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History of-cambodia
History of-cambodia
History of-cambodia
History of-cambodia
History of-cambodia
History of-cambodia
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History of-cambodia

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  • 1. Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa cab;taMgBIstvtSr_TI1énRKisþskraCrhUtmk edayEp¥ktamsilacarwk/ kMNt;Rtarbs;cin nigGaNÑam/ nigtamÉksarGWr:ubEdlmankñúg6stvtSr_cugeRkayenH niBn§eday elak Gaedm:ar LWEkør GtIter:esuIdg;)araMgRbcaMkm<úCa ):arIs bNÑaKarb:UlhÁWtEnr pÞHelx13pøÚvhSakub13 1914 ERbsRmÜleday eTB em:gXan ehA TIXayu mCÄmNÐlÉksarkm<úCa e)aHBum<elIkTImYy qñaM2005
  • 2. ÉksarbkERbTI4énmCÄmNÐlÉksarkm<úCa Gaedm:ar LWEkør ³ Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa bkERbCaPasaExµredayeTBem:gXanehATIXayu BinitüEksRmÜleXøagXøanigGkçraviruT§edayqaMgyu RkahVik nigkMuBüÚT½rkarIeday Kwm suvNÑ danI rcnaRkb nigtYesovePAeday qaMg yu e)aHBum<enAkm<úCa qñaM2005 rkSasiT§i Translation Series No.4 Documentation Center of Cambodia Adhémard Leclère: History of Cambodia Translated by Tep Mengkhean Edited by Youk Chhang Graphic by Kim Sovann Dany Cover and Book design by Youk Chhang Printed in Cambodia 2005 Copyright The History of Cambodia translation project was initiated in early Fall 2004 with personal support from the author of the book. The publication was funded in 2004 by the author. mCÄmNÐlÉksarkm<úCa Searching for the truth. Documentation Center of Cambodia P.O. Box 1110, Phnom Penh, Cambodia Tel.: + 855 (23) 211-875 Fax.: + 855 (23) 210-358 Email: dccam@online.com.kh Homepage: www.dccam.org 1- Cambodia - History. I. Tittle: Histoire du Cambodge depuis le 1er siècle de notre ère... DS 554.5.L4 1975 959.6 73.1792 17 ISBN 0-404-54845-8
  • 3. matika GarmÖkfa buBVkfarbs;GñkERbsRmÜl k,alTI1 ³ RbeTskm<úCa tamerOgniTan nigsilacarwk CMBUkedIm ³ NÐÚcin nigRbCaCn enAedImRKisþskraC nigenAedImmhaskraChiNÐÚ>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>1 CMBUkTI1 >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>15 CMBUkTI2 ³ vyFbur³ nigsmÖúbur³>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>31 CMBUkTI3 ³ GMBIkm<úCa b¤ RsukExµr>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>35 CMBUkTI4 ³ kMNt;smÁal;GMBIRbCaCnEdlmanTMnak;TMngCamYykm<úCamunstvtSr_TI8 cam:,a/ GaNÑam-tugkwg/ eTobekaHm:aLaka/ eQTU b¤esom/ NÐa nigcin>>>>>>>>>>>47 CMBUkTI5 ³ RbeTskm<úCa BIstvtSr_TI7 dl; stvtSr_TI10>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>67 CMBUkTI6 ³ RbeTskm<úCa b¤ RsukExµr>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>71 CMBUkTI7 ³ kMNt;smÁal;GMBIRbCaCnEdlmanTMnak;TMngCamYykm<úCa BIstvtSr_TI8 dl; stvtSr_TI10 ³ cam:,a/ GaNÑam-tugkwg/ cin nigNÐa>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>85 CMBUkTI8 ³ RbeTskm<úCa BIstvtSr_TI10 dl; stvtSr_TI14>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>93 CMBUkTI9 ³ bdivtþn_enAstvtSr_TI14>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>115 CMBUkTI10 ³ kMNt;smÁal;GMBIRbCaCnEdlmanTMnak;TMngCamYykm<úCa BIstvtSr_TI10 dl; stvtSr_TI14>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>129 k,alTI2 ³ RbeTskm<úCatamraCBgSavtar nigÉksarRbvtþisa®sþepSgeTot CMBUkTI1 ³ RbeTskm<úCacab;BIqñaM1340 rhUtdl;karEbkbnÞaylEgVk>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>173 CMBUkTI2 ³ GMBIRbCaCnEdlmanTMnak;TMngCamYykm<úCaenAstvtSr_TI14/15nig16>>>>>>>>>253 CMBUkTI3 ³ BIkarEbk)ak;bnÞaylEgVkenAkñúgqñaM1585 rhUtmkdl;sBVéf¶enH>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>283 CMBUkTI4 ³ kMNt;smÁal;sþIGMBIRbCaCnEdlmanTMnak;TMngCamYykm<úCa BIstvtSr_TI16 rhUtdl;sBVéf¶>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>413
  • 4. GarmÖkfa ´)anmkrs;enARbeTskm<úCacMnYnémÖR)aMqñaMehIy. ´)ansikSac,ab;epSg²rbs;RbeTsenH CabnþbnÞab;. karsikSaenHTamTar[´cMNayeBlGs;db;R)aMqñaM nige)aHBum<esovePACaR)aMk,al KW BIrk,alsRmab;GtßbTc,ab;EdlbkERbecjBIÉksaredIm nigbIk,aleTotsRmab;karGtßaFib,ay. bnÞab;BIc,ab; ´)ansikSaTMenomTmøab;RbéBNIrbs;RbeTsenH edayEp¥keTAtamGVIEdl´segátemIl eXIj nigtamkRmgc,ab;sIlFm’ EdleK)ansresrsRmab;RbedAsaFarNCn. bnÞab;mkeTot ´)ansresrGtßbTepSg² sþIGMBIkayviPaKsa®sþ/ evC¢sa®sþ/ Fµb;/ karGb;rM/ tarasa®sþ/ sIlFm’/ elxnBVnþ nigkardaMRsUvrbs;RbCaCnkm<úCa cuHpSayenAkñúgTsSnavdþIviTüasa®sþ1 / RBwtþbRténsmaKm nrviTüaTIRkúg):arIs2 / nigTsSnavdIþRbvtþisa®sþc,ab;)araMg nigbreTs3 . karsikSaenHenAmanpgEdrnUvGtßbTxøI²cMnYnémÖ/ esovePAcMnYndb;k,al nigsRmg;erOgniTan cMnYnbYnk,al EdlCaerOgniTanhiNÐÚ EteK)anEksRmÜl[eTACaerOgr:avRbCaRbIy_Exµr. karsikSa TaMgenHhak;dUcCaRtÚv)anbBa©b;CamYynwgkare)aHBum<esovePAmYyk,alFM EdlmancMNgeCIgfa RBHBuT§sasnaenARbeTskm<úCa. ´GacnwgbBa©b;karsikSarbs;´RtwmenH k¾b:uEnþ´enAcg;dwgGMBIkar erobcMRbeTsEbbfµI faetIraCrdæaPi)alenaHvay:agNa ehIyvaMgesþckm<úCaenaHy:agdUcemþc. kar sikSabEnßmfµIenH )ankøayCakmµvtßúénkic©karmYyeTot EdlmYycMENk)ane)aHBum<ecjCaesovePA rYcehIy ehIycMENkTIBIrkMBugerobcMe)aHBum<. k¾b:uEnþenAmanesovePAcaM)ac;mYyeTot EdlTamTar[´RtÚvEtsresr KWRbvtþisa®sþRbeTs km<úCa cab;taMgBIstvtSr_TI1énRKisþskraCrhUtmkTl;sBVéf¶ EdlCakic©kard¾FMmYy. ´enAraErk Gs;eBlCayUrTRmaMseRmccitþeRbIR)as;kMNt;Rta nigÉksarCaeRcInEdl´RbmUl)ankñúgry³eBl émÖBIrqñaMknøgmk eRBaHvaenAmankarxVHcenøaHCaeRcIn nigmanTMB½rxøHemIlminyl;pg. karxVHcenøaHenH )aneFVI´xUcTwkcitþCaeRcInelIkeRcInsa. ´manenAkñúgédrYcehIynUvGtßbTbkERbénesovePAeQµaH Corpus rbs;Eb‘EhÁn nig)af/ GtßbTcarwkelIfµbkERbedayGñkR)aCJPasasM®sáwt/ nigGVI²EdleK )andwgBIRbeTskm<úCatamry³BYkcin GaNÑam nigesom/ rYcmansa®sþasøwkrwt/ manesovePAsþIGMBI kMNt;Rtarbs;GWr:ub/ sñaédrbs;bBaØvnþsm½yfµIEdlxitxMRbEmRbmUlTuknUvGVI²EdleK)ankt;RtaTuk BImun/ ehIy´manesckþIbkRsaypÞal;mat; manerOgeRBgniTanTak;TineTAnwgvtßúepSg²TaMgGs; man GnusSavrIy_TaMgLayEdl)ankb;)at;kñúgdYgRBlwgrbs;RbCaCnkm<úCayUrmkehIy ehIyEdlRtÚv
  • 5. esIerIykmkvij. TaMgGs;enHdUcCaenAtictYc minTan;RKb;RKan;enAeLIy EtsñaédenHhak;dUcCaKYrEt sakl,glemIlNas;. TIbBa©b; enAqñaM1907 ´k¾)ancab;epþImsresrkic©kard¾FMeFgenHeLIg Edl´ sUmdak;CUnsaFarNCnnaeBlenH. ´enA)anTTYlGtßbTsresredayédEdlminFøab;manGñkNadwg dUcCaerOgesþckn ehIynigerOgxøI²cMnYndb;eTotEdleKe)aHbg;ecalenAtamvtþGaramnana. ´)an eFVIkarTak;TgCajwkjy CYnkalCaRbcaM CamYybBaØvnþmYycMnYn CamYysasnikCncas;² EdlecHcaM erOgr:avBIGtItkal nigCamYycas;RBwT§acarü sRmab;Rbvtþisa®sþsm½yfµI rYc´k¾cab;epþImsresr. esovePAfµIenHCalT§plénkic©shkarrbs;CnRKb;rUb. enHKWCakarEktRmÚvnUvGVI²EdlCn )araMgnigkm<úCaxøH)ansikSamun´EktRmÚvnUvsMeLgénGtItkalEdlxSwbt²KñaBIsm½ymYyeTAsm½y mYy BITIkEnøgmYyeTATIkEnøgmYyeTot GMBITMB½rRbvtþisa®sþEdleKminEdl)ansresrTuk ehIymin)an ecHcaMl¥ b¤ecHminR)akd b¤k¾min)anecHdwgTal;EtesaH. ´)anxitxMRbwgGs;BIsmtßPaBedIm,IRsavRCavrk[eXIjnUvkarBit nigniyay[gayyl;Efm eTot. k¾b:uEnþ´mindwgfa etI´seRmc)aneCaKC½ykñúgkareFVI[manBnøWxøH enAkñúgsn§iRbkasénRbeTs mYyEdlRbEhlCaFøab;Etmanekrþ×eQµaHl,Il,ajEdr b¤y:agNaeT. ehIyk¾mindwgfaetI´)ansr esresovePARbvtþisa®sþmYyEmnEdrb¤k¾Gt;. Et´sgÇwmfay:agdUecñH eTaHbICa´dwgc,as;fa man kargarRbesIrCagenH EdlRtÚveFVI nigehtukarN_CaeRcInEdlRtÚvrk[eXIj nigmanerOgBitxøHEdl´ min)anbeBa©jk¾eday. ´sUmGP½yeTasBIsMNak;GñkGanTaMgGs; cMeBaHkMhusqÁgEdlGacman PaBminRKb;RKan; énÉksar Edl´sresreLIg. sUmemtþaRCabfa kñúgkarsresresovePAenHeLIg ´Kµanectnanwg bgçitbgç¿GñkÉkeTsd¾kRmcMeBaHkarsikSaEbbenH faRtÚvEtTTYlyknUvGVIEdl´sresrenaHeT. ´ sb,ayrIkrayCanic© nwgTTYlyknUvkarTietonTaMgLay CaBiessnwgGanRbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa mYy EdlsresrRKb;RKan; nigl¥CagesovePArbs;´enH. enAmankic©karCaeRcIneTotsRmab;GñkEdlmkbnþevnBI´. manÉksarCaeRcInEdlRtÚverobcM CafµI Edl´KµaneBlnwgRbEmRbmUlykedayv½yCrarbs;´. sUmbBa¢ak;BIÉksarxøHEdlRbvtþiviTU bnþBI´RtÚvsikSa ³ CadMbUgKWraCBgSavtarsm¶at;mYyEdlB¤eKfarkSaTukenAkñúgRBHbrmraCvaMg ehIy Edlhak;dUcCamanGaf’kM)aMgpg.esþcneratþm)ancak;esaÉksarenHTukehIyhamXat;min[eKpSBV pSayvaeTebIBuMenaHeTnwgRtÚvTTYleTasy:agF¶n;F¶r.EtesþcsuIsuvtßiEdlqøatCagbgnigesþcmun²b¤ ebIBuMenaHeTGacniyayfaEdlmanKMnitTan;sm½yCag hak;dUcCanwkcg;RbKl;ÉksarenH[eTAGñkNa
  • 6. mñak;EdlecHTUlsuMBIRBHGgÁ nigecHbgðaj[eXIjfa CnCatikm<úCa EdlFøab;mantYnaTIFMmYy enAkñúg NÐÚcin enAkñúgGtItkal EtgEtcg;pSBVpSaynUvGVIEdlxøÜnecHdwgGMBIRbvtþisa®sþ RBmTaMgÉksar epSg²EdlxøÜnmanpgEdr. bnÞab;mkeTotmansa®sþaEcgGMBIRbvtþisa®sþRsuknImYy² EdlenAkb;tamvtþGaram EtGacnwg mansarsMxan;xøaMg dUcCaerOgesþckn b¤knemk,t; nigFmµnuBaØRkúgsMbuk ¬GaNaextþRkecH¦ Edl´)an EksRmÜl ehIyelIkeLIgenAkñúgesovePAenH pgEdr. CaTIbBa©b; manerOgniTantammUldæan erOgxøI²Tak;TineTAnwgTIkEnøgmYyEdlKµannrNasÁal; Et erobrab;GMBIRBwtþikarN_Rbvtþisa®sþmYy EdleKmindwgfaekItmanenAeBlNaenATINapgeT. enAmanÉksarGWr:ubxøHeTot EdlenAkb;enAm:anIl Cb:un m:akav nigenAkñúgkalb,vtiþRbeTs GWr:ubmYycMnYnEdlFøab;manTMnak;TMngCamYyNÐÚcinkalBIstvtSr_TI17rhUtdl;19 ehIyEdlmin Tan;manGñkNaRsavRCavenAeLIy. elak ka)atug )ancab;eFVIkarbkERbÉksarEdlKat;rkeXIj enARbeTseGs:,aj B½rTuyehÁ GuItalI ¬enAr:UmCaBiess¦ enALaeG Lúg nigÉksarmYycMnYneTot EdlKat;kMBugtamdanrkenAekaHCVa ¬hSav:a¦ ekaHhÁÚGa ¬NÐa¦ m:anIl nigTIkEnøgepSg²eTot. ebIsin CaKat;eFVIkargarenH enaHelak ka)atug nwgbgðaj[eyIgeXIjBIsarsMxan;rbs;ÉksarTaMgenaH EdleKRtÚvdwg ehIyEdl´minGaceFVI)an. ehIy´sUmeFVIKarvkic©edayrIkraycMeBaHesovePAenH rYc´sb,aycitþebIsinCaGarmÖkfa enHCMrujfaRtÚvEtsresrvaeLIg. Gaedm:ar LWEkør ):arIs/ éf¶TI1 ExFñÚ qñaM1913 1 Revue scientifique 2 Bulletin de la Société d’Ethnographie de Paris 3 Revue de l’histoire du droit francais et étranger
  • 7. buBVkfarbs;GñkERbsRmÜl esovePA{Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCacab;taMgBIstvtSr_TI1énRKisþskraCrhUtmk}(L'histoire du Cambodge depuis le 1er siècle de Notre Ere) EdlniBn§edayelak ADHEMARD LECLÈRE GtIter:sIudg; )araMgRbcaMRbeTskm<úCa RtÚv)ane)aHBum<pSayenAqñaM1914 KWenAmuneBlRbeTskm<úCaTTYl)an ÉkraCüBI)araMgeTAeTot. eRkayBI)anGanesovePAenHcb; ´eXIjfa sñaédniBn§rbs;elak ADHEMARD LECLÈRE man lkçN³TUlMTUlaynigmankarRsavRCavy:aghµt;ct;.lkçN³sm,tþiEbbenHmanRbeyaCn_y:ageRcIn sRmab;GñksikSaRsavRCav GñkniBn§ BiesssisSanusisS nisSitExµreyIg. CakarBit karsikSaenA salacMeNHTUeTA enAmhaviTüal½y GMBImuxviC¢aRbvtþisa®sþenHBitCaBMuRKb;RKan;eT edIm,Iyl;dwgGMBI Rbvtþisa®sþkm<úCamYy EdlRKb;RCúgeRCayykCakar)an. sRmab;eyIgCaRbCaCatiExµr Edlman Rbvtþisa®sþd¾rugerOgknøgmk karyl;dwg nigkarTTYl)annUvBt’manCaeRcInepSgeTot Tak;TineTAnwg Rbvtþisa®sþrbs;xøÜn KWCakarbMeBjbEnßmd¾sMxan; sRmab;kayl;dwgkan;EteRCARCHEfmeTot nUv GtþsBaØaNrbs;CatixøÜn. sßitelIehtuplxagelI nigedayyl;eXIjfa esovePAenHmanKuNRbeyaCny:ageRcIn sRmab; GñksikSaRsavRCav nigRbCaBlrdæExµreyIgTUeTA eTIb´seRmccitþcMNayeBlevlaeFVIkar ERbsRmÜlBIPasa)araMgmkCaPasaExµr nige)aHBum<CaesovePAtamry³mCÄmNÐlÉksarkm<úCa nUvsñaédniBn§enH edIm,IbeRmIdl;karGan nigbMeBjbEnßmcMeNHdwgsRmab;saFarNCnTUeTA. m:üageTot´sUmbBa¢ak;fakarbkERbeQµaHmnusSnigTIkEnøgBIPasa)araMgEdlmanenAkñúgesov ePAenH BitCael¥ógxusKµaBIÉksar b¤esovePARbvtþisa®sþkm<úCa rbs;GñkRsavRCavBImun²bnþicbnþÜc minxan eTaHCa´xMepÞógpÞat;y:agNak¾eday. ´sgÇwmfaesovePAmYyenHnwgrYmcMENkpþl;nUvBuT§iGMBIRbvtþisa®sþRbCaCatieyIgnigeFVI[eyIg manemaTnPaBCatikan;Etx<s;EfmeTotCaminxan. RbCaCatimYyEdlminsÁal;Rbvtþisa®sþBitrbs;xøÜn RbCaCatienaH nwgRtÚvRbvtþisa®sþdEdl²efáaleTas.
  • 8. 1Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa k,alTI1 RbeTskm<úCa tamerOgniTan nigsilacarwk____________ CMBUkedIm NÐÚcin nigRbCaCn enAedImRKisþskraC nigenAedImmhaskraChiNÐÚ 11-- GGMMBBIITTwwkkddII RbsinebIeKBinitüemIlEpnTITVIbGasuI CadMbUgeKsegáteXIjmaneTobekaHFM²bIsßitenAPaKxag t,Úg ³ eTobekaHmYyenAxaglicKWeTobekaHGar:ab; EdleyIgnwgminykcitþTukdak;eT. eTobekaHmYy eTotenAkNþal KW]bTVIbNÐa EdlmanragRtIekaN nigmanekaHsirIlgáaenARtg;kMBUl Etxitmkxag |sanbnþic ekaHenaHeRbób)aneTAnwgeBRCmYyRKab; EdléqñeLIgedayCagmkBIRbeTshuløg;. eTobekaHTIbIenAxagekItenaHKW]bTVIbNÐÚcin. eTobekaHenHmanragdUcCafg;érGgÁasR)ak; ehIyman eTobekaHmYytUcBüÜrCab;nwgcegáH manragdUcCaExSbenþagEdlmanxagcugrIkFMdUcCafñk;GVImYy ³ enaHKW eTobekaHm:aLaka ragEvgehIyerov EdlmaneQµaHfa EdndIsuvNÑPUmi enAkñúgEpnTIrbs; pþÚelem. tamemIleTA eTobekaHenHRbEhlCaenAdac;putBITVIbenAeLIy kalBIedImRKisþskraC edayédsmuRT mYyRtg;bYrdI maneQµaHfa Rka. ebIeKTukEpnTIEdlbgðajRbeTsCaeRcInenH rYcykEpnTIEdlbgðajBINÐÚcinkñúgmaRtdæanFM RBmTaMgmanekaHTaMgLayenAkñúgsmuRTxagt,Úg eBalKW GaMgs‘uLaMgpgmkemIlvij eKeXIjman smuRTtUcmYyenAcenøaH]bTVIbNÐÚcin nigeTobekaHm:aLaka smuRTenaHmanQUgmYyenABIxageCIg ³ smuRTenaHKWsmuRTesom rIÉQUgsmuRTKWQUgsmuRT)agkk. enABIxagnirtIéneTobekaHm:aLaka d¾Evg manekaHFMmYy KWekaHs‘Um:aRta ehIyenAxagcugekaHenH KWekaHCVad¾l¥Rtkal. eTAxagekItenaHeTotKW ekaHb‘½reNGUEdlCaekaHFMCageKenAelIelakrYcehIy manekaHrab;Ban; mantUcmanFM enARbmUlpþú¿KñaCa RbCuMekaH EdltP¢ab;ecjBIeTobekaHm:aLaka nigekaHTaMgLayrbs;m:aeLsuI eTATisxagekItcm¶ay RbEhl800KILÚEm:Rt. ekaHtUcFMTaMgGs;enH GacCakMBUlPñMénTVIbFMmYy Edl)anlickb;)at;eTA enAeRkamTwksmuRT rIÉvalTMnab nigRClgPñM sßitkñúgTICeRmA. enAeBlEdleKBinitüeXIjfaeTobekaHm:aLakad¾EvgenHenApþú¿KñaCamYynwg]bTVIbNÐÚcind¾FMEdl manRBMRbTl;xageCIgCab;nwgRbeTscinenaH eKGacyl;)anGMBIPaBTak;TgKñaxagRbvtþisa®sþ énbNþa
  • 9. RbCaCnEdlkekIt)anCaCatisasn_epSg²eLIgenAelITwkdId¾FMTUlayenH.ehIyeKk¾yl;)anEdrfa eKminGacniyayGMBICatisasn_NamYy edayminniyayGMBICatisasn_epSgeTotesaHenaHeT. LÚvenH sUmEbrmkBinitüemIlEpnTIlm¥itrbs;]bTVIbNÐÚcinvijmþg. ebIelakGñkBinitüCYrPñM d¾Evg Edllatsn§wgenAelI]bTVIbenH elakGñknwgeXIjfamanTenøsÞwgFM² EdlhUrkat;CYrPñMenH Tenø sÞwgTaMgenaH hUrnaMTwkecjBIRClgPñMTaMgLay EdlbBa¢ak;[eXIjfaNÐÚcin KWCakUnRsIénTenøTaMg Gs;enaH nwgfa Catisasn_RbkbedayGarüFm’TaMgLay EdleKRbTHeXIjenATIenH suT§Et)ankekIt eLIgenAelIdIl,b;EdlTenøsÞwghUrnaMykmkcak;bMeBjbnþicmþg²ehIyTwkTenøsÞwgTaMgGs;enaH)anhYt s¶ÜtGs;eTAedaykemþARBHGaTitü. y:agNamij tugkwgKWCakUnrbs;TenøRkhm nigTenøsugm:a. km<úCaKWCakUnrbs;TenøemKgÁ ¬b¤ emTwk¦. RbeTsesom KWCakUnénTenøemNam Edlmann½yfaemTwkEdr. RbeTsPUma CakUnrbs;Tenø ravtI nigTenøsalUGg;. TenøTaMgGs;suT§EtmanRbPBecjBIPñMd¾FM KWPñMhimal½y ¬ExµrehA PñMehmBanþ¦ enATIeb. eRkayBI)anBinitüemIlPñM nigsikSaTenøTaMgLayrYc enaHeKnwgminlM)aknwgKitRsémkñúgcitþeT edIm,IKUsvasEpnTIénRbeTseTAtamEdlRBH®nÞelakGacnwgBinitüemIleXIj eBlelakKg; enAelITI d¾x<s;edayRkeLkEtmYyEPøtGacemIleXIj]bTVIbTaMgmUl.CadMbUgenAxageCIgKWPñMFMRkas;Edllat sn§wgBIekIteTAlicB½T§CuMvijQUgsmuRTtugkwg.cuHmkxagt,ÚgPñMFMRkas;enHsNæandI)anRtÚvkt;smÁal; edayCYrPñMGaNÑam EdlecatbnþicBIxagekIt b:uEnþ rageTrenAxaglic manx<g;rabx<s;TabbnþbnÞab; bnøay Rtg;kEnøgxøHrhUtCitdl;TenøemKgÁ.enAxagTisnirtICYrPñMGaNÑamrIkCaPñMFMRkas;Edllatsn§wgBIsmuRT rhUtdl;xagt,ÚgdaLat; nigeTAdl;kUsaMgsuIneTot. enATisxaglicvij manCYrPñM PñMtUc² nigx<g;rab EdlbnþP¢ab;ecjBIPñMhimal½yEdr ehIyEjkRbeTsesom ecjBIRbeTslav nigkm<úCa nigCabnÞat; x½NÐEckTwkrvagGagTenøemKgÁ nigTenøemNam. TIbMput manCYrPñMTIbImYyeTot EdlEbkecjBIPñMFMRkas;himal½yenATIebEdr. CYrPñMd¾EvgEttUc ceg¥ótenH latsn§wgecjBIRbeTsPUmaxagelI EbgEckPUmaCaBIr ehIyCaRTnugq¥wgrbs;eTobekaH m:aLaka bnþmkbBa©b;enAkñúgsmuRTxagt,ÚgCaekaHCaeRcIn x½NÐedayédsmuRTtUcFM b¤edaysmuRTtUc² nigs¶b;s¶at;. dUecñH eKBinitüeXIjfamanCYrPñMbIenANÐÚcin CYrPñMTaMgenaHmanRbPBecjBIPñMFMRkas; himal½y enATIeb ehIysn§wgmkxagt,ÚgTaMgGs;Kña begáIt)anCaGagFM²bYn EdlmanTenøEvg²bYn hUrkat; 2 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 10. 3Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa GagTenøTaMgenaHCaCRmkrs;enAénCatisasn_R)aMKW³GagTenøemKgÁEdlCaCRmkénRbeTslavenAxag eCIg rYcRbeTskm<úCa nigkUsaMgsuInenAxagt,Úg GagTenøemNam CaCRmkénRbeTsesom GagTenø ravtI CaCRmkénRbeTsPUma nigGagénTenøRkhm EdlCaCRmkénRbeTstugkwg. enAmanCYrPñMmYyeTot EdlCaRBMEdnrvagRbeTskm<úCa nigextþmYycMnYnrbs;RbeTsesomenaHKW PñMdgErk. PñMenHmancegáHxagt,ÚgecatxøaMg k¾b:uEnþtamBitPñMenHCax<g;rabd¾FMmYy EdlenACab;nwgQUg smuRTd¾eRCAmYykalBIsm½yedIm. CYrPñMenHsn§wgkat;GagTenøemKgÁBIekIteTAlic k¾b:uEnþ vamin)an bEgVrTisrbs;TenøenHeT. TwkhUrnaMykdIRKb;TisTIcak;eTAkñúgTenø rYchUrBITenøsMedAeTAsmuRTxagt,Úg. tamemIleTA kalBIsm½ymYyd¾yUrlg; EdlenAeBlenaHRbeTskm<úCa nigkUsaMgsuInminTan; kekItenAeLIy TwksmuRT)aneLIgmkdl;RtwmeCIgPñMdgErkenHÉg rIÉmat;Bamrbs;TenøemKgÁ KWsßitenA Rtg;cenøaH)asak; nigexan. eBlenaHTwkdIkUsaMgsuIn nigkm<úCasßitenAkñúg)atQUgsmuRTenAeLIy kEnøgQUgsmuRTenaH sBVéf¶enHKWbwgTenøsab. kalenaH manbwgFMmYyenAxageCIgPñMdgErk. TwkbwgenHrIgxHbnþicmþg² køayeTACavalTMnab mYyRbkbedayCICati Edlelak )areteLmI )anbriyayenAqñaM1907 ehIyEdlmanTenøesmUn nigédrbs;TenøenHKW sÞwgessuI hUrkat;sBVéf¶enH. TaMgGs;enH KWCakaksMNl;EdlenAesssl;BIkUn smuRTemDIETr:aeNtUcmYyEdlTwksmuRT)anRskfy)at;Gs;eTAEteLIgmklicmþg²EdrkalNaTwk eCar. dIenATIenHrabesµI EtenArkSaCatiéRbenAeLIy. eRkayrdUvePøógmþg² eKeXIjmaneLIgRkam CatiéRbRkalenAelIdI EdlGñkRsukrEmgRbmUlykmksøCaGMbil RKb;RKan;sRmab;tRmÚvkarenAkñúg tMbn;. )atuPaBenHGacnwgekItmaneLIgdUcKña enAkñúgGnaKt db; b¤db;R)aMstvtSr_ teTAmuxeTotcMeBaH bwgTenøsab EdlTwkBImunéRb ehIykarEdleKdak;eQµaHfa sab enH GacCakarbBa¢ak;fa TwkTenøenH kalBImunenAéRbtic² b¤minRsYlTTYlTanb:unµaneT eTaHbICaLÚv TwkenH)ansabeTAehIyk¾eday. enARbeTsesomÉeNaHvij kalBIsm½yenaH TwksmuRTRbEhlCaeLIgrhUtmkdl;RtwmnKr suvNÑ Rtg;xagelIcMNucEdlmansÞwgBIrhUrcUlmkkñúgTenøemNamLÚv. RbCaCnEdlrs;enATIenH kalBIeBlenaH mandIx<s;EtRtg;EpñkxagelIénGagTenøemNamenAxageCIgb:ueNÑaH nigceRmókdIFM TUlaymYy enAtameCIgPñM):atavI/ eb:RTÚ nig):ay:g; enAxagekIt nigenAtameCIgPñMetNaesrIm enAxag lic. tMbn;TaMgGs;CuMvijGyuFüa Rtg;ekaHNgesña EdlCaTItaMgrbs;TIRkúgenH ehIynigtMbn;CuMvij )agkk EdlCaTIRkúgTMenIbrbs;esomsBVéf¶ kalenaHsßitenAeRkamTwksmuRTenAeLIy. dIkEnøgenH cab;elcecjBITwkenAedImRKisþskraCeyIgenHb:uEnþ)agkkenAEtCatMbn;sm,ÚreTAedaybwgbYdEdl.
  • 11. ehtukarN_dUcKñaenHk¾ekItmanenAÉr:g;hÁÚn enA)aesn nigehgsada rbs;RbeTsPUmapgEdr. TwkdITaMgGs;enHep¥ógTmøak;xøÜnenAcenøaHPñMGar³kyüm:aenAxagliccuHeTAt,Úg rhUtdl;eRCayene®hÁ nigPñMeBKUy:am:a enAxagekIt begáIt)anCaQUgsmuRTmYy EdlTenøravtI hUrcUlmk. LÚv eyIgRtlb;mkemIlRbeTskm<úCa nigTenøemKgÁ EdlCaTenømYykñúgbNþaTenøEdlEvg CageKenAelIelakenHvijmþg. sUmBinitüemIlpøÚvTwkrbs;TenøemKgÁenAelIEpnTI. TenøenHmanRbEvg3000KILÚEm:Rt nigman pøÚvTwkbt;Ebny:agxøaMg. ClmaK’aenH TTYlykbrimaNTwkePøógcMnYnBak;kNþal EdlFøak;mkelINÐÚ cin ehIyEdlmin)anhYtGs;eTAedaykemþARBHGaTitüeT. TenøenHhUrecjBIPñMhimal½yenATIeb RbeTscin edaymanCRmalecaTy:agxøaMg nigmanédTenøeRcInrab;ry. enAcm¶ay50KILÚEm:Rt BIxag eRkamRBMRbTl;rvagcin nigNÐÚcin TenøemKgÁrIkFMEtrak; TwkenAEtRtwmCgÁg; mnusSGacedIrkat;)an enArdUvrga. cab;BIRtwmenHeTA TenøemKgÁ)ancUlmkdl;TwkdINÐÚcinehIy enARtg;xagelITenøekVnhug edayhUrkat;r)aMgfµFmµCatix<s;² ceg¥ót nigeRCA minGaceFVInavacr)aneT. mkdl;Rtg;høÜgR)a)ag TenøemKgÁERbCal¥eLIgvij ehIyrwtEtl¥eqItqayenARtg;evogc½nÞ. k¾b:uEnþ enAcenøaHBIhøÜgR)a)agmkdl;evogc½nÞ kareFVInavacreBlxøHmankarlM)ak eKRtÚvepÞrTMnijy:ag ticmþg ebIeKcg;eFVIdMeNIrcuHeLIg. cab;BIeRkamevogc½nÞcuHmkeRkam TenøemKgÁl¥RtkalNas; ehIynavasmuRT nignavacm,aMg GaceFVInavacr)anenArdUvR)aMg rhUtmkdl;suvNÑExRt. cuHeTAeRkameTot épÞTenørIkFM k¾b:uEnþTwkrak; kEnøgxøHmanduMfµrdibrdub b¤manCYrTwkhUrxøaMg RbkbedayeRKaHfñak; rhUtdl;dUnsa1 . bnÞab;mk Twkcab; eRCAKµanRbTHduMfµeToteTk):al;eRbIcMhayGaceRbIeBlEtmYyéf¶b:ueNÑaHedIm,IcuHmkdl;ekg¬l,ak;Twk Føak;¦ kaLaéh2 . eKGaccuHCYrTaMgGs;enH)anEtedaysarTUktUc² edayeRbIeBl4em:ag enAeBlTwkRsk. cuH eTAeRkameTot KWCaTenømYyd¾l¥ EdleKRtÚveRbIeBl2éf¶ edIm,IcuHBIekgy:aeBIt mkdl;ekaHxug. enA cenøaHxugnigekaHexanépÞTenømanekaHCaeRcInTwkrak;nigmanduMfµlicb:RbH²)atTUkenArdUvsRmk.nava 4 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 1 BaküLav{dUn}mann½yfaPUmi 2 ekgmann½yfal,ak;.kaLaéhCaBaküRtab;tamsMeLgTwkCYEdlhUrenAcenøaHduMfµRtÚvnwgBaküExµrfaqay/kaqay.
  • 12. 5Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa eRbIcMhayGaceFVIdMeNIr)anEteBlTwkeLIg BIExkkáda dl; Exvicäika. bnÞab;mkeTot KWl,ak;exan Edl eRbób)aneTAnwgsnÞHraMgTwk eFVI[TwkhUrFøak;cuHy:agxøaMg dUc)ak;TMnb;beBa©jsMeLgRThwgGWgGab; EbkpáaERtgsk,ús enAsgxagekaHexan. eKqøgkat;ekaHenHtampøÚvEdktUcmYy manRbEvgRbEhl 5KILÚEm:Rt. cuHeTAxagt,ÚgekaHexan TenøemKgÁrIkFM KµanekaHKµaneRtIy TUktUc²Gacqøgkat;)anEtenArdUv sRmk.enArdUvTwkFMépÞTenømanTTwgBI5eTA6KILÚEm:Rt.navacrRbRBwtþeTAkat;éRBlicTwkEdleKemIl eXIjEtcugelIb:ueNÑaH. enAxageRkamsÞwgERtgnigédTenøxageqVgmanCYrRBHRtBaMgrYcekaHr:ughSÚd¾FMEdlmanRbEvg40 KILÚEm:RtrYcehIyKWsm,ÚrEdlCaraCFanIsmÖúbur³BImunehIyEdlBYkhuløg;ehAfasM)aebO.bnÞab;mk KWCYrsm,úksm,ÚrrYcsm,úkEdlcab;BIenHeTATwkTenøhUrCaFmµtamanTTwgBI1500Em:Rtdl;2000 Em:RtehIyeKGaceFVInavacr)anRKb;rdUv. mkdl;PñMeBjctumµúx TenøemKgÁEckpøÚvTwkCaBIrFM² edIm,IgayhUrcUleTAsmuRT. enArdUvTwkeLIg TwkTenøemKgÁhUrcak;tamTenøsabb®Ba©aseTAeCIg cUleTAbwgTenøsab. edayGMNacTwkhUrcUld¾eRcIn enHTwkbwgTenøsabeLIgrhUtdl;km<s;5/6b¤8Em:RtCn;licépÞdIEdlenACuMvijrhUtdl;eTAcm¶ay50 KILÚEm:Rt.TwkbwgTenøsabRKbdNþb;valTMnabFMeFgeBareBjeTAedayTUknighVÚgEk¥kTwkhVÚgTugccat Rksa eTam BN’RbepHb¤BN’kUlab EdlhicEhlcab;RtId¾sm,Úr. GñkensaTExµr yYn nigcin rab;Ban; nak; cab;ykRtITaMgGs;enH enAExkumÖ³ mIna nigemsa. eBlputrdUvePøóg valTMnabTaMgLayrIgs¶ÜtGs;edaykaMrsµIRBHGaTitü minmanTwkhUrcak;cUléd TenøeToteT. enAeBlenaH TwkTenøsabcab;hUrb®Ba©asBIeCIgmkt,Úgvijmþgkñúgry³eBl6Ex edIm,I beBa©jTwkEdlhUrcUlkalBI6Exmun. Twkcab;RskecjBIvalTMnablicTwkenACuMvijbwgTenøsab bnþicmþg² rYckan;Etqab;rh½seLIg². TwkbwgTenøsabk¾RskcuHEdr mkRtwmmat;TenøxøÜnÉg rYcRskcuH EfmeTot rhUtTal;EtenAsl;CeRmARtwm 1 b¤2Em:Rt b:ueNÑaH enARtg;kEnøgxøH. GagTwkd¾FMenH k¾ERb køayxøÜnmkRtwmCasmuRTtUcmYy EdlmanRbEvgbeNþay 150KILÚEm:Rt nigTTwg 45KILÚEm:Rt. TwkhUrcUlmkkñúgbwgTenøsabRtaMERtgGs;ry³eBl6Ex rYceTIbhUrecjeTAvij naMykTaMgdI l,ab;eTAkan;smuRTpg begáIt)anCadIduHfµIenAxagt,ÚgkUsaMgsuIn. karceRmIndIl,b;tQb;Qr)aneFVI [dIduHkan;EteRcIneLIg² ÉedImekagkagRbkbedayb£ssµÚjsµajk¾cab;duH dUcCarwtEtCYjTb;l,b; [kkenA rYcmnusSk¾mktaMgTIlMenAbegáIt)anCaPUmiRsukeLIg.
  • 13. TwkdIkm<úCaTaMgmUlcab;kekIteLIgtamrebobenH BIRtwmsm½ykalmYyEdlmanry³eBlminCa yUrb:unµanBIeyIgeT KWkekIteLIgedaydIl,b; EdleFVI[TwkTenøemKgÁERbBN’eTACaelOg dIl,b;enaHmin EmnmktaMgBIPñMhimal½yÉTIebenaHeT eRBaHTwkEdlhUrecjBIPñMhimal½ymkenaH manEtRbmaNCa mYyPaKmYyryénTwkTenøemKgÁTaMgmUlb:ueNÑaH. tamBit dIl,b;TaMgenaH)anmkBIdIénGagTenøemKgÁ TaMgmUl EdlTwkePøóghUrnaMcUlmkkñúgTenø tamry³édTenøTaMgLay rYchUrnaMrhUteTAdl;smuRT. TwkdIkUsaMgsuInsBVéf¶ k¾kekIteLIgrebobenHEdr kñúgsm½ykalmunenHbnþic. sUmBinitüemIlEpnTINÐÚcin enaHelaknwgsegáteXIjvisalPaBénGagTenøKgÁaNÐÚcin sm,Úr eTAedayédTenø EdlRKbdNþb;BaseBjépÞdIRbmaNCa800>000KILÚEm:RtRkLa édTenøTaMgGs; enaHTTYlTwkhUrmkBIsÞwgrab;Ban;ehIyelakGacRbemIlemIleXIjTMhMTwky:ageRcInEdlhUrsMedAmk rkPñMeBj. KWTwkTaMgenHehIyEdlhUrnaMykdIl,ab;mkcak; taMgBIeRcInstvtSr_ munRKisþskraCeTA eTot begáIt)anCaRbeTskm<úCaTaMgmUl ehIyEdleyIgnwgeFVIkarsikSaGMBIRbvtþisa®sþ RbeTsenHenA xagmuxeTot. KWCadIl,ab; EdlpuselcecjBIkñúgTwkmk. GñkRsukEdlmkrs;enATIenHcaM)ac;RtÚvEt sg;pÞHbenþIt[x<s;putBITwkenAeBlTwkFM ehIypÞHmYyRtÚvmanTUkmYy. dIenHl¥Nas;sRmab;dMNaMRsUv ehIyTenø sÞwg bwgbY RtBaMg sm,ÚreTAedayRtIeRcIntKNna TaMgGs;enHGacciBa©wmRbCaCn)an eRcInCagsBVéf¶ 6dg. KWCadImanCICati esImehIyekþA kalebITTYl)annUvGarüFm’NÐa k¾rIkceRmIn elIsm©as;edIm eTACasßabtükmµmYyd¾sem,Immhs©arü cEmøkeBareBjeTAedayGtßn½y. enHCaGarü Fm’mYyKYr[cg;sÁal;enAcugbUB’a Edl)anmksNæitenAelIRbCaCnRbmaNCasamsiblannak; enAkñúgNÐÚcinGs;ry³kal8stvtSr_. enaHKWGaNacRkExµr EdlmanTwkdIkekIteLIgGaRs½yeday {emTwk} edayTenø KgÁaénNÐÚcin sm,ÚrePaKplmincaj;TenønIl3 EdlEvgCag FMCag nigmanKuN RbeyaCn_l¥dUcTenøKgÁa enANÐaEdr. munnwgRbKl;[nUvKuNRbeyaCn_TaMgGs; EdlxøÜnmanTenøemKgÁ RtÚvrg;caMnUvkarEkéqñdUcEdlBYkhiNÐÚBYkmham:at;nigBYkGg;eKøs)aneFVIeTAelITenøKgÁaEdlpþl;TwkTaMg Gs;bIdgbYndgpþl;nUvCICatieTA[valTMnabEdls¶ÜtEhgeTAedaykemþAéf¶.valTMnabTaMgenaHnwgmin pþl;plRsUvsUm,IEtmYyRKab; ebIKµanTenøTwkemenHeT. KWTenøenHÉg EdlRKbdNþb;TwkdITaMgGs;enaH edIm,Ipþl;eTA[nUvTwkedaH eBalKW TwksRmab;)aceRsacRsB pþl;[nUvcMNIGahar eBalKW CICatiEdl 6 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 3 TenøemKgÁmankmøaMgceRmIndIl,b;esµInwgTenønIlKW15PaK10>000/10dgxøaMgCagTenørauMg/8dgxøaMgCagTenøEsn.
  • 14. 7Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa eFVI[Twkl¥k;kkr k¾b:uEnþeFVI[TwkmanCICati. GaRs½yehtuenH sUmeKarBcMeBaHTenøKgÁaénNÐÚcin cMeBaHemTwkEdl)anbgábegáItkm<úCa nig kUsaMgsuIneLIg. edIm,IeFVI[TwkdIenHkøayeTACaRbeTsmYymanePaKRTBüdUcCaRbeTseGhSúIb eKenA RKan;EtRtÚvkarkarEkéqñBImnusSEdlmkrs;enATIenHEtb:ueNÑaH. mnusSEdlmkrs;enATIenHnwgmansirI EdleKGacsuMBITenøenH)an. TaMgGs;enH KWCa]bTVIbNÐÚcin EdleyIgnwgBinitüemIlRbCaCnkekIteLIg rIkFMFat; las;Epøpáa bgábegáItpl rYcehIyRsyutRsyg; rlt;)at;bg;eTA bnÞab;BI)anrs;ranmanCIvit )aneFVIs®gÁambMpøic bMpøajrvagKñanwgKñadeNþImTwkdIKñabMeBjmhicätaerog²xøÜn.GVITaMgGs;manlkçN³CabeNþaHGasnñnig ekItmaneLIgEtmYyry³eBlb:ueNÑaH. LÚvenH eyIgBinitüemIlbNþaRbCaCnepSg²eTot Edlrs;enAelITwkdIenHkalBIstvtSr_TI1 faetIeKeFVIy:agNaenAelITwkdIl,ab;d¾FMeFg esÞIrTwkesÞIreKakenH EdlRtÚvEtsg;pÞHbenþIt[putTwk etI BYkeKeFVIy:agNaeTIbGacbegáItCaRkúmCaRbeTsmanGMNacEdleyIgnwgsresrCaRbvtþisa®sþenH. 22-- GGMMBBIIRRbbCCaaCCnn enAedImRKisþskraCrbs;GWr:ub nigedImmhaskraC4 rbs;BYkhiNÐÚ RbCaCnEdlmkrs;enAkñúg NÐÚcinhak;dUcCab®Ba¢abxøÜnkñúghVÚgRbCaCnsBVéf¶enH k¾b:uEnþenAeBlenaHBYkeKrs;enAEbkKñaCakul sm<½n§ b¤CardæGFibetyütUc² c,aMgKñaeTAvijeTAmk ehIyminTan;suIvil½yenAeLIyeT. BBYYkkEExxµµrr bb¤¤ kkmm<<úúCC³³ RbCaCnEdlksagRbCaCatiExµreLIg rs;enAelITwkdIEdlmaneQµaHsBVéf¶fa kUsaMgsuIn nig km<úCa ebIehacNas;k¾rhUtdl;l,ak;exan nigRbeTsesom5 pgEdr. Rbvtþisa®sþEdleyIgnwgsresr KWCaRbvtþisa®sþrbs;RbCaCnTaMgenaH edayehtuenH eyIg minTan;caM)ac;RtÚvniyayBIBYkenH eRcIneBkeT enAeBlenH. 4 mhaskraCcab;epþImenAéf¶TI21ExmInaqñaM79énRKisþskraC. 5 tamemIleTA BYkelésþenAkñúgEpnTIrbs;pþÚelem KWCaRbCaCnEdlrs;enAelITwkdIkm<úCa nigkUsaMgsuInbc©úb,nñ. rIÉTwkdIrbs;BYk sk³enAkñúgerOgmhaPart³ k¾KWTwkdIenHEdr.
  • 15. BBYYkkccaamm bb¤¤ ccaamm::,,aa enABIxagekItBYkExµrb¤km<úC³ manBYkcamEdlCaBYkGñkpSgeRBgb¤CaecarsmuRT eFVIdMeNIrecj BIekaHFM²EdlmaneQµaHsBVéf¶fa ekaHs‘Um:aRta ekaHCVa nigRbEhlCaecjekaHtUc²Ek,r²enaHpg Edr. BYkenHmktaMgTIenAtammat;smuRT rYcehIy)andeNþImykTwkdImat;smuRT Rtg;kEnøgkUsaMgsuIn nigGaNÑamsBVéf¶6 TaMgRsugb¤k¾mYycMENk munBYkhiNÐÚmkdl;. bnÞab;mk GaRs½yedaycMNgemRtI PaBCamYyGñkRsukEdlrs;enAtammat;smuRTenH k¾seRmcbegáIt)anCaCatimYyenArvagstvtSr_TI2 munRKisþskraC EdlBYkcinehAfanKrlInyI ehIyEdleRkaymkmaneQµaHfa cam:,a7 . BYkenHecj mkBIRbeTsEdlminTan;suIvil½y eKBitCaminTan;TTYlykGarüFm’RBahµN_enAeLIy enAeBlmkdl; NÐÚcink¾b:uEnþbnÞab;mkBYkenH)anTTYlykkareKarBbUCanigRbéBNIRBhµBaØsasnaxøH²KWRbEhlCa enAstvtSr_TI1 énRKisþskraCrbs;GWr:ub. BYkenH)anbegáItrdæskþiPUmiCaeRcInenAtammat;smuRT CardæBak;kNþalÉkraC manemekay erog²xøÜn k¾b:uEnþ cMNuH[esþcGFiraCNamYyCapøÚvkar tamTMenomTmøab; eTaHbICaminsUvmanRbsiT§ PaB k¾eday. BYkenHk¾manTItaMgmYycMnYnenAxagTisTkSiN nignirtI pgEdr cab;BIb‘íjFn;rhUt dl;kMBt EdyeRkaymkRtÚvBYkkm<úC³mkBINÐadeNþImyk8 . 8 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 6 silacarwk v:Ukaj; bBa¢ak;fa manBYkcamrs;enARClgPñMj:aRtag enAstvtSr_TI3/ ÉsilacarwkmIsWnfa mancamenA qksmuRT TYr:an. BYkcamGacnwgmanvtþmanenA panr:ag nigb‘íjFn; rYcehIy. 7 eKmin)andwgGMBIeQµaHEdlRbeTsenHdak;[xøÜnÉg munnwgRbkan;ykeQµaHcam:,aenHeT. cMeBaHeQµaHcam:,aenHvij RbEhlCaeKdak;tamrdæcam:,arbs;BYkhiNÐÚmYy EdlsßitenACitPñMhimal½y enAEpñkxageCIgrdæbBa©ab. Gacniyayfa eQµaHcam:,aenHva Rbhak;RbEhlnwgeQµaHedImfa Cam b¤ECm b¤san enArvagstvtSr_TI2. elak pþÚelem dUcCa)an sÁal;EteQµaHraCFanI)alGg;év EdlelakehAfa sa)an mann½yfaraCFanIrbs;ca b¤sanb:ueNÑaH. tamemIleTA KW eQµaH san enHÉg EdlkøaymkCa cam:,a ehIyEdlBYkGñkniBn§Gar:ab;ehAfa hSag enAstvtSr_TI8. 8 erOgeRBgkm<úCaniyayfamanesþccam6GgÁesayraCü ehIymanBYkExµrecjmkBI®TÞR)asß³ Ek,rTIRkúgEdløI sBVéf¶ mksuMrs;enARtg;kEnøgEdlBYkeKerobcMrYceRscehIy eRkaymkBYkExµrenHRtÚvr:UvCamYyBYknaK bHe)arRbqaMg edjBYkcamecjeTA. tamBYkbBaØvnþkm<úCamYycMnYnEdleCOeTAelIerOgeRBg )anerobrab;eTotfaBYkcam)aneKcxøÜneTA dl;RbeTslav rYcbegáItrdæcM):asak;enATIenaH. erOgesþccam6GgÁBitCamansarsMxan;Nas; k¾b:uEnþerOgeRBgKµanGVICa sMGagc,as;las;eT. eyIgnwgRtlb;mkemIlerOgenHeTot enAeBleRkay.
