIbGasIu ÉGalÂWm"ajTÃIbGasIuÉ ? eqÂIy Ð ¡ TI 1 ÉmYyk*¨beTseyokNam nwgB¨gIkkmÂSgÓs§ahkmµnigesd½- kicÍCaGtibrma e¨bob¨bdUcVneTAnwgCb"unTI 2 k~¬gGasIuPaKGeK~y_ . KMnitenH ¨tèvVnG~ksegûûtkarN_Gn¶rCatinana ykmkKitrYcCamuneTAehIy KWmunkal bJÍb'sågðameyokNamenHeTAeTot . CaBit¨VkdEmnehIy enHKWv^Fankar ¨b«BNas' . ¨beTseyokNamsmºèreTAedayFnFanEr" elahFatu Efm TSg¨kbxNëv^T´asaås¶ nigbecÍkeTs ( techniciens, ingénieurs, chercheurs...) ¨bkbedaycMnYne¨cIn¨Kb'¨Kan' ehIymanfamBleTotpg bUkrYmnwgp§ark~¬g GnaKtd*FMeFg (Cag 80 lannak'), nwgGackÂayeTABit¨Vkd CamhaGMNac Ós§ahkmµy"agsMxan'k~¬gBiPBelakeyIgxagmuxenH . kalebIeyokNam kÂayeTACaÓs§ahkmµehIy ¨beTsenHGaclk'ecjeTAbreTs nUvplitpl Ós§ahkmµ edImIºGacTijcUlmkv^jnUvplitplksikmµ edImIºkar¨tèvkarxag cMNIGaharenAk~¬g¨beTs . KWTal'EteFÃIy"agh~wg eTIbbN¶aCn¨beTsenHGac rs'enAVn edayecos[putGMBIbJúasgðm nigneyaVyEdlnwgritEtman lkÅN:sµ¬KsµajeLIg .
  • 48. 40 cUreyIgnwkKitdl'¨beTsCb"un Edlk~¬gbcͬbºn~kalenH man«pæ¨kLa ¨bhak'¨bEhlnigeyokNamEdr ( 370ù000Kùm2 ) ehIymanmnus§rs'enA cMnYnCag 100 lannak'eTAehIy . sÄanPaB«n¨beTsenH BMuxusBI¨beTs eyokNamb"unµaneLIy Ð k~¬gdI 370ù000Kùm2 dI¨twmEt 16 PaKryb"ueNöaH EdleKGacdSdMNS ehIyrs'enAVn . e¨kABIenH KWsuTìswgEtP~Me¨CaH¨Clg ¨kMfµBuMGac[mnus§rs'VneLIy . kalBIrvagq~S 1930 Cb"unVnsðal'nUv kMeNIn¨bCaCnmYyy"agelOn ehIyedImIºnwgedaH¨saybJúaxÃHdIFÂIenH Cb"un VnGnuvt¶nUvneyaVyB¨gIkTwkdIniym eyaFaniymQÂanJnvaydeNI¶m EdndIBI¨beTscin, ¨beTskUer" .l. b"uEn¶neyaVyenHVn¨tèvTTYlbraC&y e¨kaysågðamelakelIkTI 2 Cae¨scrYceTAehIy . ehtuenHehIy VnCa Cb"unt¨mg'neyaVyrbs'xÂçnmkv^j rhUtdl'kÂayeTACamhaGMNacesd½kicÍ TI 3 k~¬gBiPBelak ( 3 ème puissance économique modiale ) e¨kay sùsùs (sUevot) . dUceyIgeXIj¨sab'ehIy lkÅN:TwkdI nigPUmisaås¶eyokNam nig Cb"unmansPaB¨bhak'¨bEhlK~a . dUec~H¨bEhlCaKµankmÂSgGÃIGacmkrarSg min[¨beTseyokNamkÂayeTACamha¨beTsesd½kicÍVneLIy, ehIyp§ar d*sMxan'«nesd½kicÍÓs§ahkmµenH KWEdndIGasuIEb"kGeK~y_Etm¶g .l. ebI¨bsiny"agenHEmnenaH ¨beTskmõ¬CaeyIgnwg¨tèvTTYlrge¨KaHCa dMNM nwgminGaceKcputVneLIg GMBIkmÂSgeyokNamenH e¨JHkarv^vt¶n_va ¨tèvEty"agdUec~aH ! cMeJHeyIg ebIesd½kicÍenAEteGanfy eyIgnwgkÂayeTACa p§aresd½kicÍyYnEtm¶g. enHehIyCaTid½PaBfµémYyeTot«nlTìiGaNaniKmniym sm&yfµé