  • 16. 9Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa BBYYkkllaavv enABIxageCIgTwkdIEdlBYkExµr b¤km<úC³rs;enA manRbCaCnepSgeTotEdlminsUvCasuIvil½y rs;enAEdrKWBYklavedImcab;BIexanrhUtdl;RBMRbTl;extþyunNan¬RbeTscin¦. erOgeRBgrbs;lavniyayfa BYkviRbCa ¬RkúmmnusSEdlmankarerobcMminTan;RKb;sBV¦ enARbeTslavmanedImkMeNItecjmkBIbuBVbursrYmEtmYy. BaküfaviRbCalavenH minEmnsMedAyk EtRbCaCnlavsBVéf¶b:ueNÑaHeT KWrab;bBa©ÚlTaMgRbCaCnEdlrs;enAkñúgGagTenøemNamxagelIpgEdr muneBlEdlBYkéfmkdl; BYkmYgenAtugkwg BYkm:g; BYkcavCI b¤BYkFuk muneBlC½yCmñHrbs;BYkg:amNn; b¤GaNÑam RBmTaMgrdæsan muneBlBYksanEdlmanedImkMeNItéf mkdl;. tamerOgeRBgTaMgenaH em²rbs;BYkeKmanzan³CaKYn EdlmanenAbnþrhUtmkdl;sBVéf¶enAlav k¾dUcCaenAéf nigkm<úCapgEdr KWCazan³m®nþIfñak;Tab. BBYYkkmmnn bb¤¤ ))::aakkaann BYkmnrs;enAelIRcaMgxagt,ÚgénTenøravtInigTenøsalUGg;.eRkayBIerobcMksagraCFanIeb:hÁÚ rYc BYkenHdak;eQµaHxøÜnÉgfa eb:hÁÚ Edr ehIy)anRtÚvBYkGWr:ubEkdak;fa):akan9 vij edIm,IkuM[RcLMnwg eQµaHraCFanI nigeQµaHRsukpg. BYkenHeFVIdMeNIrecjmkBIrmBaØeTs ³ EdlsßitenAtammat;smuRTbwgháal;. enATIenaHmanTIRkúg epSgeTot KWtav:y/ etNas;esrIm/ EmrKuy nigm:ata)an10 EdlkM)aMg)at;enABIeRkayekaHCaeRcIn ry.tamBitBYkenHmanedImkMeNItenANÐaKWRbEhlCaenAtammat;smuRTkUr:Um:g;Edlb¤GUrIsSaEdl BImunehAfakligÁ³11 .BYkenH)anksagraCFanITImYyrbs;eKmaneQµaHfatalwgtaMgBImunRKisþskraC 9 Baküeb:hÁÚenH RbEhlCaRtÚvnwgBaküéxesrbs;EpnTIpþÚelem nigBakübTsaTVIbrbs;BYkhiNÐÚ. 10 PasaGñkRsukehAfa tav:y/ Tn³RsI/ mnß nigmFm³. 11 kligÁ³CardæmYykñúgNÐasm½yburaN sßitenAelIRcaMgxagekItén]bTVIbNÐa EbrmuxmkrkNÐÚcinBImçagénQUg smuRTbwgháal;. rdæenHmanRsuk3 EdleKehArYmKñafa éRtligÁ³ eRkaymkkøayCa tiligÁ³ b¤taligÁ³ TIbBa©b;Ca talwg EdlCaRsukedImrbs;BYkhiNÐÚEdlmkrs;enANÐÚcin. talwg k¾CaeQµaHdMbUgrbs;BYk):akanenAPUmapgEdr. Tal;Et eRcInstvtSr_eRkayeBl EdleKmkdl;NÐÚcin eTIbBYkkligÁ³dUreQµaHeTACa mn/ m:g; b¤m:ag vij EdlCaeQµaHRsuk cMNuHNÐasm½yburaN KWrmnBaس køayeTACarmBaس Cam½j.
  • 17. ehIyk¾RtÚv)aneKehAfatalwg²y:agenHrhUtdl;stvtSr_TI18EtBYkGWr:ubehAfataelog.KWcab;BI raCFanIenHehIy EdlBYkeKecjeTAlukluyTwkdIsuvNÑPUmi KWRbeTsPUmaPaKxagt,ÚgsBVéf¶. enA suvNÑPUmienH BYkkligÁ³EdlmkBIxagt,Úg nwgCYbCamYyBYkPUma EdlcuHmkBIxageCIg. manBYktalwgmYycMnYnedIrkat;PñMetNas;esrImeTArs;enARcbUkRcbl;CamYyRbCaCnEdlman edImkMeNItCaExµrenARtg;TwkdIesomsBVéf¶.mYyRkúmeTotcuHeTAeRkameTAkan;eTobekaHm:aLakaeTArs; enACamYyGñkRsukedImEdlmanrYceTAehIy. BBYYkkeessoomm bb¤¤ ééff enAstvtSr_TI1énRKisþskraC minTan;manBYkesomb¤éf mkenACamYyBYkExµr camb¤cam:,a nig GaNÑameT.manRbPBedImecjBINÐaRtg;nirtIRbeTscinBIsm½ykald¾yUrlg;mYy12 BYkenH)anmk deNþImykTwkdIenAcenøaH yunNanBIxagekIt TIebBIxaglic nigPUmaPaKxagelIBIxagt,Úg. BYkenH )an begáItCakSRtRbeTs (Principauté) rbs;éf)ancMnYn6 enAstvtSr_TI2énskraCeyIg EdlBYkcindak; eQµaHfa Nanqav mann½yfa kSRtTisxagt,Úg. eBlenaHBYkéfminTan;manKMnitcg;eFVIdMeNIrmkt,Úg KWmkkan;NÐÚcinenAeLIyeT. BYkenH RbEhlCaFøab;maneFVIcm,aMgCamYy nwgBYkPUmaxøHehIyenA eBlenaH k¾b:uEnþ KµanÉksarNabBa¢ak;BIerOgenHeT enAstvtSr_dMbUg²énRKisþskraC ehIyvahak; dUcCaminTan;mans®gÁamFMduMeT munstvtSr_TI5. eyIgmanEtBt’mansþIBIerOgNanqav cuHmkvayPUma enAstvtSr_TI7b:ueNÑaH. cMENkTwkdIEdlsBVéf¶eyIgehAfaesomkalBIeBlenaHmanRbCara®sþrYcehIyKWBYkEdlrs;enA tammat;TenøemNamxageRkamdUcKñaeTAnwgRbCaCnEdlrs;enAtammat;TenøemKgÁxageRkamrIÉBYkEdl rs;enAtammat;TenøemNamxagelIdUcKñaeTAnwgRbCaCnEdlrs;tammat;TenøemKgÁkñúgRbeTslavEdr. naeBlenaH tamemIleTAvahak;dUcCamanBYkbreTs cUlmkrs;layLMCamYyBYkExµrenARtg; emNamPaKxageRkam nigkNþaleRsceTAehIy KWBYkmn EdleyIg)anerobrab;BIxagelIrYcehIy 10 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa BakükligÁ³b¤køwgenHsBVéf¶RbCaCnkm<úCaeRbIsRmab;ehABYkhiNÐÚrIÉRsukkøwgKWsMedAykNÐaCaTUeTA.TaMgGs;enH KWedayehtufa BYkeKknøgmk Føab;manTMnak;TMngEtCamYyBYkhiNÐÚenAkUr:Um:g;Edl KWBYkkligÁ³enHÉg. 12 RbEhlCa 8stvtSr_ munRKisþskraC.
  • 18. 11Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa EtkarlayLMenH minGMeNaypll¥dl;karRtÜtRtarbs;BYkkm<úC³eT EdllaysBVl¥Cag. cab;BI dMbUgem:øHBYkmnExµrenHdUcCaR)akdxøÜneLIgCardæmincMNuHehIyRbECgCamYynKrkm<úCa.dl;eBlEdl BYkéf b¤esom cuHmkc,aMgdeNþImykTwkdIenH)an BYkéf b¤esomenH )anTTYlCamrtknUvkMhwgrbs; RbCaCnEdlRtÚveKRtÜtRtaehIycab;bnþkarRbqaMgTl;nwgkarRtÜtRtarbs;ExµrrhUtdl;BYkeKTTYl)an nUveCaKC½ymkTl;nwgsBVéf¶ KW7stvtSr_eRkayeBldeNþIm)annÞbtþCaelIkTI1. bbNNþþaaRRkkúúmm]]bbnniieevvssnn__hhiiNNÐÐÚÚ enAedIménRKisþskraC vahak;dUcCamanRkúm]bnievsn_ ¬GñkecjeTAenARbeTseRkA¦ CVa-m:aeL nighiNÐÚ EdlecjpÞal;mkBIRbCMuekaH GaMgs‘uyLaMg nigkligÁ³ mktaMgenAtammat;smuRTxagt,Úg nigxaglicénNÐÚcinrYceTAehIy. eRkaymk BYkenH)anRcbl;layKñacUlCamYyGñkRsukedIm KWBYkExµrenHÉg. KWRkúm]bnievsn_kligÁ³TaMgGs;enH ehIyEdl)anksagraCaNacRktUc² Rbkb edayGarüFm’hiNÐÚ enAEpñkxagt,ÚgénNÐÚcin raCaNacRkTaMgenaHeRkaymkkøayCaRbeTskm<úCa b¤ RsukExµr. cMENkenAtammat;smuRTxaglicénNÐÚcin EdlEbrmuxeTArkQUgsmuRTbwgháal;vij man raCaNacRktUc² EdlBYkB½rTuyehÁ ehAfaEmrta)an/ EmrKuy/ tav:y/ etNas;esrIm RBmTaMgraCa NacRktUc²enAtameqñrsmuRTxagekIténeTobekaHm:aLaka manlIhÁ½r b¤RsIFmµraCnKrCaedIm. GGaaNNÑÑaamm bb¤¤ ttuuggkkwwgg kalBI2stvtSr_munRKisþskraC enAEb:kBay½BüéntugkwgsBVéf¶ manraCaNacRktUcmYy EdlBYkcinehAfaFuk b¤NamEy. GñkRsukrdæenHmanGm,ÚrCamn b:uEnþ BYkenHRbEhlCasßitenAeRkam karRtÜtRtarbs;BYkGaNÑam EdlmkBIPaKxagt,ÚgénTenøy:g;esküag b¤Tenøexov. raCFanI KWPangU. RBHraCamYyGgÁénraCaNacRkenH RBHnammn b¤ y:avCI )anRbkass®gÁamCamYycin rYcvay deNþImyk)anExRtkVagTug ¬kalenaHmaneQµaHfa étevot¦/ ExRtkVages nigPUeKon ¬kalenaH man eQµaHfa dugGU¦/ RBmTaMgrdætUc²mYycMnYneTot. RBHGgÁRtÚv)anRBHecAGFiraCcinTTYlsÁal;fa Ca RBHraCaéng:anNam b¤GaNÑamEdr. GaNÑamnaeBlenaH KWtugkwgsBVéf¶enHÉg. cab;BIeBlenaHmk raCaNacRkFuk eRkameQµaHfµIfa GaNÑam b¤g:anNam manTwkdIlatsn§wg cab;BIRBMEdnPaKxagt,ÚgyunNan rhUtdl;QUgsmuRTtugkwg nigrhUtdl;RBMEdnPaKxageCIgnKrcam:,a KWGaNÑamsBVéf¶.
  • 19. raCaNacRkenH EdlcinehAfaNamEyb¤NamevotenAqñaM111 ¬mann½yfaTkSiNEbkExJk¦ bnÞab;mk)anRtÚvFøak;enAeRkamkarRtÜtRtarbs;]tþmesniyemT½BcinEdlRBHecAGFiraCcinEtgtaMg[ eFVICaecAhVayExRt. BYkenHRKb;RKgGMNact²Kña BI«Bukdl;kUn ehIyBRgwgGMNacEtkñúgRKÜsarÉg y:agdUecñH. BYk]tþmesniy ecAhVayExRtTaMgenH )anEbgEckTwkdIRBHraCaNacRkGaNÑamCa 9ExRt ehAfakVan; kñúgenaHman 4sßitenAcinPaKxagt,Úg 3enAtugkwgxageRkam nig2eTotenAtugkwgxagelI. cMENkÉEpñkkNþalénraCaNacRkGaNÑam EdlesayraCüeday]braCcin manEckecjCa 3kVan; KW kVan;y:avCI/ KUeCOn nigjútNam. kVan;TaMgenH eKehAfaTYgkVag eRkaymkkøayCa tugkwg EdlsBVéf¶ enHCaeQµaHrbs;RbeTsTaMgmUl nigsßitenAcenøaH yunNan lav QUgsmuRTtugkwg CYrPñMGaNÑam nig mat;RckGaNÑam. eKdMNalfa enAqñaM166énRKisþskraC manBYkQµÜjEdlGHGagfa xøÜnCaraCTUtrbs;RBH GFiraCr:UmuaMg RBHnamfam:ak;GUEr:l ehIyEdlRbEhlminEmnmansBa¢atir:UmuaMgeT13 )anmkcuHsMeBA enAxagt,ÚgnKry:avCI b¤GaNÑamenH. tamemIleTA enAkñúgEpnTIrbs;pþÚelem haNUyKWGakaNakar:a ehIyRbCaCnEdlrs;enARtg; BamTenøRkhm )anehAxøÜnÉgtamrebobsamBaØfa GuindUy. BBYYkkmm::aarr::aamm::aa bb¤¤ mmiiyy::aamm::aa bb¤¤ PPUUmmaa enABay½BüNÐÚcinmanTwkdIEdlmaneQµaHsBVéf¶faPUmaxagelIEdlmanBYkm:ar:am:ars;enABYkenH eRkaymk)andUreQµaHCaPUmavij.BYkenHcuHmkBITIebkalBIrvag2b¤3stvtSr_munRKisþskraCrYcmk deNþImykTwkdIrbs;BYkkaer:nenA.BYkkaer:nenHCaRbCaCnKµanGarüFm’søÚtcUlcitþeFVIksikmµ.GaRs½y edayPaBeGoneRbón nigTMenomTmøab;Gn;fy BYkeKRtÚvrs;enAq¶ayBITIRkúgrhUtmkdl;sBVéf¶enH. vtþmanrbs;BYkm:ar:am:a enARtg;EpñkxagelIénTenøravtIenH )anbgç¿[BYksan EdlmanGm,Úréf Edr ehIyEdleyIgnwgelIkmkniyayxageRkamenH RtÚveKcxøÜneTArs;enAÉRsuklav ehIyeBleFVI 12 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 13 enANÐa eKehATaMgBYkRkik BYkGñkRsukeTobekaHGar:ab; nigBYkGñkrs;enAxaglicRsukEBrS faCa r:UmauMg rhUtmkdl; eBlfµI²enH BIeRBaHBYkenaHFøab;CacMNuHrbs;r:Um.
  • 20. 13Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa dMeNIreTAdl;NÐÚcin k¾begáIt)anCakSRtRbeTsCaeRcIn rs;enAq¶ayBIsmuRT BITenøedayminKitBIkar GPivDÆn_eLIy. BYkm:ar:am:a )anTuk[BYksanrs;enAelITwkdIEpñkxageCIg ehIymin)anrMxanBYkenHkñúgkarvatyk TwkdIÉxagekIteTBIeRBaHBYkm:ar:am:amanbMNgcg;EtcuHmkxageRkamTenøravtIsMedAmkrksmuRTeday Kµancg;vatykTwkdIRbeTslaveLIy. tamemIleTA enAedImstvtSr_énRKisþskraC BYkPUma b¤m:ar:am:a)andeNþImyk)anTwkdI Edl sBVéf¶enH KWRbeTsPUmaPaKxagelIrYceTAehIy. BBYYkkssaann enAxaglicRbeTslavPaKxagelI bnÞab;BITwkdImYykEnøgenAelIRcaMgxagsþaMénTenøemKgÁ EdlCa cMENkmYyénRBHraCaNacRkhøÜgR)a)agsBVéf¶enH manRbCaCnmYyRkúmrs;enA KWBYksan. dUcEdl )anerobrab;BIxagelIrYcmkehIyBYksanenHmanGm,ÚrCamYyBYkéfb¤esom.RbCaCnsanenHcuHmkBI kEnøgmYy EdleRkaymkkøayCaraCaNacRktalI. BYkenH)anmkrs;enABIxagekItBYkPUma enAeBl EdlBYkPUmaenHkMBugvaydeNþImykTwkdIBIBYkmn b¤):akan EtRtÚvBYkmnvayedj[rt;eLIgeTAEpñkxag elIénTenøravtIvijeTA CakEnøgEdlBYkmnenHFøab;enAkalBI BIr-bIstvtSr_mun. enAedImRKisþskraC BYksan )anRtÜtRtaeBjTwkdIEdlBYkeKrs;enAsBVéf¶enH edaybegáIt)an CakSRtRbeTsmYycMnYn mansV½yPaBerog²xøÜn k¾b:uEnþTaMgGs;KñasßitenAeRkamkarRtÜtRtarbs; RBHecAGFiraCmYyGgÁ karRtÜtRtaenaHGacmanEtnam nigGacCakarRtÜtRtaBitR)akdEtenAkñúgkal³ eTs³xøHb:ueNÑaH. kSRtRbeTsTaMgGs;enaHsßitenAq¶ayBIsmuRT BITenøFM² nigBIBaNiC¢kmµpgEdr dUcenHBYkeKmin sUvCalUtlas;b:unµaneT. edayehtuenaH BYkeKxitxMbgábegáInplEtelIdIEdleKdeNþIm)anBIBYklav b:ueNÑaH ehIymin)anykcitþTukdak;nwgsßabnapøÚvfñl;eFVIdMeNIrGVIeLIy. eKKitfa mankulsm<½n§sanmYyenAEpñkxagelIrdæGasamEdr b:uEnþKWCakSRtRbeTsmYy Edlmin sUvCamansarsMxan; b:unµaneT. GGMMBBIIRRbbeeTTsscciinn enAedImRKisþskraC RbeTscin)anmanGtßiPaBRbEhlCa3000qñaMrYcmkehIy. BYkcin man
  • 21. GarüFm’rIkceRmInxøaMgNas;eTAehIy KWmanTsSnviC¢aRbkbedayKtibNÐittaMgBI5stvtSr_munmkem:øH nigmansasnaeRcIn EdlmanmUldæansßitenAelIsIlFm’RbkbedayvicarNBaØaN nigenAelIkar eKarBbUCabuBVbursRBmTaMgTMenomTmøab;buraNpg. eBlenaH RbeTscinminFMdUcsBVéf¶enHeT. bNþaExRtxaglicminsßitenAeRkamGaNaBüa)al rbs;BYkeKeT. RbeTsTIebkalenaH enAÉkraC minTan;CaTwkdIrbs;cinenAeLIy. ehIycinRbEhl CaRtÜtRtabNþaExRtEdlenAq¶ayBIraCFanI minCaeRcInb:unµaneT. GMNacrbs;cinenAeBlenaH KWCa GMNacEdlmanEteQµaHb:ueNÑaH cMeBaHRbCaCnCaeRcInenATisxageCIg nigxagnirtI. BYkGaNÑam enAxagt,Úg nigBYkkUer:enAxageCIg EdlminRtwmEtminTTYlykGnutþrPaBrbs;cinb:ueNÑaHeT EfmTaMg bHe)arRbqaMgeTotpg. eTaHCay:agenHkþI enAkEnøgNaEdlcinvatGMNaceTAdl; BYkeKpSBVpSayGarüFm’rbs;eK ehIy RbCaBlrdæTTYlykTMenomTmøab; ]tþmKti RbéBNI nigTsSnviC¢arbs;eK. GVIEdl)anerobrab;mkxagelIenHKWCaGVIEdlmanenAelITwkdINÐÚcin enAedImRKisþskraC KWman RbCaCnEdlrs;enAkñúg]bTVIbNÐÚcin RbCaCnEdlKMramkMEhgmkBIxagt,Úg nigRbCaCn Edlrs;enA PaKxageCIgEdlenAEtmanT§iBly:agxøaMg nigmanRbsiT§PaBmkelINÐÚcin rhUtdl;sBVéf¶enH. enAeBlEdlniyayGMBIRbvtþisa®sþrbs;RbCaCnkm<úCa eyIgRtÚvEtniyayGMBIRbeTsTaMgGs; enaHEdr BIeRBaHeRkAEtBIRbeTscin nigRbeTsNÐaEdleRcInEtmanTMnak;TMngmitþPaBCamYykm<úCa RbeTsCitxagÉeToteRcInEtmancm,aMgCamYykm<úCa nigmanRbeTsCaeRcInEdlkm<úCa)anvay kan;kab;dak;CacMNuH. LÚvenHeyIgBinitüemIlfaetIGaNacRkExµrd¾xøaMgkøamYyenHcab;epþImeLIgy:agdUcemþcrIkceRmIn y:agNa ehIyetIeRkayBIdeNþIm)anTwkdINÐÚcinPaKkNþal taMgBIeCIgrhUtmkdl;t,Úg eBalKW GagTenøemKgÁTaMgmUlrYcehIyehtuGVIk¾Rsab;EtRtÚvkat;pþac;GMBInKrcMNuHTaMgLayGs;rlIgenAsl;Et TwkdItUcmYyy:agdUecñH. eyIgnwgRsavRCavemIl bnÞab;mk faetIkarmkdl;rbs;BYk)araMg)anCYy eRsacRsg;RbeTsenHBIkNþab;édBYkesomEdlCasRtÚv1000qñaM nigBIkNþab;édBYkGaNÑam Edl eQøaHCamYyExµr3stvtSr_rYcmkehIyedayrebobNa. enATIbBa©b; eyIgnwgBinitüemIlfa eRkam T§iBlénGarüFm’)araMg RbeTsenHhak;dUcERbCamanvasnamYyepSg déTBIvasnaénkarFøak;cuH rbs;xøÜnEdleRtómTukedayELkkalBIfµI²enAeLIy. 14 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 22. 15Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa CMBUkTI1 11-- GGMMBBIIRRbbeeTTsshhVVÚÚNNnn BYkcin EdlsÁal;NÐÚcintaMgEtBI2000qñaMmun edaymanBYkGñkedIrsMeBAmkcuHctCajwkjy pgenaH )anehATwkdIénGagTenøemKgÁxageRkamrhUtdl;mat;smuRTxagt,Úgfa hVÚNn b¤b:UNn. tamemIleTA BYkviRbCab¤kulsm<½n§Edlrs;enATIenaH min)ansÁal;eQµaHEdlcindak;[eKenHeT1 . ebItamRbCaCnkm<úCa nigtamerOgeRBg GñkRsuk)anehAcMENkEdlRtÚvnwgkm<úCasBVéf¶fa eKakFøk b¤nKreKakFøk2 . KWeBleRkayyUrmkeToteTIb GñkRsukERbehAfa RsukExµrvij rYceRkay²mkeTotehA km<úCa CasM®sáwtfa kmVúCa CaeQµaHEdleRCIserIsedayBYkGñkmkc,aMgdeNþImRsuk nigGñkEdlnaMGarüFm’ hiNÐÚmkpþl;[. b:uEnþ ebIeTaHCaeQµaHenaHCaBakücin CaBakürbs;GñkRsuk b¤k¾CaBaküsM®sáwtkþI k¾enANÐaPaK xageCIgeKsÁal;RbeTsExµreRkameQµaHfa skáTVIb mann½yfa TVIb b¤TwkdIrbs;edImsk³ KWedImém:sak;. edImém:sak;xusKñaBIedImFøk k¾b:uEnþedImeQITaMg2manEpødUcKña EdlBYkekµg²Etgykmkkekr ehIyeK GacykmkcRmaj;ykeRbg)an. ebIdUecñH eKGacTTYlsÁal;fa eQµaHEdleKdak;[km<úCa eTaHCadak; [edayRbCaCnxøÜnÉg b¤k¾dak;[edayBYkhiNÐÚkþI KWCaBaküEtmYy ehIyedayehtuenH RbéBNIrbs; RbCaCn KWBitCaRtÚvnwgsBaØaNrbs;hiNÐÚEdr. KYrkt;smÁal;faenAstvtSr_TI2énRKisþskraCBYkRkiknigr:UmuaMgsÁal;RsukExµredayEpnTIrbs; 1 k¾b:uEnþBaküenHhak;dUcCaminEmnCaBakürbs;cineT. vaminmann½yfaExRtxagt,Úg dUcEdleK)anniyayenaHeT BIeRBaHfatamFmµtaenAkñúgPasacinKuNnamenABImuxnamCanic©.mü:ageTotBakühVÚminmann½yfaExRteTKWmann½yfa TIRkúgtUc lMdab;fñak;TI3 Etb:ueNÑaH. dUcenHBakü hVÚNn Kµann½yeT. EtBaküenHGacCakarsesrcmøgeQµaHtamBakü GñkRsukNamYyEdlcinGanminc,as;.enAstvtSr_TI2énRKisþskraChVÚNnCaTRmg;cugeRkayrbs;b:UNn.k¾b:uEnþ etIRtÚvBnül;karEdl)at;Bakü b:UNn eTAedayrebobNa kñúgPasaniyay kñúgerOgeRBg b¤kñúgsilacarwk? 2 tamkMNt;RtamYyEdlepJIBITIRkúgev:enAqñaM1908 CUnelak lUs Caer:suIdg;Can;x<s;)araMgRbcaMkm<úCa)anniyayfa ExRt y:aDij kalBIGtItkald¾yUrmkehIymaneQµaHfa PUNn. eRkaymkdUrCa FugcanLab; nigeRkaymkeTotfa RtaydugpU. cab;BIqñaM1701mk k¾ERbeTACa PUy:aDij rhUtmk.
  • 23. pþÚelem EdlKUseLIgtamkarniTanrbs;GñkeFVIdMeNIrtamsmuRT EpnTIenaHdak;eQµaH[fa CaRsukrbs; BYkelésþ3 EdlxusKñaq¶ayNas;nwgBakükm<úCa.elakvresnIy_ÉkehSrInI)ansnñidæanfaeQµaHenH minEmnCaeQµaHEdlfatamBaküGñkRsukedImenaHeT EtKWCaBaküERbeTAvij. ebIniyaydUecñH elésþ CaBaküRkikEdlmann½yfa ecar b¤ecarsmuRT. ´enAminTan;yl;enAeLIyGMBInirutþisa®sþ d¾buinRbsb; EbbenH Et´hak;dUcCaTal;R)aCJ kñúgkarEdlcg;Bnül;BaküExµr EbrCaelcBakü elésþ eTAvij. Et elakvresnIy_Ék)anrMlwkfa Bakükm<ú EdlmanenAkñúgsilacarwkCaeQµaHrbs;eTv³buBVbursrbs; km<ú sV½ymÖúEdlmann½yfaekItmaneLIgedayxøÜnÉgeBalKWRBHRBhµ.ehIyBaküenHCaPasasM®sáwtman n½yfaecarb¤ecarsmuRT.edayehtuenHelakvresnIy_snñidæanfaBaküRkikfaelésþRtÚvKñanwgBakü km<ú BaküTaMgBIrm:at;enHmann½yfa ecar/ ecarsmuRT b¤ebIehacNas; k¾sMedAykBYkGñkEdlrs;enACa RkúmRbdab;edayGavuFEdr. elaksnñidæanbnþeTotfa enARsukenH GñkRsukRbkbmuxrbrCaecarsmuRT b¤ebIBuMenaHeT k¾RtÚvCakUnecArbs;emecarsmuRT b¤ecarbøn;tamsmuRTNamñak; EdlbuKÁliklkçN³ )an rlub)at;tameBlevlaeTAehIy enAstvtSr_TI54 . TaMgerOgeRBg TaMgRbéBNIkm<úCa niyayfa BYkGñkrs;enAkñúgnKreKakFøkmaneQµaHfa naK Edl eRkaymkdUrCaExµr rYcCakm<úCavij5 . EtvamanmUlehtuEdlGac[eCO)anfa Bakü{naK}enH minEmn CaeQµaHedImEdleKehAxøÜneKenaHeT b:uEnþ KWCaBaküEdlBYknirRbevsn_hiNÐÚdak;[. BaküEdleKehA 16 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 3 RsukenHmanraCFanIeQµaH saeb sßitenAxageCIgéRBnKr. eQµaHenH RbEhlCaBaküm:aeL ehIydak;y:agenH KWyktamTIRkúgsaebenAekaHs‘Um:aRta. 4 karbkRsayenHGacnwgRtwmRtÚv k¾b:uEnþdUcCaKYr[sgS½yxøaMgNas;. KWCakarBnül;EdlGg;GachYs ehIyk¾Kµan PsþútagbBa¢ak;c,as;las;Edr. 5 enAkñúgsilacarwk eKsresr kmVúCa k¾b:uEnþkm<úCamaneKniymeRcInCag. maneKBnül;fa kmVúCa b¤km<úCa Gackøaymk BIBaküm:aeLfa simbUC³ EdlCaeQµaH rbs;):aLM)ag kalBIyUryarNas;mkehIy ehIyEdlcinehAminc,as;fa sanhVúsuI. ´min[témødl;karbkRsayenHeT Et´eCOfa eTaHCaBakükm<úCakøaymkBIeQµaHCaPasam:aeLrbs;TIRkúg mYyb¤k¾køaymkBIeTv³buBVburskm<úkþIBYkExµrTTYlykBaküenHsRmab;karcaru_elIfµBIeRBaHvaeFVI[nwkeXIjCatisasn_mYy énNÐarbs;BYkGarüag ehIyeFVI[BYkeKmanRbPBedIméføfñÚr nigRbkbedayeCaKC½y. KWdUcKñaEbbenHÉg EdleRkay mkBYkeKehAGgÁrFMb¤mhanKrfaCa®nÞR)asß³-nÞ)aTEdlCaeQµaHrbs;TIRkúgmYyenAhiNÐÚsßanRbEhl15KILÚ- Em:Rt xagt,ÚgTIRkúgEdløI.
  • 24. 17Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa xøÜneKenaH KWRbEhlCaBaküEdlmanenArhUtdl;sBVéf¶ KWExµrenHÉg RKan;EtBaküenH mansresr Ebøk²KñaeTAtameBlevlaTIkEnøgnigtamRKamPasarbs;GñkRsuknImYy²KWmanBaküxm/ekAem/ekµn/ kµI/ KimI/ KYr/ ekµór/ kumar EdlCaBakütamPasaGñkviRbCaedIm6 . enAcMeBaHmuxBYkbreTshiNÐÚ EdlmanGarüFm’eCOnelOnCagBYkGñkrdævasI ¬GñkenAkñúgrdæ¦ EdlminsUvmanGavuFpg ehIyk¾GacCaGñkcUlcitþsnþiPaBCagpg min)anvaytbteT eKdkfyTuk kEnøg[BYkenaH taMgTIlMenAksag)anCaRkúm]bnievsn_BaNiC¢kr EdleFVIdMeNIrecjcUlRsukeday sßitenAdac;RsLHBIGñkRsukedIm EteRkaymk)ankøayeTACaemdwknaMRsukvij. Rkúm]bnievsn_dMbUg²CaRkúm]bnievsn_BYkCVamkBIekaHCVab¤BYkm:aeLmkBIekaHs‘Um:aRtaEdl)an TTYlGarüFm’hiNÐÚrYcmkehIy. BYkRkúm]bnievsn_EdlmkbnÞab;eTot KWBYkhiNÐÚmkBIrdækligÁ³. Éksarcin)anrkSaTuknUverOgr:avd¾sMxan;mYy EdlGacCakarcgcaMesssl;BIkarQøanBan elIkTImYyrbs;BYkm:aeLmkelIkm<úCaenARtg;mþúMcUvdukBIeRBaHfamat;Bamrbs;TenøemKgÁkalBIeBlenaH RbEhlCaenAx<s;CagsBVéf¶ ehIydIEdlGacsg;lMenAsßan)an enAkan;Etq¶aybnþic eTAxageCIg. erOgr:avEdlBYkcin)anrkSaTukenaH )anRtÚveKerobrab;enAstvtSr_TI3énRKisþskraC k¾b:uEnþ erOgenaH RbEhlCaGacmanb£sKl;taMgBI100 b¤200qñaMmun. kalenaH RbeTsenHdwknaMedaykSRtImYyGgÁ RBHnamfa lIvyI7 ERbfasøwkRsUl. eBlenaH manbursmñak;eQµaHhYnhVIúb¤h‘uneTonEdleKarBbUCaRBhµBaØsasnaeFVIdMeNIrmkBITisTkSiNKWecjBI smuRTxagt,Úg8 mkctsMeBAenAnwgraCFanI ehIy)anvayQñHT½BEdlRBHnaglIvyI)anbBa¢ÚneTATb; 6 Bakü naK EdleKeRbICaRbéBNIsRmab;ehAGñkRsukedImrbs;nKreKakFøk GacnwgRtÚv)andak;[edayBYkhiNÐÚ taMg EtBIeBlEdlBYkenHmkdl;dMbUgemø:H. enANÐa BaküenHCaeQµaHCnCatimYyRkúm EdlmanrhUtmkdl;sBVéf¶ KWBYkeK manTIlMenA²cenøaHExRtQIttahÁúg nigGasam. BYkenHmanpÞHsg;benþIt dUcCapÞHBYkExµrEdr. maneKniyayfa BYknaK enANÐaenHmanGm,ÚrCaeCr:asb¤sirasEdlRbEhlKñanwgBakücar:aynigsuWr:ayEdleKEtgB¤enAkm<úCa.car:ayCa eQµaHEdlCnCatiPaKticKYydak;[Exµr rIÉBakü suWr:ay CaBaküEdlBYkesÞóg nigBYkm:yenAPaKxagekItkUsaMgsuIn eRbI sRmab;ehAExµr. dUecñH vaGacCakarRtwmRtÚv EdlfaBakünaKCaeQµaHEdlBYknirRbevsnþhiNÐÚdak;GñkRsukeKakFøk. 7 GñkxøHfaeQµaH edoblIeyI. 8 elakEBlIy:U)anrkeXIjÉksarEdlniyayfaRBahµN_enaHmkBIvUEvmb¤KInigraCNacRkKav.CnenaHGaceFVI dMeNIrmkBINÐa edayeFVIdMeNIrkat;tamRcksigðburI k¾b:uEnþ´eCOfaRKan;EtdwgfamkBITisxagt,Úg KWRKb;RKan;ehIy.
  • 25. Tl;. eRkayBI)anerobcMRsuk[mansnþiPaBrYcehIy RBahµN_enaHk¾erobGaBah_BiBah_CamYyRBHnag lIvyI rYceLIgesayraCüenAnKrhVÚNn EdlGñkRsukedImehAfa eKakFøk teTA. dUcenHRBHnaglIvyIKWCaesþcesayraCüdMbUgenAnKreKakFøk. RBHraCaTI2KWRBH)aTh‘uneTon EdlCaCnbreTs)anerobGaBah_BiBah_CamYyRBHnaglIvyI KWGacCam:aeL b¤CVa eRBaHeFVIdMeNIr mkBITisxagt,Úg ehIyenABIt,Úgkm<úCaeBlenaHKWekaHCVa b¤ekaHs‘Um:aRta b¤ebIBuMenaHeT KWsigðburI. RBH)aTh‘uneTon nigRBHnaglIvyImanRBHraCbuRtmYyRBHGgÁ. eBlRBHraCbuRtaenHceRmIn RBHCnµFMeLIg RBH)aTh‘uneTon)anerobcMdIsamnþraCmYy manTIRkúg7 [RKb;RKgdIenHEdlCadIsamnþ raCTImYyénRBHraCaNacRk. eRkaymk manesþcsñgraCübnþBIRBH)aTh‘uneTonmYyGgÁ RBHnam h‘un):aghYg)aneRbIl,icbMEbkbM)ak;TIRkúgTaMg7rYck¾vayykdak;CacMNuHeTIbRTg;cat;taMgRBHraCbuRt RBHraCntþa[eTAesayraCüelITIRkúgnImYy²enaHeTot.srubmkdIsamnþraCmYyEdlRBH)aTh‘uneTon )anerobcM[RBHraCbuRtrbs;RBHGgÁesayraCü EtesþcTwkdImYy²cg;erIxøÜn[)anÉkraCü )anRtÚv RBHGgÁvaydak;CacMNuHeLIgvij rYcEbgEck[esþcRtaj;7rUbesayraCü. RBHraCaGgÁenH)anRKgraCürhUtdl;RBHCnµ90RBHvsSaeTIbesayTivgÁteTA eBlenaHRBHraC buRtTI2rbs;RBHGgÁ RBHnamfa pan; pan;9 RtÚv)aneRCIstaMg[eLIgesayraCübnþBIRBHbita. b:uEnþ esþcGgÁenH min)anykcitþTukdak;nwgkic©karRbeTsCatieT RTg;)anRbKl;kic©karTaMgGs;[emT½BRBHGgÁ eQµaH hVan;ecm:an; b¤ hVan;m:an; kan;kab;CMnYsvij ehIyRBHGgÁ)anesayTivgÁteTAeRkayBIesayraCü )an3qñaM. eBlenaHesnamuxm®nþIk¾)anelIkemT½BhVan;m:an;[eLIgesayraCübnþ. karelIk hVan;m:an; [esayraCüenHmin)anTTYlkarKaMRTBImhaCneTCaBiessBIBYkesþcRtaj;EdlesayraCünKrcMNuH TaMgLay BIeRBaHÉksarcin)anbBa¢ak;fa eRkayBI)aneLIgesayraCüRBH)aThVan;m:an; d¾Gg;Gac nigmansmtßPaB )aneFVIswks®gÁam vayb®gáabRbeTscMNuHTaMgLay [rabTabeLIgvij. emIleTA RBHraCaGgÁenH CakSRtGg;Gackøahan nigCaGñkcm,aMgpg. RBHGgÁ)ancat;[ksagnavaFM² Edl 18 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 9 BaküenH EdlcinehAfahVan GaNÑamfapan eKeRbIsmÁal;zan³RBHraCa eRbób)aneTAnwgBaküRsI b¤RBH EdleKEtg eRbIenAkm<úCa nigcam:,a G‘ÍcwgEdr. k¾b:uEnþBaküenH eKmin)aneRbIyUrb:unµaneT KWmaneRbIcMeBaHEtRBHraCakm<úCa3RBHGgÁ b:ueNÑaHenAstvtSr_TI3 nigeRbIenAcam:,acab;BIstvtSr_TI3mk. ´mindwgfaBakü enHmanRbPBedImBIBaküsM®sáwt b¤cam b¤m:aeL b¤k¾cin NamYym:at;eT. RbEhlCaBaküenHCakarGanBakü vrµ½n min)anc,as;k¾mindwg.
  • 26. 19Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa RBHGgÁCiHkat;smuRTeRCA² eFVIcm,aMgvayRbeTselIsBI10 kñúgenaH mYycMnYnFMsßitenAkñúgeTobekaH EdlBYkGWr:ubehAfa m:aLaka. RBHGgÁmanraCFanIEdlehA nigsresrtamPasacinfa tUmU10 enAcm¶ayRbmaNCa180KILÚ Em:RtBImat;BamTenøemKgÁnigmat;RcaMgøénTenød¾FMmYyEdlnavasmuRTGaccUlct)any:agRsYl. RBH)aThVan;m:an; )anRbQYnenAeBlkMBugeFVIs®gÁammYy RTg;)ancat;[RBHraCbuRtc,g RBHnam Kinecg bBa¢aT½BCMnYsRBHGgÁ ehIyRTg;TukRBHPaKienyüRBHGgÁRBHnamcan; CabuRtrbs;RBHGnuCkSRtI RBHGgÁ [kan;T½B 2000nak; enAkarBarRBHGgÁ. RBHPaKienyüenH)aneqøótyk»kas EdlRBH)aT hVan;m:an; RbQYn k¾RbkasxøÜnCa hVan;can; KWCaRBHraCaénnKrhVÚNn b¤b:UNn. rYcRBHGgÁ)ancat;kmøaMg [eTAeFVIXatrC¢TayaTKinecgedIm,IkuM[mkdeNþImraCüBIRBHGgÁvijRbEhlCaenAqñaM230énRKisþsk raC. RBH)aThVan;m:an;enAmanRBHraCbuRtmYyGgÁeTot EdlenACaRBHraC»rsenAeLIy eBlRBHbita suKt. eBlRTg;ceRmInv½yRKb;20RBHvsSa RBHGgÁk¾seRmccitþdeNþImraCüsm,tþiBIRBHeromCIdUn- mYy Edl)anERCkraCü nigsmøab;RBHbitaRBHGgÁ. RBHGgÁkT½B eRCIserIsykBlTahansuT§EtGñk Gg;GackøahanrYceFVIXatRBH)aThVan;can;eTA.Rtg;enHeKmin)andwgfaetIRBHGgÁeFVIXatenAkñúgs®gÁam ttaMgTl;muxKña b¤k¾enAkñúgkarlbvayRbhars¶at;²eT. eBlenaH emT½Brbs;RBH)aThVan;can; eQµaH suIyunedayykelsfasgswkfVayRBHraCa)ansmøab;XatkrrYcehIyk¾RbkasxøÜnCahVan;suIyun11 CaRBHraCaénnKrhVÚNn enAqñaM250énRKisþskraC RtÚvnwgqñaM172énmhaskraC. ÉksarRbvtþisa®sþcinerobrab;GMBIRBH)aThVan;suIyunenH faCaesþcksagRbeTs ykcitþTuk dak;nwgraCkic©xøaMgNas;. RTg;ebIksvnakar[RbCara®sþcUlKal;ral;éf¶ enAeBlRBwk nigéf¶Rtg;. tamemIleTA RBHraCaEdlesayraCüenAnKrhVÚNnTaMgGs; rYmTaMgesþcERCkraCüpg suT§ EtmanExSelahitraCvgSEtmYy eRBaHeyIgmkdl;Bak;kNþalstvtSr_TI3ehIy ehIytamÉksar Rbvtþisa®sþcin)anniyayfa bcäajatirbs;RBHnaglIvyI nigRBH)aTh‘uneTon )anRKb;RKgraCsm,tþi 10 RbEhlCaeQµaHBitR)akdKW tUm:UhU‘ EdlCaeQµaHtamPasam:aeLénTIRkúgmYyenAekaHCVa. 11 elakEBlIy:UkñúgesovePAeQµaHfanKrhVÚNn)anbBa¢ak;tamsMdIelakqav:anfaesþcnKrhVÚNn)anbBa¢ÚnraCTUt[ eTAKal;esþcRsukcin enAqñaM243 nigeRkay²mkeTot.
  • 27. enAhVÚNnGs;ry³kal2stvtSr_12 . ebIsinCakarRbkan;tamRbéBNIExµr EdlelIkeLIgfa manesþccam6GgÁesayraCümuneK enA km<úCa-esþcTaMgGs;enaHmanRBHnamfayUyUvrµ½nTi/kvalraCkumar/suriyavrµ½nTi/Trni®nÞavrµ½nTi/GaTitü vrµ½nTinigGsSék-CakarBitenaHmann½yfaRBHraCaTaMgGs;enaHCabcäajatirbs;RBHnaglIvyInigCVa h‘uneTonTaMgGs;ehIyminEmnCacameTeRBaHenAeBlenaHminTan;manBYkcamenAeLIyEtCaCVab¤m:aeL KWCaGm,ÚrCnEdleRkayBI)anRtÚvedjecjBIkm<úCaeTA )aneKceTAenAcM):asak;xageCIgkm<úCa b¤k¾ eTAenAxagekItRtg;EdlcinehAfa lInyI EdleRkaymkeTIbkøayeTACacam:,aenaHÉg. eQµaH cam:,a enH ExµrenAcgcaMenAeLIy rhUtmkdl;2stvtSr_munenH. ÉksarRbvtþisa®sþcink¾manerobrab;CaeRcInEdr GMBIRsukhVÚNn eTaHbICakarerobrab;nImYy² minRKb;RCúgeRCay ehIysresrenAeBlxus²Kñak¾eday EtebIykmkpþú¿Kña Gac[yl;dwg)anxøHGMBI RbeTsenaHenAstvtSr_TI3nigTI4.dUcenHvamansarsMxan;enAeBlenHEdlRtÚvGFib,aysegçbGMBI ÉksarTaMgenaH. ÉksarenaHniyayfamunEdlesþch‘uneTonmkdl;GñkRsukhVÚNneRcInsak;xøÜndUcEdlBYkPUma niglavenAGnuvtþrhUtdl;sBVéf¶.karsak;xøÜnenHhak;dUcCaKµaneToteTeBlEdlesþch‘uneTonmkdl; EtGñkRsukenAedIrRsat minTan;manesøókBak;enAeLIy. esþch‘uneTon EdlecjmkBIRbeTsmYy manGarüFm’rYcehIy mü:ageTotCaRBahµN_pg RTg;minsb,aycitþnwgeXIjRBHCayaenARsat dUecñHeT RTg;k¾ykRkNat;mYypÞaMgmkesøók[ edayecaHRbehagkNþalsRmab;RckRBHeks13 . eRkaymk enAedImstvtSr_TI3 RsI²GñkRsukk¾Rbkan;yksemøókbMBak;enHrhUt ehIyesþc 20 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 12 edayehtuenH eKRtÚvbMePøcecalnUvkarEdlKitfah‘uneTon nigekaNÐBaسCamnusSEtmYy dUcEdl)anesñIeLIgeday esøEhSl bnÞab;mk edayEBlIy:U nighVúINUt_. GñkTaMg2rs;enAcenøaHBIKñaRbEhl4stvtSr_y:agtic. elak EBlIy:U dwgerOgenHc,as;Nas; eRBaHelak)anelIkBIGtßbTrbs;m:g;suIcan; Edlerobrab;GMBI esþcmYycMnYnEdlesayraCü cenøaHBIh‘uneTonenAstvtSr_TI1dl;ekaNÐBaسEdleLIgesayraCüeRkayqñaM478ehIymanTaMgniyayGMBIesþcERCk raCü EdlesayraCüBI 222 dl; 280pg. 13 GñkR)aCJExµrniyayfa edayehtuenHehIy)anCaeRkay²mk®sþI²)anecorRkNat;enaH ehIyedrbEnßméd k¾)an CaGavbMBg;Bak;rhUtmk. k¾b:uEnþkarelIkeLIg dUecñHminRtwmRtÚv eRBaHGavbMBg;enH eKeTIbEtBak;minTan;)an150qñaM pgeT.
  • 28. 21Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa hVan;suIyunk¾)anhammin[Rbús²RsateTotEdreday[biT)aMgekrþ×xµasnwgRkNat;buwgEdlcinehAfa eknm:an ehIyBYkm:aeLehAfakM)an14. BYkGñkmaneKeRbIRkNat;):ak; rIÉGñkRkeRbIRkNat;paDib. ÉksarRbvtþisa®sþcindEdlniyayfa GñkRsukhVÚNn KRKic sm,úrexµA ehIymansk;Rk- j:aj;15 .BYkenHcUlcitþkarcaru_nigcmøak;.]bkrN_rbs;eKCaeRcIneFVIGMBIR)ak;eKbg;Bn§Camas/R)ak; b¤CaRKab;KC; nigTwkGb;. eKmanesovePA nigkEnøgsRmab;Tukdak;Éksar nigsmÖarepSg². eKman GkSr ehIyeKcUlcitþRbCl;man; nigRbCl;RCÚk. GñkRsukenHcUlcitþGnuvtþkars,fEs, nigkarsakl,gepSg² dUcCa[GñkCab;ecaTkan;EpøBUefA EdlduteLIgRkhm ehIyedIr[)an7CMhan b¤dak;cieBa©ónb¤Bgman;enAkñúgTwkBuH ehIy[ykédlUkcab; ykecjCaedIm. karGnuvtþn_EbbenH enAmaneKRbtibtþienAeLIy kñúgcMeNamCnCatiedIm. enAkm<úCa eBlmunenHbnþic k¾enAmanGnuvtþEbbenHEdr. ÉksarRbvtþisa®sþcinerobrab;eTotfaenAmanviBaØasamYyeTotEdleKGnuvtþcMeBaHEtm©as;nig ´beRmIb:ueNÑaHkñúgkrNIsgS½yfa´enaHlYcrbs;³KW[´enaHsuIRsUv.ebI´enaH)anlYcEmnRsUvnwgmut mat;ecjQam b:uEnþ ebImin)anlYceT KWGacTMBaRsUvelbcUleBaHedayRsYl. 14 tamemIleTA karbiT)aMgEbbenH RbEhlCadUcGVIEdlburs²énviRbCaEdlrs;enAq¶ay²BITIRkúgkñúgRbeTsNÐa sBVéf¶ enAeRbIenAeLIy KWfaRkNat;mYy pÞaMgragCaRtIekaNEdleKdak;BIxagmux cugsgxagP¢ab;nwgExSruMB½T§cegáH Écug mYyeTotP¢ab;nwgExSEdr Etvat;BIeRkamtamcenøaHePøA. 15 karerobrab; enHbBa¢ak;fa enAstvtSr_TI1énRKisþskraC GñkRsukhVÚNnCaRkúmmnusSeNRKItU. ebIdUecñHEmnenaH )anesckþIfaGñkRsukenH)anTTYlkarvivtþn_y:agxøaMg eRBaHeKkRmnwgRbTHeXIjCnkm<úCaEdlmansk;rYjNas; sBVéf¶ enH. k¾b:uEnþkñúgcMeNamRbCaCnEdlminTan;suIvil½yTaMgGs;enAkñúgNÐÚcin EdlCaGñkRsukedIm eKenAmaneXIjmanGñk Edlmansk;rYj ehIyrYjxøaMgeTotpg. CaTUeTA BYkenHminmansk;bHeT KWeRcInEtrYjtic² Etsm,úrminexµAdUcBYkExµr eBkeT. ´sUmEfmeTotfa kñúgsµartIrbs;GñkRsukenH karEdlmansk;rYjKWCasBaØabBa¢ak;faTabefak CaRbkarman eRKaHfñak;. RbkarenHrwtEtmann½ydUecñHEfmeTotcMeBaHRsI² edayehtuenHehIy)anCaBYkeKEtgEtEsVgrkeRbg mklabedIm,IeFVI[sk;laRtg;vij. mü:ageTot tamkarniyayt²Kña BYkExµredImmansm,úrexµAxøaMgCagExµrsBVéf¶. vaCakarBitR)akdNas;faebIBYkExµrmanRbPBecjmkBIRbeTsNÐaKWecjBIeqñrkUr:Um:gEdlb¤eqñrGUrIsSab£k¾ecj BImat;smuRTbwgháal;EmnenaH BYkenH R)akdCaexµACagBYkGñkRsukedImEdleKRbTHeXIjenANÐÚcin Biess KWkm<úCa sBVéf¶ EdlmanEs,kelOgeTAeTot.