EdlmanPaBsahav minxusBIGaNaniKmniymneyaVy ÉTwkdI enaHesaHeLIy. enHk*rebobm´"agEdlnwgnS¨beTseyIg[eFÃIdMeNIreqõaHeTA rkkarVt'bg'äkraC´pgEdr . Etk~¬gry:evlasBëf©enHk*edaycuH k*KYrEteyIg¨BYyVrm¸Tuk[ehIy e¨JH¨Kan'EteyokNamxagtºègb"ueNöaH eKbJØènnis§iteKeTAbreTsk~¬g mYy q~Srab'Jn' (1) nak' [eTAsik§aÓt¶mv^CØaenAGWr"ubÉGaemrik. äeyokNamxageCIg (1) eyageTAtamesovePAelak B. Fall, <Les deux Vietnam>, Payot, 1967, Paris, TMB&r ( 361 )
  • 49. 41 v^j nis§itbecÍkeTs v^sÃkrrab'Jn'nak'¨tèvbJØèneTAeronenAshPaBsUev¿tÉ GWru"bEb"kxagekItnigenA¨beTscin .l. TSg¨kum@ Etm¶g. luHdl'sågðamcb' PÂam ¨beTskumµ¬ynis¶TSgLay rgcSEtCYyksagesd½kicÍ, Ós§ahkmµ, ksikmµ ¨beTsenHeLIgv^j . karCYyenHCakatBÃkicÍsMxan'Nas' e¨JH ¨beTskumµ¬ynis¶TSgLay rEmgEtgmanesck¶IsamKðIK~ay"agC^tsi~Tìk~¬gKMnit Gn¶rCatiniym¨bCaBlkr ( dans l'intérêt de l'internationalisme prolétarien ) . m´"ageTot sågðamenAeyokNamxagtºèg minTan'cb'e¨scVc'pg ¨sab'EtmUlFnbreTs manCb"unedImeK rYcmkhugkug Gaemrik swgðburI cUl mkeFÃIv^nieyaK ( investissements ) y"agK¨KwkKe¨Kgk~¬g¨beTsenHeTAehIy cuH TMrSsågðamcb'eTA etImUlFnbreTsnwghUrcUlmky"agNaeToteTA ? cuH cMENkGaemrikSgv^j ¨VkdCaminEmncakecjBI¨beTseyokNam edayTuk [¨beTsenHVk'EbkexæcxæIy"agdUec~HeT, ebIBuMenaHesat sùrùGaù enHnwg¨tèv Gamasmuxy"agGaeNacGaFmµ cMeJHmtisaFarNCnBiPBelak . Gaemrik ¨tèvEtlublagkiti¶ysrbs'xÂçn . k~¬gq~S 1969 knÂgeTAehIyenHsPa GaemrikSgVnTSge¨Kagfv^kacMnYn 2ù000ù000ù000 dulÂar ( KW¨tèvCa¨Vk' erolCag 100 ekadi ) sMrab'sÄabna¨beTseyokNameLIgv^j . ehtudUcxagelIenHehIy VnCamtiG~ksegûtkarNGn¶rCatixÂHVnTay fa Ð karrYbrYmK~aeLIgv^j«n¨beTseyokNam Camhn¶ray²tGÃI¨bdUcVn cMeJHP&Bà vasna«nmatu¨beTskmõ¬CaeyIg . ebI¨bsinCay"agenHEmn etIeyIgnwgGacmanGÃIGacTb'Tl'rMgab'kmÂSg esd½kicÍyYn kuM[vacUlmkelbesd½kicÍeyIgVneT ? ebIminVneTenaH, etI rvag 30 q~SeTot eyIgnwgKg'vg§Cév^tbn¶eTAeTotVnÉeT ? cMeJHkmõ¬CaeyIg maKáamanEtmYyKt' s¨mab'karedaH¨say[VnKg' vg§Cév^t . maKáaenaH KWkarB¨gIkkmÂSgesd½kicÍeyIg[VnelOnqab'rh&sTan'kal sm&y E¨kgGacrMgab'VnxÂHnUvkmÂSgesd½kicÍyYnenH . karbgíg'[yWtya"vteTAeTot KWCaGMeBIGt¶Xatkmµ KWCakMhusFMNas'cMeJH¨bvti¶saås¶ rbs'matuPUmiCaTIes~ha«n eyIgral'K~a . ¨bvti¶saås¶manEP~k . ¨bvti¶saås¶nwgdak'eTasmkelIeyIgral'K~aEdl eFÃs¨bEhsk~¬gbJúaenH .
  • 50. 42 TI 2 - ÉmYyk*¨beTseyokNam nwgGnuvt¶neyaVybnÄycMnYnekµgkuM [ekIte¨cIneBk ( limiter les naissances ) karenHGacnwgse¨mcVn k*e¨sceTA elIkaryl'eXIj«nG~kneyaVyyYnk~¬gGnaKtEtb"ueNöaH . ebITukNaCa neyaVyCayfaehtuEbbenH Gnuvt¶eTA¨bkbedayeCaKC&yk¶I, k*cMnYnbN¶a CnenAe¨cInCadrab. ¨beTseyokNamenAEtB¨gIkkmÂSgesd½kicÍ Ós§ahkmµ dEdl e¨JHenHCakatBÃkicÍxanBuMVn . ehtudUec~aH e¨KaHf~ak'enAEtmanlkÅN: F©n'F©rdEdl mkelIvasna«nkmõ¬CaeyIgeTAGnaKt . TI 3 - Et¨bsinCapæ¬yeTAv^j kmÂSgesd½kicÍrd½eyokNamBuMVnlUtlas'[ ¨Kb'¨Kan'eTenaH ehIyneyaVybnÄykMeNItkUnekµg k*BuM¨tèvVnGnuvt¶eTot enHmhn¶rayrwtEtmanTMhMKuNBIrdgùùù db'dg .l. xÂSgNas'eTAeTot mk elIGnaKt¨beTskmõ¬CaeyIg . ehtudUcem¶cVnCakarenHvaeTACay"agdUec~aHv^j ? ÇsågðamÈ nwg ÇGacÈ pæ¬HeLIgrvagExµrnigyYn BiVknwgecosvagVn e¨JHbN¶aCnyYnkan'EtekIneLIgCalMdab'lMeday 50 60 70 80 90 lan nak'k~¬g30q~SeTot. äFnFanxagesd½kicÍ nigxagksikmµenAdEdlÉlUtlas' yWteBk CaehtuBuMGacnwgGnuJïat¶[ciJÍwmmnus§Vnk~¬gPaB¨Kb'¨Kan'eLIy . karenHnwgbegûIt[manv^bti¶pÂèvsgðm rYcv^bti¶pÂèvneyaVy bgûbegûéteLIg edayesck¶Iminsbºaycit¶ ÉPaB¨kevTnarbs'CnCatiyYnenaHäg. eBlenaH ehIy nwgmanG~kneyaVyyYnxÂH EdlCaG~kCatiniymhYsehtu ( Les Vietnamiens Ultra-nationalistes ) bgûbegûét[man¨Tws¶IB¨gékTwkdIniym tam rebobGalÂWm"ajC÷nan' hIuEtÂr ( Hitler ) TamTarnUvTwkdImYyEdleKnwgsnµtfa ¨Kb'¨Kan' s¨mab'karrs'enArbs'¨bCaCneK ( une nouvelle théorie de l'Espace Vital ) . ehIyEdndIEdleK¨tèvkarenaH KWmanEtkmõ¬Ca-lav Éesom(?) Et b"ueNöaH . edImIºnwgse¨mcnUvKe¨magkarenHVn neyaVyQÂanJnbgûerOg ehtu [ekIteTACasågðam²Nëècin ÇTI 3È(?) eKBuMgaynwgecosvagVneLIy. ebIy"agenHEmn enAäeCIgemX«nGnaKtEdndI²NëècinnwgmanBBkexµA ggwt mkbiTVMgesck¶Isgwômrbs'eyIgrlt'esaHsUn´ KYr[¨seNaHGa eNacGaFmµ«¨keBk.