  • 29. eBlenaHminTan;manKukdak;GñkeTaseT. Cn]RkidæRtÚve)aH[RkeBIsuI EdleKciBa©wmenAkñúg RbLayCuMvijTIRkúg b¤stVsahav EdleKciBa©wmdak;kúñgRTúgBiess. GñkRsukminCIkGNþÚgykTwkeT k¾b:uEnþeKmanRsHTwktamRkúmRKÜsar ehIyeRbIFugsRmab;dgTwk ykmkeRbI kalNaeKRtÚvkar. eKeKarBbUCaGaTieTBEdlrs;enAelIemXehIysagrUbsMNaktMNagGMBIsMrwT§EdlCYnkalman muxBIrnigédbYnCYnkaleTotmanmuxbYnnigédR)aMbI.tamBitTaMgGs;enHKWCabdimatMNag[GaTieTBén RBhµBaØsasna EdlmandUecñHrhUtdl;sBVéf¶enANÐa nigmank,alminticCagédb:unµaneT. enAkm<úCa eK)anrkeXIjbdimaEbbenHCaeRcIn EdleKykmkTukenAsarmnÞIrsBVéf¶. RBHraCaCiHdMrI kalNaRtÚvyagecjBIvaMg. mehsI nigRsIsñMTaMgLay k¾dUecñaHEdr. kalNa RBHGgÁRTg;Kg;TeRmtRBHkaybnþic bBaÄrCgÁg;sþaM ÉCgÁg;eqVgTmøak;dl;dI16 . enABImuxRBHP½®kþRBHGgÁ eKlatRkNat;s rYcdak;RBHraCsgðar PaCn_mas nigepIgduteQIRkGUb. karbUCaexµac nigGaBah_BiBah_rbs;GñkRsukhVÚNn RbRBwtþeTAdUcenAlInyI b¤cam:,aEdr. eK kan;Tukçedayekarsk; nigekarBukmat;. manviFIy:agsRmab;Tukdak;sB ³ e)aHsBcUlkñúgTwkTenø/ bUCa edayePøIg/ kb;/ nigTukecalkNþalval[stVsuI. enHKWCaGVIEdlCnkm<úCaehArhUtmkdl;sBVéf¶fa {karbMEbkFatuTaMgbYn}. cugeRkaybg¥s;Éksarcin)ankt;smÁal;faGñkRsukhVÚNnelaPln;Nas;.eKmineKarBBiFIb¤ criyaFm’GVIeT. TMenomTmøab;Kµan ehIykumarIk¾dUckumara eFVIGVItamEtGMeBIcitþ. Éksark¾)anbBa¢ak;pgEdrfa nKrhVÚNn eBlenaHFMNas; latsn§wgBInKrcam:,aenAxagekIt rhUtdl;TVarvtI17 enAxaglic - RbeTsenHKWGyuFüab¤esomsBVéf¶ eBlenaHRbEhlCaRKb;RKgeday Rkúm]bnievsn_hiNÐÚmYyrYceTAehIy -niglatsn§wgrhUtdl;RBMRbTl;ExRteyNnanrbs;cin- KWExRt kVagb‘íjrbs;tugkwgsBVéf¶18 .k¾b:uEnþvahak;dUcCaBi)aknwgeCONas;EdlniyayfaesþcénnKrhVÚNn 22 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 16 ´eCOfaenHKWCaGVIEdlExµrniyayfaGgÁúybt;eCIg kalNaeKGgÁúyelIkRmalRBM kenÞl b¤RkNat; edaybt;eCIgTaMg2 RsbKñamkEtmçag. 17 TVarvtI mkBIsM®sáwt FVarvtI CaeQµaHTIRkúgEdleRkayBI)anksagrYceTACaGyuFüa. 18 ExRtenHBImuneQµaHfa süg;KüÜn rYc KavtU munnwgmaneQµaHfa eyNan enH.
  • 30. 23Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa EdlmanTItaMgenAtMbn;cUvduk b¤kñúgExRtéRBkb,as GacvatGMNaceTA)anq¶ayBIraCFanIEbbenH. 2- erOgeRBg erOgeRBgExµrcab;kMeNItGs;kalCayUrlg;Nas;mkehIy ehIy)ankøayeTACaRbéBNIrbs; CatiExµrpgEdr. erOgeRBgTaMgenaHmanRbCaRbiyPaBxøaMgNas; ehIy)anRtÚvRbCaCnExµreCOCak; nig cat;TukdUcCaRBH»gáarrbs;RBHEdlBYkeKkarBary:agxøaMgfVIebIenAmankarRbTaMgRbeTIsKñaxøHk¾eday. etIerOgeRBgTaMgGs;enaHRKan;EtCaerOgEdleKRbDiteLIgtamEtkarRsemIRsém KµanTak;Tin eTAnwgehtukarN_Rbvtþisa®sþGVIesaH b¤y:agNa? minEmneT. tamemIleTA erOgeRBgTaMgGs;enaH hak;dUcCamancMENkxøHCaerOgBittamRbvtþisa®sþ EdleKykmkRbDitbMepøIs pSMeFVI[manPaB Gcäriy³xøH eTaHCaerOgTaMgenaHcab;kMeNItecjBIkarniTant²Kña BImat;mYyeTAmat;mYy rYc)anRtÚveK RtgRtab;TukEtrcnabT b¤k¾CaRbvtþiBitBIburaNkal Edl)anrlubesÞIr)at;Gs;eTAehIykþI19 . eTaHCay:agNakþI fVIebIeKmineXIjmancMNarenAelIsilacarwk b¤k¾minmanerobrab;enAkñúgkMNt; Rtarbs;RbvtþiviTUcink¾eday k¾eKminGacbdiesFminTTYlsÁal;erOgr:avEdleKniTanpÞal;mat;t²Kña nig erOgeRBgEdleK)ansresrkt;RtaTukmkfa BYkcammanvtþmanenAkm<úCamunBYkNÐa. KWerOgTaMgGs; enaH ehIyEdlCMruj[RbCaCnExµrbc©úb,nñh‘ankMNt;enAeBlEdleKCYbsilacarwkmYyfa silacarwk enHCarbs;cam silacarwkenaHCarbs;Exµr. eKGacnwgTTYlsÁal;)andUcEdleK)aneXIjBIxagelIrYc mkehIyfa BYkcam)anmkdl;km<úCamunBYkkm<úC³ edayKµanb:HBal;GVIdl;Rbvtþisa®sþ EdlEp¥keTAelI kMNt;Rtarbs;BYkcin BIeRBaHfa kMNt;RtaTaMgenaH minEmnsuT§Eterobrab;R)ab;eyIgTaMgGs; GMBIGVIEdl cin)andwgBIRbCaCnEdleKelIkeLIgenaHeT. b:uEnþ´eCOfakarEdlcg;GHGagfaRbvtþisa®sþEdlTak;TgeTAnwgerOgeRBgBIrEdleyIg)andwgKW erOgCVaRBahµN_ nigerOgRBHefagnagnaK Edl´nwgerobrab;xageRkam KWCaerOgEdlekIteLIg bnþbnÞab; Kña enAkñúgkSRtRbeTsEtmYy KWRBHraCaNacRkExµr BIeRBaHfa enAeBlenaHmankSRtRbeTsCaeRcIn 19 ´manCMenOfaRBHraCaEdleyIgsÁal;RBHnamCaPasasM®sáwttamsilacarwk k¾RTg;manRBHnamCaPasasamBaØ EdlRbCaCnniymehA dUcEdlmankñúgerOgeRBgG‘ÍcwgEdr k¾bu:EnþRBHnamenaHmin)anRtÚveKcarelIfµeT eRBaHCaRBHnam eRkApøÚvkar.
  • 31. eToteRkABI hVÚNn. ´Kitfa erOgEdlekItmankñúgkSRtRbeTsnImYy² dl;eBlyUreRkaymk k¾)an køayeTARbvtþirYmrbs;RbeTsTaMgmUl.edayehtuenHRBwtþikarN_Rbvtþisa®sþEdlekItmaneLIgehIy Edlkb;)at;eTAtameBlevla mincaM)ac;RtÚvEteqøIytbKña nigekItmanbnþbnÞab;Kña edIm,IbBa¢ak;fa Ca karBitenaHeT. rhUtmkdl;sBVéf¶enH mankarbBa¢ak;c,as;ehIyfa hVÚNn20 KWCaGaNacRkmYyEdlrYmpSMeLIg edaykSRtRbeTsCaeRcIn EdlmanRBHraCaénkSRtRbeTstUmUCaGFiraC ehIyebIminEmndUecñH taMgBI edImdMbUgmkeTenaH k¾cab;taMgBIeBlEdlRBH)aThVan;m:an; )aneFVIs®gÁamdeNþImTwkdImkEdr. ehIy´k¾dUcCamanCMenOeRcInfa KWBYkm:aeL EdlCabuBVbursrbs;BYkcamenAeBleRkaymk Edl CasßabnikénbNþakSRtRbeTsTaMgGs;enaH. raCaNacRkcam b¤cam:,a enH sßitenABIxagekIt ehIy )ankekIteLIg y:agticNas;k¾2stvtSr_munkm<úCaEdr BIeRBaHeK)anrkeXIjsilacarwksM®sáwt Edl manv½ycMNas;CageKenAkñúgNÐÚcin enAcam:,aenHÉg. ebItamsilacarwkTaMgenaH RbeTscam:,a man GriyF’meCOnelOnCaghVÚNnenAstvtSr_TI4. GGMMBBIICCVVaaRRBBaahhµµNN__ RbsinebIeKTTYlsÁal;fakarlukluyrbs;BYkm:aeLb¤CVaCakarlukluyBIxageRkAEdlekItman muneKmkelIkm<úCaenaH erOgr:avEdlniTanGMBIkarlukluyrbs;BYkCVaRBahµN_ KWCaerOgmYykñúgbNþa erOgTaMgenaH.erOgenHerobrab;GMBIkarlukluyrbs;esþch‘uneTonEdlyagmkBITisxagt,ÚgdUcEdl )anelIkenAxagelI. eTaHCay:agNak¾eday BYkCVaRBahµN_ b¤RBahµN_ enAekaHCVaTaMgenaH eFVIdMeNIr ecjmkBIRbCuMekaHGaMgs‘ULaMg. BYkenaHRbEhlCabcäajatirbs;BYkRBahµN_RbmaNCa 2muWnRKÜsar Edl)aneFVInirRbevsn_ecjBIRbeTsNÐaenAedImmhaskraC mktaMgTIlMenAelIekaHCVa ehIypSBV pSayRBhµBaØsasnadl;RbCaCnedImenATIenaH. erOgniTanerobrab;fa eRkABIRbCaCn b¤BYkBlTahan nigBYksMeBA BYkRBahµN_EdlCaemeKTaMgenaH mansk;Evg mansm,úrexµA ehIy)anGHGagfa BYkeK mkBInKrBaraNsI. erOgniTank¾)anerobrab;pgEdrfa nKrEdlBYkCVaRBahµN_TaMgenaH)anbegáIteLIg KWnKreKakFøk KWRsukExµrenHÉg nigfa manRBHmhakSRtcam6RBHGgÁesayraCübnþbnÞab;Kña RBHmha 24 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 20 hVÚNn kñúgTIenH sMedAykEtEpñkxageRkam EdlrYmmanRbeTskm<úCabc©úb,nñ nigkUsaMgsuIn Etb:eNÑaH.
  • 32. 25Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa kSRtTaMgenaHCabcäajatirbs;RBHnaglIvyI nigRBH)aTh‘uneTon EdlCaCVa. esþcC½yvrµ½n esayraCü50qñaM. tamerOgniTan RBHGgÁeKarBbUCaRBHvisÑú ehIyRTg;esayTi vgÁteTA kñúgRBHCnµayu70qñaM. raCbuRtrbs;RBH)aTC½yvrµ½nRBHnam kvl³raCkumar )anesayraCübnþBIRBHbita ehIyeKarB bUCafµsV½ymÖú21 Edlmann½yfa ekItmaneLIgedayÉg². RBHraCaGgÁenH esayraCü)an20qñaM. RBHraCacamTI3 RTg;RBHnamfa suriyavrµ½n RTg;RKgraCü)an20qñaMEdr nigeKarBbUCafµsV½ymÖú dUcKña. RBHraCaTI4 RTg;RBHnamfa Frni®nÞ³vrµ½n. RTg;esayraCü)an20qñaM. RBHraCaTI5 KWRBH)aTGaTitüvrµ½n esayraCü)an20qñaM. RBHraCacamTI6 nigcugeRkayeK KWRBH)aTGsC¢½y EdlesayraCü)anEt11qñaMb:ueNÑaH. eerrOOggRRBBHHeeffaagg tamemIleTA erOgrbs;BYkhiNÐÚ sþIGMBIRBHefag k¾dUcCaerOgCVaRBahµN_Edr KWminEmnCakarRbDit suT§saFenaHeT. ebIkuMKitGMBIPaBGs©arüEdleKbEnßm[ erOgenHhak;dUcCarMlwknUvehtukarN_Rbvtþi sa®sþmYy enaHKWkarQøanBanrbs;BYkhiNÐÚ Edl)anmkvayykC½yCmñH rYcbeNþjBYkcamecjBI nKreKakFøk. dMeNIrerOgRtÜs²mandUcteTA ³ manesþcmYyRBHGgÁesayraCüenAnKr®nÞRbeTs22 man RBHraCbuRta5RBHGgÁ. RBHGgÁ)anEbgEckExRtx½NÐ4cMENk[RBHraCbuRtac,gTaMgbYnRKb;RKg É RBHraCbuRtaeBAenACamYynwgRBHGgÁ. dl;eBlRBHraCbuRtaeBAenHceRmInv½yFMeLIg RBHraCak¾dak; raCüfVayRBHraCbuRtaeBAenH [esayraCübnþBIRBHGgÁ. eFVIy:agenH)anesckþIfa RBHGnuCeBAenH CaGFiraCelIRBHeromTaMg4RBHGgÁ. RBHerom3RBHGgÁyl;RBmTTYlyksßanPaBEbbenH b:uEnþ RBHeromTI4RBHnamfaRBHefagminyl;RBmeTehIyRTg;minRBmyagmkkan;®nÞRbeTscUlrYmkñúgBiFI 21 tamFmµtaKWRBHRBhµ k¾b:uEnþCYnkalk¾GacCaRBHsiv³b¤RBHvisÑúpgEdr. ´KitfaRbEhlCaRBHsiv³ CaBiessKW siv³ligÁ ehtuenHehIy)anCamanBaküfa fµ. 22 KWCaraCaNacRkmYyenARbeTsNÐaxageCIg RbEhlCa 29KILÚEm:Rt xagt,ÚgTIRkúgEdløI.
  • 33. GPieskRBHGnuCeLIy. dMbUgeLIy RBHvraCbitaRbúgnwgbBa¢ÚnRBHraCbuRtaTaMgbYnGgÁeTot [elIkT½B mkc,aMgnwgRBHefagEdlRTg;cat;Tukfa)anbHe)arRbqaMg.k¾b:uEnþedayRBHefagmankarKaMBareRcInBI RbCaCn RBHGgÁk¾ERbRBHT½y RKan;EtseRmcbeNþjRBHefag RBmTaMgbrivarTaMgGs;ecjBIRBHnKr b:ueNÑaH ehIyRTg;[naMykRbCaCnBIExRtx½NÐ4eTot mkrs;enAbMeBjvij. RBHefag EdlRtÚv)aneK cat;Tukfa kat;sasna k¾dwknaMRbCara®sþrbs;RBHGgÁcakecjBIRbeTs mktaMgenAelITwkdInKreKakFøk EdlmanBYkcamrs;enAmunrYceTAehIy.karrs;enAelITwkdIeKakFøkenHmin)anRsYleTedayecHEtman TMnas;rvagBYkcamm©as;Rsuk CamYyRbCara®sþrbs;RBHefag k¾køayeTACaCemøaHRbyuT§Kñasøab;rs;. eBlenaH RbEhlCaedaysarmanCMnYyBICnCatiedImpg RBHefag k¾vaybeNþjBYkcambgç¿[BYkenH cakecjBIcM):asak;eTA. RBHGgÁk¾eLIgRKgraCüCaRBHraCa rYc)anGPieskbuRtIrbs;esþcnaK CaGKÁ mehsI. Baküfa {naK} enH RbEhlsMedAykGñkRsukedIm KWBYkExµrenHÉg. RBHefag minRKan;Et RKb;RKgelITwkdIRkúm]bnievsn_CVahiNÐÚ EdlRBHGgÁdeNþIm)anb:ueNÑaHeT b:uEnþ k¾RKb;RKgelITwkdIEdl sßiteRkamGMNacrbs;RBHbitaekµkRBHGgÁpgEdr. ehtukarN_enH CaPsþútagbBa¢ak;GMBIXøaénerOg niTandMbUg²EdlniyayfaRBHefagCaRBHraCaTImYyrbs;BYkExµr)anesckþIfaBYkCnCatiedImEdl)an rYbrYmCamYyBYkhiNÐÚ. kkmm<<úú eRkABIerOgniTanTaMgBIrxagelIenH EdleKniyayt²KñaBImat;mYyeTAmat;mYyrhUtmkdl;eyIg sBVéf¶ Ebøk²BIKñaxøH k¾b:uEnþ rkSa)annUvrcnabTedIm ehIyEdlKµansilacarwkNamYy)anelIkeLIg esaH. enAmanerOgeRBgmYyeTotsþIGMBIeTvbuBVbursrbs;RbCaCnkm<úCa ehIyEdlsilacarwkmYy )an elIkeLIgEdr.buBVbursenaHGaccat;Tuk)anfaCamnurbs;NÐÚcinRTg;manRBHnamfakm<úehIyCaCITYt CIlYtrbs;ral;RBHraCavrµ½neRkay²mk. RBHGgÁbgðajrUbrageLIgkñúgzan³CaeTvkfamYyrbs;Cati. tamkMNt;smÁal;mYyenATMB½rxagelI eK)aneXIjfaBaküsM®sáwt {km<ú} mann½yfa {ecar/ ecar smuRT} Edlelak ehSrInI )anbktRmÚvnwgBaküRkic {elésþ} EdlEpnTIrbs; pþÚelem eRbIsRmab; smÁal;RbCaCnEdlrs;enAkUsaMgsuIn nigkm<úCa. kñúgkrNIenH Bakü {elésþ} RKan;EtCaBakübkERb b:ueNÑaH minEmnCaBaküsresrtameQµaHedImrbs;RbCaCnEdlrs;enATIenaHeT. ´KµanCMenOfa kar EdlmanerOgRbhak;RbEhlKñaenH vamanmUldæanc,as;las;enaHeT k¾b:uEnþkarEdleTvbuBVbursrbs; 26 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 34. 27Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa RbCaCnkm<úCamaneQµaHdUcBaküEdlmaneRbIenAelIEpnTIRkic CaktþaRKb;RKan;sRmab;KaMRTmtirbs; elak ehSrInI sþIGMBIbuBVbursrbs;RbCaCnEdleyIgkMBugeFVIkarsikSaenH. 3- ekaNÐBaØC½yvrµ½n fVIebImanerOgeRBgEdl)ankøayeTACaRbéBNIrbs;RbCaCnkm<úCaeTAehIy ehIyebIeTaHCa erOgeRBgTaMgenaH manmUldæanEp¥keTAelIRbvtþisa®sþxøHk¾eday k¾eKminGacykerOgTaMgGs;enaH CaeKal edIm,IsresrRbvtþisa®sþénsm½ykalenaH )anTaMgRsugEdr. k¾b:uEnþ CasMNagl¥sRmab;stvtSr_TI5 EdleyIgenAmanRbPBBt’manc,as;las;epSgeTot KW dMbUgmansilacarwknigbnÞab;mkeTotmanÉksarRbvtþisa®sþcinEdleyIg)aneRbIR)as;CaeRcInNas; mkehIy sRmab;stvtSr_mun². mkdl;RtwmenH erOgr:avEdleyIg)andwgGMBIRBahµN_eQµaH ekaNÐBaس b¤k¾RBahµN_RtkUl ekaNÐBaس EdleFVIdMeNIrecjBIRbeTsNÐa mkesayraCüenARbeTskm<úCa manRBHnamfaC½yvrµ½n minR)akdfa suT§EtCaerOgeRBgTaMgGs;enaHeT. tamemIleTA vahak;dUcCamankarlukluyrbs;BYkhiNÐÚ RbEhlCaenABak;kNþalstvtSr_TI5 énRKisþskraC.BYkenaHecjmkBIRbeTsNÐaPaKxagt,ÚgKWecjBItMbn;edkg;eFVIdMeNIrkat;raCaNa cRk):an):an enAxageCIgeTobekaHm:aLaka mkkan;km<úCa. emekayrbs;BYkenaH eQµaH ekaNÐBaس )an RtÚvRbkaselIkCaesþc taMgEtBIeBlmkdl;Pøam rYcehIy)anRbkan;ykzan³Cavrµ½n mann½yfa {Gñk karBar}dUcEdlesþcénnKrbløv³enANÐanigesþccamenAtammat;smuRTxagekIténNÐÚcinEtgEt Rbkan;ykrYcmkehIy. esþccamEdlesayraCüenAhVÚNn dUcEdlerobrab;BIxagelIsuT§Et)an Rbkan;ykzan³enHdUcKña eTaHCaesayraCüenAvyFbur³ b¤enAsmÖúbur³ b¤enATUTaMgRBHraCaNacRk TaMgmUlpgk¾mindwg ebIrdæTaMgBIrenHsßitenAeRkamGaNaBüa)alrbs;RBHraCaEtmYyRBHGgÁ. raCFanIrbs;RBH)aTekaNÐBaس enAhVÚNnnaeBlenaH maneQµaHfa GninÞtþbur³ EdleKminTan; kMNt;rkeXIjTItaMgBitR)akd)anenAeLIy. kMNt;Rtarbs;BYkcinehAraCFanIenHfa tUmU EdleRkay mk KWCaraCFanIvyFbur³ KWRsukéRBkb,as sBVéf¶. RBHraCaGgÁenH )ankøayeTACaGFiraCd¾manGMNac manesþccMNuHCaeRcIn eRBaHsilacarwkRBH nÞekasIy_ Edl´)anerobrab;xagelI ehIyEdleKcaru_4stvtSr_eRkaymk )anerobrab;fa {Rkck RBH)aT rbs;RBHGgÁeTACarelagPøWciBa©ac GaRs½yedayb:HnwgmkuddaMeBRCrbs;esþccMNuHTaMgLay
  • 35. enAelIelakenH EdlcUlmkRkabfVaybgÁ¿Kal;RBHGgÁ. RBHGgÁeRbób)aneTAnwgRBHGaTitü eTIbnwgrH b¤RBHc½nÞeBjvg; Edll¥elIspáaQUkénBUCCYrTaMgLay. RBHGgÁCaRBHc½nÞénRtkUlekaNÐBaس CaTIRbCuM énKuNFm’. eCaKC½yrbs;RBHGgÁmanBnøWcaMgdUcCaesVtcäRt ehIyraCFanImanBnøWPøWciBa©ac edaysña RBHhsþd¾xøaMgkøarbs;RBHGgÁ. mharaCTaMgLayEdlcMNuHRBHGgÁ eKarBbUCaRBHGgÁ eRbób)an eTAnwgeTvta RsIr)aM nigt®nþIkrenAsßansYK’eKarBbUCaRBHGaTitü}. RBH)aTekaNÐBaسeKarBbUCaRBHsiv³.silacarwk)an[eyIgdwgfaRBHGgÁ)anksagnigsem<aF ligÁRbmaNCa100enABaseBjEpndIenH eBalKW enAkñúgRBHraCaNacRkrbs;RBHGgÁ. ÉksarRbvtþisa®sþcinehARBHGgÁfakaveqnyU KWekaNÐBaس tamRtkUlrbs;RBHGgÁ b¤k¾ehAfa cUey):am:U KW C½yvrµ½n23 tamRBHnamrbs;RBHGgÁeBlRKgraCü ehIy)ankMNt;rC¢kalrbs;RBHGgÁ cab;BIcugstvtSr_TI5 dl;edImstvtSr_TI6 BIeRBaHRBHGgÁ)anbBa¢ÚnsYysarGakrfVayesþcRkúgcin 2dg KWmþgenAqñaM483 nigmþgeTotenAqñaM503. RbeTscinEtgEtcat;TukRbeTsCitxag eTaHCaenA q¶aybnþick¾edayfaCanKrcMNuHehIy)andak;zan³fVayRBH)aTekaNÐBaسfaCa{]tþmesnIy_énTkSiN snþiPaB CaRBHraCaénnKrhVÚNn}. RBH)aTekaNÐBaØC½yvrµ½n )aneFVIs®gÁamCamYyRbeTscam enArvagqñaM484. GKÁraCTUt Edl RBHGgÁ)anbBa¢ÚneTAKal;esþcRkúgcinnaeBlenaHKWedIm,IsuMCMnYyBIesþcRsukcineFVIs®gÁam. GKÁraCTUtEdlRBH)aTekaNÐBaØC½yvrµ½n bBa¢ÚneTARbeTscinCaBuT§sasnikCnmñak; maneQµaHfa skünaKesn rIÉraCsarEdlepJIeTAenaHCalixitsamBaØ bgðajGMBICIvitmnusSmñak; EdlRtÚvkarnUv CMnYyCacaM)ac;. RBHraCsarenaH )anbgðaj[eyIgdwgGMBIRBwtþkarN_sMxan;mYy enARbeTscam:,a KWfa RBHraCacameBlenaH CaesþcERCkraCü EdlmankMeNItCaExµr KWBIedImCaTaskr b¤ebIehacNas; k¾Ca GñkbeRmIEdr ¬´¦. manÉksarxøHniyayfa esþccamenaH CaraCbuRtrbs;RBH)aTekaNÐBaس manRBH namfaKavQavLÚ.eRkayBI)anePosxøÜnecjBIhVÚNn´beRmIenH)anbBa©úHbBa©ÚlBYkbHe)arehIyeFVI dMeNIreTAkan;RbeTslIyI b¤cam EdlFøab;c,aMgcaj;mþgrYceTAehIyenAqñaM446 eday tan;hUeq rYck¾ eLIgRKgraCüxøÜnÉgeTA. BYkcameRkamrC¢kalénesþcERCkraCüenH Føab;)anvayRbhareTAelIk,Ün 28 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 23 GñkxøHniyayfa ekaNÐBaس nigC½yvrµ½n CaesþcBIrRBHGgÁepSgKña. tamBit RBHnamTaMg2 CaRBHnamrbs;RBHGgÁ Etmñak;.
  • 36. 29Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa dEgðraCTUt skünaKesn eBlRtlb;mkBIRbeTscinvijelIkTI1 bøn;ykRTBüsm,tþiTaMgGs;Edlesþc cin epJIfVayesþcnKrhVÚNn. RBH)aTekaNÐBaس )anbBa¢ÚnraCTUteTAraykarN_fVayesþcRsukcin eday TUlfa RTBüsm,tþiTaMgLayCaRTBürbs;esþcRsukcin nigTUlfa kñúgnam´CaesþccamenHRBegIykenþIy min)anbBa©ÚnsYysarGakrfVayRBHecAGFiraCcineT. RBHraCsaresþchVÚNnEcgfa {ebIRBHGgÁCa m©as; RTg;cg;cat;taMgRBHraCafµI[esayraCüenAnKrcam:,aenaH TUlRBHbgÁ¿Ca´TTYlRBHraCbBa¢aeday eKarB}.raCsar)anbBa©b;edayesñIsuM[mankarcat;bBa¢ÚnT½BmYykgtamEhhmesþchVÚNnRKb;TisTI edIm,Idak;eTasBYkk,t; nigCYyse®gÁaHGñksøÚtRtg;. tamemIleTA esþccinRbEhlCa)anbBa¢ÚnT½BtamkaresñIsuMEmn ehIyenAeBlEdlnKrcam:,a )anRtÚvb®gáabeFVI[mansnþiPaBrYcmk RBH)aTekaNÐBaØC½yvrµ½nk¾RtÚv)anesþcRsukcindak;RBHzan³ [Ca{]tþmesnIy_énTkSiNsnþiPaB CaRBHraCanKrhVÚNn}. RBHraCaGgÁenH )anesayTivgÁtenAqñaM514énRKisþskraC RtÚvnwgqñaM436énmhaskraC. 4- ruRTvrµ½n RBHraCbuRtac,grbs;RBH)aTekaNÐBaØC½yvrµ½n RBHnam ruRTvrµ½n -BYkcinehAfa lavtU):am:U- CaRBHraCbuRtCamYynwgRsIsñMmñak; )aneFVIKutRBHGnuCEdlCaRBHraCbuRtrbs;RBH)aTekaNÐBaØC½yvrµ½n CamYyRBHraCGKÁmehsI rYcehIydeNþImykraCüsm,tþi24 . ÉksarcinnaeBlenaH Elgerobrab;GMBIRBHraCaEdlesayraCübnþBIRBH)aTekaNÐBaØC½yvrµ½n eTotehIy. ebImanniyayBInKrhVÚNn KWmanerobrab;EtGMBITMenomTmøab; nigkarRbkbkic©karepSg² dUcEdl´)anerobrab;BIxagelIrYcmkehIy. KµanniyayGVIEdlTak;Tgdl;RBwtþikarN_Rbvtþisa®sþ b¤erOgr:avGVIsMxan;eT. 24 enAkñúgNÐÚcinnigkm<úCaBImunkSRtamYyGgÁGacnwgRtÚveRCIserIs[eLIgesayraCü)anluHRtaNaEtRTg;CaraCbuRt RbsURtBIm©as;kSRtIEdlCab;ExSRsLayCamYyRBHraCa )anesckþIfakareLIgsñgraCüRbRBwtþeTAtamExSRsLayxag RsI.ebIeTaHCaRBHkSRtaenaHCakSRtac,gk¾edayEtebIRTg;CabuRtrbs;RsIsñMminGaceLIgesayraCü)aneTelIkElg EtERCkraCü b¤RtÚveRCIserIspÞúynwgRkwtüRkm.
  • 37. rhUtTal;Etdl;RKisþstvtSr_TI6 eTIbÉksarRbvtþisa®sþcinmanerobrab;GMBIsßanPaBneya- )ayeLIgvij. enHKWmkBImanRBwtþikarN_F¶n;F¶rmYy )anekIteLIgenAhVÚNn EdleFVI[b:HBal;dl; BaNiC¢kmµrbs;BYkcin. 30 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 38. 31Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa CMBUkTI2 vyFbur³ nigsmÖúbur³ dUcEdl´)anniyayBIxagedImrYcmkehIy tamemIleTABYkcineRbIBakühVÚNnsRmab;ehATwkdI TaMgmUlEdllatsn§wgBIsmuRTxagt,ÚgnigBaménTenøemKgÁrhUteTAdl;l,ak;exanenAxageCIgnigcab;BI CYrPñMGaNÑamenAxagekIt EdlrYmmanTaMgTwkdIb‘íjFn;sBVéf¶pg rhUteTAdl;QUgsmuRTesom nigCYrPñM etNas;esrIm enAxaglic ehIyGacrab;bBa©ÚlTaMgEdndIcMNuHhiNÐÚ manenA etNas;esrIm smuRT EmrhÁúy tav:y nigm:ata pgEdr. TwkdId¾FMeFgenHCaGaNacRkmYy RKb;RKgedayBYkhiNÐÚ eBalKW manRbCara®sþCaGñkRsukedIm EdlkMBugEtTTYlykTMenomTmøab;RbéBNIBYkbreTs EdlmkQøanBan. mü:ageTot GaNacRkd¾FMenH enAminTan;)anbRgÜbbRgÜmedayRBHraCahVÚNn mYyGgÁNamYyenAeLIyEdr. mankSRtRbeTsCa eRcIn EdlkSRtmYyGgÁ² yl;RBmeFVICacMNuHnKrhVÚNn k¾edaysarRbeTsenHmanGMNacxøaMgkøaCag eRBaHRKb;RKgmat;BamTenøemKgÁ. k¾b:uEnþ kSRtRbeTsnImYy²ÉkraCdac;²BIKña minmancMNuHKñaeT KWsßitenAeRkamkarRtÜtRtarbs;mhakSRtrbs;xøÜn EdlcMNuH[RBHraCahVÚNn. mü:ageTotvahak;dUcCabNþakSRtRbeTsTaMgGs;enaHmanesþcesayraCüb¤k¾emekayCakSRt EdlmanQamC½rCahiNÐÚecjBIRtkUlEtmYyebIehacNas;k¾cMeBaHbNþaRbeTsEdlenACab;nwgmat; smuRTxagt,ÚgEdr. kSRtTaMgGs;enaHmanRBHzan³Ca {vrµ½n} mann½yfa {GñkkarBar}1 . BYkeKeRcIn 1 Baküfa vrµ½n enH Cazan³sRmab;P¢ab;BIxagcugeQµaH BYkkSRtiy³ dUcCaBakü s’m½n sRmab;P¢ab;eTAnwgeQµaH BYkRBahµN³ Bakü Kubþ³ sRmab;P¢ab;BIxagcugeQµaH BYkevsü³ nigBakü Tas³ sRmab;P¢ab;BIxagcugeQµaHrbs; BYksURT³ G‘ÍcwgEdr.vrµ½ndUcCaRBhµ½nnigs’m½nEdrKWpSMeLIgBIBaküvr³mann½yfaRKbdNþb;lak;.rIÉBaküm½nCaBaküNÐÚGWr:ub RtÚvnwgBaküLataMgfamen dUcBaküfaag-men, car-men, no-men KWCanamnbuMskligÁkRmCanambuMligÁNas;nigCakarNnam dUcCaBakükar-man mann½yfaskmµPaBBaküpre-man mann½yfaesñha.BaküenHk¾GacsMedAykvtßúEdleKeRbIsRmab; eFVIskmµPaBGVImYypgEdrdUcBaküfatokh-man mann½yfaRKab;BUC.BaküsM®sáwtvrµ½nGacmann½yfaeRbIsRmab;karBar dUcCaGavuFkarBar Exl eRbób)aneTAnwgBakü Kubti ERbfa karBar ehIy)ankøayeTACasMNg;karBar. n½yedImrbs; BaküenH)anERbRbÜleTAtamBakükøaynImYy²dUcCanm½nLataMgfano-men ERbfanamBaküEBkSas-men ERbfaemX. Bakü nbMuskligÁ enH RtÚvKñanwgBaküCakarknam dUcCa RBhµ½n/ vrµ½n mann½yfa GñkEdlkarBar. RBhµ½n nigkSRtiy³
  • 39. eKarBbUCaRBHsiv³ b¤RBHvisÑú k¾b:uEnþ RbCaCn)ankan;RBHBuT§sasnarYceTAehIy2 . tamemIleTA bNþakSRtRbeTsTaMgGs;enaH RbEhlCamanc,aMgKñaeTAvijeTAmkCajwkjab; dUcenARbeTs)araMgkalBIsm½yyuKkNþalG‘ÍcwgEdr EdlesþcRtaj;c,aMgKñaeTAvijeTAmk EtRBHecA GFiraC minmaneFVIGnþraKmn_GVIeT drabNaesþcRtaj;nImYy²enaHmin)aneKcevHecjBIkarRKb;RKg rbs;RBHGgÁ b¤k¾min)anlHbg;katBVkic©CasmÖar³ b¤CasµartI EdlmanplRbeyaCn_dl;RBHGgÁeT. mankSRtRbeTsBIrEdlRbkYtRbECgKñaCaBiess ³ mYyKWrdæEdlmanraCFanIenAvyFbur³ KWenARtg; GgÁrburI ¬nKrraCburI¦ enAkñúgExRtéRBkb,assBVéf¶ EdlmansMNl;R)asaTenAeLIy. kSRtRbeTs mYyeTotmanraCFanIenAsmÖúbur³ ¬mann½yfaraCFanIrbs;smÖú - KWRBHsiv³¦ EdlmantwktagR)asaT esssl;enAsm,ÚrsBVéf¶ CaTIrYmRsukmYyenAkñúgExRtRkecH. 11-- RRssIIRRssuuTTÞÞvvrrµµ½½nn enAstvtSr_TI5énskraCRBHraCaénnKrvyFbur³¬mann½yfanKrGñkRbmaj;¦RBHnamRBH)aT RsIRsuTÞvrµ½n ¬mann½yfa GñkkarBarBBYkevT¦ )anc,aMgbRgÜbbRgÜm ehIyesayraCüelIkSRtRbeTs TaMgBIr. 22-- RRssIIeeRRssssæævvrrµµ½½nn RBHraCaEdlesayraCübnþBIRBH)aTRsIRsuTÞvrµ½nmanRBHnamfaRBH)aTRsIeRssævrµ½n¬mann½y fa GñkkarBard¾RbesIr¦. ÉksarRbvtþisa®sþcinenAcugstvtSr_TI6 )anniyayGMBIraCaNacRkfµI EdlekIteLIgBIkar bRgÜbbRgÜmkSRtRbeTsTaMgBIr edaydak;eQµaHfa ecnLa. Éksar)anelIkeLIgfa raCaNacRkenH BImunCacMNuHrbs;nKrhVÚNn ehIyRBHraCarbs;raCaNacRkenHRTg;manRBHzan³CaRBHGFiraC eTaHbI 32 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa KWCaCRmk ¬s’m½n¦ nigCaGñkkarBar ¬vrµ½n¦ rbs;BYkevsü³ Edlmanzan³ Kubþ³ mann½yfaGñkEdleKkarBar. 2 ekaHsirIlgáadUcCadUrkan;RBHBuT§sasnaenArvagqñaM430ehIyCVanigcam:,ak¾RbEhlCa)anTTYlT§iBlnaeBlenaH Edr.rIÉRbeTscinvij)anTTYlRBHBuT§sasna3stvtSr_rYcmkehIyehIystvtSr_TI4TI5nigTI6Casm½yEdlmha raCcinbBa¢ÚnraCTUteTARbeTsNÐacmøgKm<Ir nigeFVITsSnkic©eTAkan;TIkEnøgkMeNItrbs;RBHBuT§.
  • 40. 33Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa RBHGgÁcMNuH nigelIksYysarGakr[nKrhVÚNn k¾eday. RBHGgÁ)anvaydeNþImyksmÖúbur³ dak; bBa©ÚlmkkñúgvyFbur³rbs;RBHGgÁehIyRbEhlCa)anvayykkSRtRbeTseRcIneTotpgEdrKWeday ehtuenaH eTIbRBHGgÁRTg;Rbkan;ykRBHzan³CaRBHGFiraC eRBaHRBHGgÁ nigbuBVbursrbs;RBHGgÁ )aneFVI[kSRtÉeTot²cUlmkCacMNuH. 33-- RRssIIvvIIrrvvrrµµ½½nn RBHraCaEdlesayraCübnþBIRBH)aTRsIeRssævrµ½n GacCaRBH)aTRsIvIrvrµ½n3 EdltamemIleTA KWCaRBHraCacugeRkayrbs;vyFbur³ EdlelIksYysarGakrfVayRBH)aTruRTvrµ½n ¬mann½yfa Gñk karBarruRT¦énnKrhVÚNnCabcäajatiRBahµN_ekaNÐBaس. 3 RBHraCaGgÁenHminmanRBHnamenAkñúgbNþaRBHraCaénRbeTskm<úCasm½ymunGaNacRkExµrrbs;elakm:aes<r:UeT. ´Kitfaelak m:es<r:UKYr Etrab;bBa©ÚlRBHGgÁpg.
  • 41. 35Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa CMBUkTI3 GMBIkm<úCa b¤ RsukExµr 44-- RRssIIPPvvvvrrµµ½½nn RBHraCbuRt nigCaGñksñgraCübnþBIRBH)aTRsIvIrvrµ½n KWRBH)aTRsIPvvrµ½n ¬mann½yfa GñkkarBar Pv³¦. RBHraCaGgÁenHkøahanelIsBIRBHbitarbs;RBHGgÁeTAeTot. eqøót»kasEdlRBH)aTruRTvrµ½n esayTivgÁteTAenArvagedImstvtSr_TI7 RBHGgÁ)ancab;eFVIkarvayRbhareTAelInKrhVÚNn kan;kab; raCFanI rYc {deNþImGMNacRbkbedayvIrPaB}. bnÞab;mk GaRs½yedayPaBGg;Gacrbs;Blerh_ rbs;RBHGgÁ RTg;)anRbmUlykbNþardæTaMgLayEdlFøab;cMNuHnKrhVÚNnBImun EdlRbEhlCa kMBugEterIbRmHxøÜnrkÉkraCüCamYynwgRBwtþikarN_EdlekIteLIgfµI² dak;mkeRkamGaNaBüa)alrbs; RBHGgÁvij. sIlacarwk)anBiBN’naBIRBHraCaGgÁenHfa {CaGñkcm,aMgd¾Gg;Gackøahan/ CavIrbursmancitþ sb,úrs minecHcaj; viesseRbób)aneTAnwgPñMRBHsuemru_/ Cab;Gm,ÚrRBHGaTitü/ Gacvayb®gáabTaMg sRtÚvxagkñúg1 nigxageRkA)an/CaRTmak;dMrId¾BUEk/CaGñkdak;TanEdlmanRBHhsþesImCanic©-GaRs½y edayTwkEdleKcak;elIRBHhsþ ral;eBlEdlRTg;dak;Tan2 . silacarwk)anbEnßmeTotfa TIkEnøgNa EdlRBHGgÁRTg;)aneRbIRBHkayBldeNþImyk)an ehIyTIenaHnwgRtÚv)anTTYlnUvkarsenþasRbNI BIRBHGgÁ ehIybNþasRtÚvTaMgLay naMKñamkfVaybgÁ¿Kal;RBHGgÁenAkñúgRBHraCvaMg eTaHCaGñkTaMgenaH min)anRtÚvRBHGgÁvayb®gáab[cuHcaj;kñúgs®gÁamk¾eday3 . RBH)aTPvvrµ½nRbEhlCa)anvatRBHnKrrhUtTl;PñMdgErk ehIy)anvayb®gáab {bNþaesþcPñM} eBalKW bNþaviRbCaminTan;suIvil½y Edlrs;enAtamdgPñM nigx<g;rab dUcCasBVéf¶enHEdr tamemIleTA KW BYkCgEdlrs;enAsm,ÚrkñúgbNþaExRtxagliccab;BIEkbenAmat;QUgsmuRTesomrhUtdl;PaKxagelI cnÞtab‘un kñúgenaH manTaMgCYrPñMxaglicExRteBaFisat;pgEdr nigBYks‘ULag b¤LaghYg EdlCabuBVburs 1 KWBYkbHe)ar minEmntNða dUcEdlGñkxøHbkERb enaHeT. 2 tamsilacarwkPñMhan;C½y. 3 silacarwkGgÁCMnIk.
  • 42. rbs;BYkm:yb¤mø:yb¤r:m:ysBVéf¶Edlrs;enAelICRmalCYrPñMGaNÑamenAcenøaHnKrcam:,anigkm<úCa. mansilacarwkmYy caru_kñúgrC¢kalrbs;RBHraCaGgÁenH CasilacarwkEdlmanv½ycMNas;CageK enAkm<úCa ehIyEdleKrkeXIjenAkñúgExRt)at;dMbg Etq¶ayBIraCFanI KWenArhUtdl;ExRt éRBkb,as )anbBa¢ak;BIehtukarN_xagelIenH. RBH)aTPvvrµ½n RTg;RbEhlCa)anelIkT½BeFVIs®gÁamq¶ay eTATis xageCIg edIm,IvayykbNþaRbeTsenAxagt,ÚgPñMdgErk nigRbmUlykhVÚNnxagt,Úg TaMgmUl dak;enA eRkamkarRKb;RKgrbs;RBHGgÁ. enAeBlenaH vahak;dUcCafabNþaRbeTsEdleyIg ehAsBVéf¶faCa esom EdlcinehAfa eQTU )aneqøótyk»kasenaH kñúgeBlEdlRBH)aTPvvrµ½n CaRBHraCaén vyF bur³ eFVIs®gÁamdeNþImykhVÚNn edIm,IerIbRmHecjBIGaNaBüa)alrbs;esþctUmU ehIyRbkasÉk raCü. ÉksarRbvtþisa®sþcin)an[eyIgdwgfa raCaNacRkeQTU EdldMbUgeLIy CardæÉkraC bnÞab;mk )anRtÚvhVan;m:an; b®gáabdak;[cMNuHnKrhVÚNn naeBlenaHTTYl)annUvesrIPaB eLIgvij. edayehtuenH manraCaNacRkFM²BIrekIteLIgenAedImstvtSr_TI6 CaCMnYsnKrhVÚNn4 KW ecnLa EdleRkaymkkøayCakm<úCa nigeQTU EdleRkaymk KWRbeTsesom. enAeBlEdlesþcRsI Pvvrµ½n RTg;esayTivgÁteTA eK)anRbemIlfa RBHGgÁRTg;)aneTAcab; kMeNItÉsßansYK’rbs;RBHsiv³ eRBaHRBHGgÁRTg;Rbkan;ykRBHnamfa CaPv³ EdlCaRBHnammYyrbs; RBHsiv³ ehIyeK)anfVayRBHnamfa CaPv³bT. Km<IrvisÑúburN³ hak;dUcCamanniyayBIRBH)aTPvvrµ½nenHpgEdr Rtg;vKÁsþIBIskáTVIb EdleyIg )an eXIjBIxagelIrYcmkehIy KWCaeQµaHsMedAyk km<úCa enHÉg eday)anelIkeLIgfa RBHraCaRTg; RBHnamfa Pvü³ RTg;)anerobcMRBHraCaNacRkrbs;RBHGgÁCa3Rsuk EdlmaneQµaHfa ClT³/ kumar³ 36 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 4 KWenAsm½yenaHehIy EdlÉksarRbvtþisa®sþcinQb;ehARbeTsEdlBYkeKEtgdak;eQµaH[fa {RBHraCaNacRk énmnusSRsat} faCa hVÚNn eTotehIy²EbrmkehAfab:UNnvij. elak EBlIy:U kñúgesovePArbs;Kat;eQµaHhVÚNn Rtg;TMB½rTI284 )anniyayfa ´Kitfa {RBHraCaNacRkénmnusSRsat}enH minEmnCa eQµaHrbs;RsukeT KWRKan;Et CakarehAedayBYkcinEdlPJak;ep¥IlnwgeXIjGñkRsukKµansemøókbMBak;b:ueNÑaH.mü:ageTotcink¾manehARsukeRcIneTot dUecñHEdr. eTaHCay:agNakþI eQµaHEdlcindak;[km<úCanaeBlenaH minEmnCaeQµaHEdlGñkRsukdak;xøÜnÉgeT TaMg eQµaHecnLaTaMgeQµaH hVÚNn KWGñkRsukmin)ansÁal;dUcKña. minmanÉksarbBa¢ak;fa eQµaHTaMgGs;enH)anRtÚveK cgcaMenAkñúgRbéBNIrbs;RbeTseT ehIyeQµaHenaHesateTotk¾KµanRbhak;RbEhlGVIsUm,IEtbnþic eTAnwgBaküExµr b¤hiNÐÚ b¤m:aeL Edr.
  • 43. 37Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa nigsukamar³.elakvresnIy_ÉkehSrInI)anpÁÚpÁgRsukTI1eTAnwgecnLaTwkKWEdndIsNþTenøemKgÁ/rIÉ RsukTI2 nigTI3k¾CaRsukenAPaKxagt,Úgkm<úCaEdr. Km<IrvisÑúburN³)anRbedAEfmeTotfa RsukenaH manCYrPñMEdlmaneQµaHfa ]T½yKirI/ süam³ nigGasþ³KirI EdleFVI[eyIgnwkeXIj dl;]T½y³/ esom nigelésþ EdleyIg)aneXIjBIxagelIrYcmkehIy ehIyEdlCaeQµaHrbs;km<úCa nig]bsm<½n§esom enaHÉg. tamBiteTA kareRbIBakü{süam³}enAstvtSr_TI6 hak;dUcCaminTan;RtwmRtÚveT ebIsinCafa eKcg;sMedAykRbeTsrbs;BYkéf b¤esom. b:uEnþ enaHRbEhlCakarsMedAykkulsm<½n§mYy Edl RbCaCnmanEs,kexµACagGñkCitxagbnþic ehIyrs;enACitPñM dUcCakulsm<½n§samrdæ³ EdlmanraCFanI enAxagBay½BüqksmuRTesom Rtg;kEnøgRsIviC½ysBVéf¶. Km<IrvisÑúburN³ k¾manerobrab;pgEdr GMBITenøeQµaH sukumari/ kumari nignalini TenøeRkayenH elak ehSrInI fa KWCaTenøemKgÁenHÉg. 55-- cciiRRtteessnnaa--RRssIImmeehh®®nnÞÞvvrrµµ½½nn ¬¬>>>>>> --661100¦¦ RBHraCbuRtrbs;RBH)aTPvvrµ½n min)anesayraCüeT b:uEnþ KWRBHraCbuRteBArbs;RBH)aTvIrvrµ½n RBHnamfa ciRtesna {EdlRTg;RbkbeTAedayektnPNÐCaRBHkruNaCam©as;}5 EdleLIgRKgraCü sm,tþieRkamRBHnamfaRsImeh®nÞvrµ½n ¬RBH®nÞCaGñkkarBar¦ ehIyRbEhlcab;taMgBIeBlenaHmk enAkm<úCak¾dUcCaenAcam:,a nigm:aLayU TMenomTmøab;cg;[RBHGnuCeLIgesayraCübnþBIRBHerom edIm,I[ manRBHraCaCabursrhUtteTA. RBH)aTmeh®nÞvrµ½nRTg;)anbnþneya)ayrbs;RBHerom ehIy)anbBa©b;karvayb®gáabbNþa ExRt EdlRBH)aTPvvrµ½nminTan;)andeNþImdak;CacMNuH. RTg;manm®nþI2nak;beRmIRBHGgÁ KWFmµeTv³ nigswmðeTv³ EdlCabgb¥ÚnCIdUnmYynwgKña eRBaHCakUn 5 )af/ silacarwksM®sáwtenAPULÚxan;/ cuHpSaykñúgRBwtþb½Rtsala)araMgcugbUB’a Exkkáda-kBaØa. ÉksarRbvtþisa®sþ cinBIqñaM589dl;618fVayRBHnamfaCakSRtiy³-qalI-EdltamBitKWCavNѳrbs;RBHGgÁehIy)anniyayeTot faRBHnampÞal;RBHGgÁKWeqtUsWNaKWRtesnk¾b:uEnþmin)anR)ab;RBHGPiesknameT.Éksar)anniyayeTotfaRBHGgÁ mansBa¢atiCaKULúg.BaküKULúgenHPasam:aeLfaKYnlYnKWsMedAykBYkm:aeLenHÉg.Et´ÉkPaBtamelakéGm:UnIej fa BaküKULúgenHCakarGanminc,as;nUvBaküExµr-m:aeLfa Rkúg mann½yfardæ/ TIRkúg/ raCFanI Etk¾mann½yfaesþc pg Edr. ebIdUecñH sBa¢atiKULúg mann½yfa sBa¢atiCaesþc.
  • 44. rbs;RBahµN_2nak;bgb¥Ún RBahµTtþ³ nigRBahµswmð³. GñkTaMg2enHFøab;Cam®nþIrbs;RBH)aTPvvrµ½n ehIyRBH)aTmeh®nÞvrµ½nBinitüeXIjfaCaTIRbwkSal¥ RTg;k¾rkSaTuk eRBaH {BYkeKenH ecHcaMc,as;las; GMBIviTüasa®sþRtwmRtÚv nigviTüasa®sþmanplRbeyaCn_} mann½yfa CaGñkGnuvtþCak;Esþg nigRtwm RtÚv. m®nþITaMg2nak;enH CaCMnYyEdlCYy[RBHGgÁTTYl)annUvC½yCmñH. RTg;)ancat;[swmðeTv³ eTAeFVIkarcrcaCamYynKrcam:,a edIm,IrkSacMNgemRtIPaBrvagRBHraCakm<úCanwgRBHraCacam. ebsk kmµenH TTYl)aneCaKC½y ehIysnþiPaBRtÚv)anFana6 . RBH)aTmeh®nÞvrµ½nRTg;esayTivgÁtenAqñaM610énRKisþkraCRtÚvnwgqñaM532énmhaskraC. 66-- ||ssaannvvrrµµ½½nn ¬¬661100-->>>>>>¦¦ RBHraCbuRtrbs;RBH)aTmeh®nÞvrµ½n )aneLIgesayraCübnþBIRBHGgÁeRkamRBHnamfa RsI |sanvrµ½n ¬mann½yfa RBH|san7 CaGñkkarBar b¤RBHraCaCaGñkkarBar¦. RTg;)anRbkasRBHGgÁfa {CaédKUrbs;cRk³ ¬KWRBH®nÞ¦ GMBIkmøaMg/ nigCaédKUrbs;hri ¬KWvisÑú¦GMBIkitþiKuN8 / CaRBHFiraCelIesþc TaMg3 nigCam©as;énraCFanIminregÁITaMg39 } tamemIleTAKWcRkankbur³/ GemaXrbur³ nigPImbur³10 38 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 6 silacarwkGgÁCMnIk kRmgk,alTI1 TMB½r68-70. 7 |san³ k¾CaeQµaHmYyrbs;RBHsiv³Edr. 8 silacarwkvtþcRkwt kRmgk,alTI1 TMB½r42. 9 silacarwksVayqñÚ kRmgk,alTI1 TMB½r46. 10 cRkanbur³=TIRkúgénTRmfas b¤TIRkúgrbs;RBHvisÑú RbEhlKWCIERkg. GemaXrbur³=TIRkúgrbs;GmX³ EdlCa eQµaHmYyeTotrbs;RBHsiv³ mann½yEdrfa EdlksageLIgminGt;RbeyaCn_ RbEhlKW)at;dMbg. Pwmbur³=TIRkúg rbs; Pwm³ mann½yfa TIRkúgcEmøk RbEhlCaPIém: enAelITenøesmUn. sUmGanesovePArbs;elak éGm:UnIej Edlman eQµaHfa km<úCa k,alTI2 TMB½r118 nig302. teTAenHKWCaeQµaHTIRkúgmYycMnYn EdlmanEcgenAkñúgsilacarwk ³ GRKbur³=TIRkúgbvr/ GRTivübur³ b¤vyFbur³= TIRkúgénRBanéRBPñM ¬GgÁrburI enAkñúgéRBkb,as¦/ GninÞtþbur³=TIRkúgminecHCinq¥n;/ GTübur³=TIRkúgsm,Úrsb,ay/ GmreTvI=enAxageCIg/ bNÐúrgÁ=panr:ag enAxagt,Úg/ rnT½ymT³=enAxaglic/ GvitRKam³=TIRkúgBEB/ ®nÞbur³ =TIRkúgRBH ®nÞ/ ]RKbur³=TIRkúgén]RK³ KWRBHsiv³/ km<úburI=TIRkúgrbs;km<ú KWRbEhlCa|sanburI/ yesaFburI b¤ nÞbtþ=GgÁrFM/ GemaXbur³=TIRkúgEdlsg;eLIgminGt;RbeyaCn_ b¤TIRkúgrbs;GemaX³ KWRBHsiv³ minrsat;GENþt/ cRkankbur³=TIRkúgTRmfas KWCIERkg/ vrTRKam³=TIRkúgén]bkarIbuKÁl/ Pwmbur³=TIRkúgénGñkKYr[xøac KWRBHsiv³/
  • 45. 39Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa EdlRTg;vaydeNþImyk)an b:uEnþ Tuk[esþcraCFanInImYy²enARKb;RKgdEdlRKan;EtesþcTaMgenaH enACacMNuHRBHGgÁ.RBHraCaGgÁenHRTg;CaesþcvatTwkdIdUcCaRBHraCamun²Edr.RTg;)anBRgIkRBHraCa NacRkrbs;RBHGgÁBaseBjTaMgTwkdIhVÚNn. RBHGgÁmanraCFanIEdlmaneQµaHtamRBHGgÁ KW|sanbur³ mann½yfa raCFanIrbs;|san. emIleTA RbEhlCaRTg;manraCFanImYyepSgeTot raCFanI|sanbur³enHRKan;EtCaraCFanIbeNþaH Gasnñ ehIyeQµaH |san enH CaehAeRkA. ÉksarRbvtþisa®sþcin11 niyayfa raCFanIenH manpÞH 2muWnxñg nigmansalFMmYyenAkNþal CaTIkEnøgEdlRBHraCaeFVIsvnakar. ÉksarcindEdlniyayfaraCaNacRkrbs;RBHGgÁmanEckCaRkúgcMnYn3012 RkúgnImYy²man GPi)almñak;manzan³dUcKñanwgzan³GPi)alRkúgnKrlInyI¬cam:,a¦ehIymanm®nþIFM²EckCa5RbePT KWKUtUQI/kavesogPIg/pUtUtUTIg/ecm:alIgnigy:antUb‘U13 .enABIeRkamGñkmanbNþaskþiTaMgenHmanm®nþI fñak;eRkamCaeRcIneTot. RBHraCaRTg;Kg;enAkñúgsalaEdlniyayxagelIral;3éf¶mþg Rbfab;elIERKlm¥eTAedayeRKÓg RkGUb5y:ag nigt,Úgmantémø7RbePT enABIeRkambus,úkmYyeFVIGMBIRkNat;. ssrRTbus,úkenH eFVIBIeQImantémø Etglm¥eTAedayPøúknwgpáamas. dUcCaenAvaMgesþceQTUEdr ¬KWRbeTsesom¦ manesna2nak;kan;eCIgRkanmasduteRKÓgRkGUb QrenACitRBHraCaCaRbcaM. rveyRDbur³=TIRkúgBYkRBahµN_/TVIrTbur³=TIRkúgdMrIKWlEgVk/TVnvIrbur³=TIRkúgRsUv/TVvbur³=TIRkúgecarRbEhlEtmYy CamYy hvbur³=TIRkúgényBaØ/ nrvrnKr=raCFanIGñkyam/ ner®nÞRKam=TIRkúgRBHGgÁm©as;/ Pwmbur³=TIRkúgGs©arü/ PUvnRKbur³/ ligÁbur³=TIRkúgénligÁ/ hribur³=TIRkúgRBHvisÑú/ vIrbur³/ hvburI=TIRkúgsYysarGakr/ smÖúbur³= TIRkúgrbs;GñkR)aCJ. 11 raCBgSavtarraCvgSésV‘EdlesayraCüBIqñaM589dl;618.sUmGanesovePAelakEBlIy:UeQµaHnKrhVÚNn TMB½r272 nigTMenomTmøab;Exµr PaK2 TMB½r123. 12 TIRkúgmYydeNþIm)anBIesþcBalmYyGgÁ maneQµaHfaTRmburI=TIRkúgs<an; ¬silacarwkvtþcRkwt kRmgk,alTI1 TMB½r 42-43/ TIRkúgmYyeToteQµaHfa GFüburI=TIRkúgGñkman ¬silacarwkGgÁCMnIk kRmgk,alTI1 TMB½r71¦. 13 eKGackMNt;eXIjy:agc,as;nUveQµaHBitR)akdrbs;zan³nImYy² EdlcinGanbMéPøxusCaxøaMg dUcCapUtUtUTIg RtÚvnwg BhueTB b¤BhueTv³/ ecm:alIg RtÚvnwg eyamraC/ zan³TImYysMedAykm®nþITTYkbnÞúkBn§Gakr/ zan³TI2 sMedAykm®nþI yutþiFm’.
  • 46. raCBgSavtarés‘VbBa¢ak;eTotfa ³ eBlRTg;ecjCYbCamYyRbCara®sþ RBHraCaRTg;RKbdNþb; RBHkayedayRkNat;t,ajBIkb,asRtwmcegáHcuHdl;k,alCgÁg; nigRTg;Bak;mkudlm¥eTAedayKC; nigt,Úgmantémø.RBHeRsat¬Rtecok¦RBHGgÁmanlm¥eTAedaybenþagmas.RTg;RKgRBHB®sþBN’s Canic© rIÉRBHsuB½N’)aTeFVIGMBIcMebIgRKb;BN’manlm¥eTAedayPøúk. namuWnsBVmuxm®nþImansemøókbMBak;Rbhak;RbEhlnwgRBHraCaEdr ehIyfVaybgÁ¿k,aldl;dI 3 dgenAnwgkaMCeNþIrRBHraCblø½gáeBlcUlKal;RBHGgÁmþg².kalNaRBHraCabBa¢a[eRkakeLIgBYkeK lUneLIg rYclutCgÁg; dak;édRbNmüelIedImRTÚg GgÁúypÞal;dI elIkenÞlb¤kRmalEdlRkalenACuMvij RBHmhakSRt edIm,IBiPakSakic©karRBHraCaNacRkCamYyRBHGgÁ. cb;svnakar m®nþITaMgenaH Rkab fVaybgÁ¿RBHraCamþgeTotmunnwgcakecjeTA.kñúgeBleFVIsvnakarmanBlesnarab;Ban;nak;Rbdab;eTA eday Exl niglMEBg QryamenAmat;RckcUl. Éksarcin)anniyayEfmeTotfaeRkamkarRKb;RKgrbs;RBHraCaGgÁenHRBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa )ancgsm<½n§emRtIPaBCamYynKrcam:,a ¬san):an¦ nigQURkg ¬?¦ k¾b:uEnþ )aneFVIs®gÁamCaerOy² CamYynKrlInyI14 nigfUyn;15 ¬KWcam:,aFM nigcam:,a enApanr:ag¦. ÉksarenaH)anbnþeTotfa kalNa manRBHraCamYyGgÁeLIgesayraCü eKRtÚvkat;RmamédmYy b¤kat;RcmuHRBHerom nigRBHGnuCTaMgGs; rYcykRBHerom b¤RBHGnuCTaMgGs;enaH eTATukmYykEnøg b:uEnþ mankarEfTaM)anl¥. karEdlÉksarcin niyayBIRBwtþkarN_BiessEbbenH Etcat;TukdUcCaerOgFmµtadUecñH RbEhlCamanmUlehtuGVImYy minxan. ÉksarraCvgSfag ¬625¦ ehARbCaCnkm<úCafa KIm:ay KWExµr ehIyfa BYkenHmanragTab ¬KW TabCagcin¦mansm,úrexµAb:uEnþRsI²PaKeRcIns.TaMgRbúsTaMgRsIbYgsk;nigBak;RkvilenARtecok. 40 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 14 Baküfasan):anCaBaküfµIEdlcinehAcam:,a.tamFmµtaBakülInyIrbs;cinsMedAyknKrcam:,aTaMgmUlEteBlenH san):an RbEhlsMedAykcam:,atameqñrsmuRTkNþal rIÉlInyIsMedAykcam:,atameqñrsmuRTxageCIg. ÉksareQµaH tSÚhV‘Úyn;ékV niyayfa enAqñaM642 esþcnKrlInyI)anbBa¢ÚnTUteTAKal;esþccin edayTUlfa nKr lInyI RtÚvnKrhVÚNnvayRbhar nigesñIsuMCMnYyBIesþccin. esckþIRtg;enHmansarsMxan;Nas; eRBaHvabBa¢ak;BIGriPaB rvag hVÚNn niglInyIenABak;kNþalTI1énstvtSr_TI7. ´mindwgfa etIenAqñaM642 enaH esþc|sanvrµ½n EdleLIg esayraCüenAqñaM610 enAesayraCüsm,tþienAeLIy b¤k¾RBH)aTC½yvrµ½n )aneLIgRKgraCübnþBIRBHGgÁeTAehIyeT. 15 tamemIleTA BaküFn; enAkñúgeQµaHb‘ÍjFn;sBVéf¶ RbEhlkøaymkBIfUyn;tamcinehAenHÉg.
  • 47. 41Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa BYkeKmanmaDmaM ehIyskmµ. pÞHEbrmuxeTAekIt ehIydUcpÞHBYkeQTU ¬esom¦ Edr. édsþaMCaédbrisuT§ ÉédeqVgminbrisuT§eT enHRbEhlmkBIeKeRbIédeqVgduslageRkaybenÞar bg;. BYkKIm:ay]sSah_gUtTwk nigykcitþTukdak;EfrkSaeFµjNas; edaydussm¥atnwgRcaseFVIBIeQI Tn;² dUcEdleKenAGnuvtþsBVéf¶enANÐaG‘Ícwg. eRkayBI)anGanKm<IrnigsURtFm’rYceKgUtTwkduseFµjrYceTIbTTYlTanGahar.TTYlTanGahar rYc eKduseFµj rYcsURtFm’eTot. TaMgGs;enHCaBiFItamRBhµBaØsasna ehIybBa¢ak;fa buBVbursrbs; BYkExµrnasm½yenaHeKarBRBHRBhµ dUcEdlBYkeKeKarBsasnaRBHBuT§sBVéf¶enHEdr. EtRtÚvdwgfa enH CaTMenomTmøab;rbs;fñak;dwknaMEtb:ueNÑaH RbEhlminEmnsRmab;GñkRsuk nigGñkERscmáarenaHeT. GñksresrRbvtþisa®sþcin)anniyayeTotfa ³ kUnkMelaHminelIkCMnUnGaBah_BiBah_[xagkUn RkmuMeT eRkAEtBIsMBt;mYy. emGeNþIk ¬mha¦ eTACYbkUnRsI ehIyRKÜsarTaMg2minecjBIpÞH Gs;ry³ eBl8éf¶ edayGgÁúyenAkNþalBnøWcegáóg. eBlerobkarrYc bþIRbBn§fµInaMKñaeTArs;enAelIpÞHfµIrbs;eK edaynaMykeTACamYynUvekrþ×EdlEm:«Eck[. dl;Em:«søab;eTA kUnkMelaHenaHGacEbg Eckekrþ׫Buk CamYybgb¥ÚnRbúsRsIrbs;eKÉeTot edayminKitBIRTBüEdleK)anTTYlenAeBlerobkarenaHeLIy. enAkm<úCasBVéf¶ eKenAEtGnuvtþdUecñHenAeLIy. xusBIsBVéf¶ eKminekarsk;eT kalNa«Bukmþaysøab;16 KWeKTuksk;[duHke®nÞIg. EteKyMERsk xøaMg² dUcEdlenAmanGnuvtþenAeLIyenAtamRsukERscmáarxøH. eKbUCasB erIsykFatudak;kñúgekadi eFVIGMBImas R)ak; b¤dItamEtlT§PaBEdleKman rYcykeTATmøak;kNþalsÞwgTenø. CYnkal ¬sBVéf¶enA manGnuvtþdUcenHEdr¦ eKminbUCaeT EtTuksBecalkñúgéRB[stVsahavsuI. enHcat;TukdUcCaTukrag kaybuKÁl[stVsuI/ [RtÚvxül; KWFatumYykñúgbNþaFatuTaMg4/ KWdUcCakareFVITandUecñHEdr17 . manÉksarRbvtþisa®sþcinepSg²eTotEdlerobrab;cMNucEbøk²fa³tamFmµtaeKdak;søaeTBiVrU 16 eK)aneXIjBIxagelIfaeKekarsk;kñúg»kasenH. GacfaeKbkERbRcLM b¤mYyk¾faTMenomenHmanbnþbnÞab;KñadUecñH cMeBaHRbCaCnmansBa¢ati2epSgKña. Cak;Esþg BYkExµrekarsk;enAeBlkan;Tukç rIÉBYkBñgvij eKElgsk;minbYgeT KWTuksk;[KµansNþab;Fñab; nigminykcitþTukdak;kñúgkarEfTaMxøÜnÉgeT dUcEdlBYkCVIhVRbkan;ykBImunEdr. 17 sBVéf¶enHBYkBuT§sasnikCnniyayfa {TuksaksB[CacMNIstVelIEpndI nigkñúgGakas} dUcEdlRBHeBaFistV mYyRBHGgÁ)aneFVITanxøÜnRBHGgÁ[stVsuI/ k¾b:uEnþCYnkaleKniyaytamTMenomRBhµBaØsasnafa {dak;Tansac;rbs;xøÜn fVayxül;/ RBHBay.l.}
  • 48. nigTwkGb;TTYlePJóv. eKminEdldak;suraTTYlePJóveT eRBaHsuraenHeKpwklak;elomEtCamYyRbBn§ kM)aMgBIEPñk«Bukmþayb:ueNÑaH. mü:ageTot eBlCYbGñkFMedayécdnüenAkEnøgNamYy eKRtÚvEbrxñg[ edIm,ICakarsMEdgkareKarB nigedIm,IkuM[rMxanGñkFMenaHpg. manerOgmYyEdlÉksarcinenaH)anerobrab; ehIyeFVI[eyIgmankaregOgq¶l;CaxøaMg KWfaenA kñúgRbeTsenH EdlCaRbeTsmYysm,ÚrhUrehor nigmanGarüFm’eTAehIyenaH RbCara®sþminesøók semøókbMBak;eT edIreTANamkNannlKkxøÜnTeT18 ehIyesIccMGk[GñkEdlesøóksemøókbMBak;eTA vij. BYkeKminbriePaKGMbil mineRbIR)as;EdkeT eK)aj;stVnwgRBÜjFñÚEdleFVIBIb£sSI. Rtg;enH eKRtÚvyl;fa eKniyayEtGMBIGñkRsuk GñkERscmáar eBalKW GñkRsukedIm EdlenAminTan;suIvil½y b:ueNÑaH minsMedAykGñkTIRkúgEdlmanedImkMeNIthiNÐÚ b¤kat;hiNÐÚCamYynwgRsIRsukGay b¤Gñkrdæva sI EdlsuIvil½yrYceTAehIy GaRs½yedaymanTMnak;TMngCamYyCnbreTsenaHeT. mü:ageTot eKRtÚv KitpgEdrfa raCFanIfµI)anpøas;bþÚreTAkEnøgfµI enAq¶ayBIraCFanIcas;EdlhVan;suIyun)anbBa¢a[Rbús² Tmøab;esøókBak;biT)aMgekrþ×ePT19 . mankarkt;smÁal;sMxan;mYyedayCnCaticinmñak;enAedImstvtSr_TI12 faTIRkúgTaMgGs;suT§ EtmankMEpgkarBarB½T§CuMvij nigfaGñkRsukmanTMenomTmøab;dUcGñkRsukeQnQIg20 Edr KWnKrcam:,a EdleKehAtameQµaHraCFanI. KYrrMlwkfa eK)aneXIjBIxagelIfamancinmñak;)ansresrenArvagqñaM 42 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 18 eyIg)aneXIjBIxagelIehIy faeK)anbBa¢a[Rbús²esøókbuwg dUcKñanwgkanm:an b¤GavRTnab;RsI². 19 PsþútagénehtukarN_sßitenAelIRtg;fa manÉksarmYymaneQµaHfa {GPiR)aysþIBIBYkGnarüCn} EdlBYkcin sresrb:unµanstvtSr_eRkaymk KWenAstvtSr_ TI12 EtdkRsg;B’tmanecjBIGñkniBn§mun²nUvGVIEdlBYkeK)andwgGMBI km<úCa)anerobrab;fa{GñkRsukminedIrElgxøÜnTeTenaHeTKWesøóksemøókbMBak;xøI²nigmanExSRkvat;eFVIBIRkNat;.b:uEnþ enAtambNþaRsukcMNuHEdlenAq¶ayBIraCFanI manGñkRsukenAElgxøÜnTeT ehIyesIccMGk[GñkNaEdlesøók semøókbMBak;. Bt’manenH EdlmantaMgBIstvtSr_TI12mkem:øH ebIpÁÚCamYyBt’manEdlmanenAstvtSr_TI7 bBa¢ak;[ eyIgdwgfa GñkRsukEdlrs;enACitTIRkúg TIRbCuMCnFM² cab;epþImesøóksemøókbMBak;CabeNþIr². GñkEdlminesøók semøókbMBak;manEtenATIq¶ay² kñúgbNþaviRbCacMNuHepSg². erOgenHKµanGVIeFVI[eyIgegOgq¶l;enaHeT eRBaHrhUtmk dl;sBVéf¶enH k¾enAmanRbCara®sþEdlesøókbuwgenAeLIy enAkm<úCa ehIyk¾manGñkxøH dUcCaBYkBñg esÞóg nigs¥Úc Edl rs;enAvalerjCaedIm enAedIrElgxøÜnTeTpgEdrkalBImYystvtSr_munenH. 20 eQnQIgenHCaeQµaHraCFanIrbs;nKrcam:,akalBIstvtSr_TI11ehIyk¾RbEhlCaedImkMeNItrbs;BakükUsaMg suIn EdleKeRbIsRmab;ehAGaNÑamrhUtmkTl;stvtSr_munenH.
  • 49. 43Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 617fa Tmøab;bevNIEdleKeRbIenAraCvaMgesþckm<úCa dUcKñaeTAnwgTmøab;bevNIenAvaMgesþc eQTU KWRbeTsesomsBVéf¶Edr. edayehtuenH eyIgGacsnñidæan)anfa nKrcam:,a/ esom nigkm<úCa enAsm½yenaH rYmKñabegáIt)anCaGaNaExRtd¾FMmYyenAkñúgNÐÚcin EdlmanTMenomTmøab;RbéBNI semøókbMBak; nigsasna minsUvxusKñab:unµaneT. GñkRsuk KWCaRbCara®sþedIm EdlTTYlyksasna b¤k¾GarüFm’hiNÐÚehIytaMgTIlMenA enAtammat;smuRTxagt,ÚgénNÐÚcin nigmanBYkkulsm<½n§rdævasI rs;enAB½T§CuMvijBYkenHkMBugTTYlnUvGarüFm’BIBYkmun ehIycab;GnuvtþtamTmøab;fµI dUcKñaCabeNþIr²Edr. GñkRbvtþisa®sþrbs;raCvgSés‘V)anbBa©b;karBN’narbs;xøÜn edayniyayfa enACitraCFanI EdleKehAfa |san³tamRBHnamrbs;RBHraCa manPñMmYyeQµaHfa ligKab:UhVÚ EdlenABIelIkMBUlPñM enaH manR)asaTmYy manBlTahan5000nak;karBar. manR)asaTmYyeTotenABIxagekItraCFanI ksageLIgedIm,I]TÞisfVayRBlwghVÚtUlI manesna1000karBar CaTIkEnøgEdlRBHraCabUCamnusS mñak;ral;²qñaM.esckþIRtg;enHénÉksarRbvtþisa®sþcineFVI[eyIgKiteXIjfaRBH)aT|sanvrµ½nKWCa RBHraCaExµrTI1 Edl)anbþÚrraCFanIeTAenAxageCIgbwgTenøsab edIm,I[)anenAcMkNþalRBHnKr Rtg; kEnøgEdlmanR)asaTburaN)ak;Ebksl;BIraCFanIExµrBImun KWGgÁrFM b¤mhanKr. ebIdUecñHEmn R)asaTTI1xagelIKWR)asaTPñM)aExg Edlsg;eLIgbUCadl;RBHsiv³ edayeKarBbUCaeRkamrUbPaBCa ligÁ¬ligKa¦ÉR)asaTTI2KWR)asaTsg;bUCaRBHnagkaLI¬hVÚtUlI¦EdlenAeRkAnKrFMBIxagekIt.RBH )aT|sanvrµ½n BitCa)anpøas;raCFanIeTAenAmat;bwgTenøsabEmn k¾b:uEnþeKminRtÚvsnñidæanfa RBHGgÁCa GñkksagraCFanIGgÁrFMenaHeT ehIy|sanbur³k¾minEmnCaraCFanIEdlmanrbgB½T§CuMvij dUcEdleyIg sÁal;edaysMNl;)ak;EbksBVéf¶enHEdr. eyIg)aneXIjBIxagedImfaRBHBuT§sasnamaneKeKarBbUCaehIyenAkñúgnKrhVÚNn cab;taMg BIeBlcab;epþIménraCaNacRkenHemø:H nigfaRBH)aTekaNÐBaØC½yvrµ½nk¾RTg;eKarBsasnaenHEdr fVIebI RBHGgÁCaGñkeKarBbUCaRBHsiv³ ¬RBHGgÁ)an[eKksagligÁ100dak;BaseBjraCFanI¦ k¾eday. KWBuT§sasnikmñak;eQµaH skünaKesn manedImkMeNIthiNÐÚ EdlRBHGgÁcat;CaraCTUteTAKal;esþccin suMCMnYyRbqaMgesþcERCkraCüenAcam:,a ¬CaExµrmñak; EdlGacCabuRtRBHGgÁpg¦. tamBitsasnaTaMg2nikayenHGacenACamYyKña)an ehIyeKEtgEteXIjrUbRBHBuT§enAlayLM KñaCamYyGaTieTBxagRBhµBaØsasna enAtamsalasMNak;nanaEdlGñkdMeNIrcUlsñak;GaRs½yEdr. bUCnIeysk_Caticinmñak;eQµaH yIsuIg EdleFVIdMeNIrkat;bNþaraCaNacRkenAtammat;smuRTxagt,Úg BIqñaM671dl;695 )anniyayfa {Fm’RBHBuT§)ancRmúgceRmIn nigrIkraldal Rsab;Etmanesþc
  • 50. kMNacmYyGgÁmkbMEbkbM)ak;bMpøajGs;eTA}21 . karbMEbkbM)ak;BuT§sasnikCnenHRbEhlCaekItmanenAeRkamraCüRBHraCaEdlkan;RBhµBaØ sasnaRBHnamRsI|san³ eRBaHvaRtÚvnwgeBlEdlekItmannUvCMenOfµImYy KWkareKarBbUCahrihr³ Ca kartMNagRBHsiv³ nigRBHvisÑúeRkamTRmg;Ca {smÖú rYmKñakñúgragkayRBHhri} b:uEnþ k¾GacmanenAeRkam RBHraCaEdlesayraCütBIRBHGgÁ KWRBH)aTC½yvrµ½n EdlesayraCüenArvagqñaM661. minmansila carwk b¤erOgeRBgniTanNa EdlbBa¢ak;GMBIkarbMEbkbM)ak;BuT§sanikCnenHeT k¾b:uEnþ RBHBuT§sasna)an RtÚvbMpøicbMpøajexÞcxÞI esÞIrKµansl;. eyIgnwg)aneXIjteTAeTotfa nikaysasnaenH eRkayBIman C½yCmñHelIRBhµBaØsasnarYcehIy minecHEtQñHrhUtedayKµankarRbyuT§enaHeT ehIyfaman braC½yxøH²Edr munnwgRtÚv)ankarBaredaynamuWnsBVmuxm®nþI nigRBHraCa ehIyenATIbBa©b;manesþc ERCkraCümYyGgÁ Rbkan;ykCasasnaCapøÚvkarrbs;mhanKr. 77-- CC½½yyvvrrµµ½½nn ¬¬666677-->>>>>>¦¦ RBHraCaEdleLIgesayraCübnþBIRBH)aT|sanvrµ½n KWRBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI1 {GñkkarBarRbkb edayC½yCmñH}. RTg;hak;dUcCaRBHraCasnþiPaBniymmYyGgÁ ykcitþTukdak;kñúgkarRKb;RKgRbeTs nigEfrkSaTwkdIEdlRBHraCamun²deNþIm)an CaCagkarvatTwkdICabnþeTot. GVIEdleK)andwgBIRBHGgÁ KWRTg;esayraCüBIqñaM664 dl; 667 ehIysilacarwk)anniyayBIRBHGgÁfa {CaesþcsigðGbraC½y bribUN’edaykitþiKuN} nigfa {RBHGgÁbuinRbsb;kñúgkarkarBarBiPBelak} RTg;manckçúvis½yQøasév EdleFVI[RBHGgÁkøayCashRsasás³ mann½yfa {manRBHenRtmYyBan;} EdlCaRBHnammYyrbs; RBH®nÞaFiraC. RBHGgÁmanbuRtrbs;RBahµTtþ³ nigswmðeTv³ EdlCam®nþIrbs;RBHraCamun² Cam®nþIenAkñúgvaMg RBHGgÁ. buRtrbs;RBahµN_TImYymaneQµaHfa swmðvIr³ mann½yfaCa {stVsigðéRBBIkMeNIt EtCaGñk R)aCJEdlbNÐitTaMgLaytamcUleronsURt}Føab;Cam®nþIrbs;RBH)aT|sanvrµ½nehIybnþmkeFVICam®nþI rbs;RBH)aTC½yvrµ½neTot. rIÉbuRtrbs;RBahµN_TI2 maneQµaHfa swmðTtþ³ CaRKÚeBTürbs;RBHraCa. RBahµN_enH {ecHcaMnUvGVITaMgGs;EdleKGacecHdwg)an}. RBHraCa)anRbKl;RBahµN_enH fVayRBH 44 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 21 tamelak EBlIy:U kñúgesovePAeQµaH nKrhVÚNn TMB½r284.
  • 51. 45Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa bitula Ca {RBHGnuCrbs;RBHmata min)anesayraCüsm,tþi k¾b:uEnþRTg;RbkbeTAedayePaKRTBü skþismCaRBHraCamYyGgÁ} rYceRkaymkRTg;)anEtgtaMg[eFVICaGPi)alénGTübur³ ¬TIRkúgsm,Úr sb,ay¦. GPi)alRkúgenHlubbM)at;Bn§GakrelIsYnc,ardMNaM CakarlubbM)at;d¾RtwmRtÚv EdlCa ehtueFVI[kmµsiT§ikrTaMgLaykøayeTACaman22 . 22 silacarwkvtþéRBv½lø nigGgÁCMnIk kRmgTI1 TMB½r60 nig69.
  • 52. 47Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa CMBUkTI4 kMNt;smÁal;GMBIRbCaCnEdlmanTMnak;TMngCamYykm<úCamunstvtSr_TI8 cam:,a/ GaNÑam-tugkwg/ eTobekaHm:aLaka/ eQTU b¤esom/ NÐa nigcin LÚvenH eyIgcUlmkdl;edImstvtSr_TI7 enAeBlEdlGaNacRkkm<úCa)ankekIteLIg ehIy PUmiPaKkNþalénNÐÚcinTaMgmUl RtÚvsßitenAeRkamkarRtÜtRtarbs;raCvgSvrµ½n b¤{GñkkarBarkSRt RbeTsTaMg101}dUcEdlmanerobrab;enAkñúgerOgeRBgniTan.mkdl;RtwmenHeyIgKYrnaMKñaBinitüemIl RbCaCatiTaMgLayEdlrs;enACuMvij ehIyEdlGacnwgmanT§iBlxøH² mkelIGaNacRkenHmþg. 11-- nnKKrrccaamm::,,aa RbCaCatimYyEdlenACitCageK ehIyEdlBYkkm<úC³hiNÐÚRtÚvRbyuT§Tb;Tl;muneKenaHKW RbCa Caticam mankMeNItedImmkBIm:aeLsuI b¤CVa EdlmktaMgTIlMenA enAelIeqñrsmuRTxagt,Úg nigxagnirtI NÐÚcin edayeRbIkmøaMg b¤k¾edaykaryl;RBm b¤Gt;»nBIGñkrdævasI. BYkkm<úC³)anRbTHeXIjman BYkcamenHenANÐÚcinPaKxageRkamrYceTAehIy taMgEtBIeBlEdleKeFVIdMeNIrmkdl;emø:H BYkenaHCa m©as;TwkdItUcFMEdleKRKb;RKg RBmTaMg)anRtÜtRtaBYkGñkrdævasI EfmeTotpg. BYkcamenH KWCa BYkm:aeL EdlTTYlykGarüFm’hiNÐÚ ehIyeFVIdMeNIrecjmkBIekaHs‘Um:aRta b¤k¾mkBIekaHCVapgEdr. cMENkÉBYkkm<úC³b¤ExµrKWecjmkBINÐaPaKxagekIttamemIleTAKWmkBIkligÁ³enAelIeqñrkUr:Um:g;Edl. eKGac):an;RbmaN)anGMBIkarRbkYtRbECg EdlGacnwgekItmaneLIgtaMgEtBIdMbUg rvagBYk m:aeL enANÐÚcin KWcamenH CamYynwgBYkkm<úC³ EdlmanGPimanHnwgsBa¢atiedImrbs;xøÜn ehIyniyay PasamYyeCOnelOnbnþiceTAehIyCaBiessenAeBlEdlplRbeyaCn_xagBaNiC¢kmµnigGMNacRtÜt RtaRbTaMgRbeTIsKña. enAeBlEdlBYkkm<úC³mkdl;vahak;dUcCafanKrcam:,aenHKWCaGaNacRkmYyEdlBYkcinehAfa hVÚNn EdlmanEdndIcMNuHrbs;xøÜnCaeRcInlatsn§wgrhUtdl;mat;smuRT taMgBIkVagb‘íjrhUtdl;kMBt ehIyEdleRkaymkRtÚvFøak;braC½yenAstvtSr_TI14 eTIbkøayeTACaRbeTsGaNÑamvij. RbEhlCaenAqñaM137énRKisþskraC manemekaymñak;kñúgcMeNamGaNaniKm enAtameqñr smuRT EdlBYkcin[eQµaHfa Kuylan nigmanTItaMgsßitenAxagelITYr:anbnþic ¬RbEhlCaRtÚvnwgeQµaH RsUNa enAkñúgEpnTIpþÚelem¦ )anbRgÜbbRgÜmEdndIcMNuHTaMgGs; [rYmKñamkCaraCaNacRkEtmYy
  • 53. rYcehIy)anvayedjkm©at;BYkcin-GaNÑamecj erIbRmHxøÜnrYcBInwmRtÜtRtarbs;nKrcin. Kuylan enaH )ansmøab; GPi)al b¤]braCcinecal CaehtueFVI[CnrYmCatirbs;eK nigbNþaemrbs;EdndIcMNuH ÉeTot² manCMenO nigTMnukcitþmkelIeKCaxøaMg rYcehIyk¾elIk[eFVICaesþc. raCaNacRkm:aeL Edl )ancak;RKwH enANÐÚcin mindwgCataMgBIeBlNamk ehIymaneQµaHfa cam:,aenaH )an]b,tþikeLIg y:agdUecñH. raCFanIrbs;nKrcam:,amaneQµaHtamcinehAfa lInyI ehIyeQµaH lInyI enH k¾)anRtÚvBYk GaNÑam nigRbvtþiviTUcineRbIsRmab;ehAnKrTaMgmUlpgEdr. tamemIleTA nKrcam:,a b¤lInyI naeBlenaHlatsn§wgeTAeCIgrhUtdl;RBMRbTl;tugkwg nigmk t,Úg rhUtdl;RBMRbTl;kUsaMgsuInsBVéf¶ eBalKW RtÚvnwgTwkdIGaNÑambc©úb,nñTaMgmUl. mü:ageTotenA eBlenaH nKrhVÚNn EdldwknaMedayraCvgSCVa b¤m:aeL nigsßitenAeRkamkarRtÜtRtarbs;GaNaniKm m:aeLd¾xøaMgBUEkmYy RbEhlCa)ankekItrYcmunCaeRcInstvtSr_mkehIy. nKrhVÚNnenHmanraC FanIenAnwgmat;BaménTenøemKgÁ1 . tamerOgeRBg BYkkm<úC³ nigBYkExµr)anvaybeNþjBYkcam [cakecjBIRsuk EdlsßitenA BIxaglicCYrPñMGaNÑam nigRsukrbs;BYkm:y/ r:Um:y b¤mø:y eTAenARsuklav CakEnøgEdlBYkeKksag nKrcM):asak;eLIgnigeTAenAEpñkGaeKñy_Rtg;b‘íjFn;sBVéf¶ehIybegáIt)anCardæbNÐúrgÁ¬panr:ag¦. eTaHCaRtÚv)anbeNþjecjBIkm<úCay:agNak¾eday b:uEnþCakarBitNas;Edlfa raCaNacRk camenAtammat;smuRTEpñkGaeKñy_NÐÚcinCaraCaNacRkmYyxøaMgkøa taMgEtBIstvtSr_TI1énRKisþsk raCmk. BYkenHBUEkemaHmutkñúgkareFVIs®gÁam TaMgtameCIgeKak TaMgtampøÚvTwk. b:uEnþBYkenHGP½BV eRBaHRbCaCatirbs;eKRtÚvEbgEckCakSRtRbeTssVy½tcMnYn5-6 dUcCaenAÉkm<úCaEdr RKan;Etfardæ TaMgGs;enaHCanKrsamnþraC cMNuH[RBHGFiraCmYyGgÁ EdlCabcäajatirbs;RBHraCaEdl)anrMedaH BYkeKecjBInwmRtÜtRtaénBYkcin nigGaNÑam. b:uEnþGMNacrbs;RBHGFiraCenaHexSayminxusBIGMNac esþc)araMgkalBIsm½ymunyuKkNþaleT RKan;EtfaCaeKalkarN_ KµankarRbEkkRbNaMgGVIBInKr samnþraCenaHeT2 . 48 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 1 eyIg)aneXIjBIxagelIfa tamerOgeRBg manesþccam6GgÁ esayraCüenARsukExµr muneBlBYkkm<úC³mkdl;. 2 bNÐúrgÁ b¤panr:agenHCardæRbqaMgtUcmYy b¤ebIehacNas; k¾CardæmYyEdlmanÉkraCüBIcam:,a RbesIrCagkSRt
  • 54. 49Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa mü:ageTot TwkdIrbs;kSRtRbeTsTaMgGs; eBlenaHRbhak;RbEhlnwgTwkdIbNþaExRtrbs; GaNÑambc©úb,nñEdr ehIyTwkdITaMgGs;enaH)andUreQµaHbnþicmþg² eTAtamkarc,aMgdeNþIm nigkardak;Ca cMNuHedayBYkGaNÑam. ehtukarN_dUcKñaenH nigehtukarN_Føab;ekItmanenARsuk)araMg eBlEdlBYk ):aKus énRkúmháal½r-r:UmuaMg c,aMgdeNþImykbNþaextþénGaNacRkrUmuaMg kñúgstvtSr_TI14Edr. tamÉksarRbvtþisa®sþGaNÑam BYkcamCaBYkecarsmuRT nigdIeKak Edl)anbBa¢ÚnT½BeTAeFVI kar dutbMpøajPUminanatammat;smuRTtugkwg nigbNþaExRtGaNÑamxageCIg CaeRcInelIkeRcInsa. ebItam silacarwksM®sáwtrbs;km<úCavijfa BYkkm<úC³cat;TukBYkenHCaRbCara®sþCitxag EdleKmanTMnas;Ca mYymþgmáal. b:uEnþ BYkcamxøÜnÉgminmanbnSl;TukÉksarGVI edIm,IkarBarxøÜnÉgpgeT. rIÉBYkGaNÑam vij eKxitxMniyayGaRkk;BIcam:,a edIm,IbBa¢ak;BImUlehtusmRsb EdleFVI[buBVbursrbs;eKvay deNþImyknKrenH. mü:ageTot Gacniyay)anfa GMeBIecarkmµ nigkarQøanBaneTAelIGaNÑamenaH minEmnCaskmµ PaBrbs;RbCaCaticamTaMgmUl b¤k¾CaKMnitrbs;RBHecAGFiraC EdlesayraCüenAÉcam:,abur³enaHeT vaGacRKan;EtCaskmµPaBrbs;RBHraCaénkSRtRbeTsNamYy kñúgbNþakSRtRbeTsrbs;cam:,a b:ueNÑaH b¤k¾fa CaGMeBIrbs;BYkcammYyRkúm EdlRbRBwtþeLIgedayKµankarGnuBaØatBIesþcGgÁNamYy EdlcuHTUktamEtxül;bk;naMeTA b¤k¾naMKñaeFVIkarsgswknwgkareCrRbmafNamYyk¾mindwg. k¾b:uEnþ karvayRbharrbs;BYkcamPaKeRcIn suT§Et)anRtÚvÉksarGaNÑamkt;Rtafa CaRbtibtþikareyaFa rbs;nKrTaMgmUl tamkarseRmccitþrbs;RBHraCa nigTIRbwkSarbs;RBHGgÁ nigdwknaMbBa¢aedayemT½B EdlRBHraCacat;taMgc,as;las;. enAsm½yenaH EdlRbCaCnminsUvsÁal;KñaeTAvijeTAmk mindwgfa etImanGVIekIteLIgenAÉ RbeTsCitxag nigminmanTmøab;Rbkass®gÁammuneBlEdls®gÁamcab;epþImeT. BYkGaNÑam)ancat; Tukfaral;karQøanBan nigkarqk;bøn;edayesþccamNamYy CaGMeBIxusqÁgrbs;RbCaCatiTaMgmUl RbeTsÉeTot². silacarwkeBaFiekøagkar:ay EdleKrkeXIjenAqñaM1908 nigmankalbriecäTenAmhaskraC972 RtÚvnwgRKisþskraC1050 hak;dUcCaCMTas;nwgÉkraCüPaBenH. silacarwkenaHniyayfa GñkRsukpanr:agCamnusS s<wkehIyxilxUcnigeRcInEtbHe)arRbqaMgnwgesþcnKrcam:,aEtRtÚv)anRBHbremµsVr³vrmeTv³dak;eTasedjvayrhUt dl;kñúgéRBPñM.bnÞab;mkBYkenaHk¾ERbkøayxøÜnCamnusSl¥RtwmRtÚvehIyesµaHnwgesþcnKrcam:,avij.EtkarcuHcUlenaH minsßitesßreT.
  • 55. CabMNgrbs;RBHraCa CakarvayRbharrbs;RbCaCatimYyeTAelIRbCaCatimYy EttamBiteTA enaH RKan;EtCaGMeBIrbs;BYkecarmYyRkúm b¤CakarsgswkmYyb:ueNÑaH. BYkGaNÑamGacnwgcat;TukerOgr:av TaMgLaydUecñH k¾b:uEnþ ´enAEtcg;rMlwkdEdl²fa nKrcam:,a )anrlt;)at;Gs;eTAehIyeFVIem:cGackar BarxøÜn)an ehIybcäaBaJatirbs;RbCaCatieKEdlRtÚvvaybMEbkx©at;x©ayGs;eTAehIyenaH k¾KµanbnSl; ÉksarGVIkarBarxøÜn b¤bBa¢ak;fa s®gÁamEdlxøÜnRbkaseLIgenaH CakareqøIytbeTAnwgGaNÑampgeT. cMENkBYkGaNÑamvijEdlmanenAsl;dl;sBVéf¶ eKGaceFVIkarkarBarxøÜn nigvayRbhareTAelIsRtÚv BIGtItkal edayKµanxøacrEGgfanwgTTYlkarvaybkvijeLIy. dUcenH eKRtÚvRbúgRby½tñenAcMeBaH karecaTRbkan;nana ehIykuMePøcfaTwkdIcam:,aTaMgRsug)anRtÚvBYkGaNÑamdeNþImdak;bBa©ÚlmkkñúgraCa NacRkGaNÑam)at;eTAehIy. eKmindwgGVIeRcInb:unµaneT enAeBlEdlnKrcam:,acab;epþImkekItdMbUg. ÉksarRbvtþisa®sþcin erOgniTanrbs;bUCnIeysk_cin nigsñaédmYycMnYnepSgeTot EdlniyayGMBIRbCaCatienH manniyay tictYceBk minGac[eyIgerobrab;RBwtþkarN_tamlMdab;bnþbnÞab;)aneT. manÉksarmYyniyayfa raCaNacRkcam:,a )anRtÚvksageLIgRbhak;RbEhleTAnwgerOgr:avEdlerobrab;xagelI manraCFanI enAs‘aglInyI kñúgGMNacRtÜtRtarbs; yinNan KWkVagb‘íjsBVéf¶ ehIyfaBYkcamehAraCFanIrbs;eK enaHfa )alGg;vuI b¤raCFanIGg;vuI enAcenøaHExSry³TTwg17 nig18GgSa nigcenøaHry³beNþay 104-105GgSa. silacarwkEdleKrkeXIjrhUtmkdl;sBVéf¶ )anpþl;bBa¢IeQµaHrbs;RBHraCamYycMnYn Edl esayraCüBIstvtSr_TI1dl;stvtSr_TI7 RBmTaMgRBwtþikarN_mYycMnYn EdlminsUvsuIKñaCamYyÉksar cin b:unµaneT. eyIgBinitüemIlGMBIGVIEdlÉksarTaMgBIr)anR)ab;[dwg ³ RBHraCaTImYy EdlsilacarwkfVay RBHGPiesknamfa RsImar³ RTg;esayraCüenAstvtSr_TI2 ÉRBHraCabnÞab;RTg;RBHnamfa PRTvrµ½n esayraCüenAstvtSr_TI4. RsImar³ RbEhlCaeQµaHCaPasasM®sáwtrbs;esþcKuylan b¤esþcEdlesayraCübnþBI RBHGgÁmindwgfa etICaGñksñgraCüTI1 TI2 b¤TI3 EdleyIgmin)ansÁal;eQµaH. ÉRsIPRTvrµ½nk¾RbEhlCaeQµaHCaPasasM®sáwtrbs;esþcmYyGgÁEdlesayraCüenAstvtSr_ TI4 ehIyEdlRbvtþiviTUcinehAminc,as;fahVan;ehon EdlCabcäajatixagRBHmatarbs;Kuylan. RBHraCbuRtrbs;RBHGgÁRBHnamhVan;GuI )anerobcMeFVIkMEBgkarBarraCFanItameyabl;rbs;m®nþI 50 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 56. 51Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa mñak; EdlbnÞab;mk )aneLIgesayraCübnþRBHGgÁ. RTg;suKtenAqñaM336. m®nþIenaHtamBit KWCa´ beRmImñak;eQµaH evn manedImkMeNItmkBItugkwg EdlRtÚvRBHraCasenþasRbNIykCabuRtciBa©wm )anbMEbkrC¢TayaTFmµanurUbTaMgGs;ecj ehIyBwgEp¥kelIm®nþIÉeTot²[RbkasxøÜnCaRBHraCa eRkamRBHnamfahVan;evn. esþcGgÁenHsuKtenAqñaM349. RBHraCaGgÁenHCaRBHraCacamdMbUgeK EdlelIkT½Bqøgkat;RBMEdneTAeFVIs®gÁamCamYytugkwg. RTg;)andeNþImykExRtkVagNan EdlCa RsukkMeNIt dak;bBa©ÚlmknKrcam:,a enAqñaM347. ÉksarRbvtþisa®sþcinniyayfa RBHraCaEdlesayraCübnþBIhVan;evn KWbuRtRBHGgÁRBHnam fahVan;hVÚ ehIyenAeRkamraCesþcGgÁenHkgT½Bcin-tugkwg deNþImykkVagNn;vij)an edayrujRcan [camdkfyeTAenAÉlInyIvij. bnÞab;mk KWRBHraCntþarbs;hVanhVÚ RBHnamhVanh‘Uta EdleLIgesayraCübnþBIRBHGgÁenA qñaM399. rC¢kalenHRbkbeTAedayPaBvwkvr enATIbBa©b;RBHraCak¾RtÚveFVIXatedaybuRtesþchVÚNn Edlelak eb:KUb‘Íl dak;eQµaHtamcinfa etgekgQn;. XatkmµenHekItmanenAeRkayqñaM413 énRKisþskraC. RBHraCbuRtrbs;RBH)aThVanh‘Uta RBHnamfahVanQavng eLIgesayraCübnþmkehIyman karlM)akCaxøaMgkñúgkarerobcMsNþab;Fñab; nigdeNþImykRsukmkvij. eRkayBIseRmctameKal bMNgenHrYc RBHraCaRTg;esayraCü)anb:unµanqñaMbnþeTot rYck¾esayTivgÁteTAenAqñaM421. RBHraC buRtRBHnam hVany:agm:ay )anesayraCübnþmk rYcRTg;suKtenAqñaM446. eBlenaHraCbuRt RBHnam hVanTU )aneLIgesayraCübnþ edayykRBHnamdUcRBHbitaEdr. enAstvtSr_TI5 silacarwk)anniyayGMBIRBHraCamYyRBHGgÁEdlmanRBHnamCaPasasM®sáwt fa KgÁaraCa b¤KegÁsVr³. silacarwkniyaybnþeTotfa RBHraCaGgÁenH)an {cakecalraCsm,tþi edayKµanRBHT½ysþayRseNaHbnþiceT} eTAeFVIbUCnIeysk_enAmat;TenøKgÁa3 . RBHraCamYyGgÁeTotmanRBHnamEdlbBa©b;enAxagcugfa >>>rdæavrµ½n mann½yfa {RTg;manGMNac elIslb;mhasaKr}. tamemIleTA eQµaHfa KgÁaraCa nig>>>rdæavrµ½n RbEhlCaRBHnamCaPasasM®sáwtrbs;hVanh‘Uta 3 tamÉksareQµaH {kMNt;RtasþIGMBIkUsaMgsuIn} enAkñúg Lettres édifiantes et curieuses, XXXIe année, 1774.
  • 57. nighVany:agm:ay k¾b:uEnþKµanÉksarbBa¢ak;GMBIerOgenHeT. silacarwkdEdlk¾)anniyayGMBIRBHraCa2RBHGgÁeTotpgEdr KWruRTvrµ½nTI1 EdlCaRBHraCntþa TYt rbs;RBH)aT rdæavrµ½nEdl)anesayraCübnþmk tamBaküsilacarwkfa {RTg;)anTTYlykGERmkd¾ EsnF¶n;énraCsm,tþi}. RBHGgÁCab;Gm,ÚrRBahµN_pg nigkSRtiy³pg. RBHraCamYyGgÁeTot KWRBH)aTsmÖúvrµ½n CaraCbuRtrbs;RBH)aTruRTvrµ½n. ebItamÉksarRbvtþisa®sþcinvij eKniyayfaenAstvtSr_TI5manRBHraCadUcteTAenH ³ -hVantav esayraCüsñgBIRBHbitaenAqñaM446. -hVanecneqg esayraCüBIqñaM458 dl; 472 b¤k¾eRkayenaH. -hVantageknEQn CaCnbreTs ERCkraCüenAqñaM491. -hVanQU ng CabuRtrbs;hVany:agm:ay EdleLIgesayraCüenAqñaM492 bnÞab;BITmøak;esþc ERCkraCü rYcsuKtenAqñaM498. -hVanevnesn b¤evnEKVn buRtesþcmun. -hVaneTonxay EdlmanRBHGPiesknamfaeTvvrµ½n CabuRtesþcmun nigesayraCüBIqñaM510 ehIyenAesayraCüenAeLIyenAqñaM514. -PItEs‘Vy):am:U ¬viC½yvrµ½n¦ CaRBHGnuCesþcmun. -kavCIecnxay ¬KuRsIC½yvrµ½n b¤viC½yvrµ½n ?¦ esayraCüqñaM526-527. -kavCILÚfULÚ):am:U ¬KuRsIruRTvrµ½n¦ esayraCüqñaM530-534. vahak;dUcCac,as;Nas;faruRTvrµ½nnigrdæavrµ½nEdlmanniyayenAkñúgsilacarwkKWCaRBHGPiesk namrbs;RBHraCa2RBHGgÁ EdlesayraCüenAstvtSr_TI5 b:uEnþeyIgmindwgkalbriecäTBitR)akdeT RKan;Et)ansÁal;RBHnamEdlcinehAb:ueNÑaH. ehIyvak¾hak;dUcCaBitR)akdEdrfa RBHraCa4RBHGgÁ tamÉksarRbvtþisa®sþcin EdleyIgGackMNt;RBHnamCaPasasM®sáwt)an KWRBH)aTeTvvrµ½n/ viC½yvrµ½n/ C½yvrµ½n nigruRTvrµ½n/ minmansilacarwkNaEdleKrkeXIjenAcam:,aniyayGMBIRBHraCaTaMg enaHeT. ÉksarRbvtþisa®sþcink¾manniyaypgEdrGMBIs®gÁammYyekIteLIgenAkñúgstvtSr_TI5 rvag nKrhVÚNn nigcam:,a. vahak;dUcCafa GñkEdlbgás®gÁammunKWRBahµN_ekaNÐBaØ ¬C½yvrµ½n¦ cinehAfa KavQavLÚ CaRBHraCaénnKrhVÚNn Edlman´b¤kUnmñak;bHe)arRbqaMgnwgRBHGgÁ rYceKcxøÜnmkRbkas xøÜnCaesþcnKrcam:,a. mUlehtu KWmkBIesþcKavQavLÚenH b¤k¾enAkñúgraCüesþcGgÁenH cam)aneFVIkar 52 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 58. 53Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa vaydeNþImykCMnUnEdlGFiraCcinepJIfVayesþcnKrhVÚNn eFVI[esþchVÚNnbBa¢ÚnraCTUtmñak; enAqñaM 484 CaBuT§sasnikCn [eTAsuMCMnYyBIesþcRkúgcin Edlyl;RBmtamsMNUmBr. KavQavLÚenH CaesþcERCkraCü mü:ageTotCaExµrpg. b:uEnþ ÉksarRbvtþisa®sþcinminmanbBa¢ak;fa etIesþcenH braC½ykñúgs®gÁamRbqaMgnwghVÚNnrYmnwgcin b¤y:agNaenaHeT. eTaHCay:agNak¾eday ÉksarRbvtþisa®sþGaNÑam)anerobrab;fa enAqñaM390énRKisþskraC bNþaExRtPaKxagt,ÚgGaNÑam ¬GaNÑameBlenaH KWtugkwg¦ RtÚvrgkarvayRbharBIBYkcam Edlman RBHraCaeBlenaHRBHnamtamkarehARkéLrbs;BYkGaNÑamfapamLÚdat b¤hVanLÚdat. b:uEnþ esþccam enaH )anRtÚvvaybeNþj[dkfyeTAvijedaykgT½Bcin EdlenAeBlenaHCam©as;elI tugkwg. BYkcamk¾braC½yEdrenAkñúgkarvayRbharbNþaExRtxagt,ÚgmþgeTotenAqñaM420 ehIy)anRtÚvbgç¿[ sgkarxUcxatCaeRcIn nigelIksYysarGakreTA[cineTotpg. ebItamemIleTAKWenAeRkamrC¢kalrbs;esþchVany:agm:ayEdlesayraCübnþBIpamLÚdat¬KW esþcEdlcinehAfa hVanh‘Uta¦ EdlkgT½BcameFVIkarQøanBaneTAelIExRtjútNamrbs;tugkwg enAqñaM 436. T½BcamQñHGaRs½yedaysarmandMrI EdleFVI[T½BGaNÑam)ak;bbxøbxøac. k¾b:uEnþT½BenH RtÚv braC½yvij enAeBlEdlemT½BcineQµaH fanhUeQ eRbIkaMRCÜcdutecjrUbstVFM² eFVI[dMrIP½yxøacCa xøaMg. bnÞab;mk raCFanIrbs;nKrcam:,a)anRtÚvFøak;eTAkñúgkNþab;édGaNÑam enAqñaM446énRKisþsk raC. ÉksarRbvtþisa®sþcin)anniyayeTotfa esþchVany:agm:ay)anrt;eKcxøÜnecjBIraCFanI enA eBlEdlB¤faT½BGaNÑammkCitdl;. RTg;yagRtlb;mkRBHnKrvijenAeBlEdlT½BGaNÑamdkecj putGs; ehIyRtÚvRsLaMgkaMgCaxøaMgeBleXIjraCFanIRtÚvbMpøajexÞcxÞI. RBHGgÁ)anFøak;RBHkay RbQYnrhUtdl;esayTivgÁt. b:uEnþmanbBaðamYyecaTeLIg ³ RBH)aTKgÁaraCa/ rdæavrµ½n/ ruRTvrµ½n nigRBHraCa6RBHGgÁeTot )an esayraCübnþbnÞab;Kñatdac; enAstvtSr_TI5 nigTI6. ebIG‘Ícwg etIesþcpamLÚdat4 tamRbvtþisa®sþ GaNÑam nighVany:agm:ay tamÉksarcin EdlesayraCübnþbnÞab;KñaEdrenaH RtÚvesayraCüenAqñaM Na?b¤mYyeQµaHTaMgBIrenHCaeQµaHEdlRbCaCnehAtamPasasamBaØsMedAykRBH)aTruRTvrµ½nnig 4 BaküpamCakarcmøgrbs;GaNÑamBIBakücin hVan. pamLÚdat RtÚvnwgeQµaHtamcinehAfa hVanh‘Uta.