  • 51. 43 ¨bsinebIneyaVyB¨gIkTwkdIniym edImIºrs'enH¨tèvGnuvt¶EmnenaH Edn dIeyIg bN¶aCneyIgnwg¨tèveKelbbn¶icm¶g@ ehIyTIbMputnwgrlayrUbVt' eQµaHecjBIEpnTI«nBiPBelak dUc¨bvti¶saås¶«nraCaNac¨kcmº"a ÉEdndI kmõ¬Cae¨kam²tebI¨bEkkVneLIy . KWeBlenHägehIy Edl¨bvti¶saås¶nwgEcgGMBI Ç dMeNIreqõaHeTATisxag lic È «n¨bCaCatieyokNam e¨kamsnæ¬H«nkMeNItCaGtibrma«nbN¶aCnmYy EdlXÂScS{kas¨bl&yCév^teyIg Gs'ry:kale¨cInstvt§mkehIy . rYmesck¶I Ð EdndI²NëècinCaEdndImYyEdl xÃHesÄrPaBCanirn¶r_ . enAelI EdndIenH ¨beTskmõ¬CaeyIgk~¬gGnaKtkalxagmuxenH nwg¨tèvqÂgkat'nUve¨KaH f~ak'd*FMeFge¨cInEbby"ag dUcCakarKMramkMEhgdl'karKg'vg§Cév^t ( la survie ) «n¨bCaCatieyIgeTotpg . ebITukCakarv^vt¶n_enA¨beTseyokNameTACay"ag Nak*eday, mhn¶ray¨Kb'EbbenAcSXÂSCév^teyIg¨Kb'C÷han . eBlevlaedIr elOneTAmuxq©ayeTA@ mhn¶rayk*elcrUbragkan'EtFMcºas'eLIg@ CalMdab' . KWmanEtneyaVy B¨gIkkmÂSgesd½kicÍCati[Vnqab'rh&sb"ueNöaHeT EdlGac[eyIgmanmeF´aVyTb'Tl'nwgyfaehtu¨Kb'Ebby"agVn . Et enHKW¨Kan'EtCaniekÅbbT ( des thèses ) Ca¨Tws¶IÉmti ( l'opinion ) rbs'mnus§m~ak' Etb"ueNöaH dUec~HBuMTan'cat'TukCa¨twm¨tèvVnkareBjeljenAeLIyeT . äkar BitsÄitenAelI¨bvti¶saås¶k~¬gGnaKtkaläenaHv^jeT EdlGacv^nicÏ&yVnùùù. k*bu"En¶ eyIgminEmnmanEt ÇyYnÈ eTEdlXÂScS¨bl&y enAäTisxag lic ÇesomÈ k*cSEt{kaslínwg ǨkejcÈ EdndIeyIgdUcK~aEdr . X X X
  • 52. 44 ¨beTsesomnwgmanbN¶aCn 70 lannak' enABIxageCIg nig xaglic¨beTskmõ¬CaeyIg bN¶aCn¨beTsmYyeTotnwgGac kÂayeTACaTm©n'd*F©n'mYyfµéeTotsgût'mkelIEdndIeyIg ù ù ù . kalebIeyIgVnelIkbJúayYnmkBicarNa Bn´l'bMPÂWdl'smºCJï: CatieyIgrYcehIy eyIgBuMGacbMePÂcVnesaHeLIyfa e¨KaHf~ak'EdlnwgGac yayImatu¨beTsExµreyIg minEmnFÂab'manEtmkGMBITisxagekItnigxagtºèg b"ueNöaHeLIy, enHKW Çs¨tèvÈ cuge¨kayrbs'eyIg EdlVnelbrYcmkehIy nUvEdndIeyIg Edlman«pæ¨kLaCag 60ù000 Kùm2 esµInwg¨kLa«pæ¨beTs GuI¨saEGlbIdg. eyIgenAmanG~kC^txagrbs'eyIgmYyeTot EdlCaÇs¨tèvÈ cas'BIbrmbUraN ehIyEdlVn¨tVk'elbCae¨cInstvt§r_mkehIy nUv GaNaEx¨trbs'eyIgy"age¨cInGenk Ð Çs¨tèvÈ enH, EdleyIgminTan'Gac bMePÂcVnfa munq~S 1907 VnmkvatTItSgenAelI 1/3 «nEdndIeyIgsBëf© enH ehIyEdlkalBIq~S 1941 dl' 1945 VnmkcºSgdeN¶Imtamv^FIkmÂSg VynUvEx¨tesomrab, kMBg'FM, Vt'dMbgCasafµIeTot KW¨beTsesom É «fLgð enHäg . ebIenAk~¬gBg§avtaExµreyIg CnCatiyYn CaCnCati¨bkbedaye¨KaHf~ak' y"agCak'Es¶gcMeJHeyIgy"agNa CnCatiesomk*CaG~kC^txag¨bkbeday e¨KaHf~ak'EdlmansPaBsahavmincaj'K~ay"agenaHEdr . dUec~HehIy, karEdleyIgcab'GarmµN_eTAelIe¨KaHf~ak'TSgBIrenH¨BmK~a CameF´aVyEtmYy Gac[eyIg¨buge¨bobeCIgkarN_TukCamun[ehIy enH ¨VkdCa Ót¶mKtid*¨besIr v^essv^sal«¨kElgNas'eTAehIy ¨bvti¶saås¶ BIGtItkalfµé@ enHCaemeron¨sab', karEdl Ç cS[TwkeLIgdl'¨cmuH È sim ¨bevr¨bvarkTIC¨mk nwgkÂayeTACaesck¶Iep¶ém«nkarliclg' ÉTIbMput«nPaB Gs'sgwômminxaneLIy . X X X
  • 53. 45 etIbN¶aCnesomGacnwgman²TìiBl GÃIeTAelIGnaKt«nEdndIrbs'eyIg cemÂIyk~¬gPaB¨twm¨tèvmYyryPaKry tbeTAsMNYrenHv^j, KµanCnNa mYyGaceFÃIVneLIy EteKGaceFÃIesck¶Isn~id½ank~¬gPaB¨bhak'¨bEhl man EbbEpnCaniekÅbbT ( des thèses ) VnxÂH@ . tamäksarsresredayelak LalUEbßr ( La Loubère ) k~¬grvagq~S 1693 bN¶aCnesomman¨twmEt 1ù900ù000 nak'Etb"ueNöaH . CagmYyst- vt§r_knÂgmkeTot KWk~¬gKùsù1841, bN¶aCnenHekIndl'eTA 5ù200ù000nak' (enAry:eBl¨bEhlK~aenaH ExµreyIgman¨bEhl 800ù000 nak'). rYcehIy bN¶aCnenHk*ekIncMnYneTACa 8ù200ù000 nak'naq~S 1910, rYc 14ù500ù000 nak'naq~S 1937, rYc 22ù800ù000 nak'naq~S 1956 . ¨Kan'Etk~¬gq~S 1965 Etb"ueNöaH bN¶aCnenHekIndl'eTA 30 lannak'e¨sceTAehIy . tamkarKn' KUrtamrebobv^T´asaås¶ dl'q~S 1975 xagmuxenHnwgeLIgdl'40lannak' (1) . dUcCaeyIgVneXIjenH¨sab' bN¶aCnesomekInelOnrh&sCaBn'eBk ehIyCaBiesseTAeTot KWcab'tSgBIe¨kaysågðamelakelIkTIBIrmk . kMeNInd*elOnenH bN¶almkGMBIkarcuHfyCae¨cIn«ncMnYnmnus§sÂab' k~¬gmYyq~S@ ehIypæ¬yeTAv^j cMnYnmnus§ekItkan'Etmansnæ¬Helº¯neTAmux ²tQb'QresaH . munq~S 1950 eKVncat'Tuk¨beTs«fLgðenH Ca¨bCaCati Edlsmºèrsbºayrs'k~¬gesck¶I Çs©b's©at'È KµanbJúaecaTesaHeLIy . ²LèvenH, Gs'ehIyPaBsmºèrsbºay Gs'ehIyPaB Çs©b's©at'È bJúad* e¨cInEsnkMBugEtecaTeLIg KWbuBÃehtu«nbJúaenH KWbN¶almkGMBIkMeNInd* qab'«nbN¶aCnesomenHäg ¨BmTSgkarv^vt¶n_«nsÄanPaBneyaVyGn¶rCati k~¬gPUmiPaKGasIuEb"GeK~y_enHmkbUkbEnÄmeTot . (1) eyageTAtamesovePA <l'Evolution de la Thailande contemporaine> Cahier de la Fondation Nationale des Sciences, Politiques, P. Fistié, Paris, 1967, et " la Thailande", Q.S.J., P.U.F., Paris, 1963.
  • 54. 46 ¨beTs«fLgð Ð 70ù000ù000 dl'q~S 2000 ! ebItamsiÄtiEdl¨tèvVneKse¨mceLIg tamEbbbTv^T´asaås¶ kMrit G¨ta«nkMeNInbN¶aCnesomeLIgdl'eTA 3,00%(1) äExµreyIgman¨twmEt 2,6% Etb"ueNöaH . ehtudUec~HehIy ebI¨bsinCaKµan¨Bwti¶karN_äNamkrMxandl'karv^vt¶n_ enHeT ¨beTsesomnwgGacmanmnus§dl'C^teTA 70 lannak' naedImstvt§ TI 21 xagmuxenH ( äkMeNInbN¶aCnExµreyIgnwgeLIgdl' 15 lannak'Et b"ueNöaH ) . ehtuEdlbN¶aCnesomenH ekInk~¬g 30 q~SxagmuxenHdl'eTA 