  • 59. RBHraCaEdlesayraCübnþb¤munRBHGgÁ? silacarwkcam ÉksarRbvtþisa®sþGaNÑam nigÉksarcinmanerobrab;GMBIRBHraCa Edlesay raCüsm,tþibnþBIRBH)aTruRTvrµ½n RBmTaMgskmµPaBxøH²pgEdr. RBHraCaEdlsñgraCüTI1KWRBH)aTsmÖúvrµ½nEdltamemIleTAGacRtÚvCaRBHraCbuRtrbs;RBH)aT ruRTvrµ½n. silacarwkmYyenAmIsWn )anEføgsesIrRBHGgÁfa {RTg;manRBHkayBlxøaMgkøaKµannrNa eRbóbpÞwm)anmancriyamaryaTl¥RbesIreRbób)aneTAnwgRBHGaTitüénEpndIedayCHBnøWenAeBlraRtI ehIy. RTg;manPaBkøahanemaHmuttamry³RBHraCRTBüpÞal;RBHGgÁ}. ebIdUecñHEmn etIRBHraCaGgÁ enHCaesþcERCkraCü ehIyminEmnCaRBHraCbuRtrbs;esþcGgÁmuneT b¤y:agNa? eRBaHXøacugeRkay enH hak;dUcCacg;bBa¢ak;GMBIerOgenH5 . RBHraCaGgÁenHRbEhlCaesayraCüenAedImRKisþskraCTI7. ehIyebIsinCaRBHGgÁCamnusS EtmYyCamYyhVanpaneQ enaHKWenAkñúgraCürbs;RBHGgÁenHehIy Edlcin)aneFVIkarvayRbharmk elInKrcam:,a kñúgrvagqñaM603b¤605 edayesþccin EdlÉksarRbvtþisa®sþcat;TukfaCa {esþc elaPln;cg;mancg;)an} eRBaHB¤fanKrcam:,aenHCaRbeTsGñkmanmYy k¾manbMNgvayyk enHebI tamkarsikSarbs;elak eb:KUb‘Íl. mundMbUg T½BcamTTYl)anC½yCmñHxøH b:uEnþbnÞab;mk RtÚvdkfyqøg RBMEdnTaMgtsNþab;Fñab;eRkamkaredjvayRbharrbs;kgT½BcinnigGaNÑamEdldeNþImykraCFanI )an ehIyvaykemÞcexÞcxÞI munnwgdkT½BfyeTAvij6 . k¾b:uEnþ edayrvl;EtRbmUlykC½yPNÐxøaMgeBk BYkcinGaNÑam)anRtÚvrgkarvaybkBIT½Bcam EdlRbEmRbmUlKñaerobcMeLIgvijy:agqab;rh½s. 54 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 5 sUmbBa¢ak;faenANÐÚcin siT§ieromc,gminmanGnuvtþtwgrwgNas;NaeT TaMgenAm:aeLsIu nigkm<úCasBVéf¶k¾G‘ÍcwgEdr. 6 elakeb:KUb‘ÍlniyayfaraCFanIlInyIenHsßitenACitRsNUcEdl´mindwgCaenARtg;Na.Kat;niyayfaeKRtÚvedIr 7éf¶BIRBMEdnmk TRmaMmkdl;lInyI dUecñH ebIKitfaedIrmYyéf¶)an35KILÚEm:Rt raCFanIenHRtÚvenAnwgmat;BamsÞwgev:. mancMNucsMxan;mYyEdlelak eb:KUb‘Íl )anbBa¢ak;bEnßm KWfaBYkcinGaNÑam)anykBI lInyIeTAnUvmascMnYn18duMFM² Edldak;enAkñúgbnÞb;mYysRmab;[esþccamcUleKarBbUCaviBaØaNk½çn§buBVburs.Kat;famkBIesþckUsaMgsuIn¬cam:,a¦)an Rbkan;ykTMenomTmøab;tamcin KWsMEdgkareKarBbUCacMeBaHRBHraCaEdlsuKteTA edaysg;bnÞb;fVaymYy nigdak;mas mYybnÞHenAkñúgenaH. bnÞHduMmasmanTaMg Gs;18 BIeRBaHhVanpaneQCaRBHraCaTI19enAcam:,aenH cab;taMgBIKüÚlan mk.ehtukarN_enHGac[eyIgkMNt;)annUvTItaMgrbs;raCFanIcam:,aenAstvtSr_TI7nigcMnYnesþcEdlesayraCürhUt mkdl;eBlEdlBYkcinGaNÑamvayykraCFanI)an KW18GgÁ taMgBIqñaM137 mk.
  • 60. 55Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa ebItamsilacarwk RBHraCaEdlesayraCübnþBIRBH)aTsmÖúvrµ½n KWRBHraCbuRtrbs;RBHGgÁ RBHnamknþarb,Fmµ³ EdlesayraCücab;BIqñaM630mk ehIyEdlÉksarcinehAfa hVanQavlI Edl )anbBa¢ÚnraCTUteTAKal;esþcRsukcinenAqñaM631 edaybBa¢ÚnnUvrbs;rbrl¥²BIkñúgRsukeTAfVaypg. RBHraCbuRtrbs;RBH)aTknþarb,Fmµ³ eLIgesayraCübnþBIRBHGgÁ b:uEnþ eyIgmin)ansÁal;RBH GPiesknamrbs;esþcenHeT. ÉksarRbvtþisa®sþcin ehARBHraCaGgÁenHfa hVaneqnLúg. esþcGgÁ enH)anRtÚvm®nþImYyrUbeFVIKutTaMgBUCenAqñaM645m®nþIenaHcinehAeQµaHfam:UhUm:antUKaFUEdlRbEhl KWCaesþcPeRTsVrvrµ½ntamsilacarwk EdlRtÚvCakµÜyrbs;RBHraCamYyRBHGgÁ ¬etIhVaneqnLúgb¤?¦ nigRtÚvCaecAxagRBHmatarbs;RBHknþarb,Fmµ³ KWRBHmataRTg;)anerobkarCamYynwgRBahµN_mñak;. esþcenHesayraCüenAqñaM645. bnÞab;mk RbeTsekItmankarvwkvrmYyGs;ry³eBlBIr-bIqñaM. ÉksarRbvtþisa®sþcinniyay fa manRBwtþikarN_mYycMnYnekIteLIg Edlelak EBlIy:U )ansegçbdUcteTA ³ mrNPaBrbs;esþc hVan eqgLúg RBmTaMgraCvgSTaMgmUl)aneFVI[nKrKµanGñksñgraCü. RbCara®sþcam k¾)anÉkPaBKñaelIk RBahµN_mñak; EdlRtÚvCa buRtsuNisarbs;RBH)aThVanFUlI EdlesayraCüenAqñaM630-631 [eLIgesayraCübnþ buRtsuNisaenaHRbEhlKW m:UhUm:antUKaFU b¤ PeRTsVrvrµ½nenaHÉg. k¾b:uEnþnamuWn sBVmuxm®nþI Edlsµ½RKesµaHnwgRBHraCvgSmun b¤k¾famanplRbeyaCn_pÞúynwgRBHraCafµIenH minyl; RsbtameT k¾naMKñaTmøak;esþcenHecjBIraCsm,tþi rYcelIkraCbuRtIrbs;RBH)aThVanFUlI EdlRbEhl CamehsIrbs;RBahµN_ EdlRbCara®sþelIk[esayraCüenaHÉgk¾mindwg [eLIgesayraCüvij. k¾b:uEnþRBHmhakSRtiy_GgÁenHminmansmtßPaBnwgerobcMsNþab;Fñab;kñúgRBHnKr)aneT.eKk¾GMBavnav suM[ QUkUTI EdlRtÚvCabuRtarbs;matucäamYyGgÁrbs;RBH)aThVanFUlI CamYynwgkSRtmYyGgÁ Edl)aneKcRBHGgÁeTAenAkm<úCa KWRtÚvCabgb¥ÚnCIdUnmYyCamYynwgRBHmhakSRtiy_ [mkesayraCü eyIgmin)ansÁal;RBHnamrbs;RBHraCaTaMg18GgÁGs;eT eTaHCaRBHnamtamPasasamBaØ b¤k¾tamPasasM®sáwtkþI. ehIyvahak;dUcCafa eKmin)anrab;eQµaHesþcERCkraCü hVantageknQn; pgeT EdlesayraCüenAqñaM491. mü:ag eTot manesþcy:agehacNas;k¾6GgÁEdr EdlesayraCüenAcenøaHBIesþcKüÚlan EdlesayraCüenABak;kNþalst vtSr_TI2mkdl;esþchVanhugEdlesayraCüenAedImstvtSr_TI4.dUecñHmanesþcesayraCüTaMgGs;esµInwg17bUk6 KW 23GgÁ minEmn18GgÁeT. elak eb:KUb‘Íl RbEhlCaRcLM EdlKitfamanbnÞHmas18sRmab;esþccam cab;BI KüÚlan mk KW18enH minEmncab;BIesþcTI1 mkeT.
  • 61. sm,tþivij. QUkUTI k¾Rtlb;mkcam:,avij ehIyRtÚv)annamuWnsBVmuxm®nþIRbkas[esayraCü nigerobcMGPieskbuRtIrbs; hVanFUlI [eFVICaGKÁmehsI ¬KW[RBHnagElglHCamYyRBahµN_ecj¦. RBHraCaGgÁenHenAesayraCüsm,tþienAeLIyenAqñaM653BIeRBaHenAqñaMenaHRTg;)anbBa¢ÚnraCTUt[eTA Kal;esþccin. ´Kitfa QUkUTI enH CaeQµaHtamPasasamBaØcam ehIyKWCaRBHraCaEdlsilacarwk ehAfa RbkasVvrµ½n-viRknþvrµ½n EdlesayraCüBIqñaM653dl;679. silacarwk)anbBa¢ak;fa RBHGgÁ CaRBHraCbuRtrbs;RBHCKtFmµ³ ¬mindwgedImkMeNIt¦ CamYynwgRBHraCarbs;km<úCa KWRBHRsIsrvnI ¬|sanvrµ½n¦ EdlRTg;)anykCamehsIkalEdlRTg;Kg;enAÉPvbur³7 . nKrcam:,a)ankekIteLIgmun k¾b:uEnþ enAedImstvtSr_TI3 raCaNacRkenHhak;dUcCamankarrIk ceRmInexSayCagnKrhVÚNn ebIehacNas;k¾xagbec©keTseFVIs®gÁamEdr. eyIg)aneXIjehIyfa nKrenHminTan;manbnÞaykarBarrwgmaMeT ehIyTIRkúgTaMgGs;KµanrbgkarBar hak;dUcCaebIkcMh[ sRtÚvG‘Ícwg. Tal;Etmkdl;Bak;kNþalTI1énstvtSr_TI4 eTIbesþchVanyI)ancat;[ksagkMEBgkar BarraCFanIeLIg tamkarpþl;eyabl;BITIRbwkSaeQµaH hVanevn. teTAenHCakarBiBN’naTIRkúgeQµaHKüÚs‘UEdlBYkcamdeNþIm)anBIBYkcinenAtugkwgenABak;kNþal TI1énstvtSr_TI4 rYcehIyerobcMrbgkarBar ³ kMEpgTIRkúgKüÚs‘U manRKwHeFVIGMBIdæCMuvijRbEvgTaMgGs; RbEhl3KILÚEm:Rt nigmancm¶ayBIekIteTAlic650eTVCMhan. RKwHenHmankm<s;RbEhl6Em:Rt. enABIelIRKwH manrbgeFVIGMBIdækm<s;RbEhl3Em:Rt manecaHrn§bYnRCúgsRmab;)aj;RBÜjecjpg. enABIelIrbgdæenaHmancRmÚg ehIyTaMgGs;enHsuT§EtmanBnøa nigrebogenABIelIkm<s;rhUtdl;eTA 21-24Em:Rt.TIRkúgmanTVar13.GKarTaMgGs;EbrmuxeTATisxagt,Úg.eKrab;eXIjmanpÞHTaMgGs; elIsBI2000xñg -KW9dgticCagraCFanIkm<úCa. kEnøgenHCaTItaMgyuT§sa®sþmYysRmab; lInyI KWedayehtuenHehIy )anCaGavuFyuT§PNÐTaMgGs;rbs;nKrlInyI dak;enATIenH. TIRkúgenH sßitenABI xagt,ÚgExRtkVagb‘íj sBVéf¶. raCFanIrbs;nKrcam:,anaeBlenaHk¾manrbgkarBarEdr EtFMCagKüÚs‘UmYyPaKbYn. manrbgdUc KñaEdrk¾b:uEnþminmanTVarrhUtdl;eTA13eTKWmanEt4b:ueNÑaHTVarsMxan;KWTVarxagekIt.raCFanIenHmanéd 56 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 7 ´minjejIteTnwgkMNt;fa raCFanIPvbur³enHCaraCFanIrbs;hVÚNnEdlcinehAfatUmU EdlRtÚv)anksag nigerobcM eLIgvijedayRBahµN_ekaNÐBaØ ¬C½yvrµ½n¦. eBleRkaymk raCFanIdUreQµaHeTACavyFbur³ rYceTACaGgÁrburIvij.
  • 62. 57Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa TenøhVayTaMg2nigreNþA2Can;B½T§CuMvij.kñúgraCFanImanvihar8manRbCaCnrs;enAeRcInNas;k¾b:uEnþ minmantMbn;CayRkúgeT.KWraCFanIenHehIyEdl]tþmesnIy_cineQµaHfan;hUeQvaydeNþImyk)an enAqñaM446 ehIydutbMpøajexÞcxÞI munnwgdkT½BecjeTAvij. muns®gÁamcugeRkayenH nigbnÞab;BIkardeNþImykExRteyNan CaExRtxagt,Úgrbs;cin- GaNÑam)anenAqñaM 347 RBMRbTl;xageCIgrbs;nKrcam:,alatsn§wgdl; ehgQn; b¤PñMhVagsWn sBVéf¶ PñMenHkat;TTwgRbeTsFøak;cuHrhUtdl;smuRTenAcenøaHhaTij nigkVagb‘íj ehIymanRckmYyEdlman eQµaHfa TVarGaNÑam. sBVéf¶TVarGaNÑamenH KWCaRBMRbTl;rvagGaNÑamnwgtugkwg8 . 22-- nnKKrrGGaaNNÑÑaamm--ttuuggkkwwgg BIstvtSr_TI1dl;stvtSr_TI14énRKisþskraC eQµaH GaNÑam rYmmanRbeTsEdleyIgehA sBVéf¶fa tugkwg nigExRtxageCIgbg¥s;rbs;GaNÑambc©úb,nñ. BYkcin)andeNþImykRsukenH)anenAqñaM 111munRKisþskraCehIy)andak;eQµaHCabnþbnÞab;faNamevot/g:anNam/NamEynigxüaveQ ¬y:avCI¦ k¾b:uEnþBYkGñkRsukedIm kñúgenaHmanBYkmYg EdlenAesssl;dl;sBVéf¶ ehARsukenaHfa GULak;. pþÚelem dak;eQµaH[fa GuinDIb¤suIndUy ehATenøRkhmfa dUrIy:a nigehATIRkúgEdleRkaymk KWCaTIRkúghaNUyfa GyünKr. eQµaHTaMgGs;enHminRtÚvnwgeQµaHtamBaküGñkRsukGay b¤tamcin ehA EdleyIgdwgenaHeT. ]tþmesnIy_cinEdlRtÜtRtaRsukenHtaMgBIqñaM111 munRKisþskraC rhUtmkdl;qñaM968 KW Cag1000qñaM ¬eRkayBI)anRbKl;ExRtPUKan/ kVagTug nigkVagsuIeTA[cin¦ )anEbgEckTwkdIenH Ca bBa¢akardæan3 KWxüaveQRtg;tMbn;haNUy/ KaveQn b¤KUeCOnRtg;tMbn;faj;hVa/ nigeyNan b¤ jútNam Rtg;tMbn;kVagb‘íj. tamemIleTA BYktugkwg EdlFøab;ÉkraCkalBIsm½yraCaNacRkNamEy minEmnTTYlyknwm RtÜtRtarbs;cin edayRsYl²enaHeT. tamÉksarRbvtþisa®sþrbs;eK BYkeK)ancab;kan;GavuF RbqaMgnwgcinenAqñaM39énRKisþskraC rYcehIyBYkeKkan;GMNacRKb;RKgRbeTs)an70qñaM rhUtdl; Føak;eRkamnwmRtÜtRtarbs;cinmþgeTotenAqñaM105. ÉksarenaH)an[dwgfa mannarImñak; EdlsVamI 8 BYkGar:ab;ehAnKrcam:,afasanVehIyniyayfaenABIxagekItkm<úCa.
  • 63. nagRtÚvGPi)alExRtcinsmøab;edayGyutþiFm’)anbMpusRbCaCn[eRkakbHe)areLIgsmøab;GPi)al ExRtenaH vaybM)ak;T½BcinCaeRcInelIkeRcInsa rYcehIybRgÜbbRgÜmRkúgTaMghuksibR)aM [rYbrYmKña mkeRkamGMNacrbs;xøÜn. eRkayBIesayraCü)an3qñaMRbkbedaysnþiPaBrYcmk narIenaH RtÚv)an b¥ÚnRsIsmøab;enAkñúgs®gÁammYyEdleFVI[T½BGaNÑambraC½y. bnÞab;BIRBwtþikarN_enHGaNÑamRtÚvsßitenAeRkamnwmRtÜtRtarbs;cincMnYn144qñaMEt)anbHe)ar RbqaMgmþgeTot nigTTYlÉkraCüenARKisþskraC185. KWenAeBlenaHehIy Edlesþcrbs;BYkeK Edl)anceRmInFMeBjv½y nigsikSaRTwsþIkugh‘VúysW ¬xugCW¦ enARsukcin )annaMmk[eKnUvGkSrEbb citþanuelxna nigsIlFm’kugh‘VúysW. BYkenaHk¾cab;e)aHbg;GkSredImtamlMnaMGkSrhiNÐÚecal RBmCamYyenaH e)aHbg;GarüFm’GarüagpgEdr. edayehtuenH GarüFm’cin)ancak;RKwHenAGaNÑam ehIyRbeTsenH k¾RtÚvFøak;eRkamnwmcinmþgeTot enAqñaM226 rhUtdl;qñaM544 eTIbÉkraCvij b:uEnþ )anEt58qñaMb:ueNÑaH. enAstvtSr_TI7 RbeTsenHCaRsukcMNuHcin KWedayehtuenaHehIy)anCa eKeXIjemT½BcineFVIcm,aMgnwgcamkarBarTwkdI k¾b:uEnþkgT½BPaKeRcInCaCnCatiGaNÑam. RbeTsenH TTYl)anÉkraCümþgeTotenAqñaM939 b:uEnþ)anEtmYyry³eBlb:ueNÑaH. enAkñúgrC¢kalrbs;RBH)aT|sanvrµ½nCaRBHmhakSRtrbs;km<úCa RbeTscinehA tugkwg faCa dUhUPU KWcat;TukdUcCaGaNaExRtmYyrbs;cRkPBcin manraCFanI nigman]braCcinmñak;esayraCü. enAeBlenaH GaNaExRtd¾FMrbs;Namevot b¤GaNÑamenH EbgEckCa3bB¢aakardæan EdlEckecjbnþ CaRsukcMnYndb;bI b¤cU rbs;GaNÑam nigRsukcMnYnEssibenAeRkAraCaNacRkedIm ¬tamemIleTA TMngCaRsukEdlc,aMgdeNþIm)anBIeRkA¦. tamemIleTA BYkExµrhak;dUcCaKµanTMnak;TMngGVICapøÚvkarfñak;CatiCamYyBYkGaNÑameT enAedIm RKisþskraC b¤mhaskraC. 33-- eeTToobbeekkaaHHmm::aaLLaakkaa BYkRkik nigLataMg )ansÁal;eTobekaHEdleyIgehAfa m:aLaka tameQµaHfa EQsUENmas k¾b:uEnþBYkGWr:ub)anehAfam:aLakataMgBI4stvtSr_mkehIytameQµaHTIRkúgFMEdlmanenATIenaH. vahak;dUcCafa eTobekaHenHminmaneQµaHtamPasaGñkRsuk b¤tamPasahiNÐÚ taMgBIburaN kalmk sRmab;ehAtYeTobekaHTaMgmUlenaHeT. BYkcinnigm:aeLEdlCaBYkedIrTUktamsmuRTFøab;)aneFVIdMeNIrmkdl;smuRTxagt,Úg/QUgsmuRT 58 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 64. 59Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa esom nigQUgsmuRTbwgháal; Cajwkjab; )ansÁal;rdæepSg²enAelIeTobekaHenH b:uEnþ k¾KµanBaküNa sRmab;ehATwkdId¾EvgenHEdltP¢ab;eTAnwg]bTVIbNÐÚcinedaybYrdItUcceg¥ótnigEvgenaHeT.tamemIl eTA kalBImunRbEhlCamaneTobekaHmYyEdlbBa©b;RtwmRka rYcmanekaHmYyeTotcab;BIRtwmRkaenA xageCIg rYclatsn§wgmkt,ÚgrhUtdl;sigðburI. RbsinebIBYkhiNÐÚ )andak;eQµaHsM®sáwtNamYy[TIenH enaHk¾eyIgmin)ansÁal;eQµaHenaH Edr. b:uEnþ BYkhiNÐÚ)andak;eQµaH[raCaNacRkepSg² Edl)ankekItenATIenaH EtCYnkaleyIgk¾enA EtmankarlM)akNas;nwgkMNt;fa etIeQµaHNaRtÚvnwgRsukNa? GñkRsukEdlrs;enAelIeTobekaHm:aLakaenAedImRKisþskraC nigedImmhaskraC KWBYkmn Exµr EdlCaGm,ÚrCnCatikøayecjBIkarRcbl;cUlKña rvagBYkmnmkBIrmBaØeTs³ b¤TwkdItav:y mkBI etNas;esrIm BIEmrKuy nigBIm:ata)an CamYyBYkExµrEdlrs;enATIenaHmun. b:uEnþ eBlenaH vahak; dUcCa manBYkm:aeL rs;enArYceTAehIyenAelIcugxagt,Úg EdlCakEnøgmanRkúm]bnievsn_hiNÐÚtaMgenA ehIyRkúm]bnievsn_taMgenaH )anTTYlsÁal;GnutþrPaBrbs;raCaNacRkkm<úCa ebIeTaHCafa mincMNuHk¾ eday9 . 44-- eekkaaHHmm::aaeeLLssuuII ekaHCVa ekaHEdlmaneQµaHsBVéf¶fa s‘Um:aRta ekaH)alI ekaHb‘½reNGU ekaHEdleyIgehAfa esELb ebIniyayedayxøIfa GaMgs‘ULaMgTaMgmUl TaMgGs;enH CaTwkdIekaHEdlBYknavikcin nighiNÐÚ )ansÁal;taMgBIyUryarNas;mkehIy. dUcCaeTobekaHm:aLakaEdr RbCuMekaHTaMgGs;enHhak;dUcCa KµaneQµaHrYmNamYysRmab;ehAeT. BYkhiNÐÚehAekaHTaMgenaHfa suvNÑTVIb mann½yfa ekaHmas. enAstvtSr_TI9-10 BYkGar:ab; nigEBkS )anehAGaNacRkmYyfahSaEbt EdlRBHraCamanRBHzan³ tamPasasM®sáwtfa mharaCa hSaEbt Edl)anRKb;RKgelIekaHmYycMnYn RBmTaMgPaKxagt,Úgrbs; m:aLaka mYycMENkpgEdr. k¾b:uEnþrhUtmkdl;eBlsBVéf¶eKenAminTan;dwgfa etIRkúghSaEbt nig 9 enAelIEpnTIrbs;pþÚelem maneQµaHRkúgCaeRcIn EdlelakvresnIy_ ehSrInI GHGagfaGackMNt;)an ³ enAelImat; smuRTxaglicman ebr:aébRtÚvnwgEmrKuy/ takULaRtÚvnwgtakU):a/ sa)aNa RtÚvnwg sa)a. enAelImat;smuRTxagekIt man far:a RtÚvnwg RTInkamI/ r:alugka RtÚvnwg Rka.
  • 65. GaNacRk rbs;vaenaH enARtg;NaBitR)akdenAeLIyeT. BaküsM®sáwtfaCVaTVIb sMedAykEtekaHCVamYyb:ueNÑaH EdlcinehAminc,as;fa cUb:U EtcUb:UenH CYnkal k¾sMedAykekaHs‘Um:aRta pgEdr. tamemIleTA ekaHd¾FMenHKWCaTwkdIrbs;BYkm:aeL ehAfa sßanm:aLayU ehIyk¾CamatuPUmiedImrbs; BYkenH ebIehacNas;k¾xagRbvtþisa®sþEdr. ekaHenHmanGñkRsukrs;enAtaMgEtBImunRKisþskraC mkemø:H. GñkRsukTaMgGs;enaHGg;Gachankøa rs;enARbmUlpþú¿KñaCardæÉkraCtUc² EtcMNuHtic b¤eRcIn eRkamGMNacrbs;rdæNamYy cab;BIstvtSr_TI1dl;TI18 GaRs½yeTAtamkal³eTs³ nigPaBGg;Gac køahanrbs;esþcénrdæenaH. enAekaHCVa GñkRsukmanedImkMeNItRbhak;RbEhlnwgGñkRsuks‘Um:aRtaEdr EtminEmnCaBYk m:aeL eT. ehIyekaHenHk¾manEckecjCardætUc² EdlsßitenAeRkamkarRtÜtRtarbs;rdæxøaMgNamYy dUcKña. cMENkÉekaHdéT²eTot rYmTaMgekaHb‘½reNGUpg minmanGVICal,Il,ajeT eRBaHCaCRmk énBYkecarsmuRTEdlKµanGarüFm’ minsVaKmn_ePJóv sahavéRBépS nigCYnkalsuIsac;mnusSeTotpg. enAeBlEdlenAekaHCVa GñkRsukmansemøókbMBak;dNþb;R)aNrYceTAehIy ebIehacNas; k¾enAtam TIRkúgEdr GñkRsukenAtambNþaekaHTaMgGs;enH enAEtElgxøÜnTeTedaytmaneGonxµasenAeLIy. BYkcin)anehAekaH nigRbCaCnTaMgGs;enH tameQµaHEdleyIgminGackMNt;eRbóbeTAnwgRsuk b¤raCaNacRkNamYy EdleKsÁal;tamÉksarRbvtþisa®sþm:aeL b¤CVa )aneT. tamemIleTA cinehA ekaHTaMgGs;eTAtameQµaHraCaNacRkNaEdlRtÜtRtaeK kñúgeBlenaH b¤BImun b¤k¾tameQµaHTIpSar b¤ TIRkúgBaNiC¢kmµNa EdlBYkeKEtgcuHct. ehIyCYnkal BYkcink¾GacnwgykeQµaHrbs;RkúgmYyeTA eRbIsRmab;ehATIRkúgmYyeTIbnwgekItfµI b¤eTIbnwgebIkeFVIBaNiC¢kmµCamYybreTs TaMgGñkRbvtþiviTUcin k¾GacnwgRcLMeQµaHTIRkúg CYnkalRcLMraCaNacRkBIrfaEtmYy eRBaHmin)ansÁal;PUmisa®sþsmuRT xagt,Úgc,as; NamYyvegVgedaymanekaHeRcIneBkmindwgmYyNaCamYyNa. tamkarniTant²Kña ekaHCVa)anTTYlykRBhµBaØsasnaenAedImmhaskraC KWRtÚvnwgRKisþ skraC78 edayRBahµN_mñak;eQµaH GCisk³ Caesþcrdæhsþinbur³enAelITenøKgÁa )anmkbegáItCa raCaNacRkmYyeQµaHfa nus³CVa. eKenAEtminTan;dwgrhUtdl;sBVéf¶ faetIrdæenaHenARtg;Na. eyIg)aneXIjBIxagelIrYcmkehIyfaBYkm:aeL)anmktaMgGaNaniKmenAelImat;smuRTxagt,Úg nigxagGaeKñy_énNÐÚcin RBmTaMg)anbegáItnKrcam:,arYcmkehIy. eyIgnwg)aneXIjteTAeTot 60 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 66. 61Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa tamry³Rbvtþisa®sþrbs;km<úCa nigkMNt;smÁal;GMBInKrcam:,a nigGaNÑamfa RbCara®sþm:aeL nigCVa )aneFVIdMeNIrqøgkat;smuRTmkcuHctenAelIeqñrsmuRTrbs;RbeTsTaMgbICajwkjyehIy)anTaMgvay ykkm<úCadak;CacMNuHEfmeTotpg. 55-- eeQQTTUU bb¤¤ eessoomm RbeTsEdlcinehAfaeQTUFIFU -eQµaHenHmann½yfa dIRkhm ehIyR)akdCaminEmnCaeQµaH tamPasaGñkrdævasIeT- rYmmanTwkdIénGagTenøemNamxageRkam ehIyk¾RbEhlCamanTaMgGagTenø emNamxagelIpgEdr. eyIg)aneXIjrYcehIyfa RBH)aThVan;m:an;Føab;)anvayyknKreQTU enH dak;bBa©ÚlmkkñúgnKrhVÚNn ehIyRTg;)aneqøótyk»kasEdlGaNacRkrbs;RBH)aTekaNÐBaس kMBug Ebk)ak; edIm,IdeNþImykÉkraCümkvij. tamemIleTA GñkRsukeQTUminxusKñaBIRbCaCnEdlrs;enAelITwkdI EdleyIgehAsBVéf¶fakm<úCa b:unµaneT ehIyeqñrxagQUgsmuRTbwgháal;rbs;rdæenHk¾manRkúm]bnievsn_hiNÐÚtaMgenA dUcCaenAtam eqñrsmuRTrbs;NÐÚcinpgEdr.GñkRsukeQTUmanGarüFm’TMenomTmøab;RbéBNInigsasnadUcGñkRsuk hVÚNn nigcam:,a Edr. enAkñúgÉksarrbs;eK BYkcinEtgeRbóbeFobhVÚNneTAnwgeQTU b¤cam:,a eday tRbkan;.BIeRBaHfaRbeTsTaMg3manGarüFm’hiNÐÚnigRBhµBaØsasnadUcKñaehIyKWRbCaCnTaMgbIenH ehIyEdl)anpþl;[NÐÚcinTaMgmUl elIkElgEttugkwgecjnUvcritlkçN³ EdleyIgsÁal;sBVéf¶. enAstvtSr_TI7eQTUminTan;maneFVIskmµPaBGVIecjeRkABIRBMEdnrbs;eKenAeLIyeTKWenAEtkñúg rgVg;énGagTenøemNamb:ueNÑaH. k¾b:uEnþ RbeTsenH)anR)akdxøÜnfa CasRtÚvmYyrbs;km<úCaeRsc eTAehIy eRBaHeKenHGacerIbRmHxøÜnrYcBInwmRtÜtRtarbs;hVÚNn deNþIm)anÉkraCü ehIyrkSaÉkraCü enaH)anxusBIrdæÉeTot² EdlÉkraCü)anEtmYyry³b:ueNÑaH. 66-- NNÐÐaa RbeTsNÐaCaRbPBénBYkGñkpSBVpSayGarüFm’ Edl)annaMykRBhµBaØsasnamkkan;ekaHCVa nigkEnøgCaeRcIneToténNÐÚcin RbEhlenAqñaM78énRKisþskraC. KWCaTwkdId¾FMmYy EbgEckCakSRt RbeTsCaeRcInEdlmankarrIkceRmInedayBYkGarü³rYceTAehIy EfmTaMgmanGkSsa®sþ manRbB½n§ TsSnviC¢aCaeRcIn GPivDÆn_rhUtdl;brmtßviC¢ad¾EsnGrUbI. RbeTsNÐaFøab;RtÚv)anBYkeGhSIb BYkGasuIrIyag BYksuIt nigRbCaCatiCaeRcIn rYmTaMgBYkRkicpg deNþImyk BYkQøanBanTaMgGs;enaH
  • 67. PaKeRcIn)anRtwmEtdutbMpøajb:ueNÑaH Etk¾manBYkxøHksagGaNacRkenAelITwkdIenHEdr. NÐamanRBhµBaØsasnaCaeRcInBan;qñaMrYcmkehIy bnÞab;mkRBHBuT§sasnak¾cab;bdisn§ieLIg kalBImYyBan;qñaMmun.manesþcNÐamYyRBHGgÁRBHnamfaFmµesak³esayraCükalBIbIstvtSr_mun RKisþskraC)aneRbIR)as;T§iBlrbs;BuT§sasnaeFVIkardeNþImykNÐaEpñkxageCIg)anmYycMENkFM RBmTaMg)anbBa¢ÚnebskCnBuT§sasnikmkkan;NÐÚcinmanPUmakm<úCanigcam:,apgEdr.RBHecAGFiraC mhaGaLicsg; LWRkg; rbs; m:aesdUnI )andeNþImykraCaNacRkTaMgLayénNÐaPaKxageCIg rYc ehIybnSl;Rkúm]bnievsn_RkicenATIenaH. GaNaniKmTaMgenaH eRkaymk)ankøayCaraCaNacRkRkic hiNÐÚepSg² EtRtÚvrlubrlayeTAvijedaykarmkdl;énCnCatifµI²eTot bgábegáIt)anCavNѳCakar Rbtibtþisasna nigkarGb;rMBiess EdlenAesssl;rhUtdl;sBVéf¶. NÐamanTwkdIFMmhima nigmanEpñkCaeRcIn EdlmanGarüFm’eCOnelOnCagRbCaCatiTaMgLay EdlenACuMvijCaehtueFVI[NÐaGacCHT§iBleTAeRkA)antamRBMRbTl;xageCIgxag|sanþnigBay½Bü EdleBareBjeTAedayCYrPñMx<s;² nigmhasmuRTFM² B½T§CuMvij. NÐa )anpSayGarüFm’enA Gar:akan/ Gav:a/ RBM/ enANanqav b¤éfenARsukcin/ rYc)anbegáItGaNaniKmenAelIeqñretNas;esrIm nigEmrKuy/ enAelIeqñrTaMgGs;rbs;eTobekaHm:aLaka nigenAelIeqñrrbs;Rsuk EdleyIgehAsBVéf¶fa esom nig km<úCa. BYkGaNÑamk¾RbEhlCaFøab;TTYlGarüFm’NÐaxøH²Edr munTTYlykGarüFm’cin ehIyRtÚv RbQmmuxrYmKñaCamYycin enAeBleTAdl;nKrcam:,a EdlGnuvtþtamRBahµBaØsasnaepSg² ³ rUbbdima GaTieTBRBhµBaØsasnaFM² manédeRcIn/ narIemm:ayGgÁúyelIKMnrePøIgTaMgrs; eGabsaksBbþIkñúgéd dUcCaenANÐaEdr. vahak;dUcCafa GarüFm’hiNÐÚeBlenaH mankareCOnelOnCagGarüFm’cinbnþic ehIyGarüFm’TaMg BIrenH )anRbECgKñadeNþImykNÐÚcin enAedImRKisþskraCeyIgenH. k¾b:uEnþ minmanGarüFm’NamYy maneRbóbCagmYyeToteLIy eBalKWfa GarüFm’mYyGacvatTIyk)anTwkdIFM EtminGaceFVI[GarüFm’ mYyeTot rlub)at;Gs;)aneT. Cak;Esþg KWTwkdIEdlkan;kab;edayBYkGaNÑamsBVéf¶ manGarüFm’tam EbbcinrIÉTwkdIEdlkan;kab;edayBYkkm<úCalavesomsannigPUmamanGarüFm’tamEbbNÐa.cMNuc mYyeTot KWKµanGarüFm’NamYykñúgbNþaGarüFm’TaMgBIr EdlGaceFVI[manlkçN³suIvil½ykñúgbNþaBYk GñkRsukedIm EdlmanenAsl;BaseBjNÐÚcin k¾dUcCaenANÐaxøÜnÉg EdlenAmanGñkxøHedIrElg xøÜnTeT minecHGanGkSr Kµanc,ab; eKarBtamEtemPUmi cgsm<½n§PaBEtCamYyPUmisV½ytpgKña ehIy CYnkaleTot enAmancgKMnuM kab;smøab;Kña sgswk nigrbYssñam EdlekItmanCayUrmkehIy. 62 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 68. 63Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa enAcugstvtSr_TI7énRKisþskraC RbeTsNÐamanT§iBly:agxøaMgmkelINÐÚcin eRBaHfa bNþaRkúm]bnievsn_ EdlnaMykGarüFm’mkpSBVpSayenATIenHbnþicmþg² KWRkúm]bnievsn_hiNÐÚ ehIy raCvgSesþcEdlesayraCüenATIenHsuT§EtCab;Gm,ÚrkSRtiy_b¤RBahµN_nigmü:ageTotsasnaEdleK eKarB KWRBhµBaØsasna b¤RBHBuT§sasna. Baküfa {vrµ½n} mann½yfa GñkkarBarEdlRBHraCaRbkan; ykenAeBleLIgesayraCüenAkm<úCa k¾dUcCaenAcam:,a Cazan³EdlesþchiNÐÚxøHRbkan;ykenANÐa PaKxagt,Úg. c,ab;Tmøab; RbéBNI EdleKGnuvtþ suT§EtmanRbPBecjmkBINÐa. eKeKarBbUCa GaTieTBrbs;NÐa eKGanesovePAEdlsresrenANÐa. BYkRBahµN_mktaMgTIlMenAkñúgNÐÚcineday sµ½RKcitþeRBaHGñkRsukGnuvtþtamRTwsþIrbs;eKehIyelIkkUnRkmuM[eKeTotpgenHebItamGtßbTcinmYy niyay. 77-- cciinn TMnak;TMngCamYycin mankarlM)akyUr eRBaHdMeNIrtamsmuRTmaneRKaHfñak; CaBiess KWmankar lM)aknwgqøgeRCaybNúÐrgÁkñúgry³eBlyUr enAeBlEdlmanxül;mUsugbk;mkBI|san. EteTaHCa y:agNakþI eyIg)aneXIjfa TMnak;TMngenaHmanrYceTAehIy taMgEtBImunRKisþskraCemø:H CamYynKr cam:,a k¾dUcCaCamYynKrhVÚNn ehIyfa BYkcin)ansÁal;TwkdItameqñrsmuRTNÐÚcin nigeTobekaH m:aLaka )anl¥KYrsm. cin manBgSavtar ÉksarRbvtþisa®sþ nigkMNt;RtaPUmisa®sþ EdlmancuHkalbriecäTc,as; las;ehIykarBiBN’narbs;eKeTaHbICacmøgt²KñakþIk¾suT§EtRtwmRtÚvRKan;EtfasBVéf¶enHeKmankar lM)aknwgkMNt;fa erOgr:avNa)anekItenATIkEnøgNa eRBaHeQµaHEdlcinehAenaHxusBIeQµaH EdlGñk RsukGayehA mü:ageTot cinmin)anykcitþTukdak;nwgkarERbRbÜlbþÚreQµaHRsukeTsepSg²pgeT. CYnkal cineRbIBakümYyXøasRmab;ehARsukmYyenAsm½ykalmYy EdlGacnwgeTACaminRtwmRtÚveT mYystvtSr_eRkaymk. Cak;Esþg cinehAnKrhVÚNn sm½yRBHnaglIvyIfaCa {raCaNacRk én mnusSRsat} ehIyenAEtehAdUecñHrhUt eTaHCaGñkRsukesøóksemøókbMBak; b¤k¾)anbiT)aMgkayxøH eTAehIyk¾eday.edayehtuenHCYnkaleyIgmankarRcLMenAeBlEdleyIgRbTHeXIjkñúgGtßbTnUv Bakü {raCaNacRkmnusSRsat} mindwgfaeKcg;niyayGMBIGñkRsukhVÚNn b¤BIRbCaCnEdlrs;enAelI CYrPñMGaNÑam Rtg;cenøaHnKrcam:,a nigkm<úCa KWBYkm:ysBVéf¶enH. eTaHCay:agNakþI eyIgminKYrtv:anwg BYkcinxøaMgeBkeT eRBaHfa ebIKµanÉksarrbs;cinTaMgGs;enaHeT enaHk¾eyIgmin)andwgGVIGMBINÐÚcinEdr
  • 69. rhUtmkdl;stvtSr_TI15. mü:ageTot vaR)akdNas;fa cinminEmnCaGFiraCelIRbeTsTaMgGs; EdlBaNiC¢kr nigTUtrbs; eK)aneTAdl;b¤k¾RtÜtRtaelIesþcTaMgGs;EdlbBa¢ÚnsYysarGakr[cinehIycinepJICMnUn[eTAvijenaH eT.k¾b:uEnþebItamÉksarTaMgLayEdlsþIGMBITMnak;TMngrbs;cinCamYykSRtRbeTsnigraCaNacRkCit b¤q¶ayGnutþrPaBrbs;cin)anpSBVpSaycuHeTAt,Úgq¶ayRKb;TIkEnøgNaEdlmandImanekaHb¤eTobekaH ebIeTaHCaminmankarRtÜtRtaCak;Esþgk¾eday k¾CakarCHT§iBlxagsIlFm’ nigGarüFm’ Edr10 . RBHecAGFiraCcin nigesnabtITaMgGs;qøatévNas; kñúgkareRbIR)as;GnutþrPaBenH ehIyyl;c,as;fa karRbKl;tMENgGVImYyrbs;xøÜn PaKeRcInminmann½yGVIeT Cak;EsþgdUcCakarRbKl;zan³dl;esþc ekaNÐBaØ ¬C½yvrµ½n¦ faCa {]tþmesnIy_PaKxagt,Úg CaesþcnKrhVÚNn} minmannaMGVIEbøkmkfVay RBHraCaGgÁenHeT. cinyl;c,as;Nas;fa BaküsresIrrbs;RBHraCaTaMgLay RKan;EtCaBakübeBa¢ar RbkbedayplRbeyaCn_b:ueNÑaHb:uEnþRBHraCaenaHmindak;nKr[cMNuHcineLIy.mü:ageTotebIeTaHCa karRbDitkñúgcitþenHmin)aneTAdl;RBHecAGFiraCk¾eday k¾va)anRCÜtRCabkñúgneya)ayrbs;cin kñúg RsTab;T§iBlepSg² EdleFVI[RbCaCncinTaMgGs;manCMenOfa BYkeKdeNþIm)ansklelakTaMgmUl ehIysklelakeKarBbUCaeKEdr. tamBit GMNacxagsIlFm’rbs;GaNacRkcind¾FMEdlsßitenABIxageCIgNÐÚcinenH begáIt)anCa GarüFm’mYyxuseK nigFMeFgNas; ehIyebIeTaHbICakEnøgxøHhak;dUcCamanesI²EtxageRkA nigCa 64 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 10 KYrkt;smÁal;fa fVIebIcinminmanGMNacenAkñúgsm½yEdleyIgkMBugsikSa b:uEnþdl;mkstvtSr_eRkay²mk cinman GMNacxøHeTAelIRsukmYycMnYn ³ Cak;EsþgKWenAqñaM1293 RBHecAGFiraCKUb‘ÍLayxan;)aneFVIs®gÁamCamYyekaHCVa Edl )anRbmafdl;TUtcin. enAqñaM1295 RBHecAGFiraCenH)anTb;sáat;min[ mans®gÁamrvagesomnwgm:aLayU. enAqñaM 1411 cineFVIs®gÁamvayekaHsirIlgáa cab;esþcGløegÁanr³CacMNab;xµaMgykeTARsukcin rYcehIyEtgtaMgsmaCik raCvgSmñak;[esayraCübnþ. enAqñaM1570 esþcesom)ansMNUmBrcin[bþÚrRta Edl)anRbKl;[esþcéftaMgBIqñaM 1376 Et)an)at;eTAenAeBlBYk):akanvayykraCFanIGyuFüa. ehtukarN_TaMgGs;enH rYmTaMgkarRbKl;nUvtMENgdl;esþcnKrkBa¢IenANÐaenAqñaM720mYypg bBa¢ak;fa cinmin RKb;RKgRbeTsTaMgLayNaEdlTTYlT§iBlBIcinb¤xøbxøackarkMejIjnigkitþiKuNrbs;cinenaHeTb:uEnþvabBa¢ak;c,as;fa skmµPaBGVImYyrbs;cin CapøÚvTUtb¤CapøÚvT½B manRbsiT§PaBNas; ehIycinecHeRbIkmøaMgeFVIs®gÁam RtÚveBledIm,I[ eKÉgeKarB.
  • 70. 65Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa GPimanH EdlKYr[Gs;sMeNIckþI k¾cinBitCamCÄmNÐlxøaMgmYy EdlTak;TajRkEsEPñkrbs;RBHraCa énnKrTaMgLay EdlraCTUt b¤BaNiC¢krcin )aneTAdl;Edr. cinmansMeBAFM² FMCagsMeBArbs;RsukÉ eTot² ehIycinGaceFVInavacrkat;smuRTFM² mincaj;BYkm:aeLeT. TMnijl¥²rbs;cineFVI[GñkRsuk Rslaj;ekatsresIr. semøókbMBak; rebobrbbCaGñkmanc,ab;Tmøab;TaMgGs;enH eFVI[cinmanemaT nPaBéRkElg emaTnPaBEdlcinecHeRbIykcMeNj nigykplRbeyaCn_ RBmCamYykarcg;ecH cg;dwgcg;sÁal;RbCaCatiq¶ayCit EdlnavaeKeTAdl;pg. karRtÜtRtarbs;cinelIGaNÑam s®gÁamCamYynKrcam:,a enAeBlNaEdlBYkcamQøanBancUl ExRtGaNÑam EdlsßitenAeRkamkarRKb;RKgrbs;xøÜn CMnYyCaT½BEdlcinbBa¢ÚnecjeTACYyesþc xageRkA dUcCaRBH)aTekaNÐBaس EdlGMBavnavsuMedIm,IeFVIcm,aMgCamYyesþcRbqaMg TaMgGs;enHman T§iBlelIRbCara®sþcinNas;. dUecñHeKminRtÚvq¶l;eTnwgeXIjfacinhak;dUcCamanvtþmanRKb;TIkEnøgnasm½yenaHnigeXIjÉk sarRbvtþisa®sþcin elIkerobrab;GMBIraCTUtCaeRcIn EdlRBHecAGFiraCTTYlRBmCamYysYysarGakr pg EdlepJIeTAepJImkCamYyRBHraCsar RBHraCsunÞrkfa nigtMENgepSg²RbKl;CUnesþc EdleKmin sÁal; rYmTaMgGñkEdlGHGagfa Cab;ExSelahitCamYyraCvgScin ehIyTTYlgarcinGVImYypg. rdæCitxagmYyEdlEtgTTYlT§iBlxagpøÚvsIlFm’ nigGarüFm’BIcincab;taMgBIstvtSr_TI5 rhUt mk )anTTYlykCMenO TsSnviC¢a nigGkSrcin k¾b:uEnþ )anTat;ecalGnutþrPaBxagneya)ayrbs;cin eRBaHxøackøayxøÜnCanKrsamnþraCenaH KWRbeTsCb:un.