70 lan nak'enH minEmnCakarmYyKYr[eyIgenAes©¿m¨Begéyken¶IyesaHeLIy. EdndI ²Nëècin nwgkÂayeTACaEdndIEdlmanbN¶aCne¨cInhYsmaD ( Une région surpeuplée ) . ¨Kan'EtesomnigyYnbUkbJÍèlK~aekIndl'eTACag 150 lannak' eyIgEdlman¨twmEt 15 lan KW 1 ¨bqSgnwg 10 nwgmanmeF´aVy¨Kb'¨Kan' GacttSgnwg ( s¨tèv ) eyIgVneT, ebIeKrYmK~aCaF¬gmYyehIyGnuvt¶nUvbMNg Ga¨kk'mkelI¨beTseyIg . ¨beTseyIgKWCaEdndImYyEdlman sÄanPaBPUmi saås¶neyaVy ( Une position géo-politique centrale ) enAkN¶aleK, ehIyEdl eK ( ¨bsinebIeK¨tèvr"UvK~a ) ekobsgût'BI¨Kb'TisTIVnedaygay . ebIeyIgnwg erIsykÓTahrN_k~¬gelakenHmkBn´l'Vn KWsÄanPaBPUmisaås¶¨beTs b"ULèj enHEtm¶g . cUreyIgemIlcuH ¨beTsb"ULèjenH, CYnkal¨tèvVt'bg'Edn dI, Vt'eQµaHBIEpnTI«nBiPBelak, CYnkaleTot ¨beTsGalÂWm"ajBIxaglic nig¨beTsrusI§BIxagekIt¨suH¨sYlK~a ÇEhkEdndIEckK~aÈ dUckalBIsm&y sågðamelakelIkTI 2 enH¨sab' .l. dUec~HehIy, k~¬gGnaKtkalenH bJúaFMEdlecaTmkelI²Nëècin KWbJúacegí¿tcgíl' «nEdndI EdlbN¶almkBIbN¶aCne¨cInhYsmaDenHägCa¨Vkd . (1) eyageTAtamesovePA : <L'Evolution de la Thailande Contemporaine> dEdlnig <L'Economie de l'Asie du Sud Est> Lè Thanh Khoi, P.U.F. Paris, 1964.
  • 55. 47 plviVk bN¶almkGMBIkMeNIn bN¶aCnk~¬g¨beTsesom etIrd½aPiVlesomnwgedaH¨sayEbbNa cMeJHbJúakMeNIncMnYnbN¶a CnenH ? ¨Kan'Etk~¬gsBëf©enH EdlbN¶aCnminTan'TSgekIndl' 40 lannak'pg enaH VnbegûIn[mankar¨BçyVrm¸mYyy"agFMeFgk~¬gcMeNamG~kdwknSesom. naq~S 1957-58, tamesck¶IsuMBIrd½aPiVlesom ebskkmµmYy«n FnaKar BiPBelak ( la B.I.R.D. ) VnmkeFÃIkarsik§anigesck¶IraykarN_mYy GMBI sÄanPaBesd½kicÍesom . eyabl'rYm«nesck¶IraykarN_enH Vnbgúaj[ eXIjnUvkgÃHxat nig PaBx§t'ex§ayCae¨cIncMeJHGnaKtesd½kicÍesom . pæ¬yeTAv^j, karB¨gékFnFanesd½kicÍ KWbegûénplitplksikmµnig Ós§ahkmµCakarcSVc' edImIºedaH¨saybJúakMeNInbN¶aCnenH, edImIºrk§akuM [kMritCévPaB«n¨bCaraås¶FÂak'cuHCalMdab' rhUtdl'PaBevTna¨kx§t' xÃHcMNI GaharbriePaK . sm&ybcͬbºn~enH FnFanesd½kicÍxÂH@ EdlBImunGac¨tèveKnSecjeTA breTsVn k*kan'EtmancMnYneGanfyCalMdab' maneQI«m"sak', sMN, V"hSg, ekAsUß, ehIyBiesseTAeTot KWGgûrenHEtm¶g . ehtudUec~HehIy VnCakarB¨gIkesd½kicÍ[VnelOnqab'rh&s Vn kÂayeTACaGaTiPaBTImYy «nneyaVyesom . KWk~¬gKMnitenHehIy Edlrd½aPiVlesomsBëf©enH kMBugEtsÄabna Ke¨magkarN_FM@ Cae¨cIn mansMNg'TMnb'ClaKðIsnI EdlGac[se¨mcCa mYypg nUvkarVcTwkbJÍèlE¨s ( l'irrigation ) nwgGagGacB¨gIknUv«pædIdS dMNSfµé@eTot . rIäxagv^s&yÓs§hkmµv^j mUlFnbreTs (les capitaux étrangers) Cae¨cInVn¨tèveKe¨bI¨Vs'k~¬g¨beTs edImIºse¨mc[mannUvkarcMerIn lUtlas'. k~¬gcMeNammUlFn¨beTsEdleKVneFÃIv^nieyaKk~¬g¨beTsenH KW manmUlFnCb"une¨cInCageK, bnæab'mkmUlFncintay-va"n' ehIyTI3 KWmUl