  • 71. 67Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa CMBUkTI5 RbeTskm<úCa BIstvtSr_TI7 dl; stvtSr_TI10 vvyyFFbbuurr³³ nniiggssmmÖÖúúbbuurr³³ enAeBlEdlRBH)aTC½yvrµ½nsuKtenAqñaM667 raCaNacRkkm<úCaEdlcinenAEtehAfa ecnLa enAeLIy RtÚv)anbMEbkCakSRtRbeTs2 dUcEdlmankalBIstvtSr_TI6 muneBlEdlRBH)aT RsIPv vrµ½n bRgÜbbRgÜmmkCaraCaNacRkEtmYy ³ mYyKW kSRtRbeTsmaneQµaHfa vyFbur³ EdlcinehAfa lUeqnLa mann½yfa {ecnLaTwk} nigmYyeTotKW kSRtRbeTsmaneQµaHfa smÖúbur³ EdlcinehAfa CUeqnLa mann½yfa {ecnLaeKak}1 . kSRtRbeTsTImYymanTwkdIRbhak;RbEhlRtÚvnwgkUsaMgsuIn sBVéf¶ rIÉkSRtRbeTsmYyeTot RtÚvnwgkm<úCasBVéf¶ ehIylatsn§wgrhUtdl;CYrPñMdgErk. cinehAecnLaeKakmü:ageTotfaevntan ¬tamemIlRbEhlCaevnqaneT¦ nigehAfa b:UeLG‘U pg Edr. cinGHGageTotfa RBHraCaRTg;manRBHzan³Ca suIKüÚ EteKmindwgfaBakütamPasasamBaØCaGVI BitR)akdeT. Éksarcin)anniyayfa manRBHraCa ecnLaeKak mYyRBHGgÁ )anbBa¢ÚnraCTUt eTAcUlKal;esþcRsukcinenAqñaM717 k¾b:uEnþ ÉksarenaHmin)anbBa¢ak;RBHnameT. manRBHraCamYy RBHGgÁeTot EdleKmin)ansÁal;RBHnamEdr RKan;Etdwgfa RbEhlCaesayraCüenAecnLaTwk k¾)an bBa¢ÚnraCTUteTARsukcinEdr enAqñaM750. bIqñaMeRkaymk RBHraCbuRtrbs;esþcecnLaeKakRBHnamfaevntan )ancUlKal;esþcRsukcin CamYynwgesna26nak; rYc)annaMT½BcinEdldwknaMeday]tþmesnIy_cineQµaH hUlIkVag eTAvay 1 kMNt;bgðajmYyepJImkBITIRkúgev: sresrkñúgqñaM1908 edayrdæm®nþIsikSaFikarelak lUs EdlCatMNagCan;x<s; rbs;GaCJaFr)araMg¬Résident Supérieur¦niyayfa{BImunkm<úCamaneQµaHfaraCaNacRkcanLab;b¤raCaNacRkBYkkav- emn ehIynigmaneQµaHkm<úCapgEdr. KWCaRsuktUcmYy cMNuH[raCaNacRkmYyeTotmaneQµaHfaPUNam. esþccin RBHnam éftun énraCvgSy:ag )andak;PUNamCaGaNaniKmmYyrbs;cin ehIy)anEbgEcknKrenHCa2 mYyKW FuycanLab enAxagt,Úg manraCFanIenA )aLaed)at/ nigmYyeTotKWlukcanLabenAxageCIg EdlmanraCFanIenA FuykVat. dl;mkraC vgStug RbeTsTaMg2enHrYmKñamkCaRbeTsEtmYy ehIymaneQµaHfa canLab}. elIkElgEtcMNucEdlniyayfaPUNamCaGaNaniKmmYyrbs;cinehIynigkarEbgEckRsukCa2ecjeKeXIjfa kMNt;bgðajenHRtÚvKñal¥Nas;CamYyGVIEdleyIg)aneXIjxagelI.
  • 72. Nanqav b¤éf enAÉyunNan enAqñaM754. enAqñaM771 ]braC b:UmI ¬RBHmI?¦ rbs;ecnLaeKak)ancUlKal;eKarBesþcRsukcin. raCTUt ecnLaeKakmñak;eToteQµaHtamcinehAfalITavKI)anmkdl;RsukcinenAqñaM799tamemIleTARbEhl CaRBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI2 bBa¢Únmk enHebItamerOgr:avEdlsilacarwkel,IkRsUt enAExRtRkecH)an[ eyIgdwg enAqñaM781énRKisþskraC RtÚvnwgmhaskraC7032 . R)akdNas;fa raCvgSvyFbur³ nigsmÖúbur³ CaRKÜsarEtmYy Cab;sac;tamExSRBHmata ehIy manTMnak;TMngl¥rvagKñanwgKña taMgEtBIeBlEdlEbkKñaCaBIrmkemø:H. edayehtuenH ´snñidæanfa RBwtþikarN_EdlnaM[RbeTsTaMg2EbkKña minmanGVICaGaRkk;Nas;NaeT. karEbkKñaenH GacCakar EbgEckTwkdIKñaRKb;RKgedaymankareyaKyl;KñaeTAvijeTAmkrvagbgb¥Ún ehIyebIeTaHCakarEbkKña enH bNþalmkBIGMeBIhigSaNamYykþI k¾GMeBIhigSaenaHqab;rlt;)at;eTAvij eRBaHmin)an25qñaMpg eRkayBIEbkKña kSRtRbeTsTaMg2)anerobcMP¢ab;cMNgGaBah_BiBah_nwgKña. enH KWRKan;EtCamtipÞal;rbs;´b:ueNÑaH Edl´minGHGagfa R)akdCaRtwmRtÚvTaMgRsugenaHeT. k¾b:uEnþ silacarwkRBH)aTEdleK)anrkeXIjenAelIPñMeCIgéRB)an[eKdwgfa RBH)aTRsIbusáarkS³ EdlCab;ExSRsLayCamYyesþcén GninÞtþbur³ )ankøayCaRBHraCaénsmÖúbur³ eday)anbBa¢ak;fa {RTg;mWugm:at;xøaMgNas;enAkñúgkarRbyuT§ ehIyRTg;RtÚvCaRBHbitulaénRBHmatarbs;RBHraCaEdl )anksagRBHraCvaMgenAelIPñMmeh®nÞ³3 . RTg;CabcäajatitamRBHmataén{RBHmhakSRtrbs; vyF bur³} ehIyRTg;RtÚvCaRBHbitarbs; RBH)aTraeC®nÞvrµ½n EdlCa{XøaMgénkuslTaMgLay} nigEdl)an esayraCübnþBIRBHGgÁenARKgraCblø½gásmÖúbur³. RBH)aTraeC®nÞvrµ½n enH eRbób)aneTAnwg{BnøWRtcH énRBHc½nÞføayg;}. RTg;)anerobGaBah_BiBah_CamYyRBHnag nribti®nÞeTvI CaRBHrC¢TayaTrbs; RBHGFiraCaénvyFbur³ EdlRbsUt)anRBHraC»rsmYyRBHGgÁ RBHnamfa mhibtivrµ½n mann½yfa RTg;Ca{yuT§CnQanmuxeKenAkñúgral;karRbyuT§}. RBHmhibtivrµ½n RTg;)anerobGaBah_BiBah_CamYy RBHnagraeC®nÞeTvI nigRtÚvCaRBHbita RBHnag®nÞeTvI EdlCaRBHmatarbs; RBH)aTyesavrµ½n. 68 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 2 sUmGan {kMNt;cMNaMelIsilacarwkmYyEdleKeTIbrkeXIjenAkm<úCa} edayelak hS‘ksWeds cuHpSayenAkñúg RBwtþb½Rtsala)araMgcugbUB’a Exkkáda-FñÚ qñaM1905 TMB½r419. 3 RBH)aTyesavrµ½n)anksagRBHraCvaMgmYyenAelIPñMKUEln EdlmaneQµaHfameh®nÞ³.
  • 73. 69Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa dUecñHRBHGgÁm©as;kSRtIy_®nÞeTvICabcäajatirbs;raCvgSvyFbur³pgnigsmÖúbur³pgehIyRTg; k¾Cabcäajatirbs;esþcGninÞtþbur³ EfmeTot. RBHnagCab;ExSxagRBHmataCamYynwg{RBahµN_GK- sStü³EdlecHcaMKm<IrevTnigevTgÁ³c,as;las;RBahµN_enaHmanedImkMeNItecjmkBIGarüeTs³}enA NÐaPaKxageCIg CamYynwgRBHnag{yesamTi CaRBHraCGKÁmehsIénRtkUlx<g;x<s;} Edlman {RBHraCbuRtmYyRBHGgÁ RBHnamfa RsIner®nÞvrµ½n mann½yfa CaRBHraCaeqñImelIsRBHraCaTaMgLay ehIyRTg;Gs©arüNas;enAkñúgkarRbyuT§}. RBHraCaEdlCam©as;énBiPBelakenH manbuRtImYyRBHGgÁ l¥dUcRBHnaglkSµI RBHnamfa hVaer®nÞlkSµI. RBHraCbuRtIenH )anerobGaBah_BiBah_CamYyRBH)aTraC btivrµ½n Ca{stVsigðkMBugRbyuT§} ehIyRTg;RbsUt)an RBHnagraeC®nÞeTvI {EdleRbób)aneTAnwg kSRtIénvgSGmt³ manRBHkitþinaml¥tex©aH pSBVpSayeTARKb;TisTaMg4. KWenAkñúgKP’rbs;RBHnag raeC®nÞeTvI CaKP’Edlpþl;kMeNItdl;vgSesþcsigðTaMgLayenHehIyEdlRBH)aTmhibtivrµ½n ¬Edl)an bRgÜbbRgÜmTwkdIkm<úCaTaMg2mkkñúgGMNacrbs;RBHGgÁ¦ )anpþl;kMeNItdl;RBHnag®nÞeTvI Edll¥t pÞwm nigmankitþinammUlbIdUcsmuRTTwkedaH4}. BgSavlITaMg2ExS EdlkMNt;PaBRsbc,ab;énraCsm,tþirbs;RBH)aT yesavrµ½n enAstvtSr_ TI9ebIeTaHCafaminRKb;RKan;c,as;las;y:agNakþIk¾CaPsþútagbgðajfaGVIEdl´)anniyayxagelIfa karEbk)ak;énraCvgSkm<úCaenAeBlEdlRBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI1suKteTA minmanGVIF¶n;F¶r nigsßitesßr enaHeT. raCvgSTaMg2 EdlrMElkekrþ×dMENld¾FMeFgEckKña EtgEtmanerobGaBah_BiBah_buRtabuRtI eTAvijeTAmkCaerOy². k¾b:uEnþ vak¾GacnwgmankrNIEdlekrþ×dMENlenH min)anRtÚveKEck[eTAGñkRtÚvTTYlRsbc,ab; ehIyEbrCaRtÚvFøak;eTAkñúgédGñkEdl)anbMEbkrC¢TayaTenaHecjk¾man. GVIEdleFVI[´h‘an niyay dUecñHKWmkBImanGgÁm©as;ExµrmYyGgÁEdleKminsUvsÁal;)anvilRtlb;mkBIekaHCVavijehIyesay- raCüenAelIblø½gáraCüvyFbur³ rYc)anbRgÜbbRgÜmRbeTsmkCaraCaNacRkEtmYyeLIgvij. enAeBlenaH vahak;dUcCac,as;Nas;fa RBH)aTraeC®nÞvrµ½n EdlCabuRtarbs;RBH)aT RsIbusáa rkS³ ¬CaRBHraCaTI1énsmÖúbur³¦ CamYynwgRBHkSRtIy_rC¢TayaTénRBHraCavyFbur³ Edlmin)an bRgÜbbRgÜmRbeTsmkCaEtmYy kMBugEtesayraCüenAÉsmÖúbur³enAeLIy. 4 silacarwkRBH)aT/ sresredayelak )af cuHkñúgkRmgk,alTI2 TMB½r356-357 nig 369-370.
  • 74. KWedayehtuenaHehIyeTIb´KitfabNþaGñkniBn§TaMgLayEdlrab;RBH)aTraeC®nÞvrµ½nbBa©Úlkñúg cMeNamesþcEdlesayraCüeBlnKr)anRtÚvbRgÜbbRgÜmehIy ehIyfaRBHraCbuRt mhibtivrµ½n min)anesayraCüenaH KWminRtwmRtÚveT. KµanesþcNamYykñúgcMeNamesþcTaMg2GgÁenH )anesay raCüelInKrkm<úCa EdlRtÚv)anbRgÜbbRgÜmehIyenaHeLIy k¾b:uEnþ esþcTaMg2)anesayraCüenAelI raCaNacRkkm<úCadIeKak5 . ebItam´yl; KWRBH)aTC½yvrµ½nEdlRtlb;mkBIekaHCVavijenaHeT EdlCaRBHraCaTI1 esay raCüelIRBHnKrEdlbRgÜbbRgÜmEtmYy. 70 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 5 esøakTI3énsilacarwkRBH)aT)anniyayfa {RBH)aTraeC®nÞvrµ½n >>> CaesþcsmÖúbur³} ehIyesøakTI4R)ab;fa mhibtivrµ½n CaGñkesayraCübnþBIRBHGgÁ.
  • 75. 71Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa CMBUkTI6 RbeTskm<úCa b¤ RsukExµr 11-- RRBBHH))aaTTCC½½yyvvrrµµ½½nnTTII33 ¬¬880022--886699¦¦ eKmin)andwgGMBIedImkMeNItrbs;RBH)aTC½yvrµ½nenHeT EtRBHGgÁ)anR)akdxøÜneLIgCaGñkksag raCvgSmYyfµI b¤k¾fa RTg;CaGñkEdleFVI[raCvgSmunrugerOgeLIgvij. silacarwksþúkkk;FM )anehARBH GgÁtamRBHmrNnamfa bremsVr³ nigRKan;Et)an[eyIgdwgfa {RBHGgÁyagmkBIekaHCVa mkesay raCüenAnKr®nÞbur³ ¬mann½yfa raCFanIrbs;RBH®nÞ¦}. ´minmanjejItnwgkMNt;fa raCFanIenHKW vyFbur³b¤ebIBuMenaHeTKWraCFanIEdlmaneQµaHCabnþbnÞab;faPvbur³rYc|sanbur³.RBHGgÁRTg;yag mkCamYynwgRBHraCRKÚrbs;RBHGgÁ KW{bNÐitEsþgGjsiv³ékvlü³}. silacarwksþúkkk;FM)anerobrab;Etb:ueNÑH ehIymin)anniyayfa etIRBHraCaGgÁenHCanrNa mansiT§idUcemþcxøHmkelIraCblø½gánKrkm<úCaeT. tamBiteTA RBHGgÁmansiT§ienH EtsiT§ienH vaekItman eLIgCayfaehtu nigmincMeBaH eRBaHfa RBHGgÁRtÚvCaecAkµÜyrbs;RBH)aTRsIbusáarkS³ EdlCab;ExS RsLayeTAnwgraCvgSGninÞtþbur³ EdlCaRBHraCaTImYyénsmÖúbur³ eRkayeBlEbkKñarYcmk. siT§iTTYl raCsm,tþienHnwgeTACasiT§icMeBaH)anluHRtaNaEtraCvgSCabursTaMgGs;EdlCab;ExSelahitCitnwg RBHraCakMBugesayraCü)anRtÚv)at;xøÜnGs; BIeRBaHfa fVIebIRBHraCaGacRtÚveKelIk[esayraCü sm,tþi)ank¾eday k¾kareRCIserIsenaH GacRbRBwtþeTA)anEtelIRBHGgÁm©as;mYyGgÁénraCvgSkMBug esayraCü¬GnuC/bitulab¤GnuCCIdUnmYy¦b:ueNÑaHdUcEdleKFøab;GnuvtþenAnKrcam:,aBImunnigenAkm<úCa sBVéf¶Edr.eKGaceRCIserIsGnuvgSmñak;)anEtkalNaKµanvgSesþcesayraCümñak;esaH.tamemIl eTA RBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI3 RTg;RtÚvCasmaCikmYyGgÁénGnuvgSrbs;RBHraCaEdlesayraCüenAsmÖúbur³ nigenAvyFbur³ eRkayeBlEbkBIKña. etIKµanGgÁm©as;Namñak;eToteTb¤ enAkñúgraCvgS? tamsila carwk RBH)aT)anbBa¢ak;fa RBH)aTmhibtivrµ½nRTg;manbuRtImYyRBHGgÁ KWRBHnag®nÞeTvI EdlRtÚvCa RBHmatarbs;RBH)aTyesavrµ½nk¾b:uEnþmin)anbBa¢ak;faetIRBHGgÁmanraCbuRtmYyGgÁEdrb¤k¾Gt;eT?. dUecñH KµanrC¢TayaTmYyGgÁNaeT enAraCblø½gákm<úCaeBlEdlRBH)aTC½yvrµ½nyagmkBIekaHCVa. mü:ageTot RbsinebIRBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI3KµansiT§iesayraCsm,tþíenAelIraCblø½gákm<úCatamry³ raCvgSsmÖúbur³b¤k¾raCvgSvyFbur³eTRBHGgÁRbEhlCamansiT§ienHtamry³ExSRsLaymunenaHKWfa RBHraCbita b¤RBHGyüekarbs;RBHGgÁ )anRtÚveKbMEbkecjBIraCblø½gá eRkayeBlEdlRBH)aT
  • 76. C½yvrµ½nTI1suKteTA edayRTg;ePosRBHkayeTAenAÉekaHCVa b¤k¾RtÚveKnaMykeTA. eyIgmin)andwgc,as; BIehtukarN_énkar)ak;EbkenaHekIteLIgy:agdUcemþc ehIyfaetIeday sarRBwtþikarN_GVIeTEdr. k¾b:uEnþeyIgdwgfa enAsm½yCamYyKñaenaH BYkm:aeL nigBYkGñkRsukekaH BULÚ kugD½r EdlmankMeNItedImCam:aeLEdr )aneTAvaydutbMpøajtugkwg ehIyBYkcin-GaNÑamRtÚveRbIT½B mYykgFM edIm,IbeNþjBYkenaHecjBIbNþaExRtEdleKdeNþIm)an KWenAqñaM765. eyIgk¾)andwgEdr fa enAqñaM774énRKisþskraC BYkmnusS{exµARBIk nigsÁm} EdlemIleTA KWBYkm:aeLmkBIekaHCVa {)an mkdl;tamnavaEbøk²} mkvaydutbMpøajnKrcam:,a ehIyBYkenH)anmkmþgeTotenAqñaM787. ebI dUecñH nKrkm<úCak¾RbEhlCaRtÚvrgnUvkardutbMpøajdUcKñaenHEdr ehIyBYkenaHGacnwgenARtÜtRtanKr mYyry³pg. Rtg;cMNucenH silacarwksþúkkk;FMk¾)anniyaypgEdrfa nKrkm<úCasßitenAeRkamkar RtÜtRtarbs;CVa enAkñúgstvtSr_TI81 . RBwtþikarN_enH GacCamUlehtuEdleFVI[km<úCaEbk)ak;CaBIr ehIyBYkm:aeLenAekaHCVaGacyknaMsmaCikxøHrbs;raCvgSRBH)aTC½yvrµ½n eTACamYypg. ebIsinCa dUecñHEmn RBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI3GacCasmaCikmñak;énraCvgSEdlBYkCVanaMykeTACaeQøIy ehIy eBlenaHRBHGgÁenAtUcenAeLIy b¤k¾RTg;minTan;RbsURtpg k¾mindwg. ehtuEdlraCaNacRkExµrRtÚvEbkCaBIr ehIyGacenAdUecñH)an k¾CakarbBa¢ak;pgEdrfa BYkCVa min)anbnþeFVIkarvaylukcUleRCA eTAq¶ayBImat;smuRTEdlBYkeKkan;kab;enaHeT KWQb;RtwmEtRBM RbTl;rbs;ecnLaTwkb:ueNÑaH. mü:ageTotvahak;dUcCafasilacarwkRBH)aTmin)anniyayGMBIvyFbur³eTelIkElgEtenaHKWCa GtItkal.eRBaHfaebIsinCaeKGaceFVIbBa¢IraynamRBHraCaEdlesayraCüenAsmÖúbur³cab;taMgBInKr RtÚvEbkCaBIr rhUtdl;nKrrYbrYmKñamkvij eKminGaceFVIdUcKña)aneTcMeBaHvyFbur³. etIBYkCVakan;kab;vyFbur³ehIyecnLaTwkRtÚvsßitenAeRkamkarRtÜtRtarbs;BYkCVaenAeBlEdl ecnLaeKak rkSa)annUvÉkraCü b¤dUcemþc? ebIdUecñHEmn KWehtuenaHehIyEdlxarxaMgRBH)aT raeC®nÞ vrµ½n CaRBHraCaTI2enAsmÖúbur³ ehIyRTg;k¾CarC¢TayaTmYyGgÁrbs;vyFbur³pgEdr Edlmin[RBHGgÁ 72 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 1 elakéGm:UnIejeCOfaeKRtÚvbEnßmBakü{sIlFm’}BIelIBaküenAeRkamkarRtÜtRtarbs;CVa)anesckþIfaGaNaniKm rbs;BYkCVaenaH manRtwmEtelIEpñkGarmµN_b:ueNÑaH. Et´eCOfakarRtÜtRtaenaHmanBitR)akdEmn dUcEdlGtßbT)an Ecg.
  • 77. 73Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa vatGMNacmkelIvyFbur³)an. ebIeTaHCafa RBHGgÁesayraCüenAsmÖúbur³ehIy[raCbuRtrbs;RBH GgÁesayraCüsñgenAvyFbur³k¾eday k¾RBHraCbuRtenaH minmanGMNacGVIelIsBIRBHGgÁb:unµanEdr. bBaðaRtg;enHmanGaf’kM)aMgeRcIn ehIymanmtiCaeRcIn)anelIksmµtikmµepSg² b:uEnþ´Kitfa smµtikmµ rbs;´dUcCasmrmüeRcInCagebIeTaHCasmµtikmµrbs;Gñkmun²enaHminsuT§EtGt;RbeyaCn_k¾eday. ´)anniyayBIxagelIrYcmkehIy Tak;TineTAnwgRBH)aT|sanvrµ½nfa TItaMgrbs;raCFanI®nÞbur³ sßitenARtg;GgÁrFMsBVéf¶¬mhanKr¦EdlmaneQµaHCaPasasM®sáwtfa®nÞR)asß³.ehIy´sUmbEnßm eTotfa eQµaH®nÞR)asß³ enH Edlmann½ydUc ®nÞbur³ Edr RKan;EtCaeQµaHsRmab;bBa¢ak;GMBIkitþiKuN b¤k¾PaBrIkceRmInrbs;raCFanIenaHb:ueNÑaH. ´k¾KiteTotfaetIPRTbur³ nig|sanbur³ CaraCFanIEtmYy b¤y:agNa EdlcinehAfa tUmU ehIyEdl)anRtÚvksageLIgvij BRgIk[FM nigmankMEpgkarBarpg edayesþcRBahµN_ekaNÐBaس.EtkareRbóbdUecñHminGaceFVIeTA)aneTeRBaHvaRbqaMgKñaKWfatUmURtÚvnwg PRTbur³ rIÉ|sanbur³ RtÚvnwgGgÁrFM b¤mhanKr. eTaHCay:agNakþI enAeBlNaEdleKrkeXIjsila carwkfµI²eTotenAGnaKt b¤enAeBlNaEdlGñkR)aCJPasasM®sáwtGacGan nigbkERbsilacarwk Edl eyIgrkeXIjrhUtmkdl;sBVéf¶enH)an enaHeyIgnwgdwgBIkarBit Elgq¶l;eTotehIy. cMeBaHmuxenH eyIgKYrrg;caMBnøWEdlxVHxat ehIyBinitüemIlGVIEdleyIgGacdwg)anGMBIRBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI3 nigGMBI rC¢kalrbs;RBHGgÁ. karEdlRBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI3sþarraCaNacRkExµr eFVI[rugerOgdUcGtItkaleLIgvij RbEhl minEmnRbRBwtþeTAedayKµankarRbyuT§enaHeT.tamry³silacarwkepSg²vahak;dUcCafaRBHraCafµIenH )aneFVIcm,aMgdeNþImyknKrmkvijedaymanRBHx½nCab;enARBHhsþ ehIyRTg;RtÚvbþÚrTItaMgeTAkEnøg CaeRcIn EdleyIgBi)aknwgkMNt;fakEnøgNaCakEnøgNaNas;. hrihrl½yRbEhlCaenAdIExRt )at;dMbg Rtg;kEnøgEdleKR)ab;´famaneQµaHfa hrihr³/ Gmer®nÞbur³ minTan;dwgfaenARtg;Na/ meh®nÞbB’t KWPñMKUElnsBVéf¶ enABIxageCIgGgÁrFM kñúgExRtRBhµeTB ¬RBhµeTv³¦. tamemIleTA karpøas;bþÚrTItaMgenH GaRs½yedayRBHraCaRTg;mankgVl;cg;eKc[q¶ayBIkarRtÜtRtarbs;BYkCVa KWfaeTA[q¶ayBImat;smuRT EdlnavasRtÚvGacmkcuHct)an nigmü:ageTot edaymankarcaM)ac;RtÚvEt dUrTItaMgkñúgkareFVIcm,aMgpg. RBHGgÁRTg;)ane)aHbg;meh®nÞ³ecal rYcyagRtlb;mkkan;hrihrl½y vij enAeBlEdlRBHGgÁmanv½ycMNas; RbEhledaysarRTg;eQVgyl;fa raCFanIminRtÚvsßitenA q¶ayBIbwgTenøsabeBkeT b¤k¾fa edaysarRBHGgÁxøacb:HTgÁicCamYyT½Bcam {EdleRbób)aneTAnwg RBHhsþd¾xøaMgtpÞwmrbs;RBHraCaRsIRknþvrµ½n eFVIkarQøanBancUlrhUtmkdl;Bak;kNþalépÞRbeTs
  • 78. km<úCa}. ebIeTaHCakarpøas;TIkEnøgjwkjab;enHmanmUlehtuBitdUcemþck¾eday k¾eyIgemIleXIjfa RBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI3 RTg;minRKan;EtCaRBHmhakSRtBUEkxageFVIcm,aMg nigerobcMRsukeTsb:ueNÑaHeT RTg;k¾CakSRtEdleCOs‘b;kñúgsasna eKarBbUCaGaTieTBRBhµBaØsasna CaBiess KWeKarBRBHhrihr³ EdlCakarpÁúMRBHsiv³CamYyRBHvisÑúkñúgragkayEtmYymanRBHeks2pgEdr.kñúgdMeNIrpøas;bþÚrTItaMg rbs;RBHGgÁRBHGgÁRTg;yktamCab;CamYynUvRBHGaTieTBmYyGgÁmaneQµaHfa{eTvraCa}EdlmanBYk RBahµN_mYyRkúmtamEfrkSa nigerobcMBiFIeKarBbUCa. RTg;)antmál;RBHeTvraCaenHenAhrihrl½y³ rYcRTg;naMykmktmál;enAmeh®nÞ³edayRTg;cat;taMgRBHraCRKÚrbs;RBHGgÁ KWRBahµN_EsþgGjsiv³ ékvlü³ Cabuerahit GmedayGñkerobcMBiFImYyRkúm. cab;BIeBlenaHmk RBHGgÁRTg;)anRbkasfa manEtRtkUlEsþgGjsiv³ékvlü³mYyb:ueNÑaHEdlGacTTYlzan³CabuerahitTTYlbnÞúkkñúgkarerobcM BiFIeKarBbUCaRBHGaTieTBCaerogrhUt. eRkayBIksagR)asaTmeh®nÞ³rYc RBHGgÁRTg;cab;ksagR)asaTbwgmalad¾eqItqay cm¶ay RbEhlCa 3KILÚEm:Rt BIPñMKUEln EdlmankemÞc)ak;EbkenAesssl;l¥enAeLIy enAelIpøÚvBIRBHx½n eTAGgÁrFM l¥Tal;EtGñkCMnan;eRkay²eCOfa sagsg;eLIgedayeTvbuRtvisVkmµ EdlCavisVkrenAsßan RBH®nÞ. karEdlniyaydUecñHRbEhlminEmnedaykarsnµtisuT§saFenaHeT BIeRBaHfa BaküvisVkmµ enH Cazan³EdleKdak;[emvisVkrkñúgRBHraCvaMg. manGñkxøHcg;pÁÚRBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI3enH faCaRBHefag Edl´)anerobrab;BIxagelIedayelIk ehtuplfa RBHefagyagmkBINÐa rIÉRBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI3yagmkBIekaHCVa nigmü:ageTotRbvtþisa®sþ tamsilacarwk nigerOgniTanniyayfa esþcTaMgBIrGgÁenH CaGñkksagraCR)asaTbwgmala. RBH)aT C½yvrµ½n)ansagR)asaTenHedIm,IRTg;Kg;Rbfab;enAÉRBHefagsagR)asaTenHedIm,IfVaydl;raCbuRt rbs;kSRtIRBHGgÁ KWRBHektumala Edlcab;kMeNIteLIgedayKµanbursNamkebotebonRBHkay RBHnageT EtedayRBHnagyl;subinfa RBH®nÞ)anmkGEg¥lépÞRBHnag. karkMNt;eRbóbdUecñH Kµan mUldæaneT2 . 74 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 2 manerOgmYyeTotniyayfaRBHektumalaminEmnCaRBHraCntþa nigmin)anesayraCübnþBIRBHefag edaypÞal;eT. bnÞab;BIRBHefageTAman ³ buRtRBHGgÁRBHnamfa vr³raC eLIgesayraCübnþenAqñaM214 munRKisþskraC RtÚvnwgBuT§
  • 79. 75Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa ´niyaydUecñH minEmnmann½yfa min[eCOerOgeRBg faerOgeRBgKµanGVICaR)akdenaHeT. dUc´ )anniyayBIxagelIrYcmkehIyfaerOgeRBgeRcInEtcab;kMeNItecjmkBIehtukarN_Rbvtþisa®sþNa mYy Edlbgáb;enABIkñúgkarbMepøIsbEnßm nigGbiyCMenO ehtukarN_enaH eKBi)aknwgRsaybMPøWNas; EteKGacRsavRCavrkeXIjtamry³kartubEtg[kan;Etl¥enaHÉg. ´sUmCUnPsþútagBIr ³ TI1KWBakü vrµ½n CaRBHnam tamExSRsLayrbs;RBHraCaTaMgGs; cab;taMgBIesþcekaNÐBaس rhUtmkdl;stvtSr_ TI14EtExµrsBVéf¶ePøcesÞIrGs;)at;eTAehIyBaküenHmanenAkñúgRBHnamrbs;esþccambYnGgÁkñúgbNþa esþccamR)aMmYyGgÁ KWC½yvrµ½n/ suriyavrµ½n/ FrNi®nÞvrµ½n nigGaTitüvrµ½n. cMNucTI2 KWRBHnamrbs; RBHraCaTI2 dUcRBHnamrbs;RBH)aTsuriyavrµ½n enAkñúgsilacarwkEdr rIÉRBHnamrbs;RBHraCaTI4 FrNi®nÞvrµ½n eFVI[eKnwkeTAdl;RBHRbfvi®nÞvrµ½n énsilacarwk eRBaHFrNI nigRbfvI mann½yfa dIdUcKña. k¾b:uEnþ fVIebImancMNuc dUcKñad¾kRmenAkñúgsilacarwkpg nigkñúgerOgeRBgpgy:agenHkþI k¾eyIgminGacGH Gagfa GVITaMgGs;enaH R)akdCaBitCadUecñHEmnTaMgGs;enaHeT. silacarwksþúkkk;FM manEcglm¥iterOgmYycMnYnKYr[q¶l; EdlKYrEtelIkykmkBinitü naeBl enH. eRkayBI)anerobcMTukdak;RBHraCvgS[Kg;enAkEnøgmYymaneQµaHfa KuTi enABIxagekItTenørYcmk RBH)aTC½yvrµ½nRTg;eRCIserIsykyuvCnecjBIRBHraCvgSykeTAksagGmer®nÞbur³fVayRBHraCRKÚ rYcksag Pv³l½y EdlRBHGgÁfVayeTARBHraCRKÚEdr rYceTIbRTg;ksag ligÁ mYy. kñúgeBlEdlRTg;Kg;enAÉmeh®nÞbB’t RTg;)ancat;[RBahµN_hirynFmµ³ CaRBahµN_mkBICnbT skraC331 eBlEdlRBHGgÁmanRBHCnµ 16RBHvsSa ehIysuKteTAeRkayBIesayraCü)an 40qñaM. buRtrbs; RBHvr³raC RBHnamfa ]T½yraCa )aneLIgesayraCübnþBIRBHbitakñúgRBHCnµ 16RBHvsSaEdr ehIysuKtenAqñaM419 eRkayBIesayraCü)an44qñaM.RBHraCbuRtrbs;RBH]T½yraCaRBHnamsuvNÑbTumraCaeLIgesayraCübnþkñúgRBHCnµ 16RBHvsSasuKtenAqñaM463eRkayBIesayraCü)an44qñaMEdr.bnÞab;mkKWRBHGnuCéføRBHnamfabeTsraCaFiraC CakUnGñkensaT nigCasVamIRBHnagqays EdlRtÚvCaRBHGnuCrbs;RBHsuvNÑ bTumraCa EdlRTg;elIk[eFVICaesþc Rtaj;elIRsukmYy eRkaymkRtÚvnamuWnsBVmuxm®nþIeBjcitþrYcelIk[esayraCüsm,tþibnþ)an 91qñaM. eRkayenaH manRbCara®sþmñak;eQµaHfa GñkvgS CamnusSmanbuNüecsþa b:Hrbs;GVIrbs;enaHkøayCamas RtÚv)annamuWnsBVmuxm®nþI nigRbCara®sþ eRCIserIs[eLIgesayraCü enABuT§skraC 554 ¬RtÚvnwgRKisþskraC 11¦ kñúgGayu 33qñaM. RbBn§ rbs;GñkvgS eQµaH CU )anRtÚvGPieskCaRBHGKÁmehsIeRkamRBHnamfa RBHCUvtþI RBHnagRTg;subinfa RBH®nÞ mk GEg¥lépÞrYcRbKl;EkvmNIr½tñ[eTIbRBHnagRTg;KP’RbsUt)anRBHektumalaEdleLIgesayraCübnþBIRBHbeTsvgS- Gacarü CaRBHbita enABuT§skraC 600 RtÚvnwgRKisþskraC 57.
  • 80. {CaGñkR)aCJecHcaMnUvviTüasa®sþRKb;RKan;} BinitüesIerIc,ab;TaMgLay EdlbBa¢ak;GMBI{PaBcMNuHCVa rbs;RBHGgÁ {edIm,IeFVI[ kRmetg épÞeRkamTaMgGs; ¬KWbNþaesþcRtaj;EpñkxageRkamRBHFrNI¦ manc,ab;sRmab;GnuvtþcMeBaHRBHcRkvaTin KWRBHGFiraCCam©as;TwkdI. B’tmanlm¥itenHbBa¢ak;fa RBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI3RTg;RbkasxøÜnRBHGgÁfaCaRBHmharaCehIyRbKl;dl;RBHraCaÉeTotkñúgRsukExµr nUvzan³dUcRBHraCavyFbur³ dUcEdlmanEcgenAkñúgsilacarwkRBH)aT. RBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI3RTg;suKtenAqñaM869 eRkayBIRTg;esayraCsm,tþi)an67qñaM nigmanRBH mrNnamfa bremsVr³ mann½yfa {RTg;CaePJóvrbs;sßansYK’sVar³} KWsßanrbs;RBHsiv³. TMenommYyEdleKRbTHeXIjmanenAGaNÑam k¾dUcCaenARsukcam ehIyEdlenAmanrhUtdl; sBVéf¶enAkm<úCa KWfVayRBHnammYyeTotdl;RBHraCaEdlsuKteTA déTBIRBHnameBlEdlRTg;enAman RBHCnµ RBHnamenaHeKeRcInEtdkykBIeQµaHsßansYK’NamYy EdleKKitfa RBHGgÁnwgyageTAcab; kMeNIt. RBH)aTC½yvrµ½n RTg;manRBHmrNnamfa bremsVr³ ÉRBHraCaEdlesayraCübnþBIRBHGgÁ k¾suT§EtmanRBHmrNnamEdr RBHmrNnamenaHeRcInEtbBa©b;edayBaküfa {elak} b¤ {bT} Edlman n½yfa {TIkEnøg} dUcKña cMENkÉRBHnamvij KWeRcInEtykRBHnamrbs;RBHGaTieTBNamYyEtmþg. RbEhlCacab;taMgBIeBlenaHmk enAeBlEdlRBHraCamYyGgÁRTg;suKteTA eKEtgEtsagsg;rUb bdimamYy EdlCarUbRBHGaTieTBtMNagRBHraCaenaH eBlRTg;yageTAekItenAsßansYK’ Rbkbeday lkçN³TaMgLayrbs;RBHGgÁ. 11-- RRBBHH))aaTTCC½½yyvvrrµµ½½nnTTII44 ¬¬886699--887777¦¦ RBHraCaEdlesayraCübnþBIRBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI3KWraCbuRtrbs;RBHGgÁ EdlCaesþc{manrsµIPøW ciBa©acbIdUcCaRBHGaTitü RbkbeTAedayKuNFm’vIrPaB RTg;CaGñkbegáInePaKRTBü nigkitþiKuN} ¬bnþBIRBHbita¦. KWedaysarKuNsm,tþiTaMgGs;enHehIy eTIb)anCaRTg;manRBHnammuneBleLIg esayraCüfaRBHRsIC½yvrFmµ³rYcehIymanRBHGPiesknamfaRsIC½yvrµ½n.RBHGgÁCaRBHecAGFiraC dUcCaRBHbitaEdr ehIy{RBH)aTrbs;RBHGgÁ Can;enABIelIRBHeksrbs;RBHraCaTaMgLay}. RBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI4 RTg;esayraCüenAhrihrl½y CaraCFanIEdlRBHbitasagsg;eLIg ehIy EdlRTg;yagRtlb;mkKg;enAvijenAcugrC¢kalrbs;RBHGgÁ eRkayBIeTAKg;enAÉmeh®nÞbur³mYy ry³. RBHGgÁKg;enACit{RBHeTvraCa} edaymanRBahµN_EsþgGjsux³sµavinÐú RtÚvCakµÜyrbs;Esþg Gjsivékvlü³ CabuerahiterobcMBiFIeKarBbUCa CamYyRBahµN_mYyRkúm. 76 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 81. 77Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa RBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI4)ansuKtenAqñaM877énRKisþskraCRtÚvnwgmhaskraC799rYcRTg;TTYl RBHmrNnamfa visÑúelak mann½yfa karsñak;enAénRBHvisÑú b¤fa CaePJóvrbs;RBHvisÑú. 11-- RRBBHH))aaTT®®nnÞÞvvrrµµ½½nnTTII11 ¬¬887777--888899¦¦ RBH)aT®nÞvrµ½n ¬RBH®nÞCaGñkkarBar¦ esayraCübnþBIRBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI4. RBHGgÁRtÚvCabg b¥Únq¶ayrbs;RBH)aTC½yvrµ½nehIyRTg;hak;dUcCaminmansiT§iRtwmRtÚvelIraCsm,tþib:unµaneT.RbsinebI RBH)aTC½yvrµ½n manraCbuRtmYyRBHGgÁ b¤manRBHGnuC b¤k¾bgb¥ÚnCIdUnmYyenaH RBH)aT®nÞvrµ½n KWCa esþcERCkraCü ebIBuMenaHeT CaRBHraCaEdleKeRCIstaMgeLIg kñúgcMeNamraCvgS Etsac;q¶aybnþic. RBHGgÁRtÚvCaRBHraCntþakµÜyrbs;RBH)aTRsIruRTvrµ½n EdlRtÚvCaGyükamIgxagRBHmatarbs; RBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI4.RBH)aTRsIruRTvrµ½nenHmanRBHnaml,Ifa{CaGñkniymkarCak;EsþgnigmanvIrPaB teRbóbpÞwm.RTg;KitEtBIRBHruRTehIyRTg;TTYl)anC½yCmñHl,Il,ajkñúgral;karRbyuT§}.RBHbita rbs;RBHGgÁ KWRBHRBwT§ivi®nÞvrµ½n EdlsilacarwkelIkeRbóbRbdUceTAnwg {mhasaKr eBareBjeTAeday KuNFm’}nigRTg;{BUEkl,IxagTajykplBIRBHFrNI}.TaMgGs;enHtamemIleTAKWRKan;EtCakarelIk sresIrEtb:ueNÑaH. RBHRBwT§ivi®nÞvrµ½nenH ¬CabuRtrbs;RBHGnuCkSRtI b¤k¾RBHbuRtI¦ rbs;RBH)aTruRTvrµ½n CamYynwgRBHnrib,TÞi®nÞvrµ½n. snþtivgSxøIdUecñH emIleTA KWCaBgSavlIrbs;esþcEdlesayraCüenAelI kSRtRbeTsmYytUc GacfaminEmnCakSRtRbeTscMNuHeT k¾b:uEnþesayraCüt²Kña EtdUecñH eBalKW CaGgÁm©as;mYyGgÁ EdlenAq¶ayBIraCblø½gá nigCaGnuvgS³ minEmnCavgS³3 eT. RBH)aT®nÞvrµ½nRTg;eLIgesayraCübnþBIRBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI4 RbEhledaysarRBH)aTC½yvrµ½n TI4 RTg;suKteTAedayKµanbuRtamYyGgÁesaH ehIyKµanvgSmYyGgÁesaH cenøaHBIRBH)aTC½yvrµ½n mkdl;RBHGgÁ. erOgenHhak;dUcCaKµanGVIEbøkeT eRBaHtamkarBinitüBgSavlIsmÖúbur³RBHmhakSRtI minsm,ÚrraCbuRtb:unµaneTKWmanEtraCbuRtab¤raCbuRtImYyGgÁb:ueNÑaH.etICatisasn_cab;ercrwlehIy b¤y:agNa b¤k¾fa bNþakSRtaTaMgLayqab;RbLÚknwgEl,gesñhataMgBIv½yekµg² rYcmanmehsI luHEt eBlmanv½ycMNas; EdlcuHexSayNas;eTAehIy dUcCaenANÐaG‘Ícwg ? mü:ageTot RBHraCanaeBl 3 CavgS³)anKWRBHeromb¤RBHGnuCkSRtakSRtI/RBHbitulab¤matucäa/RBHeromb¤RBHGnuCrYmGyüekaGyüka/RBHbita mata/ RBHGyüekaGyüka/ RBHGyüekama b¤GyükamIg énRBHraCa.
  • 82. enaHGacnwgmanRBHCaya nigRsIsñMCaeRcIn dUcenAkm<úCasBVéf¶ kñúgenaHmanEtRBHGKÁmehsImYy b:ueNÑaH EdlCaRBHmhakSRtIEdlRBHraCbuRtmansiT§iGaceLIgesayraCüsñg)an dUcEdlCaTmøab; rhUtmkdl;eBlfµI²enH enARbeTslav. ebIeTaHCay:agNakþI kareRCIserIsykRBH)aT®nÞvrµ½n [eLIgesayraCü hak;dUcCaminRbRktI. k¾b:uEnþ minmanÉksarNabBa¢ak;fa RBHGgÁeLIgesayraCü edaymankarbeBa©ósrC¢TayaTeBjsiT§NamYyecj k¾eTEdr. manmnusSBIrnak;EdlmantYnaTIsMxan;y:agxøaMgenAkñúgrC¢kalenH ehIyRbEhlCasMxan; Ca BiessenAeBlEdleKeFVIkareRCIserIsRBH)aTruRTvrµ½n[eLIgesayraCüRbsinebIRBHGgÁeLIgesay raCüEbbenH. enaHKWEsþgGjRsIesam³ CaRBHraCRKÚ/ nigvimsiv³ EdlCab;BUCCamYysivékvlü³ ehIyCasisSrYmRKÚEtmYyCamYyRsIesam³pg. vimsiv³ enH)anRtÚvRBHraCaeRCIstaMg[eFVICa buerahiterobcMBiFIeKarBbUCaepSg². GñkTaMgBIrnak;enH )anerobcMksagR)asaTmYyfVayRBHsiv³ rYc[eFVIligÁBIrdak;kñúgR)asaTenaH. edayehtuenaHehIy )anCaeKehAGñkTaMgBIrmñak;faCa kRmetg cas; mñak;eTotfaCa kRmetg ekµgénRBHsivRsm³. GñkCMnajxagNÐaviTüaeCOfa sivRsm³enaH KW R)asaT)ay½n. RBH)aT®nÞvrµ½n)ancat;[sagR)asaT)aeKaeFVIGMBIfµsg;ligÁmYyeQµaHfaRsIe®nÞsVr³ehIy nigrUbbdimaR)aMmYyeTot kñúgenaHmanrUbbIRBHGgÁ mYydUcRBHRBwT§ivi®nÞvrµ½n CaRBHbitamYyeTot dUcRBH )aTruRTvrµ½n CaRBHGyüekaxagRBHmata nigmYyeTotdUc RBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI3 CaGñkerobcMraCvgSeLIg vij. rIÉRBHbdimabIRBHGgÁeTot KWdUcRBHmehsIrbs;esþcTaMgbI KWRBHmatarbs;RBHGgÁ RBHGyüka ehIynigRBHmehsIrbs;RBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI3. RBHGgÁ)ansagR)asaT)aKgenACitR)asaT)aeKa4 rYc)anksagenAÉsiv³bur³EdleKmindwgCa enAÉNa nUv{R)asaTmYymanBnøWPøWciBa©acciEBa©geRbób)aneTAnwgrtnvtßú rMuB½T§eTAedayv½løimansnøwk Rss;bMRBg sRmab;karBarRBHsiv³ Tb;Tl;nwgPaBRtCak; nigGakasFatuERbRbÜlepSg²eTot}. enACitR)asaTTaMgBIr{EdlRBHGgÁ)ansg;edaysñaRBHhsþpÞal; ehIyEdlRTg;)anpþl;nUvmeFüa- 78 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 4 RbvtþitamerOgniTanniyayfaR)asaTTaMg2enH rYmCamYyR)asaTTI3mYyeTot KWR)asaTlél EdlbegáIt)anCa RkúmR)asaTmYy )anRtÚvksageLIgeday RBHmhakSRtTI3rbs;km<úCa KWesþccamsuriyavrµ½n EdleKaraBfµsVymÖú. sVymÖúenHKWCaCIvitEdlekItmanÉg eBalKWRBHRBhµ k¾b:uEnþCYnkalk¾sMedAcMeBaH RBHsiv³ nigRBHvisÑúpgEdr. ebIsinCa sVymÖúkñúgerOgniTanenHminsMedAykRBHsiv³eT enaHeKminGacBnül;)aneT eRBaHFmµta fµenHsMedAykligÁenaHÉg.
  • 83. 79Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa )aypÁt;pÁg;es,óg esckþIsb,ay nigkarKab;citþRKb;y:ag RTg;)ancat;[CIkRsHd¾l¥ edIm,IbMeBjCUn ePJóv nigCndéTTaMgLay nUvPaBsm,Úrsb,ayRbkbeTAedayvtßúcaM)ac;sRmab;karrs;enA}. dUcCaRBHmhakSRtmun²Edr RBH)aT®nÞvrµ½nCakSRtBUEkeFVIs®gÁam. silacarwkRBH)aT)an cat;TukRBHGgÁfa{smnwgTTYlkareKarBBIGñkTaMgLayEdlCasIh³ kñúgcMeNammnusSCati} cMENkÉ silacarwk)ay:g; niyayfa {CastVsigðkñúgbNþaRBHraCaTaMgLay RBHGgÁminEdlrafyBIkarRbyuT§ esaHeLIy. RBHGgÁRbkbeTAedayKuNFm’TaMgLayEdlRBHraCaRtÚvmanrYmTaMg {KuNFm’TaMg10Ca RbFan5 }/ KuNsm,tþiTaMg6 ehIyRTg;manGanuPaBTaMg3 BIeRBaHfa RBHGgÁGacQñHelIRBHkayRBHGgÁ Ég)an )ankarBarEpndIenHeRbób)aneTAnwgmnu edayminmanGak;xankñúgkatBVkic©erobcMBiFIbYgsYg nigdwgc,as;GMBIGVIEdlKYr GVIEdlBuMKYr}eTotpg. silacarwk)anbnþeTotfa {RbEhlCaRBHEdlbegáItelakenH elakenOyNaynwgkarbegáIt esþceRcIneBk eTIbelakbegáItRBHraCaGgÁenHmk [RbkbeTAedayKuNsm,tþiRKb;RKan; sRmab;elak TaMgbI RBHraCaenHehIyEdlesþcÉeTot²TTYlykbBa¢adak;elIsirsa}. RBH)aT®nÞvrµ½n suKtenAqñaM889énRKisþskraC RtÚvnwgmhaskraC811 ehIyRTg;manRBH mrNnamfa sVr³elak. 55-- RRBBHH))aaTTyyeessaavvrrµµ½½nn ¬¬888899--990088¦¦ RBH)aTyesavrµ½nCaRBHraCbuRtrbs;RBH)aT®nÞvrµ½nTI1 ehIyRTg;)anesayraCübnþBIRBHbita enAqñaM889énRKisþskraC RtÚvnwgmhaskraC811. silacarwk)anniyayGMBIRBHGgÁfa Ca{kar RbmUlpþú¿énPaBfáúMefáIg} eRBaHRBHGgÁ)anvatGMNacRtÜtRtarbs;km<úCa)anxøaMgCageK. silacarwk )anelIkeLIgeTotfaRBHGgÁKYrTTYl)annUvRBHnambI³cMeBaHGñkR)aCJRBHGgÁCaRKÚGacarüCasa®sþa- carü/ cMeBaHnarI² RBHGgÁCabursKYrCaTIesñha/ cMeBaHRBHraCaTaMgLay RBHGgÁCaRBHmeh®nÞ³ KW RBH®nÞFM. RBHGgÁ)ancab;bdisn§ieLIg {RbkbeTAedaysmösSl¥elIseK BuMmannrNamñak; Edlman 5 enaHKWKuNFm’sMxan;²man ³ sb,úrs/ xnþI/ viTüasa®sþ/ køahan/ sIlFm’/ vIrPaB/ ekøóvkøa/ famBl/ GanuPaB nig R)aCJa. ebItamk,Ünc,ab;Exµrvij KuNFm’sMxan;²xusBIenH ³ Tan/ kusl/ sb,úrs/ mCÄnþikPaB/ mnusSFm’/ xnþI/ PaBRtÚvtam Knøg/ RtaRbNI/ tbkmµ nigvIriy³.
  • 84. RBHP½®kþRss;l¥esµInwgRBHGgÁeLIy eRkAEtBIRBHc®nÞecj}. {kitþiKuNrbs;RBHGgÁbrisuT§ eRbób)an eTAnwgkaMBnøWRBHc®nÞa EdlRKbdNþb;eTARKb;TisTIénBiPBelak hak;bIdUcCasmuRTTwkedaH ehIyedj km©at;Gs;nUvPaBGn§kal Edlrt;eKcedayxøacrIgs¶Üt edayetCanuPaBrbs;RBHGgÁ. RTg;CaRBHecA GFiraCelIRBHraCaTaMgLay ehIykitþinamd¾rugerOg/ neya)ay/ esaP½NPaB nigsb,úrsFm’rbs; RBHGgÁ)anpSBVpSayeTARKb;TisTaMgbYneRbób)annwgeTBFItaEdllm¥eTAedaykarsenþas/famBl/ KuNFm’/ PaBrmTmü/ kitþiKuN/ kusl nigKtibNÐit. enAkñúgkarRbyuT§ RBHGgÁmanRBHhsþeRtómCanic© nwgsmøab;sRtÚvekagkac bIdUcCaRTg;)aneronsURtBI KTRBwT§ ¬Rkwsñ-visÑú¦ nUvl,iccab;EhkRTÚgrbs; hirnüksSiBu ¬mnusSsigð-CaesþcykS¦ G‘Ícwg. RBHx½nrbs;RBHGgÁ EtdkecjehIy minEdlGak;xan nwgkab;enaHeTehIykab;EtmYyRBHx½nGVI²k¾dac;CabIkMNat;EdreTaHCaEdkEvg/mUl/FMb¤rwgy:agNak¾ eday KWhak;bIdUcCakardak;eTascMeBaHkarEdlh‘anRbqaMgnwgfVIRBHhsþrbs;RBHGgÁ. RBHGgÁGac )aj;RBÜjnwgRBHhsþeqVgk¾)an RBHhsþsþaMk¾)an ehIyEtgEtRtÚveKaledACanic©. enATIbBa©b; RBH EdlCaGñkbegáItelakq¶l;ehIysYrxøÜnÉgfa cuHehtuGVIk¾GatµaGjbegáItRBHraCaenHmkeFVICaKURbECg nwgxøÜnÉgdUecñH RBHraCaenHEdlCaRbCabti ¬RBHbegáItelak¦ nigCabremsVr³ ¬]tþmraCa b¤RBHsiv³¦ mYyeTot. RBH)aTyesavrµ½neRbób)aneTAnwgesþclVITI14rbs;)araMg. RTg;manEsþgGjvmsiv³ Edl RtÚvCaecArbs;sivékvlü³ Ca]bCÄa CaGñkerobcMBiFIeTvraCamuneK. RBHGgÁmancMNg;cMNUlcitþkñúg karsagsg; ehIyhak;dUcCamanbMNgdUecñHtamkarENnaMrbs;raCRKÚ nigRkúmRKÜsarrbs;raCRKÚ. RBHGgÁ)anbBa¢a[eKekNÐBYkPtþasS³ mann½yfa GñksuIsac;stV KWra®sþsamBaØ ¬BYkGñkrdævasI¦ sag sg;R)asaT/ kMEBg/ bdima/ rYcRTg;[eKcaru_RBHraCbBa¢adak;enABaseBjRBHnKr eRbób)aneTAnwgRBH Gesak³mYyGgÁeTotdUecñaHEdr. RBHGgÁRbKl;´CaeRcIn[vtþnImYy² EdlRBHGgÁ)anbegáItdIcMnYn mYyryRv³6 RBmTaMgRTBüFn nig]bePaKPNÐeFVIGMBImas sRmab;karerobcMBiFIeKarBbUCaepSg². RTg;)ancat;[EsþgGjsix³ CasisSrbs; kRmetg cas;énsiv³Rsm³ EdlRTg;[TTYlbnÞúkxagekNÐ kmøaMgfVayRBHraCaedIrksagsivligÁnigRBHbdimadak;BaseBjRBHnKr.cMENkxøÜnRBHGgÁ)anksag 80 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 6 eKmindwgfaBaküRv³enHmann½yBitR)akdfadUcemþceT. tam´yl; enHKWCabrimaNRKab;RsUvmYybegVc EdleKs<ayBak;eqogelIsµa edIrsab b¤RBÜs. dI100Rv³ KWdIEdlRtÚvnwgRKab;RsUvBUC 100begVcenaH.
  • 85. 81Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa pÞal;RBHhsþnUv{RBHbdimaRBHsiv³nigRBHCayabYnGgÁCatMNagKm<IrevTTaMgbYnedIm,IrMlwkdl;viBaØaN kçn§RBHmatabita dak;enAelImat;bwg®nÞTTk³}. edayehtuenH {PBTaMgBIr KWsßaneRkam nigsßanelI manGñkkarBarRbkbeTAedayvIrPaBtnrNaeRbóbpÞwm)an ³ enAelIEpndI manRBHraCaGbraC½ymYy GgÁ KWRBH)aTyesavrµ½nenH cMENkenAsßansYK’TaMgbICan;manRBHmeh®nÞ}. {enAkñúgkarRbyuT§ eBl RkeLkeXIjRBHraCaenH EdlRTg;RbkbeTAedayBnøWPøWRtcHBi)aknwgRTaMRT bNþasRtÚvekagkac TaMgLay»nk,alcuHeRbób)annwgpáaQUk)ak;kehIyniyayfaenHehIyKWCaRBHGaTitü}7 . rC¢kalrbs;RBHGgÁcab;epþImeLIgedaymankarbHe)arRbqaMgmYy EdlRbEhlCaerobcMeLIg edaysmaCikraCvgSanuvgSrbs;RBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI4 EdlRtÚv)anbMEbkecjBIraCsm,tþiedayRBH)aT ®nÞvrµ½nTI1enAqñaM889k¾b:uEnþcMNucRtg;enHeKminmanmUlehtuRKb;RKan;nwgGHGageT.RBH)aTyesa vrµ½n )aneFVIkarvayb®gáabkarbHe)arenaH ehIy)anRbyuT§edaylM)akeRBaHT½BRBHGgÁTn;éd RBHGgÁ RtÚvsRtÚvB½T§CuMCit Et)anesnaBIrnak;karBarCab; bþÚrsøab;CMnYsRBHGgÁ. eRkayBImanC½yCmñHelIxµaMg sRtÚvrYcehIy {edIm,IeCosvagkuM[mankarbHe)arEbbenHeTot Edlrg;caMemIlEtcMNucexSayrbs; RBHraCaNacRk ehIyb:unb:geFVIXatRBHraCa} RBH)aTyesavrµ½n )anbegáItkgesuIbkarN_mYyRkúm rYcehIy)anseRmcsagsg; {RBHraCFanIrwgmaMmYy KµansRtÚvNadeNþImyk)an}. raCFanIenHmaneQµaHmundMbUgdUcCaRBHnamrbs;RBHGgÁ KWyesaFbur³/ KWGgÁrFM EdleQµaHBit R)akdfa ®nÞR)asß³ EtesovePAExµrsm½yfµIehAfa ®nÞ)aT b¤k¾PasasamBaØfa mhanKr raCFanIenH tamemIleTA KWsagsg;enABIelI b¤k¾CitTItaMgrbs;raCFanI EdlsageLIgedayRBH)aT|sanvrµ½n enAedImstvtSr_TI7énRKisþskraC.GñkxøHniyayfaRBH)aTyesavrµ½nehAraCFanIenHfakm<úburItam eQµaHeTvbuBVbursExµr km<úsV½ymÖú EdlRBHsiv³ )anRbKl;RBHmehsI KWRBHnagemr³[. enAkñúgraCFanIenH RTg;)ancat;[BUnPñMyesaFKirI KWR)asaT)aBYn b¤{PñMEdlrlM)ak;Ebk} nig[ sg;R)asaTPimanGakas/ {RBHraCvaMgsm,ÚreTAedayxül;} R)asaTenHsg;rYcenAeRkamrC¢kalRBH raCaEdlesayraCübnþBIRBHGgÁ. enAxageRkAraCFanI BIxagekIt RTg;)ancat;[ksagyesaFraRsm {Gavasrbs;yesa}. RBH)aTyesavrµ½n)anksagR)asaTlélpgEdrenACitR)asaT)aeKanig)aKgedIm,IfVaydl; 7 silacarwkRBH)aT k,alTI2 TMB½r372-376 nigéGm:UnIej/ RbeTskm<úCa k,alTI2 TMB½r265-267.
  • 86. RBHviBaØNkç½n§RBH)aT®nÞvrµ½n CaRBHbita/ RBHnagRsI®nÞeTvI CaRBHmata/ nigRBHviBaØaNkçn§rbs; RBH)aTmhibtivrµ½n nigRBHnagraeC®nÞeTvI CaRBHGyüekaGyüka eRBaHfa RBHGgÁmanRBHkitþiys CaBiess KWedaysarExSRBHelahitxagRBHmata. RBH)aTyesavrµ½n eBjcitþnwgkareFVIs®gÁamNas;. eRkayBImanC½yCmñHelIsRtÚvépÞkñúg ehIyerobcM[manRkúmcarkmµRKb;RKgelIBYkenHrYcmk RBHGgÁ)aneFVIkarRbyuT§rujRcaneTAelIsRtÚv xageRkA eFVI[BYkenHcuHcaj; ehIyRTg;)andak;esþcbraC½yCaeRcInCaTaskr. RBHGgÁk¾manC½yCmñH pgEdr kñúgs®gÁamtamsmuRT {eTAelIkgnavacrrbs;sRtÚvEdlmansMeBAfµI²BN’s rab;Ban;} EdlRBHGgÁvay)ak;EbkGs;. RBH)aTyesavrµ½nRbEhlCa)aneFVIs®gÁam ehIymanC½yCmñHelIBYkcampgEdr EdlRTg; tamvayRbharrhUtraCFanIsßitenAelIPñMEvkRBmTaMg)ancab;esþccamRBHnamRsICyi®nÞvrµ½nCaeQøIy rYcelIk]tþmesnIy_cammYyrUb[eLIgesayraCüCMnYs. BYkcam)anRbmUlKñaeRtómcaMenAcenøaHBI raCFanImkRBMRbTl; EdlmancMnYnTaMgGs;12sgáat; ehIy)aneFVIkarvaymkelIT½BRBHGgÁy:agxøaMg eBlRTg;yagRtlb;mkRBHnKrvij eFVI[RBHGgÁfyéd vaydkfyrhUteTAdl;PñMéRtykar. enAelIPñM enaH RTg;)anRCkenAkñúgbnÞaymYyEdlmankMEpgkarBarrwgmaM rYceTIbcab;vaybkeTAelIT½BsRtÚv bMpøajsgáat;TaMg12mYymþg².RBHGgÁesÞIrEtkS½yRBHCnµmþgeTotenAkñúgkarRbyuT§mYyebIkuMEt)an esnakarBarbUCaCIvitkarBarRBHGgÁ. eRkABIs®gÁamRBH)aTyesavrµ½nCaRBHraCamYyGgÁBUEkxagkargarrdæ)aleTotpg.esayraCü elInKrmYyEdlmanRbCaCnrMeBItrMeBIg RTg;)anerobcMRbCara®sþCa4vNѳ EdlkñúgenaHBYkbcäajati rbs;BYkRBahµN_GenþaRbevsn_ )anRtÚv)anEcktamvNѳnImYy² ehIyRTg;k¾)anerobcMzan³rbs; esnam®nþIpgEdr. edaymansRtÚveRcIn RBHGgÁ)ancgsm<½n§emRtICamYyesþcnKrCitxag ehIy)an pþl;ÉksiT§idl;CnbreTsEdlcUlmkkñúgRBHraCaNacRkEfmeTot. RBHGgÁeKarBbUCaRBHsiv³ k¾b:uEnþ minRbkan;nikayNamYyeT ehIyecHsenþasRbNI BIeRBaHfa RTg;manm®nþImYyrUb Cab;ExSRBHraCvgSEdr EdleKarBbUCaRBHBuT§sasna. RTg;cUlcitþsil,³ ehIy manGñkR)aCJbNÐit enACuMvijRBHGgÁ. eBlNaRBHGgÁecjeFVIs®gÁam RTg;GnuvtþtamTsSn³rbs; GñkR)aCJbNÐitTaMgGs;enaH. RBH)aTyesavrµ½n )ansuKtenAqñaM908énRKisþskraC RtÚvnwgmhaskraC830 eday)an bnSl;TuknUvRBHkitþinamfa CaRBHecAGFiraCelIGs;RBHraCaTaMgLay CaRBHraCal¥tex©aH CaRBH 82 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 87. 83Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa GaTitü. RBHGgÁmanRBHmrNnamfa brmsivelak. kkMMNNtt;;ccMMNNaaMM ³³ erOgniTanExµrmYyEdl´)anerobrab;BIxagelIrYcmkehIy niyayfa BYkkm<úCa mankMeNItedImecjmkBIrdæmYyenANÐa sßitenACitTIRkúgEdløI. mü:ageTot Km<Irmnv³Fmµsa®sþ³ )anRbedAfa BYkkm<úC³ CaRbCara®sþmYykñúgbNþacMeNamRbCara®sþbYn EdlRtÚveKbeNþjecjBI NÐa eRBaH)anRbRBwtþbMBanelIc,ab;RbeTs. nKrBYkkm<úC³ enHsßitenAxagBay½BüTIRkúgEdløI ehIy Gacnwglatsn§wgmkekItq¶ayBITIRkúgEdløI. ehtukarN_d¾KYr[cg;dwgenHnwgKµanGVIsMxan;eT ebIKµan ehtukarN_mYyeTot enaHKWraCFanIRbkbeTAedaykMEpgkarBarrwgmaMEdlksageLIgedayRBH)aT yesavrµ½n maneQµaHfa ®nÞR)asß³ EdlKm<Irsa®sþaExµrehAkøayfa CanÞbtþ. EtvamanTIRkúgmYy munnwgeTAdl;TIRkúgEdløI EdlRtÚveKdutbMpøajexÞcxÞIGs;kalBI2000qñaMmun EtmanenAesssl; kemÞckmÞIenAeLIy enARbEhl5KILÚEm:RtBIEdløI EdlmaneQµaHfa ®nÞR)asß³Edr sBVéf¶GñkRsukehA fa nÞbtþ b¤GnÞbtþ. ehtuEdlRbCaCnkm<úCamYyenANÐÚcin maneQµaHdUceQµaHRbCaCnkm<úC³ EdleKbeNþjecj BINÐa ehIyBYkkm<úCamanraCFanImYyeQµaHdUcraCFanIrbs;BYkkm<úC³ Edlerobrab;fa BYkkm<úCaman kMeNItedImmkBINÐa KWCabBaðamYyEdlKYr[cab;GarmµN_Edr.
  • 88. 85Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa CMBUkTI7 kMNt;smÁal;GMBIRbCaCnEdlmanTMnak;TMngCamYykm<úCa BIstvtSr_TI8dl;stvtSr_TI10 ³ cam:,a/ GaNÑam-tugkwg/ cin nigNÐa LÚvenHGaNacRkkm<úCa)anRtÚvksageLIgvijehIyedaymanraCFanId¾FMmYyEdlCa{bnÞay RbkbedaykMEpgkarBarrwgmaM KµansRtÚvNavaydeNþImyk)an}/ manRBHraCaCaRBHecAGFiraC RtÜtRtaelIbNþaRbeTsCitxagehIyvatTwkdIhYsBIevogc½nÞeTAeTotenARbeTslav/nigmankitþinaml,I rnÞW{eTAsBVTisTIénBiPBelak}/enHebItamkarr:ayr:ab;rbs;silacarwk. etIkñúgGMLúgeBlenH bNþaraCaNacRkCitxagrbs;km<úCa EdleyIg)ansÁal;rYcmkehIy GacnwgmanT§iBltic b¤eRcIn mkelIkm<úCa tamrebobEbby:agdUcemþcxøH? 11-- nnKKrrccaamm::,,aa enAedImstvtSr_TI7 BYkcam)anRKb;RKgelITwkdImYyEdlRbhak;RbEhlRtÚvnwgGaNÑamsBVéf¶ enH. BYkcamenH )anvaykemÞcbNþaExRtxagt,Úgrbs;tugkwg EdlenACab;nwgRBMEdn/ deNþIm)an ExRtyINan CaExRtcin-GaNÑam ykmkkan;kab;mYyry³ Et)anRtÚvT½BGaNÑam EdldwknaMedayem bBa¢akarcin vayedjkm©at;rhUtcUlmkdl;épÞkñúgnKrcam:,a ehIybgç¿[sgkarxUcxat rYc[elIksYy sarGakreTAfVayeTot. raCFanInKrcam:,a rgkarvaykemÞcBIrelIk k¾b:uEnþBYkcamenAGacrkSaTwkdI)an elIkElgEtExRtyINanmYyEdlRtÚvRbKl;eTA[GaNÑamvij. kalBIstvtSr_TI5 raCsm,tþinKrcam:,amanRBHraCaExµrmYyGgÁesayraCü. enAstvtSr_TI7 raCsm,tþienH )anFøak;eTAkñúgkNþab;édRBahµN_mñak; EdleFVIKutRBHmhakSRt bnÞab;mkFøak;eTAkñúgéd mehsIRBahµN_ rYceTAkñúgédRBHGgÁm©as;bHe)armYyGgÁ EdlkøayCaRBHsVamI mehsIrbs;RBahµN_ k,t;enaH. nKrcam:,aFøab;CYbRbTHnwgbdivtþn_épÞkñúgCaeRcIn EdlCaehtunaMnKrenHQaneTArkkarrlt; rlay. k¾b:uEnþeTaHCay:agNakþI nasm½yenaH nKrenHminTan;)at;TwkdI sUm,ImYycMGamenAeLIyeT. enABak;kNþalstvtSr_TI8 nKrcam:,a)anTTYlrgeRKaHdUcCatugkwg nigkm<úCaEdr BIkarQøanBan rbs;BYkCn{sÁmkMRBwg ehIyexµARBIk} EdleFVIdMeNIrmkBIekaHsUm:aRta nigekaHBULÚkugD½r tam{nava breTs} ¬qñaM765-774 nig787 énRKisþskraC¦. GMeBIecarkmµenHRbEhlCaekItmanenAkñúgrC¢kalrbs;esþccam RBH)aTRBwT§ivi®nÞvrµ½n EdlCa
  • 89. RBHraCaTI3b¤TI4esayraCübnþBIRBH)aTviRktþvrµ½nenABak;kNþalTI2énstvtSr_TI8nigenAkñúgrC¢kal kµÜyrbs;RBHGgÁRBHnam RBH)aTstüvrµ½n EdlesayraCüBIqñaM774 dl;794. BYkcam)anrujRcan BYkQøanBan[dkfyecjeTAvij k¾b:uEnþRbeTskm<úCaTb;Tl;minQñH k¾RtÚvEbknKrCaBIredaysar braC½yenH KWkm<úCaTwk nigkm<úCaeKak tamsmþIBYkcin nigGaNÑam dUcEdleyIg)aneXIjBIxagelIrYc mkehIy. minyUrb:unµan eRkayBI)aneCosputBIeRKaHfñak;rYmrYcmk BYkcam)aneFVIkarQøanBaneTAelIExRt h‘n; nigGay rbs;GaNÑam enAqñaM808 eRkamrC¢kalrbs;RBH)aT®nÞvrµ½n CaRBHGnuCrbs;RBH)aT stüvrµ½n. BYkGaNÑam)anvaytbtvijedayeRbIkmøaMgT½Bd¾FM eFVI[BYkcambraC½y ehIyyl;RBmsg karxUcxat nigelIksYysarGakrfVayesþcGaNÑam. cab;BIeBlenaHmkraCFanIcas;KWlInyI)anRtÚve)aHbg;ecalRBHraCa)anyagmktaMgRBHraC vaMgenAÉ eQn EdlCakMBg;EpsmuRTmYysßitenAxagekItlInyI vij. ebItamBgSavtarniyayfa enA Ek,rkMBg;EpenaH manTIRkúgmYyeQµµµaHehAfa eQnQIn eTIb)anCaeKehAnKrcam:,afaCa raCaNacRk eQnQIn vij. KWBaküenHehIy EdlBYkGWr:ubehAkøaymkCakUsaMgsuIn1 . RBH)aThrivrµ½nEdlesayraCübnþBIRBH)aT®nÞvrµ½nenAqñaM813 ehIyEdlenAKg;elIraCsm,tþi enAeLIyenAqñaM817 b¤eRkayenaH min)anbnþeFVIs®gÁameT k¾b:uEnþ RBH)aTviRktþvrµ½n EdlsñgraCübnþBI RBHGgÁ )andwknaMT½Bratt,atbNþaExRtrbs;km<úCa ehIy)anvaycUlrhUtmkdl;kNþalépÞRbeTs EdlGacCaehtueFVI[RBH)aT®nÞvrµ½nTI1 elIkraCFanIBImeh®nÞbB’t eTAtaMgenAÉhrihrl½yvij edIm,I eCosBIcm,aMg. eRkayBIRtÚvvaybeNþjecjBIkm<úCamþgrYcmkBYkcam)anRtlb;mkvayRbharmþgeTotenAqñaM 898 kñúgraCüRBH)aTyesavrµ½nEdlCaraCbuRtrbs;RBH)aT®nÞvrµ½n EtRtÚvbraC½yehIykgT½BExµr 86 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 1 sUmGankMNt;smÁal;enATMB½rTI45. eK)an[nirutþisa®sþmYyeTotcMeBaHeQµaHenH KWeKGHGagfa kUsaMgsuIn enH Ca karGanrbs;BYkGWr:ubnUvBaküGaNÑamfa kUCimfaj; mann½yfa TwkdICimfaj; KWcam:,aenHÉg. elak eb:m:arInI )ansresr enAstvtSr_TI17fa kUsaMgsuIn køaymkBIBakü x©avCI mann½yfa emeCIgEkk ehIymanGñkxøHeTotniyayfa BaküenH CakarehAminRtÚvnUvBaküeQnQIgEdlcineRbIsRmab;ehAEpñkxagt,Úgén]bTVIbNÐÚcin.maneKniyayeTotfaBYkB½r TuyehÁ EdlsegáteXIjfa BYkcammanlkçN³dUcBYkhiNÐÚenAÉrdækUCin ehIyeXIjBYkGaNÑamdUcBYkcin k¾ehAGaNÑam PaKxagt,Úgfa kUsaMgsuIneTA. kñúgkrNIenH kUsaMgsuInKWNÐÚcin.
  • 90. 87Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa )anedjtamrhUtdl;raCFanI rYcdak;nKrcam:,aenAeRkamkarRtÜtRtarbs;esþcExµrmYyGgÁ Edlesay raCüenAnKrviC½y ¬KWkVagb‘íjsBVéf¶¦. k¾b:uEnþ enAeBlEdlRBH)aTyesavrµ½n Rtlb;mkRBHnKrvij RbkbedayeCaKC½yenaH RBHGgÁ )anRtÚvT½Bcam12sgáat; sáat;vayTal;EtRBHGgÁRtÚvvaydkfy eTAvijdUcEdl)aneXIjxagelIrYcmkehIy. 22-- GGaaNNÑÑaamm--ttuuggkkwwgg enAedImstvtSr_TI9 tugkwgsßitenAeRkamkarRtÜtRtarbs;cinenAeLIy ehIyRtÚvenAdUecñHyUrt eTAeTot fVIebImankarbHe)arRbqaMgnwgcinCajwkjyk¾eday. enAedImstvtSr_TI8 BYkGaNÑam )an bHe)arTUTaMgRbeTsRbqaMgnwgBYkcin ehIy)anRbkaselIkesþcmYyGgÁEdlRbEhlCamanedIm kMeNIthiNÐÚ RBHnamhak;eD ¬esþcexµA¦ [esayraCü. esþcexµAenH edaymanCMnYyBIT½BExµr nigcam 30muWnnak; )anvaykemÞcbnÞaycinmYy. k¾b:uEnþeRkayBIkarxitxMRbwgERbgRbkbedayeCaKC½y nig esckþIeRtkGrenHknøgputeTA tugkwg k¾RtÚvFøak;cUleRkamnwmRtÜtRtarbs;cineLIgvij enARKisþskraC 722 ehIysßitenAeRkamnwmRtÜtRtarbs;BYkGñkQñHy:agtwgEtgtaMgBIeBlenaHmk. enAdMNac;stvtSr_TI8 KWenAqñaM768 BYkGaNÑam)anegIbbHe)armþgeTot ehIy)anelIkemT½B eQµaH Pugh‘ug [eLIgesayraCüEdlEtgEtdwknaMkmøaMgvayT½Bcin EdlqøgcUlmkkñúgTwkdI [braC½y ral;elIk. k¾b:uEnþGt;BIesþcGgÁenHeTA buRtRBHGgÁRBHnamPugGaj; EdleLIgesayraCübnþ minman esckþIkøahannwgkarBaRRbeTseT EbrCaRbKl;xøÜncuHcUl]braC EdlcinbBa¢Ún[mkesayraCübnþBI Pugh‘ug eTAvij. raCFanIrbs;tugkwgkalBIeBlenaHKW haNUy dUcsBVéf¶Edr. KWCabnÞayRbdab;eTAedayeRKÓg karBar EdlmanGñkRsukrs;enACuMvij manpSar nigCaBiessKWmanbBa¢akarkNþalrbs;cinpg. enAcugstvtSr_TI9 BYkéfmkBI yunNan EdlcinehAfa Nanqav EtGaNÑamehAfa NamQav mann½yfa {esþckNþal} )ancUllukluytugkwg. enAkñúgs®gÁammYyCamYycin EdlEtgEtb:unb:g bMpøicbMpøajraCaNacRkrbs;eK sßitenAcenøaH yunNan nwg TIeb Rtg;mþúM talI BYkNanqavenH )anvay QñHT½Bcin EdlmanBlTahanmYyPaKFMCaBYkGaNÑamtugkwg ehIydeNþIm)an yunNan. eRkaymk BYkenH)anKaMRTBYkGñkRsukPñMenAxagelItugkwg EdlEtgEtrgkarKabsgát;BIecAhVayRkúghaNUy ehIyRtÚvecAhVayRkúgenH edjvayRbharrhUtCitdl;yunNan. BYkGñkRsukPñMenaHRbEhlCaBYk mYgsBVéf¶)annaMpøÚvT½BNanqavcuHtamRClgTenøRkhmmkvaykemÞctugkwgrYckan;kab;haNUy)an.
  • 91. raCFanIhaNUy)anRtÚvvaykemÞc dutbMpøaj rYcBYkNanqavRKb;RKgGaNÑamcMnYndb;qñaM BI qñaM860 dl;870 eTIbdkfyeTARsukvij ehIyRtÚvT½BéRBEdlcuHcUlCamYycin-GaNÑamsáat;vay RbharEfmeTot. eyIgnwgCYbCamYyBYkNanqav b¤éfenHeTot enAxageRkay enAeBlEdlBYkenHbgðajxøÜnmun dMbUgenAPUmarYcenAPaKxageCIgTenøemNamCaTIEdlBYkeKnwgksagraCaNacRkesom. tamemIleTA tugkwgeBlenaHminmanTMnak;TMngGVICamYykm<úCaeT eRBaHsßitenAq¶ay. Éksar Rbvtþisa®sþGaNÑammanniyayGMBIBYkExµrCaelIkdMbUg enAeBlEdl{GFiraCexµA {manedImkMeNIthiNÐÚ ehIyEdlRbEhlCaExµr )andwknaMT½BExµr-cam 30muWnnak; eTAvaytugkwg. cab;BIRtwmenaHmkRbCa ra®sþTaMgBIr hak;dUcCamin)ansÁal;KñaeT 2 . 33-- cciinn enAstvtSr_TI7RbeTscincab;rIkFMbnþicmþg²latsn§wgeTAxaglicpSayGarüFm’eTACb:unehIy cab;epþImvayb®gáabBYkNanqav b¤éf EdleTIbEtrYbrYmKñaCardæEtmYy eRBaHvarMxandl;cinkñúgkaryk TIebCacMNuH. cinRKb;RKgelItugkwg ehIykarBarGaNÑamRbqaMgnwgBYkcam edayEbgEckTwkdICabBa¢a kardæannigExRtx½NÐEdlmanenAesssl;rhUtdl;sBVéf¶.cin)aneFVI[tugkwgmansNþab;Fñab;rebob erobry snþisux ehIy[RbeTsenHTTYlykGarüFm’cin. cincg;eFVI[bNþaRbCaCnEdlFøab;)anTTYl karGb;rMepSg² ehIyEdlFøab;TTYlykGarüFm’hiNÐÚrYceTAehIy dUcCa lav/ cam:,a nigkm<úCa CaedIm [Rtlb;mkTTYlykGarüFm’cinvij. T§iBlrbs;cinmkelIRbeTsCitxagFMeFgNas;. eRkayeBlcincaj;BYkm:ugehÁal ehIyman raCvgSfµImYyeLIgesayraCü CamYynwgesþc KUb‘ÍéLxan; T§iBlenH kan;EtrIkFMNas;eTAeTotenAcug bUB’aRbeTs. 88 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 2 teTAenH CaeQµaHEdlExµr)aneRbIsRmab;ehAGaNacRkGaNÑam ehIyenAEtbnþehAdl;sBVéf¶ ³ tugkwg=taMgKü³/ y:avCI=yYnKav/GaNÑam=yYn.BaküyYnenHeFVI[eyIgnwkdl;bBa¢akarcinenAExRtxagt,Úgbg¥s;rbs;tugkwgeQµaHfa yINan EdlBYkcamdeNþImyk)anehIykan;kab;y:agyUr nigeQµaHExRtyunNan rbs;cinpgEdr.
  • 92. 89Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 44-- NNÐÐaa enAstvtSr_TI7 RbeTsNÐa/ EdlBYkExµrsm½yenaHsÁal;eRkameQµaHfa GarüeTs³ b¤kligÁ nigCaRbPBedImrbs;BYkCnEdlmkbegáItCaGaNaniKm bgá)anCaraCaNacRkkm<úCa ehIybBa¢ÚnBYk RBahµN_BaNiC¢kr nigsil,krmkpg/ kMBugEtbBa©b;bdivtþn_sasnamYy Edlcab;epþImtaMgEtBIRKisþ stvtSr_TI1mk. edaymanGarüFm’RBhµBaØsasnataMgEtBIyUrlg;mkemø:H NÐa)anERbmkkan;BuT§- sasnavijmþg enAstvtSr_TI4munRKisþskraC eRkamrC¢kalrbs;RBH)aTFmµesak Caesþcesay raCüenAbtlIbuRt EdlCaTIRkúgmYy manmunbtnasBVéf¶ EdlenACitKñaenaH. BuT§sasna mankarrIk ceRmIn rhUtmkdl;stvtSr_TI2munRKisþskraC. esþcGesak³ EdledIrtYCaesþckugsþg;taMgpg Ca esþckøÚvIs pg bEnßmelIenaH KWCaemsasnaEfmeTot )anbþÚrmkkan;BuT§sasnavij ehIykarBar sasnaenH RBmTaMg)ancat;taMgebskCnecjpSBVpSayRKb;TisTI. RBHGgÁ)aneFVI[NÐaTaMgmUlbþÚr mkkan;BuT§sasnavij kñúgGMLúgeBlmindl;3stvtSr_pg eRkayBIRBHGgÁsuKteTA. GMeNIHGs;BIRBH )aTGesak³eTABuT§sasnaenAbnþrIkceRmInmYyry³eTotEtfmfybnþicmþg².eBlenaHBYkRBahµN_ EdlenAmanesssl; kalebIBinitüeXIjfa BuT§sasnikCnlg;lk;nwgCIvPaBFmµtaehIy k¾cab;epþIm ekogKrRbCaCn[Rtlb;mkkan;CMenOcas;vij.eRkamT§iBlBYkRBahµN_enHBuT§sasna)anERbkøay mkCasasnamYysuxs¶b; ehIyvtþGaramk¾minsUvmanmnusSecjcUl. bUCnIeysk_ cineQµaH hVah‘ag Edl)aneFVIdMeNIrmkdl;NÐa enAstvtSr_TI4 edIm,IsVHEsVgrkTIkEnøgEdlRBHBuT§Kg;enA vtþGaramEdlFøab;maneQµaHl,I nigrkKm<IrepSg²pg )anbBa¢ak;fa TIkEnøgEdleKeKarBbUCamankar )ak;EbkxøH²ehIy. eRkaymkeTot enABak;kNþalTI1énstvtSr_TI7 bUCnIeysk_ cinmñak;eTot eQµaHh‘ansagEdlmanCMenOeCOs‘b;kñúgBuT§sasnanigmancm¶l;eRcInEtqab;eCO)anmkdl;NÐaEdr ehIy)anerobrab;fa minRKan;EtRbTHeXIjkEnøgskáarbUCaCaeRcIn EdlRtÚveKe)aHbg;b:ueNÑaHeT KWvtþTaMgLay Edl hVah‘ag erobrab;BImun LÚvmanvihar)ak;Ebk ehIyRtÚveKe)aHbg;ecal manBuT§- sasnikCntictYcmindl;TaMg100nak;pgEdlkalBImunmandl;eTArab;Ban;ÉeNaH.enHehIyCakar Gab;»n cuHénBuT§sasna Edlcab;epþImtaMgBIRKWsþskraCTI1mk )anFøak;Gab;»nxøaMgenAstvtSr_TI3 ehIybnþmkstvtSr_eRkay²eTot rYcehIyrwtEty:ab;yuWnsþarElgrYcEtmþgenAstvtSr_TI7. eK cab;epþImePøcTIkEnøgBisidæEdlFøab;eKarBbUCaehIyEdlFøab;manmnusSeRcInkuHkrkalBIstvtSr_mun² ehIyerOgr:avTak;TinnwgRbeTsCati k¾)anERbkøayeTACaerOgniTanxøH²eTAehIyEdr. eKcab;sagsg; viharRBhµBaØsasna enAelITItaMgvtþBuT§sasna ehIyGñkRsukk¾Rtlb;mkeKaBbUCaRBHRBhµ RBHsiv³
  • 93. RBHvisÑú nigGaTieTBepSg²eTot EdlEbgPaKecjBIRBHTaMgbI. enAeBlEdlsasnamham:at;mkdl; eFVI[BuT§sasnaEdlkMBugEtRtdrxül;rlt;rlay)at;eTA ehIyKMramkMEhgmkelIRBhµBaØsasnaEdleTIbEterIbrs;raneLIgvij enAkm<úCaÉeNaH k¾TTYl)annUv T§iBlénkarcuH»nfyrbs;BuT§sasna nigkarERbRtlb;mkkan;RTwsþIsasnacas; dUcenANÐavij Edr. GaNaniKmhiNÐÚPaKeRcInsuT§CaBYkeKarBRBahµN_ ehIyRBHraCak¾suT§CaGñkeKarBbUCa fµ sVy½mÖú RBHsiv³ b¤RBHvisÑú. eTvraCrbs;RBH)aT®nÞvrµ½nGacCaRBHRBhµb¤RBHsiv³ ehIyk¾GacCaRBHvisÑú pg Edr eRBaHGaTieTBnImYy²kñúgbNþaGaTieTBTaMgbIGacRtÚv)ancat;TukfaekItmun ekItmanedayxøÜnÉg ehIyGaTieTBnImYy²k¾tMNag[GñkTaMgBIreTotpgk¾mindwg. k¾b:uEnþkñúgcMeNamBYkGñkeKarBRBhµBaØ sasna k¾manBuT§sasnikCnpgEdr EtmancMnYnticCag. KWedayehtuenHehIy)anCakareFVIGenþa Rbevsn_mkkan;km<úCaPaKeRcInCaGñkkan;RBhµBaØsasna b¤mYyfaeBlmandMeNIrcakRsukenaH BuT§- sasna»nfyxøaMgNas;eTAehIy b¤k¾fa BYkGñkecjmkeRcInmkBINÐaPaKxagt,Úg EdlenArkSakar eKarBRBhµBaØsasna minTan;)anERbeTAkan;BuT§sasnadUcenAPaKxageCIgeT. EtGVIEdlBitR)akd KWfa eBlenaH enAÉNÐaeK)angakecjBIsavkrbs;RBHBuT§ehIy ehIyenAkm<úCaÉenHvij BuT§sasna k¾)an»nfyehIyEdr. RBH)aTyesavrµ½n EdleKarBbUCaeTvraCrbs;RBHGgÁEdlRTg;pÁÚeTAnwgRBHsiv³ nigEdl)ancat; [ksagvtþ GaRsm nigbdimaRBHsiv³ nigRBHnagruRTCaRBHCaya CaeRcIn min)aneFVITukçbukemñjBYk BuT§sasnikCneT. RBHGgÁcat;TukBYkenHesµI²KñanwgBYkRBahµN_Edr ehIy)anGnuBaØat[BYkenHman vtþ vihar nigbdimaRBHBuT§ sRmab;eKarBbUCadUcKña. k¾b:uEnþkm<úCaCaRbeTsTTYlGarüFm’BINÐamk CaBiessKWBINÐaPaKxagt,Úg. edayehtuenH CMenOsasnaEdleKeKarBbUCak¾CasasnaEdlRbCaCnkMBugEteKarBenANÐanasm½yenaHEdreBal KW RBhµBaØsasna kareKarBGaTieTB. dUecñH km<úCaRtÚvsßitenACaRbeTskan;RBhµBaØsasnarhUtdl; Gs;esþcvgSvrµ½n. srubesckþImk BuT§sasnaElgmanenANÐaeTotehIy KWEbrCaeTARCkekanenAÉRsukcin Edl )anTTYltaMgBIRKisþstvtSr_TI1mk/ enAekaHsirIlgáaEdl)anTTYltaMgBIstvtSr_TI3mk/ enAÉekaHCVa nig)alIEdl)anTTYltaMgBIstvtSr_TI5mk nigenAen):al;. RBHBuT§sasnak¾TTYl)aneCaKC½ypgEdr enATIeb nigenACb:un k¾b:uEnþRBHBuT§sasnaRtÚvrlay)at;eTAenAnwgRbeTskMeNIt CaTIkEnøgEdlRBHBuT§ Rtas;dwgEtmþg. 90 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 94. 91Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa karEdlRBHBuT§sasnarlt;)at;BIRbeTsNÐaKWCaRBwtþikarN_FMmYy b:uEnþ´KitfavaCaerOgl¥ eRBaHfakarpøas;CMnYssasnamYyEdleBareBjeTAedayfamBlcMeBaHCatimYyvaRbesIrCagsasna mYyEdlmanEtbrmtßviTU/ TsSnviTUEdlTMEBkRCuHsk;Gs;edaysarEtsmaFi nigmanEtFm’RTwsþI EdleFVI[gguyegakgk;b:ueNÑaH. enAeBlEdlbdivtþn_sasnaenHkMBugEtQandl;cugbBa©b;eTAehIy manbdivtþn_mYyeTot Edl RbkbeTAedayplvi)akCaeRcIn )anekItmaneLIgy:agsahavenAÉcugmçageToténBiPBelak ehIy epþImKMrammkelINÐapgEdr. enAcugstvtSr_TI6énRKisþskraCKW600qñaMeRkayRBHeys‘URKisþnig1100qñaMeRkayRBHBuT§ manGñkTsSn_TayedayEp¥kelIGFiFmµCatimñak;eTot )anR)akdxøÜneLIgenARbeTsGar:ab;eQµaH mha m:at;)ancab;epþImpSBVpSaylT§isasnamYyfµI.b:uEnþxusBIRBHBuT§nigRBHeys‘URKisþEdlsøÚtbUtehIyl¥ RtwmRtÚv mham:at; )anpSaysasnaedaymankan;GavuFenAnwgédKYr[xøac. mham:at; edIrpSBVpSay sasnapgeFVIs®gÁampg. enAeBlEdl mham:at; søab;eTA sac;jati nigjatiB½n§rbs;Kat; )anGnuvtþ neya)ayKat;bnþeTot KWRbkass®gÁamCamYyBiPBcas; nigCMenOBImun² ehIybnþKMramkMEhgdl; RKb;sgÁm. CaCatisasn_mYyKµanGarüFm’ BYkenH)anTTYlPaBsuIvil½yRtwmEtecHedIrpSBVpSaybnþ dl;GñkdéTNa EdleK)anGUsTaj[manCMenO edaybgç¿ nigkab;smøab;GñkNaEdlCmñHminRBm eCOtam. manEtBYk GñkEdlminsb,aycitþ GñkEdlrgnUvkarKabsgát;énBiPBeGhSIb-Rkik-r:UmuaMg ¬BYkGñkEdlecHEtmémKit/ BYkRKisþsasnik/ BYkCVIv/ TaMgGñkl¶g;exøATaMgGñkR)aCJ¦ EdlbþÚrmkcuHcUl CamYyCMenOfµIenH. bNþaRbeTsEdlc,aMgcaj; k¾RBmTTYlykkarRtÜtRtarbs;Gar:ab; CamYynwg Gacarü nigGaTieTBEtmYyrbs;eK. bNþakulsm<½n§Edlc,aMgcaj; )anRtÚvRbmUlpþú¿mkkñúgCMenOs‘b; bþÚrsøab;bþÚrrs;EtmYy rYcerobcMCakgT½BFMmYy eRtómcaMEtecjeFVIs®gÁam dutbMpøaj nigkab;smøab; b:ueNÑaH. emdwknaMFM²én CMenOenHk¾CaGñkcm,aMg )anecjdwknaMT½BxøHeTAvayykGa®hVikxageCIg xøHeTotmkNÐa eFVI[RbeTsenHRtÚvrgnUvkardutbMpøaj nigkab;smøab;y:agxøaMg. RbeTsNÐaRtÚvrgnUvkarKMram nigTukçlM)aky:agdMNM ehIyRtÚvEbk)ak;rvagKñaÉgnwgKñaÉg edaykarcuHexSay. BYkesþcc,aMgKña minecHsamKÁIKñaRbqaMgTb;Tl;nwgeRKaHfñak;rYmeT ehIyenAbnþ beBa©jkMhwgdak;KñaenAcMeBaHmuxsRtÚv EdlGgÁúyemIlrg;caMEtGñkTaMgBIrGs;édnwgcab;s®gÁúbbgç¿ [cuHcUlnwgsasnaeKEtmþg. karEdlBYkGar:ab;kan;sasnamham:at; eFVIkarvaydeNþImykBiPBelakmYycMENkFMdUecñH Ca
  • 95. mhaP½yd¾kacsahavmYycMeBaHBiPBcas; eRBaHvabMEbkGWr:ubecjBIGasuI ehIybegáItCaéRBmnusS mYyEbb EdlminmannrNamñak;gaynwgeFVIdMeNIrqøgkat;edayminmaneRKaHfñak;dl;CIvitNas;. BYk Gar:ab;kat;pþac;pøÚvEdltP¢ab;BIGWr:ubmkkan;NÐa BINÐaeTAGWr:ub eFVI[BYkGWr:ubElgsÁal;Rsukcin Cb:un NÐÚcin nigekaHm:aeL rhUtdl;stvtSr_TI14 b¤15. enANÐa BYkenHpþÜlrMlMviharRBhµBaØsasna yksmÖarmkksagviharmUsøImvij ehIy)anbegáItGaNacRkxøaMgkøamYyRtÜtRtaelI]bTVIbTaMgmUl TaMgminGacbM)at;GnaFibetyü nigpþl;nUvsnþiPaB[]bTVIbenHpgeT. 92 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 96. 93Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa CMBUkTI8 RbeTskm<úCa BIstvtSr_TI10 dl; stvtSr_TI14 11-- RRBBHH))aaTThhss’’vvrrµµ½½nnTTII11 ¬¬990088-- ??¦¦ enAeBlEdlRBH)aTyesavrµ½n suKteTAenAqñaM908 raCbuRtrbs;RBHGgÁ)aneLIgesayraCü bnþeRkamRBHGPiesknamfaRsIhs’vrµ½n.RBHRsIhs’vrµ½nRTg;Kg;enAyesaFbur³dEdlk¾b:uEnþRbEhl Ca)anbþÚreQµaHraCFanIeTACa hs’Fbur³ tamTmøab;. RBHGgÁ)ansem<aFR)asaTPimanGakas Rbkb edayranhalx<s; Edlcab;epþImsagsg;enAkñúgrC¢kalRBHbitaRBHGgÁ. eKmin)andwgeTfakSRtGgÁenHsuKtenAqñaMNaeTRKan;EtdwgfaRTg;manRBHmrNnamfaruRTelak mann½yfa RTg;CaePJóvrbs;RBHruRT³. 22-- RRBBHH))aaTT||ssaannvvrrµµ½½nnTTII22 ¬¬?? --992288¦¦ RBHraCaEdlesayraCübnþBIRBH)aThs’vrµ½n KWRBHGnuCrbs;RBHGgÁ EdlCaRBHraCbuRtrbs; RBH)aTyesavrµ½nEdr ehIymanRBHGPiesknamfa RsI|sanvrµ½n. RBHGgÁmanRBahµN_buerahitman eQµaHfaEsþgGjkumar³sVamIEdlGtßbTmYy)anelIksresIrfaCa{GñkBUEkxagBiFIbUCanigFøab;eFVICa buerahitrbs;RBH)aT®nÞvrµ½nTI1. RBH)aT|sanvrµ½n suKteTAenARKisþskraC928 RtÚvnwgmhaskraC850 ehIyRTg;man RBHmrNnamfa RBHbrmruRTelak mann½yfa CaePJóvrbs;RBHbrmruRT³. 33-- RRBBHH))aaTTCC½½yyvvrrµµ½½nnTTII55 ¬¬992288--994422¦¦ RBHraCaEdleLIgesayraCübnþBIRBH)aT|sanvrµ½nenAqñaM928 RbEhledayERCkraCü KWRBH bitularbs;RBHGgÁ RBHnam RBH)aTRsIC½yvrµ½n EdlCaRBHGnuCrbs;RBH)aTyesavrµ½n. mindwgfaedaymankarbHe)arRbqaMgnwgkareLIgesayraCürbs;RBHGgÁBIraCFanIcas;b¤k¾faRBH GgÁ manmhicätacg;sg;raCFanImYy Edll¥CagraCFanIEdlRBHerom)ansg; RBH)aTRsIC½yvrµ½n )an e)aHbg;GgÁrFMehIynaMykeTvraCeTAtaMgraCFanIenAÉeCaKKK’üar1 EdlRbEhlCaGninÞtþbur³¬mann½y 1 tamelakéGm:UnIej/ KK’üar CaeQµaHedImKKIr EdlkøaymkCaekaHekrþ×.
  • 97. faraCFanIénBYkRBanRbmaj;¦KWekaHekrþ×sBVéf¶sßitenAkñúgExRtRBhµeTBenABIxageCIgExRtkMBg;FM2 . ehararbs;RBHGgÁKW EsþgGj|sanmurTi RtÚvCaecArbs;vmsiv³ nigCaemRKÜsarsiv³ékvlü³ EdlCabuerahitTImYyéneTvraC. silacarwkmYy3 )anelIkBIRBHGgÁfa RTg;)aneFVIs®gÁammanC½yCmñHelIBYkcam ehIy)an{eFVI s®gÁameTARKb;TisTaMgbYn}. RBH)aTC½yvrµ½TI5 suKtenAqñaM912 ehIyRTg;manRBHmrNnamfa RBHbrmsiv³bT CaePJóv rbs;RBH]tþmsiv³. 44-- RRBBHH))aaTThhss’’vvrrµµ½½nnTTII22 ¬¬994422--994444¦¦ RBHraCbuRtab¥Únrbs;RBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI5 )aneLIgesayraCübnþBIRBHGgÁenAeCaKKK’üar eRkam RBHGPiesknamfa RsIhs’vrµ½n. ehararbs;RBHraCaGgÁenH KWEsþgGjGtµsiv³ CaGñkerobcMBiFIbUCa fVayRBHeTvraC. Gtµ³siv³enH CakµÜyrbs;|sanmurTi EdlCabuerahitrbs;RBHbitaRBHGgÁ. silacarwkRBHnÞekasiy )anelIksresIrRBHraCaGgÁenHfa CaRBHecAGFiraC Edl {man nxa ¬Rkck¦ RBH)aTPøWrelagedaysarb:HnwgmkudRBHraCaTaMgLayenAelIBiPBelakenH EdlmkRkabbgÁ¿ Kal;} nigfa RBHGgÁeRbób)aneTAnwg {RBHGaTitünaGrueNaT½ypg nigRBHc½nÞeBjvg;tpÞwmpg}. eK niyayfa KWCa {RBHc½nÞénraCvgSekaNÐBaس CaTIRbCuMénKuNFm’TaMgLay}4 . k¾b:uEnþRBH)aThs’vrµ½nTI2RTg;esayraCüminTaMg)anBIrqñaMpgCaehtueFVI[eKsYrfaetIRBHGgÁ)an deNþImraCüsm,tþiBIRBHeromEdlesayraCübnþBIRBHGgÁb¤y:agNa. ebIBuMenaHeT RbsinebIRBHGgÁ min RtÚvRBHeromeFVIXateT etIRBHGgÁ nigRBHbita CabkSBYksRtÚvnwgmhanKr ehIyRBHraeC®nÞvrµ½n CaRBH eromCabkSBYkxagyesaFrbur³ b¤GVI? RBH)aThs’vrµ½nTI2 manRBHmrNnamfa RBhµelak ³ mann½yfa CaePJóvrbs;RBHRBhµ. 94 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 2 RkúmR)asaTekaHekrþ×mansarsMxan;Nas;EdrKWmanR)asaTcMnYnRbEhl15kb;)at;kñúgéRB.elakéGm:UnIej)an rkeXIjsilacarwkCag40 man 1500bnÞat; manerobrab;eQµaHGñkbeRmICag 4000nak; edayminTan;KitBI´pg. sUmGanesovePArbs;elak éGm:UnIej/ km<úCa k,alTI1TMB½r397-411 nigk,alTI2 TMB½r368. 3 silacarwkR)asaTKuk sUmGanesovePArbs;elakéGm:UnIej eQµaHkm<úCa k,alTI2 TMB½r419. 4 k,alTI1 TMB½r90.
  • 98. 95Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 55-- RRBBHH))aaTTrraaeeCC®®nnÞÞvvrrµµ½½nnTTII22 ¬¬994444--996688¦¦ RBH)aTraeC®nÞvrµ½n CaRBHraCbuRtac,grbs;RBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI5 nigRtÚvCaRBHeromrbs;RBHraCa mun.RTg;RbkbeTAedayRBHsmösSl¥éRkElg.RBHGgÁ)aneLIgesayraCüenAqñaM944ehIy)annaM RBHraCvgS/raCbriBarnigeTvraCRBmTaMgRBahµN_buerahitRtlb;mkKg;enAnKrRsIyesaFrbur³¬GgÁr FM¦ vij EdlRtÚve)aHbg;cMnYn16qñaMmkehIy. RBHGgÁ)aneFVI[raCFanIenH {ERbkøayeTACal¥sem,Im nigRss;RbwmRbIy_ edaysg;pÞHeFVIGMBImascaMgepøk nigsg;vaMgrMelceTAedayt,Úgfµ eRbób)aneTAnwg R)asaTrbs;RBHmeh®nÞ³sg;enAelIdI}5 . enAkñúgrC¢kalrbs;RBHraCaGgÁenH Edlmanry³eBl24qñaM manGPiCnmñak;maneKarmügarCa kRmetgeQµaHfanK³Kul³)ansagsg;R)asaTCaeRcIn]TÞisdl;RBHsiv³nigmanrdæm®nþImñak;eToteQµaH fakvi®nÞrimtßnaCaGñksm,ÚrRTBüsm,tþidUcCaExSRkvat;/fUTwk/ERKEsñg/Rkvil.l.)ansagsg;RBH bdimaRBHBuT§mYycMnYn. RBHraCapÞal; )anksagR)asaTembuNüenAcMkNþalGagTwkmYy rYcsagbdima virBa©³mYy/ bdimaeTvImYy/ s³ ¬siv³¦ mYy/ srigÁin ¬visÑú¦ mYy nigligÁRBHsiv³ mYy. silacarwkRBHnÞekasiy)anelIksresIrRBH)aTraeC®nÞvrµ½nfaCa{TIeKarBbUCaénRBHraCaTaMg Lay RTg;CaesþcGbraC½y nigEtgEtmanC½yCmñHCanic©elIxµaMgsRtÚv. RTg;eRbób)aneTAnwgrtnvtßú enAelIkMBUlmkudénRBHraCaTaMgGs;enAelIEpndIenH. C½yCmñHrbs;RBHGgÁl,IrnÞWeTARKb;TisTI}. TaMgGs;enH hak;dUcCabBa¢ak;fa RBH)aTraeC®nÞvrµ½n )aneFVIs®gÁamCaeRcIn ehIy)anedjvaysRtÚv rhUtdl;kñúgépÞRbeTseKeTotpg. silacarwk)aTCuMenAkñúgExRtesomrab)anniyayfa {RBHnaglkSµI EdlCanarIl¥elIs®sþITaMg LaykñúgPBTaMgbI RTg;enOyNayCaxøaMgnwgkarfñak;fñmrbs;BYksur³ nigGsur³ ehIyEbrmkCab;citþnwg RBHP½®kþd¾Rss;RbimRbiyrbs;RBHGgÁ edIm,IeRkbCBa¢k;ykTwkdménsmösSrbs;RTg;vij. RBHnag BwgEp¥kmkelIRBHvisÑúelIdIenH EdleBareBjeTAedayesckþIkøahankRmitkMBUl enAeBlEdlFUlIhuy RTelameLIg )anbgáCaPaBggwtsUnüsugmYydUceBlyb;}. {RTg;CastVsigðkñúgcMeNamRBHraCaTaMgLay nigCastVsigðénmnusSCati}. RTg;)anvayyk nKrcam:,aenAqñaM960 KWenAkñúgrC¢kalesþccam RBHbremsVrvrµ½n b¤k¾kñúgrC¢kalRBHraCaEdlesay 5 silacarwk)aTCuM
  • 99. raCübnÞab; EteKmin)ansÁal;RBHnameT. silacarwkbkSIcaMRkúg)anelIksresIrBIRBH)aTraeC®nÞvrµ½n fa {RBHGgÁeRbób)aneTAnwgRBHGKÁI Edlduteralral;raCaNacRkbc©amiRt CaBiess KWnKrcam:,a}. bEnßmBIelIenaHÉksarRbvtþisa®sþcin)anbBa¢ak;fakm<úCasm½yenaHCamhaGMNacmYymanRBHraCa cMNuHeRcInCag60RBHGgÁ. mansilacarwkcammYy KWsilacarwkeBaFinKr )anerobrab;faenAkñúgs®gÁamCamYycam BYkExµr Edl{eBareBjeTAedayesckþIelaPln; nig)abFm’} )anlYcykeTAnUvRBHbdimaRBHPKvaTi eFVIGMBI mas {manBnøWRtcHdUcRBHc½nÞeBjvg;elIevhas_ nig)anlHbg;RBHkaykñúgkardwknaMnKrcam:,a Edl esþcRsI®nÞvrµ½n{)anksageLIgkñúgqñaM918dak;kñúgRBHvihar.silacarwkenaH)anbEnßmeTotfa{BYk ExµrenaH eRkaymkRtÚvsøab;Gs;} k¾b:uEnþ min)anbBa¢ak;fa etIsøab;edayrebobNaeT6 . enAsm½yenaHÉksarcin)anehAraCaNacRkbRgÜbbRgÜmTaMgBIrfaCamLab;RbEhledayyk BüagÁdMbUgéneQµaHraCFanIcam:,aKWCamecndak;P¢ab;nwgBüagÁeRkayrbs;eQµaHkm<úCaKWcinLab;.k¾b:uEnþ nKrcam:,aRbEhlCamin)anenAeRkamkarRtÜtRtarbs;km<úCayUreTBIeRBaHfamanesþccammYyGgÁ)an sagsg;RBHbdima RBHPKvaTi eLIgvijEtGMLúgeBlR)aMqñaMeRkayEdlBYkExµrlYcykeTAEtb:ueNÑaH. RBH)aTraeC®nÞvrµ½n7 )ansuKtenAqñaM968énRKisþskraC RtÚvnwgmhaskraC890 ehIyman RBHmrNnamfa sivelak ³ mann½yfa RTg;CaePJóvrbs;RBHsiv³. 66-- RRBBHH))aaTTCC½½yyvvrrµµ½½nnTTII66 ¬¬996688--11000022¦¦ RBHraCaEdlesayraCübnþBIRBH)aTraeC®nÞvrµ½n KWRBHraCbuRtrbs;RBHGgÁ RBH)aTRsIC½yvrµ½n TI6 EdlCaRBHraCaEkTRmg; b¤Rbtüasßabnik nigCaRBHraCaBUEkxageFVIs®gÁam EtmanGFüaRs½yl¥. silacarwkRBH®nÞekasiy )andMNalfa {RBHGgÁ)anerobcM[mansNþab;Fñab;l¥kñúgvNѳ} eRbóbbI dUcCaerobcMeLIgedayRBHRBhµpÞal;. RBHGgÁRbkbeTAedayeTBekaslü nigmanRBHhtßakan;kg 96 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 6 RBHbdimaenH )anRtÚvBYkcamsagsg;eLIgvij R)aMqñaMeRkaymk enAqñaM965 edayRBHraCacamRBHnamfa C½yi®nÞ- vrµ½n. 7 elak éGm:UnIej )anesñIfa RBHraeC®nÞvrµ½n enHKWCatYGgÁRBHbkSIcaMRkúgkñúgerOgniTan. karsnµtienHminRtwmRtÚveT ehIyrwtEtminRtwmRtÚvNas;eTAeTot eRBaHfaerOgenHk¾manEdrenAÉRsukesom RKan;EtmaneQµaHepSg nigenATIkEnøg epSgb:ueNÑaH.