  • 56. 48 FnGaemrikSg . k~¬gneyaVyesd½kicÍenH rd½aPiVlVneFÃIkars¨mçl[Ca Gtibrma dl'karnScUlmk«nmUlFnbreTsTSgenH . k*b"uEn¶ bJúaEdlsMxan'CageK KWbJúa¨sUvGgûrenHäg . valTMnab«n TenÂemNam CamhaC¨guk¨sUv«n¨beTsesom . k~¬gkalsBëf©enH «pæ¨kLa dIdSdMNS mancMnYnEt 1/4 Etb"ueNöaH «nvalTMnabTenÂemNam EdlsmºèNá eTAedayClFar . dUec~HbJúa«nkarB¨gékdIdMNSminEmnecaTk~¬glkÅN:F©n'F©r dUcenA¨beTseyokNamenaHeT . EdndIesomEdlman«pæ¨kLaTSgGs'Cag 500ù000 Kùm2 ehIyEdlmYyPaKy"agFMCadITMnab nwgminTan'kÂayeTACadI cegí¿tcgíl'enAeLIyeT k~¬gry:kal 30 É 50 q~SeTAxagmuxenH . ¨beTs enH GacnwgbegûénplitplksikmµVnEfmeTot edImIºGaceqÂIytbeTAnwgesc k¶I¨tèvkarkan'EtFMeLIg@«n¨bCaraås¶ edaysarneyaVyeFÃI[rwtEt¨besIr eLIg nUvrebobGaCévkmµksikmµ mankarVcTwkbJÍèlE¨s kare¨bICéKImI É e¨bIe¨KOgyn¶ksikmµ . KWk~¬gbMNgenHägehIy edayrd½aPiVlesomkMBug EtGnuvt¶Ke¨magkarFM@ Cae¨cIn xagTMnb'Twk Cék¨bLaybJÍèlE¨s tSgBIq~S 1950 mkemÂ"H edaysarC÷nYyBiPBelak . Ke¨magkarenH GacB¨géknUv «pæ¨kLadIdSd÷NS ¨BmTSgfamBlGKðIsnIeTotpg . ¨bsinebIKe¨magkarB¨gékplitplksikmµ nigFnFanÓs§ahkmµenH maneCaKC&yEmn bJúav^bti¶pÂèvsgðmGacnwg¨tèvVnedaH¨say[VnFUr¨sal xÂH, k*bu"En¶kmÂSgesd½kicÍesom nwgrwtEtmanTMhMFMeLIgCalMdab' Ga¨s&yeTAelI PaBFMeFg«np§ark~¬g¨beTsesomenHCa¨Vkd (BI 65 eTA 70 lannak' dl' cugstvt§TI 20) . k~¬gkrNIenH karB¨gékkmÂSgesd½kicÍesomenH k*GackÂay eTACae¨KaHf~ak'mYyFMEdr eTAelIGnaKt¨beTskmõ¬CaeyIg Edlmanp§ark~¬g ¨beTsex§ayenAeLIy . CakarBitEmnehIy kmÂSgesd½kicÍk~¬gtMbn'nimYy@ «nBiPBelak e¨bobVneTAnwgkmÂSgTwkEdlhUrehor BItMbn'mYyxõs'eTAtMbn' mYyeTotEdlTabCagdUec~HEdr . ä¨beTskmõ¬CaeyIg EdlsÄitenAkN¶al¨beTsTSgBIrenH TukCaeyIg eFÃIy"agNa @ k¶I k*BuMGacecosputGMBIkarsgût'sgû^nkan'EtF©n'F©reLIgxagpÂèv esd½kicÍ nigbN¶aCn ( les pressions d'ordre économique et démographique
  • 57. 49 grandissantes ) «n¨beTsTSgsgxagVnrYceLIy edayGa¨s&yeTAelIehtufa eKBuMGaceFÃI¨BM¨bTl'EdnäNa[biTC^tsUn´QwgVneLIy rvag¨beTsC^t xagK~a . etI¨beTskmõ¬CaeyIg EdlmanlkÅN:CaEdk¨Tnab'mYytUc Gac¨T¨Tg' Tb'Tl'nwgjjçrFM@ dl'eTABIrEdlFÂak'mkelIxÂçn¨Bm@ K~aVnÉeT k~¬gGnaKt xagmuxenH ? vaCakarBitNas'eTAehIy, edImIºnwgGac¨TS¨TVn luH¨taEtEdk ¨Tnab'enH ¨tèveKbEnÄm¨sTab'Edk[Vn¨kas'mSCagmuneTIbVn . m´"ageTot cMeJHkrNIesomenHeTotesat ebIsinCa¨beTsenHGac sMercedayeCaKC&yxagkarB¨gékkmÂSgesd½kicÍVn enaHCakar¨besIrehIy . EtebIpæ¬yeTAv^j, etInwgmankaredaH¨sayäNaeTot ? cºas'CaG~kdwknSesom enHnwgecalEP~kjy@ mkelI EdndId*manCéCati«next¶Vt'dMbg nigvalTMnab«nbwg TenÂsab EdlsmºèreTAeday¨tIsac' nig¨sUvGgûrminxaneLIy . cuHebIeKXubXitCa mYyCnCatiyYneTot edImIºEbgEckEpndIeyIg, dUcenAstvt§r_TI 19 naq~S 1840 etIeyIgnwgQmmuxTb'Tl'nwgKe¨magkarGkuslenHtamv^FINa ? X X X
  • 58. 50 esck¶IbJÍb' TSgGs'enH, KW¨Kan'EtCakarsn~id½an kar¨bDit EdlCalTìpl«n¨VCÆa nwgkaryl'Etb"ueNöaH minTan'manCakarBit«n¨bvti¶saås¶enaHeLIy . Et, etI nrNaeLIyEdlGachßanGHGagfa k~¬gGnaKt, kar¨bDitenHminGackÂayCa dac'xat eTACakarBitk~¬g¨bvti¶saås¶Vn ? ¨bvti¶saås¶Gac[emeronpg min [emeronpgcMeJHeyIgral'K~a . GnaKtkalKWCarUgggwtmYyEdleKt¨mèv[ eyIgcUleTAk~¬g eday²t¨bEkkVneLIy EtebIeyIgdwgmunfarUgenHmanPin PaKy"agem"c@ xÂHehIy, eyIgk*Gac¨buge¨bobxÂçneyIgVne¨cInEdr edImIºQm muxnwgyfaehtu¨Kb'y"ag . ehtudUcVnGFibºayeday¨tçs@ BIxagelIenH eyIgGacsnµteday mankarPan'¨cLMCaGbºbrmafa cMeJHGnaKtkal«n¨beTskmõ¬CaeyIg, änay eCégemXäeNaH suTìEt¨bkbeTAedayduMBBkexµA@ e¨cInCaGenk kmÂSg«nkarsgût'sgû^n xagpÂèvesd½kicÍCamYyK~anwgpÂèvbN¶aCn nigpÂèvneyaVyEfmeTotpg Cakar KMramkMEhgmYyy"agFM²te¨bobpæwmVn Edl¨beTseyIg¨tèvEtTTYlrge¨KaH BIsMNak'«nGnaKt¨beTsC^txageyIg . k~¬glkÅn¶ik:EbbenH, maKáaEdleyIg¨tèvedIr KWeyIg¨tèvmankatBÃkicÍCa bzm erobcMesd½kicÍCatieyIg[edIrelOnTan'sm&yniym, eFÃIesd½kicÍenH[rIk cMerInCaGtibrma edImIºGac[mankmÂSg¨Kb'¨Kan' GacQmmuxTb'Tl'Vnnwg kmÂSgsgût'sgû^nBIG~kC^txageyIg edayeFÃI[karKMramkMEhgdl'karKg'vg§ Cév^teyIgmanTMhMy"agtUcbMput . ebIesd½kicÍmankmÂSg¨Kb'¨Kan'ehIy, neyaVyk*edIrtamesd½kicÍBIe¨kayx~gEdr sm nwgJk´Edlfa KWesd½kicÍeTEdlnSneyaVy . KMnitTSgGs'enH KW¨Kan'EtCalTìpl«n kar¨tiHriHBicarNas¶çces¶Ig«nmnus§m~ak'Etb"ueNöaH dUcenHBMuTan'manlkÅN:CasakleLIy. ehtudUec~HehIy karPan'¨cLMmincºas'las'EtgmanCakarFmµta . bMNgrbs'eyIgKW karsaklºgbMPÂWGnaKtkalnigsmºCJï:Etb"ueNöaH .
  • 59. 51 ¨tg'bJúaB¨gIkesd½kicÍ[VneC¯nelOnenH e¨scEtsmtÄkicÍbecÍkeTs xagEp~kenH cuH . ù ù sUm¨beTskmõ¬Ca CamatuPUmiCaTIes~ha Kg'vg§CanicÍù ù ù k~¬gPaBfû¬Mefûég . kMBg'cam «f©TI 20 mkra 1970 nYn eXOn vaysaeLIgv^j nigrcnaGk§r¨kb : XunBImU"c EksMrYlJk´VrSg nigrUbPaBEpnTIfµé : man'¨Bwk CYyBinit´GkÅrav^ruTìExµr : cinexµA sùrùGaù, 7emsa2008ù