  • 100. 97Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa cRk. enAeBlRTg;ecjdMeNIrmþg² sn§wkeCIgkgT½Brbs;RBHGgÁ eFVI[keRkIkEpndI nigéRBPñMTaMgLay eRbób)annwgmhasaKrEdlRtÚvrBa¢ÜyedayBüúHxül;} dUecñaHEdr. eBlenaH {sn§wksÁrlayLMCamYysMeLgkgrMBgrbs;KgeXµaHeFVIGMBIs<an; nigERt xøúy s½gç>>> eFVI[BYksRtÚvP½y)ak;bbxøbxøacCaxøaMg}. silacarwkk¾)anelIkBIRBHGgÁEdrfa RTg;)andutbMpøaj RbeTsTaMgLayNaEdlRBHGgÁeFVIs®gÁamCamYy edayniyayfa {GNþatePøIgénkarbUCaEdlekIt eLIgBIRbtibtþikarrbs;RBHGgÁ bgá)anCaEpSgFMEvg eRbób)annwgTg;C½ycm,aMg eFVI[sRtÚvP½yxøac ehIyrt;eKcecj)at;Gs; ebIeTaHCaGg;Gacy:agNak¾eday}. RBHGgÁKYr[xøacxøaMgNas; enAeBl EdlRTg;xJal;³{kalNaRBHGgÁRKhwmdUcraCsIh_eBlmankMhwgRBHraCaCasRtÚvTaMgLayrt;eKccUl éRBeRCA eRbób)annwgstVQøÚsd¾kMsak. enAeBlEdlRBHGgÁelIkdavd¾mutføa RbLak;eTAedayQam EdlhUrecjBIsirsasRtÚv eKeXIjRBHGgÁdUcCaRBHnagC½yCmñHd¾Rss;s¥at EdlmanRBHhsþ nig RBH)aTRkhmeTAedaylm¥gpáa}. silacarwkdEdl)anniyayEfmeTotfa {RBHhsþRBHGgÁEdleRbób)annwgs<anyutþiFm’ qøg kat;mhasaKrd¾esµakeRKakénstvtSr_ >>> manragsgðaRss;RbimRbiy} s¥atelIsBIRBHnagkameTB ehIyeFVI[BiPBelakenH manBnøWeRbóbbIdUcRBHc½®nÞkMBugrH}. dUcCaRBHraCamun² cab;taMgBIRBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI3mk RBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI6 k¾manbuerahitsRmab; erobcMBiFIbUCafVayRBHeTvrraCpgEdr. buerahitrbs;RBHGgÁKW EsþgGjGtµ³siv³ EdlCabuerahit rbs;RBH)aTraeC®nÞvrµ½nCaRBHvraCbita. RTg;k¾manrdæm®nþImYyrUbCaGñkkan;BuT§sasna EdlFøab;)an beRmIRBHbitaEdr ehIyEdlRTg;manTMnukTukcitþCaxøaMg. rdæm®nþIenaHmaneQµaHfa RKitþibNÐit )aneFVI karCYsCulRBHBuT§bdimaEdlRtÚveKbMpøicbMpøajRbEhlCakñúgsm½ymanvibtþisasna ehIyk¾)ansag sg;RBHBuT§bdimafµI²CaeRcIn. RBHraCa )anRbKl;[m®nþIenHerobcMtubEtgraCFanIEfmeTot. RBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI6 )anCMruj[mankarGnueRKaHkan;EtxøaMg. vahak;dUcCaRBHGgÁmanbMNgcg; pþl;siT§i[BuT§sasnanigpþl;snþiPaBxagCMenOdl;RbCanura®sþedayTajsasnaTaMgBIrmkCitKñaeBalKW [RBahµN_buerahiténBiFIeTvraCeKarBRBHBuT§ehIy[BuT§sasnikCneKarBRBHeTvraCvij.eFVIy:agenH KWcg;bRgÜbbRgÜmsasnaTaMgBIrmkEtmYy edaycat;TukRBHBuT§esµInwgGaTieTBmYyGgÁénRBhµBaØsasna ehIyebIeTaHCasasnaTaMgBIrmanRTwsþIxusKñaxøaMgy:agNak¾eday KW[TaMgRBahµN_ TaMgRbCaCn eTAeFVI BiFIbUCaRBHsiv³ nigRBHnagkalI TaMgGs;Kña rYcehIynaMKñaeTAfVaybgÁ¿bdimaRBHBuT§ EdlFøab;)anbgðat; beRgónGMBIbrmtßviC¢a/ snþiPaBpøÚvcitþ/ ]ebkçacitþcMeBaHvtßúTaMgLayelIelak nigkarlHbg;ecalnUvkar
  • 101. sb,ayeRKatRKaténEpndIenH. KWCaectnarMlaysasnacUlKñad¾cEmøk RbEhledaysßanPaB neya)ayépÞkñúgehIyemIleTA CaBiess KWT§iBlkan;EtekIneLIgénRBHBuT§sasna kñúgRsTab;Gñk TIRkúg k¾dUcCaGñkERscmáar nigraCbriBar. cMNucmYyeTotEdl´cg;bBa¢ak;GMBIrC¢kalenHKWnarI²ebIehacNas;k¾m©as;kSRtIy_ehIyk¾Gac manbuRtIrbs;BYkRBahµN_ nigesnabtIxøHpgEdr Edl)aneronsURtGacecHGanesovePA)an. sila carwkRBH®nÞekasiy )an[dwgfa emRkúmelxapÞal;rbs;RBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI6 KWRBHnagR)aCJa EdlCa RBHGKÁmehsImYyGgÁrbs;RBHbitaRBHGgÁ. RBHraCaGgÁenHRTg;suKteTAenAqñaM1002énRKisþskraC RtÚvnwgmhaskraC924. RTg;man RBHmrNnamfa brmvIr³elak mann½yfa CaePovrbs;RBHbrmGKñi. 77-- RRBBHH))aaTTssuurriiyyaavvrrµµ½½nnTTII11 ¬¬11000022--11004499¦¦ RBH)aTsuriyavrµ½nmanRBHnamedImehAfavIrC½yvrµ½n RTg;Cabcäajatiq¶ayrbs;RBH)aT®nÞvrµ½n EdlesayraCüBIqñaM877dl;899ehIyRTg;manRBHGKÁmehsIKWRBHnagRsivIr³lkSµIEdlCab;sac; CamYyRBH)aTyesavrµ½n. RBHGgÁ)aneLIgesayraCübnþBIRBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI6 taMgEtBIqñaM1002 k¾b:uEnþ luHRtaEtbIqñaMeRkaymk eTIb)anTTYlkarGPiesk. tamemIleTA RBHGgÁminEmnCarC¢TayaT EdleK)aneRKagTukenaHeT RbEhlCaRBHGgÁ)anbeNþjRBHraCamunBIraCüsm,tþipgk¾mindwg BIeRBaH silacarwkRBHx½n)anniyayfa {RBHGgÁ)andeNþImykRBHnKrBIRBHraCamYyGgÁ kñúgcMeNamyuT§CnCa eRcIn}.RBHGgÁ)anTTYlRBHnamfasuriyavrµ½n¬RBHGaTitüCaGñkkarBar¦ehIysilacarwkRBHEkv)an elIkGMBIRBHGgÁfa {RTg;manrsµIPøWciBa©ac eRbób)aneTAnwgRBHGaTitüenAelIevhas_ CavgSRtkUlrbs; RBH)aT®nÞvrµ½n}. RBHGgÁesayraCü)ancMnYn47qñaM. RBH)aTsuriyavrµ½nkan;RBhµBaØsasna tamTmøab;EdlmanCahUrEhrhUtmk k¾b:uEnþRBHGgÁ dUcCa )ancab;citþnwgRTwsþIrbs;RBHBuT§xøaMgNas;Edr fVIebIRBHGgÁmin)anbgðajxøÜnRBHGgÁfa CaBuT§sasnikCn mYyGgÁk¾eday. RTg;)anksagbdimaRBHsiv³ nigRBHvisÑú k¾b:uEnþRBHmrNnamfa niBVanbT EdleKfVay dl;RBHGgÁeBleRkaymk nigkarsagsg;vtþmYy]TÞisfVaydl;RBHBuT§ bBa¢ak;fa RBHGgÁ)anykcitþTuk dak;cMeBaHRBHBuT§sasnaCaxøaMg. minEtb:ueNÑaH RBHGgÁ)anTaMgdak;raCbBa¢aGMBI {sikçabTBisidæ Edl CnTaMgGs;RtÚvRbtibtþi}edIm,I[TaMgtabsb£sI/TaMgsßavIr³nigRBHsgÇEdlKg;enAtamTIskáar³/vihar/ vtþGaramnigGaRsmepSg²{GnuvtþnUvtbkmµedIm,IpSBVpSaykusldl;RBHraCaCam©as;}eTotpg8 . 98 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 102. 99Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa tamemIleTA RbEhlCamankareFVITukçbukemñjdl;RBHBuT§sasnaenAkñúgraCümun² rYcsasnaenH enArgkarKMramkMEhgenAeLIyehIyBuT§sasnikk¾enArgGMeBIhigSaenAeLIyEdreRBaHsilacarwklBburI )anbBa¢ak;EfmeTotfa mankarkat;eTasdak;TNÐkmµF¶n;F¶rdl;{CnTaMgLayNaEdlcUleTAkñúgsmaFi sßan ehIyeFVIkarrMxandl;tabs b¤sasnik kñúgkarGnuvtþn_katBVkic©rbs;xøÜn}. eKGacelIksMNYr)an fa etIRBHraCaGgÁenH manBuT§sasnikCnenACamYyeTeBlRTg;eFVIkarRbyuT§deNþImraCblø½gá b¤k¾RBHGgÁ eFVIkartbsñgsgKuNcMeBaHkarKaMRTrbs;BYkBuT§sasnikCnTaMgenaH? eTaHCay:agNakþI k¾vac,as;Nas;fa manectnaeFVI[sasnaTaMgBIrrlaycUlKñaxøaMgCagmun enAeRkamrC¢kalenH. silacarwkRBHEkv)an[dwgfa RBH)aTsuriyavrµ½n)anerobcM[mankarEbgEck RbCaCnCavNѳeLIgvijehIyRTg;dak;RBHmunIsiv³criya[dwknaMvNѳRBahµN_RBHmunIenH{evahar)an Rbtibtþivin½ytwgrwug nigesµaHRtg;nwgkarebþCJa nigKuNFm’ ehIyFøab;)anRtÚvRBHraCamun² cat;[ RKb;RKgelIhim³RsigÁKirI BinitüelIKuNsm,tþi nigKuNvibtþi}. silacarwkRBHEkv )anelIkGMBIeKarmügarmYyenAEk,rRBHraCa EdleyIgminEdldwgBImunmkKW muxgarCaCMnYykarmYyEbbehAfa RsIkSiTÞiRTkl,³. zan³enHmanrYceTAehIymunesþcsuriyavrµ½nTI1 eRBaHfa RBahµN_sivvin§ú EdlCa{GñkR)aCJecHdwgeRCARCHsmnwgTTYlkareKarBBIbNþaGñkmanGMNac TaMgLay nigCabBVCiténRsIk)aelsVr³ CacaghVagéntbkmµ EdlKµankarxusqÁg} )anTTYlzan³enH EtenAeBlEdl«BukmaxagmþayEdlmanzan³enH )anTTYlmrNPaBeTA. silacarwkRBHnÞekasiy )anniyayfa enAqñaM890énRKisþskraC RsIFrNi®nÞb,kl,³)anTTYlnUvzan³enH KWCag100qñaMmun raCüRBH)aTsuriyavrµ½n. ÉksarRbvtþisa®sþcin)anniyayfa enAqñaM1030énRKisþskraC esþcGgÁenH)ancgsm<½n§ emRtICamYynKrcam:,a kñúgrC¢kalesþccammYyGgÁEdleyIgmin)ansÁal;RBHnam EtesayraCü kñúg cenøaHesþcC½yvrµ½n nigC½ybremsVrvrµ½n ehIynigRbeTscin pgEdr. sm<½n§emRtIenHmanry³eBl 60qñaM nigmaneKalbMNgcg;eFVI[mansnþiPaBCamYynKrcam:,a ehIyFanasnþiPaBenH edaymha GMNacTI3mYyeTot edIm,ITukeBl[RBHGgÁeFVIkarb®gáabesþccMNuHTaMgLayEdlbHe)ar CaBiess KWBYkkSRtRbeTsenAxageCIgPñMdgErk nigenAGagTenøemNamxagelI EdlmanraCFanIenA lBburI 8 silacarwklBburI.
  • 103. KWTVarvtI enaHÉg9 . etIenaHminEmnCaBYkéfénGagTenøemNamxagelI EdlcuHmkBIRbeTscinPaKxag t,Úg b¤mkBIPUmaEdlBYkenH)anmkrs;enACayUrNas;mkehIy ehIy)anmkbgðajxøÜnenAnwgRBMRbTl; énGaNacRkkm<úCaeT b¤GVI? silacarwklEgVk)anehARBH)aTsuriyavrµ½nfaCa{RBHecAGFiraC nigCaGñkRTRTg;EpndI} Edl {RBHGñkbegáItelak)ansagmk[dUcxøÜnRBHGgÁ}. {enAeBlRTg;yagecjc,aMgykC½yCmñHelIGs; esþcEdlxøaMg²TaMgLay sUm,IEtRBHGaTitük¾lak;xøÜnbM)aMgkayEdr edayxøac)armIrbs;RBHGgÁ. ePøIgEpSgEdlhuyecjBIkarbUCarbs;RBHGgÁminRKan;EteFVI[épÞemXggwtb:ueNÑaHeTKW)an)aMgbiTGs; nUvkitþiKuNrbs;RBHraCaTaMgLay EdlFøab;maneQµaHl,Il,ajeTotpg. RBHGgÁKYrEtTTYl)annUvkitþi KuNrbs;GaruN³ >>> RTg;)aneronecHcaMGMBIRTwsþIbnIni TaMgRTg;l¥tex©aH ehIyRbkbedayR)aCJa)armI dUcCabNÐit >>> KWCaRBHraCasaklEdleRbób)annwgGFiraCénGaTieTBTaMgLay}. RBH)aTsuriyavrµ½nTI1 )anksagR)asaTPñMCIsUrenAkñúgExRt)aTI ehIyk¾)anCYsCuleLIgvijnUv R)asaTmYycMnYneTotpgEdr. RBHGgÁsuKtenAqñaM1049ehIymanRBHmrNnamfabrmniBVanbTmann½yfaRTg;yagcUlRBH niBVanTaMgRsugehIy. 88-- RRBBHH))aaTT]]TTyyaaTTiittüüvvrrµµ½½nnTTII11 ¬¬11004499--11007799¦¦ RBHraCaEdlesayraCübnþBIRBH)aTsuriyavrµ½nTI1KWRBH)aT]TyaTitüvrµ½n b¤]Tyak³vrµ½n Edl RtÚvCaecA b¤kµÜy rbs;RBHGgÁ. karEdlesþcGgÁenHeLIgesayraCühak;dUcCaminRbRktI KWdUcCaeLIgesayraCüedayC½yCmñH rbs;RkúmraCbriBarEdlmanRbtikmµRbqaMgnwgBuT§sasna.esþcGgÁenHmanRBHCnµekµgx©IenAeLIyeBl eLIgRKgraCüsm,tþi eRBaHRBHGgÁenAbnþeronsURtKNitsa®sþ tarasa®sþ evyüakrN_ c,ab; nigRkm TaMgLaytak;EtgeLIgsRmab;RBHraCa BIsMNak;RBHraCRKÚrbs;RBHGgÁeQµaHfa RsIkar³bNÐit. {edayRBHGgÁcab;bdisn§ieLIgkñúgRtkUlénesþcelIBiPBelak RTg;maneRbóbdac;eKkñúgkareFVI[narI TaMgLay lg;nwgsmösSrbs;RBHGgÁ [Gñkcm,aMgTaMgLaycuHcaj;vIrPaBrbs;RBHGgÁ [bNÐitTaMg- 100 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 9 sBVéf¶KWleva BImunKWlUv:U/ elaEvk/ lBburI/ lvburI/ nvburI.
  • 104. 101Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa LayTTYlsÁal;KuNFm’rbs;RBHGgÁ [bNþaRbCanura®sþcMNuHnwgGMNacrbs;RBHGgÁ nig[RBahµN_TaMg LayTTYlsÁal;nUvsb,úrsFm’rbs;RBHGgÁ. tamemIleTA esþcGgÁenH eKarBbUCaRBHsiv³ xøaMgNas; {eRBaHRBHGgÁ)ancat;[eKelIkPñMmasmYyenAcMkNþalraCFanI rYc[sagsg;R)asaTmasmYy manBnøW PøWciBa©acciEBa©g dak;siv³ligÁmYy sRmab;erobcMBiFIeRsacTwkeKarBbUCa} ehIyRTg;)ancat;[cn½Þkar³ bNÐitEfrkSa. RBahµN_enHeKeRcInsÁal;fa y:alIcn½Þkar³ eRBaHCatabsb£sI nigCabuerahitrbs; RBH)aTsuriyavrµ½nehIyRtÚvbnþEfrkSaligÁenHrhUtdl;raCüesþceRkaymkeTotEdlesayraCübnþBI RBH)aT]TyaTitüvrµ½n KWRBH)aThs’vrµ½nTI3. kñúgrC¢kalesþcGgÁenH bNþaGaNaExRtxagt,Úg)anbHe)areLIg ehIyRtÚvT½Brbs;Cnmñak; eQµaHfa Garvi®nÞaT³ deNþImyk)an. T½BTI1rbs;RBHraCaEdlbBa¢ÚneTAb®gáab RtÚvbraC½yeRkaméd {emekaysRtÚvd¾hankøa}enH. k¾b:uEnþT½BmYykgeTotEdldwknaMedayesnabtImñak; KW]kj:aBiC½y s®gÁammanC½yCmñHelIGarvi®nÞaT³.]kj:aBiC½ys®gÁamenHCa]tþmesnIy_Edl{rh½srhYnNas;kñúg karrgGavuFxµaMgnigvayRbhartbeTAvijedayeRbIédTaMgBIrCaGñkRbyuT§KµanKUeRbóbpÞwm)anCayuT§Cn eqñImEdlsRtÚvTTYlsÁal;fVIédehIyehAfaCaRBHRKwsñ³mYyGgÁfµIb¤k¾CaGaruN³mYyrUbeTotCavIrburs KµannrNaesµIelIelakenH}.eRkaybraC½yGarvi®nÞaT³)aneKcxøÜneTAenAÉcam:,abur³raCFanIrbs;nKr cam:,a. b:unµanqñaMeRkaymk man]tþmesnIy_mñak;eQµaHfa kMv:U Edlminsb,aycitþ k¾naMT½Brbs;xøÜnecjBI raCFanIehIyRbkasbHe)areLIg.kMv:UenaHCa{mnusSqøatmanvIrPaBEdl)anTTYlkarsenþasRbNI BIRBHraCaRTg;RbTanbuNüskþi[.eKmanragkaymaMmYnmanGavuFRKb;RKan;rh½svagévGaceFVICam©as; elIEpndITaMgmUl)an. T½Brbs;eKk¾køahan nigsm,ÚredayGavuFyuT§PNÐ h‘anlHbg;CIvit mancMnYn eRcIntKNna nigmanenARKb;TisTI}. eBlenaHesnabtIBiC½ys®gÁam)andwknaMT½Becjc,aMgCamYykMv:Uedayman]tþmesnIy_CaeRcIn cUlrYmenAeRkambBa¢apg KWmaneTvRsU/ vøúg/ vñÜr/ KaM/ ecnÁIRsU/ kmñat;/ rBaØ/ xµÜj. eBlelIkT½Bedjtam sRtÚv esnabtIBiC½ys®gÁam)anQb;enAelIx<g;rabmYy eFVIBiFIbUCafVaydl;RBHsiv³ suMC½yCmñH. eBlenaH kMv:U )anRtlb;eRkaymkvij ehIykarRbyuT§k¾)ancab;epþImeLIg. kMv:U nigBiC½ys®gÁam {rt;rkKñaeRbóbdUcRBHram nigRkúgraBN_} rIÉemkgrbs;T½BTaMgBIrk¾sVHEsVgrkKURbyuT§erog²xøÜnpg Edr. BYkeKRbkUkRbkasehAKña eCrRbeTcpþasaKña KMramKñaeTAvijeTAmk. kMv:U )aj;RBÜjmYymkRtÚv cgáarbs; BiC½ys®gÁam k¾b:uEnþBiC½ys®gÁamKµanrYjra ehIy)an)aj;RBÜjbIEtmþgsMedA kMv:U RBÜjmYy
  • 105. RtÚvcMk,al/mYycMknigmYyeTotcMRTÚg.kMv:UdYlsøab;PøamedayERskeraT_RThwgeFVI[eTvtaTaMgLay eRtkGrsVaKmn_CaxøaMg. BiC½ys®gÁamk¾Rtlb;mkkan;viharRBHsiv³vij ehIy)anfVayRTBürbs;xøÜn TaMgGs; edIm,ICakartbsñgsgKuNRBHGgÁ. eRkayBI kMv:U søab;eTA enAmanbHe)armYyeTotekIteLIgenAkñúgsrTrdUvbnÞab; mindwgfa Cakar bHe)arfµIb¤k¾T½Bcas;rbs;kMv:UbHe)armþgeTotb¤k¾y:agNaeT.karbHe)arelIkenHdwknaMedaybgb¥ÚnBIr nak;KWslVat;{EdlmankmøaMgxøaMgKµanpÞwmkøahanmanl,iceRcInehIyBUEkkñúgkarRbyuT§edayemags½k} nigb¥ÚnRbúsbegáIteQµaHsiT§ikr³ehIynigemT½Bmñak;eToteQµaHfasasnþiPUvn³{EdlmankmøaMgKYr[xøac enAkñúgkarRbyuT§}. BiC½ys®gÁam)andwknaMT½Becjc,aMgeTot eBlCYbslVat;k¾eCrRbeTcpþasa bbYl cUlc,aMgKña.slVat;eCrtbvijrYc)aj;RBÜjeRsacmkelIBiC½ys®gÁam.BiC½ys®gÁamcab;ykRBÜj mkdak;elIExSFñÚ rYcTajywtedayédd¾maMTaMgBIr)aj;tRmg;sMedAsRtÚv. enAeBlEdlslVat;RtÚvRBÜj søab; T½BsRtÚvTaMgGs;k¾dkfyrt;)at;Gs;eTA10 . b:uEnþclaclenHenAbnþeRcInqñaMteTAeTot TRmaMrlt; )at; ehIyBiC½ys®gÁamk¾Qb;edjtameTotEdr. edayBiC½ys®gÁam )anbric©aKRTBüsm,tþipÞal;xøÜnbUCafVayRBHsiv³ kñúgkareFVIs®gÁamb®gáab sRtÚv RBHraCa )anRbTanraCRTBüsgvij nig)anRbTanrgVan;[CaeRcIn EtBiC½ys®gÁam)anlHbg; RTBüTaMgGs;enaH kñúgnamCavIrCn Edl {manBnøWPøWeRbóbdUcrah‘U}. KWenAeRkamraCürbs;RBH)aT]TyaTitüvrµ½nenHÉg EdlT½BExµrmYykgeRkambBa¢arbs;emT½B mñak;eQµaHfaRsInnÞ³nvm’eTv³c,aMgcaj;T½BcamenAÉesaemsVr³eRkamraCüesþccamRBHnamRsIhrivrµ½n TI2 ¬1078¦. 99-- RRBBHH))aaTThhss’’vvrrµµ½½nnTTII33 ¬¬11007799--11009900¦¦ rC¢kalrbs;RBH)aT]TyaTitüvrµ½neBareBjeTAedayPaBvwkvrCaktþabBa¢ak;famhanKresÞIrEt KµansnþiPaBeT mans®gÁamkñúgRsuk nigkarbHe)arRbqaMgBIesþcRtaj;b¤esþccMNuHCajwkjab;. GMeNIHGs;BIRBHGgÁeTA RBHraCGnuCrbs;RBHGgÁ)aneLIgesayraCübnþ manRBHnamfa hs’vrµ½nTI3. enAeBlesþcGgÁenHeLIgesayraCü manekItPaBvwkvrmþgeTot k¾b:uEnþ RBHGgÁ)anb®gáab[rab 102 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 10 silacarwkRBHegak esovePAkRmg TMB½r161.
  • 106. 103Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa Gs; eFVI[RsukmansnþisuxeLIgvijeday {RTg;bBa¢a[GnuvtþkatBVkic©rbs;vNѳTaMgbYny:agmuWgm:at;}. ÉksarRbvtþisa®sþcin)anerobrab;fa edayesþcGaNÑamRBHnamlIjújtug)anelIkT½Bmk vaycin smøab;RbCaCncinGs;CaeRcInnak; RBHecAGFiraCcin)anGMBavnavsuMCMnYyBIRBHraCaExµr nig cam:,a EdlFøab;)ancuHsn§isBaØasm<½n§emRtICamYyKña kalBIqñaM1000énRKisþskraC. esþcExµr nig esþccam )anekNÐT½BeTACYycintamsMNUmBr k¾b:uEnþRtÚvcaj;GaNÑameTot EdlCaehtueFVI[cinRtÚvsuM crcarksnþiPaB. erOgcm,aMgCamYyGaNÑamenH fVIebIminmansilacarwkExµrb¤cam b¤ÉksarRbvtþi sa®sþ GaNÑamNamYy)anelIkeLIgk¾eday k¾b:uEnþRbEhlCaekItmaneLIgEmn BIeRBaHfa Éksar Rbvtþisa®sþcin CaÉksarEdlhµt;ct;CageKenAGasuIcugbUB’a. RBH)aThs’vrµ½nTI3 )ansuKteTAenAqñaM1090 ehIyRTg;manRBHmrNnamfa sT³sivbT. 1100-- RRBBHH))aaTTCC½½yyvvrrµµ½½nnTTII77 ¬¬11009900--11110099¦¦ RBHraCaEdlesayraCübnþBIRBH)aThs’vrµ½nTI3 KWRBH)aTRsIC½yvrµ½nTI7 EdlesayraCü )an19qñaM cab;BIqñaM1090mk. RBHGgÁeKarBbUCaRBHvisÑúxøaMgNas; ehIyRTg;k¾CabUCnIeysk_d¾esµaHsµ½RKmñak;pgEdr. silacarwkvtþPU )anerobrab;fa enAkñúgrC¢kalRBHraCamun² mannarImñak;eQµaHfa Tilk³ nigGñk R)aCJKm<IrevTmñak;eQµaHfa suPRT³ EdleKehAeRkAfa nam³sivy³. nagTilk³CabuRtIrbs;GñkR)aCJmñak;enAkñúgRBHraCvaMg ehIyCItarbs;nagCaTsSnviTUd¾l,Il,aj mñak;. matarbs;nagCabuRtIrbs;kvImñak;. nagmansmösSl¥s¥at mancriyarmüTm nigmaneTB ekaslüx<s; smnwgRtkUlx<g;x<s;rbs;nag. bNþaGñkR)aCJl,Il,ajTaMgLay ekatsresIrl,ic d¾Qøasévrbs;nagkñúgkarCECkBiPakSaehIy)andak;eQµaH[nagfaPKvtIvaKisVrImann½yfaeTBkBaØa xagevahar. nagTilk³enH )anRtÚvmatabitaerobcMTukdak;CaPriyarbs;GñkR)aCJ suPRT³ ehIynagmanbuRt mñak;CamYysVamIenH Edlnagdak;eQµaHfa bUCsiv³ EtGñkpgehAfa suPRT³ dUc«BukEdr. suPRT³enHxitxMeronsURtRTwsþIénsasnaRBHsiv³xøaMgNas;ehIyedayR)aCJad¾Qøasévrbs;xøÜn BUEkdac;eKkñúgkarRbmUlGtßbTGkSrsa®sþcas;²ykmkcgRkgeLIgvij EdlKµanbNÐitNamñak; mansmtßPaBnwgeFVIdUc)an. kvIbNÐitFM² ekatsresIrsñaédd¾KµanpÞwmenH. éf¶mYy mankarCECk BiPakSamYyFMenAcMeBaHRBHP½®kþRBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI7suPRT³)anTTYleCaKC½ykñúgkareqøIyedaHRsaynUv
  • 107. sMNYrd¾lM)ak²TaMgLay EdlKUbdibkçrbs;xøÜnebIkesovePAecaTsYreLIg {edaysarR)aCJad¾xøaMgkøa eRbób)aneTAnwgkaMrnÞH}. cab;taMgBIeBlenaHmk suPRT³ RtÚv)anRbCanura®sþTUTaMgRBHnKreKarBekatxøac ehIyRtÚvRBHra Cacat;taMg[eFVICaGFikarelIGaRsmPavna bUCnIysßanTaMgGs; nigCaGaCJakNþalelIral;karBiPakSa GMBIpøÚvFm’nigpøÚvelak.RBHraCak¾)anRbTanry:amasExSmasnigRkNat;l¥².l.[pgEdr11 . silacarwksMerag)anerobrab;fa enAeRkamraCüRBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI7 mankarpþÜlrMlMbdimaRBH nrayN_RBHPKvtInigsivligÁmYyrYcmanbBa¢a[ksagbdimaTaMgGs;enaHeLIgvij.dUceyIg)aneXIj BIxagelIrYcmkehIyfa kalBIrC¢kalRBH)aTsuriyavrµ½nTI1 k¾manehtukarN_EbbenHekIteLIgEdr KW mankarpþÜlrMlMRBHBuT§bdima ehIyRBHraCamankarlM)akCaxøaMgnwgkarBarkuM[ {mnusSkaceXareXA {ebotebonRBHsgÇsURtFm’. TaMgGs;enHCakarbBa¢ak;faRbeTsmanPaBvwkvrxagsasna CaBiess RBHBuT§sasnanigRBhµBaØsasna.´KitfaenaHehIyCamUlehtuEdlnaM[mankarERCkraCünigs®gÁam épÞkñúg. RBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI7 suKtenAqñaM1109 ehIyRTg;manRBHmrNnamfa brmkv½lü³ mann½yfa RTg;CaePJóvrbs;elakénbrmsuPmgÁl. 1111-- RRBBHH))aaTTFFrrNNii®®nnÞÞvvrrµµ½½nnTTII11 ¬¬11110099--11111122¦¦ RBH)aTFrNi®nÞvrµ½nTI1EdlRtÚvCaRBHeromrbs;RBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI7)aneLIgesayraCübnþenA qñaM1109énRKisþskraCRtÚvnwgqñaM1031énmhaskraC.RBHGgÁmincg;esayraCüeTehIyebItam silacarwk RTg;)anbdiesFmþgrYcmkehIy enAeBlEdlRBH)aThs’vrµ½nTI3 CaRBHeromesayTivgÁt. k¾b:uEnþ edaymankaresñIsuMy:agTTUcBIRbCanura®sþ RBHGgÁ k¾yl;RBm {TTYlyknUvbnÞúkd¾F¶n;}enH. RBHGgÁ)andwknaMRBHnKredayRbúgRby½tñ nigyutþiFm’xøaMgNas; CaBiess KW)anykRBHT½yTukdak; cMeBaHsuxumalPaBrbs;vNѳTaMg7 EdlmanenAkñúgRsTab;RbCaCnnasm½yenaH Kab;CYnCaRbeTs mansuxsnþiPaB ehIyRBHGgÁk¾manRBHCnµcMNas;pg. 104 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 11 esovePArbs;elak éGm:UnIej maneQµaHfa km<úCa k,alTI2/ TMB½r167-168 tamkarbkERbrbs;evC¢bNÐit EKn.
  • 108. 105Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa RBHGgÁCamitþénc,ab; k¾b:uEnþmunnwgGnuvtþc,ab; RBHGgÁsBVRBHT½y[GñkR)aCJbNÐit suPRT³ Edl ecHcaMGkSrsil,RKb;Ebb eFVIkarbkRsayBnül;sin12 . RBahµN_EdlerobcMGPieskRBH)aTFrNi®nÞvrµ½n KWbNÐiteTvkar³ CavIrCnmñak;EdlmanT§iBl taMgEtBIrC¢kalRBH)aTsuriyavrµ½TI1mk ehIyFøab;)aneFVIkarGPieskRBHraCaBIrRBHGgÁmunenH rYcmk ehIynigRtÚverobcMkarGPieskRBHraCaEdlRtÚvesayraCübnþKWRBH)aTsuriyavrµ½nTI2EfmeTot. RBH)aTFrNi®nÞvrµ½n )ane)aHbg;raCsm,tþieRkayBIdwknaMRbeTs)an3qñaM. RBHGgÁmanRBH mrNnamfa brnisáal³bT³. 1122-- RRBBHH))aaTTssuurriiyyaavvrrµµ½½nnTTII22 ¬¬11111122--11116622¦¦ RBHraCaEdlesayraCübnþBIRBH)aTFrNi®nÞvrµ½nTI1KWRBH)aTRsIsuriyavrµ½nEdlRtÚvCaRBHntþa rbs;RBHGgÁ ehIyk¾RbEhlRtÚvCaecArbs;RBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI7 pgEdr BIeRBaHfa RBH)aTFrNi®nÞvrµ½n )anykkµÜyRsIxøÜnÉg CabuRtIrbs;RBHeromRBHGgÁeFVICaRBHCaya. enAeBlEdleLIgRKgraCsm,tþi RBH)aTsuriyavrµ½n minTan;eBjv½y ehIyminTan;)anbBa©b;kar sikSaenAeLIyeT. silacarwk)anelIkBIRBHGgÁfa {CavIrbursEdleRbób)aneTAnwgRBHGaTieTBén s®gÁam EdlCabdibkçd¾KYr[P½yxøacrbs;RBHraCakñúgBIrrC¢kalmun}. etIRBHGgÁTTYlraCüsm,tþi eRkayBIRBH)aTFrNi®nÞvrµ½n suKteTA b¤mYyk¾edaykarRbyuT§? tamemIleTA RBHGgÁRbEhlCamin RbkYtRbECgCamYyRBHraCaEdlkMBugesayraCüeT EtRtÚvRbkYtRbECgCamYyrC¢TayaTmYyGgÁNa epSg EdlmansiT§iTTYlraCsm,tþieRcInCagRBHGgÁ. ÉksarRbvtþisa®sþcin)anniyayfa cab;BIqñaM1128énRKisþskraCrhUtmk cinmandak; tMNagmñak;enAnwgraCvaMgRBHraCakm<úCaenAÉnÞbtþ KWnKrFM. tamBittMNagenaH KWCaraCTUtcin Edl dak;enAkm<úCasRmab;mYyry³kalEtb:ueNÑaH minEmnCaGñkRtÜtBinitü CaGFikar b¤k¾CaTIRbwkSa ehIyk¾ minEmnCaGñkkarBarGVIEdr. Éksarcink¾)anerobrab;pgEdrfa km<úCanaeBlenaH)an)at;bg;PaBfáúMefáIg BIGtItkalGs;ehIy k¾b:uEnþ´Kitfa dUcCaminRtÚv eRBaHfa KWs®gÁamenAeBlémÖqñaMeRkay naedIm 12 esovePArbs;elakéGm:UnIejmaneQµaHfakm<úCak,alTI2Rtg;silacarwkRBHeKa/TMB½r168tamkarbkERbrbs; evC¢bNÐit EKn.
  • 109. stvtSr_TI11eT EdleFVI[RbeTsman»nPaB. EteTaHCay:agNak¾eday RBH)aTsuriyavrµ½n RtÚvRbQmmuxnwgkarbHe)arenAkñúgRbeTs ehIy nigs®gÁamCamYynKrcameTot. Éksarcin)anniyayfa enAqñaM1154énRKisþskraC RtÚvnwgmha skraC1076RBHraCakm<úCa)anbRgÜbbRgÜmRbeTsTaMgBIrKWkm<úCanigcam:,amkEtmYydUckalBIkñúg rC¢kalrbs;RBH)aT|sanvrµ½n nacugstvtSr_TI9Edr. silacarwkeBaFinKrrbs;cam)an[dwgfa enAkñúgrC¢kalrbs;RBH)aTRsIC½yhrivrµ½n EdleLIg esayraCsm,tþienAqñaM1145 rhUtdl;qñaM1170 b¤k¾eRkayenaHpg {nKrcam:,aRtÚvrgkarvay RbharBIT½Bkm<úCa nigT½BviC½y ¬KWb‘íjDij¦ y:agxøaMg}. T½Bcamcaj;édenAkñúgvalsakøag ehIyT½BExµr deNþIm)anraCFanIviC½y.eRkayBI)anelIkRBHGnuCéføRBHnamhrieTv³[esayraCüenAcam:,akñúgnam CaRBHyuvraC b¤]braC rYcmk RBH)aTsuriyavrµ½n )anyagRtlb;mkkm<úCavijenAqñaM1145. db;bIqñaMeRkaymk enAqñaM1158 BYkcamtamExRt)anbHe)areLIgeRkamkardwknaMrbs;emeK ehIyelIkKñamkeLamB½T§vayRBHyuvraC EdlRtÚvbgçaMg[enAEtkñúgraCFanI karBaredayT½BExµr nig cammYycMnYntUc. eBlTTYl)andMNwgenH RBH)aTsuriyavrµ½n )andwknaMT½BeFVIdMeNIrkat;RBMEdn eTACYy RBHyuvraCPøam. T½BTaMgBIrRBÜtKñavayeTAelIBYkbHe)ar eFVI[BYkenHbraC½yenAnwgvalvIrbur³. enAqñaMbnÞab;mkeTot esþccamRBH)aTRsIC½yhrivrµ½n EdlRtÚvbeNþjecjBIraCsm,tþikalBI qñaM1145 )anelIkT½BmkvaymþgeTot ehIycab;RBHyuvraC)anCaeQøIyenAelIvalmhi. eBlenH T½BExµr nigviC½y RtÚvbgç¿[dkfymkkm<úCavij ehIyRBH)aTRsIC½yhrivrµ½n k¾eLIgesayraCüsm,tþi enAcam:,a CafµI enAqñaM1159. RBH)aTsuriyavrµ½n )anelIkT½BeTAdl; {ekaHdMrI nigs<an;}pgEdr. elakevC¢bNÐit EKn )anpÁÚ {ekaHdMrI nigs<an;}enH eTAnwgekaHRsIlgáa k¾b:uEnþ tamemIleTA RbEhlCaminEmneT13 . RBH)aTsuriyavrµ½n minRKan;EtCaesþcBUEkxagcm,aMgmYymuxb:ueNÑaHeT RTg;k¾RbEhlCaGñkRKb; RKgrdæ)ald¾buinRbsbnigCaGñkc,ab;mñak;EdrehIyRTg;eKarBRBHsiv³pgRBHvisÑúpgnigCaBuT§sasnik CnEfmeTot eBalKWRTg;RbkbeTAedaylkçNsm,tiþeRcIny:ag. tamemIleTA RbEhlCaRBHGgÁecH 106 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 13 GñkxøHyl;faBaküfaekaHenH emIleTARbEhlCasMedAykbnÞayEdlmankMEBgrwgmaMeT. ´Kitfa enaHKYrEtCaekaH enAkNþalsmuRT minEmnCakMBUlPñMNamYy enAelIx<g;rabNÐÚcinenaHeT.
  • 110. 107Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa eFVIkareRCIserIseTAtamdMeNIrbt;Ebnrbs;sPaBkarneya)ayehIyeTIb)anCa RBHGgÁ xitxMdUcCa RBHraCamun²Edr edIm,IeFVI[sasnaTaMgbIrlaycUlKñaEtmYy kñúgsµartI[ecHGt;»n eyaKyl;Kña eFVI y:agNaeCosvagkuM[manl¥k;kkrxagCMenOsasna nigkuM[eKecaTRBHGgÁfa manlem¥ógmçag². eK)ancat;TukfaRBH)aTsuriyavrµ½nCaGñkksagR)asaTEdleyIgehAsBVéf¶faGgÁrvtþ b¤ebI ehacNas; k¾fa RTg;CaGñk)anbBa¢a[eKcab;sagsg;R)asaTenHEdr. eyIgnwg)aneXIjenAeBl bnþiceTotfaKµanÉksarNaEdlbBa¢ak;faKMnitenHRtwmRtÚvenaHeTehIynwgeXIjfaminEmnedaysar eKRbTHeXIjrUbcmøak;rbs;RBHGgÁ nigRBHmrNnamrbs;RBHGgÁ ¬brmvisÑelak¦ enAelIcmøak;rak;mYy eTIbeKGaccat;TukfadUecñH)anenaHeT. eKRtÚvkar[manPsþútagepSgeRkABIenH edIm,IbBa¢ak;fa karcat; TukdUecñHRtwmRtÚv. kkMMNNtt;;ccMMNNaaMM ³³ ´KµanbMNgnwgGHGagfaRBHraCarbs;km<úCaBIrRBHGgÁeRkayenHKWCaRBHraCaTI4 nigTI5 EdlmanEcgenAkñúgraCBgSavtarrbs;km<úCaburaN Edl´mankñúgédbIc,ab;EdrenaHeT. tam emIleTA raCBgSavtarenHminsUvRtwmRtÚvR)akdRbCab:unµaneT ehIy´sgS½yfa enaHKWRKan;EtCa kRmgerOgniTan EdlmankarBitRtwmEtxøH²b:ueNÑaH b:uEnþ)anRtÚveKcgRkgerobcMtamlMdab;eBlevla RbkbeTAedaysµartIRbúgRby½tñ. Et´cg;bBa¢ak;fa RBH)aTFrNi®nÞvrµ½nTI2 nigRBH)aTsuriyavrµ½nTI2 EdlesayraCübnþbnÞab;KñaenAstvtSr_TI12enAkm<úCa eFVI[eyIgnwkeXIjCaBiessdl;RBH)aTFr Ni®nÞaenAkñúgraCBgSavtarEdl´manehIyEdlmanc,ab;mYyenaH)anbEnßmRBHnamfavrµ½ncugeRkay fVay nignwkeXIjdl;RBHraCamYyRBHGgÁeTot KWRBH)aTGaTitüvrµ½n. eKdwgehIyfaenAkñúgPasaExµr suriya nigGaTitü sMedAykRBHGaTitüdUcKña. 1133-- RRBBHH))aaTTFFrrNNii®®nnÞÞvvrrµµ½½nnTTII22 ¬¬11116622--11116633¦¦ RBHraCaEdlesayraCsm,tþibnþBIRBH)aTsuriyavrµ½nTI2 KWRBHerom b¤RBHGnuCCIdUnmYy rbs; RBHGgÁmYyGgÁ Edl)anerobGaBah_BiBah_CamYynwgbuRtIrbs;RBH)aThs’vrµ½nTI3. RBHraCaGgÁenaH )aneLIgRKgraCblø½gáenAqñaM1162edayTTYlRBHGPiesknamfaRBHRsIFrNi®nÞvrµ½nehIyhak;dUcCa esayraCsm,tþi)anEtb:unµanExb:ueNÑaH. 1144-- RRBBHH))aaTTCC½½yyvvrrµµ½½nnTTII88 ¬¬11116622--11220011¦¦ RBH)aTC½yvrµ½n )aneLIgesayraCsm,tþibnþBIRBH)aTFrNi®nÞvrµ½n CaRBHbita enAqñaM1162.
  • 111. silacarwkmYyenAR)asaTGgÁrvtþ )anerobrab;fa RBHGgÁ )aneRCIserIsykRBahµN_ vieFüsviF³ Ca ehara ehIy)anGPieskRBHGnuCCaRBHyuvraC edIm,I[eKeRCIserIsRBHGnuCenaH esayraCsm,tþi bnþBIRBHGgÁ. enAeRkamrC¢kalesþcGgÁenH s®gÁamCamYynKrcam:,a )anqabeqHeLIgvij edaykMhusrbs; esþccam RBH)aTRsIhrivrµ½nTI1 Edl)aneFVIkarQøanBanbNþaExRtxagt,Úgrbs;tugkwg/ nKrviC½y - b‘íjDij14 -EdlCaTItaMgraCFanI/ nKrpanr:ag EdlmanesþccamERCkraCümYyGgÁ b¤k¾esþcsñgbnþ mYyGgÁesayraCü nigvaykm<úCapgEdr edaycUlrhUtmkdl;CitraCFanInÞbtþ. eRkayBI)andut bMpøajrYcehIy BYkcammin)anbnþdMeNIreTAq¶ayBIRBMRbTl;Ednrbs;xøÜneT Et)anRtlb;eTARsukvij edaynaMykeTACamYynUvC½yPNÐCaeRcIn. elak ehÁab‘Íl enAkñúgesovePArbs;Kat;eQµaHfa kMNt;smÁal;sþIGMBIkUsaMgsuIn )anniyayfa esþcExµreBlenaHsm¶MeFVImindwgminB¤yUrNas; rhUtTal;Etdl;18qñaMeRkaymk KWenAqñaM1197 eTIb {RBHGgÁelIkT½BmkvaykemÞckUsaMgsuIn ¬KWnKrcam:,a¦ cab;esþccamCaeQøIy bMpøicbMpøajexÞcxÞI rYc elIk]kj:aExµrmñak;[esayraCümunnwgdkT½Bfymkvij.silacarwktaRBhµ)an[dwgfaRBHGgÁk¾)an edaHElgesþccam[mansiT§iesrIPaBeLIgvijpgEdr EdlCaehtueFVI[RBHraCaTaMgLay eTACavegVg Elgyl; {enAeBlEdleXIjGMBIviessPaBénRBHraCGakb,kiriyaenH}. silacarwkcamenAmIsWnniyayfaRBwtþkarN_enHekIteLIgenAmhaskraC1112RtÚvnwgRKisþ skraC1190 KWmunÉksarExµr7qñaM. xageRkamenH KWCaesckþIsegçbrbs;GtßbTsilacarwk Edl elak hVúINU k¾)anbkERb ³ esþccamRBHnamC½y®nÞvrµ½nGugv:aTU15 CaGñkbgás®gÁam.eBlenaHemT½Bkm<úCaKWCaCnCaticam mYyrUbEdlesþcExµr)anykmkciBa©wm nigEtgtaMgCaRBHyuvraC ¬sRmab;nKrcam:,a¦ maneQµaHfa RsI viFünnþ³ mankMeNItedImecjmkBITuMRbÚk-viC½y. esþccamnaMT½BecjmkCYbnwgT½BExµrenAkñúgvalcakøag ehIyRtÚvbraC½y. ExµrdeNþImykraCFanIviC½y ¬KWb‘íjDij¦)an rIÉesþccamRtÚvcab;)anCaeQøIy 108 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 14 ´cat;Tuk panr:ag faCardæsm<½n§emRtI CaCagExRtmYycMNuH[cam:,a. 15 elak hVúINUt_ niyayfaesþcenaH {CaesþcERCkraCü} k¾b:uEnþKµanehtukarN_NabBa¢ak;eT ehIyGtßbTrbs;Kat; eFVI[eKeFVIkarsnñidan)aneRcIny:ag. eQµaH Gugv:aTU RbEhlCaeQµaHsamBaØ rIÉC½y®nÞCaeQµaHeBlGPiesk.
  • 112. 109Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa bBa¢Únmkkm<úCa. enAeBlenaH ]tþmesnIy_Exµr KWRBHyuvraC k¾)anelIkRBHGgÁm©as; Guin EdlRtÚvCaRBHGnuCéfø rbs;RBHraCakm<úCa [eLIgesayraCüeRkamRBHnamfa suriyC½yvrµ½n rYcehIyxøÜnÉgesayraCüenAÉ raCbur³¬panr:ag¦ manRBHnamfa suriyavrµ½n16 . esþcenAviC½y ¬b‘íjDij¦ eBalKW RBHGnuCéførbs;RBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI8 minTan;esaysuxnwgraC sm,tþiyUrb:unµanpg k¾RtÚvraCvgScammYyGgÁeQµaH rasUbti edjkm©at;ecjBIraCFanI ehIyeLIg esayraCüxøÜnÉgeRkameQµaHfa C½y®nÞvrµ½n. bnÞab;BImanRBwtþkarN_enH kgT½BExµrRtÚvbgç¿citþcakecjBInKrcam:,a b:uEnþ T½BmYykgEdlenAÉ raCburI ¬panr:ag¦ CamYynwgesþcsuriyavrµ½n-viFünnþ RbEhlCamin)anRtlb;mkkm<úCavijeT. kgT½B TaMgGs;enaH )anvilRtlb;eTAcam:,avijenAeBleRkaymk EtmþgenH dwknaMedayesþccam Edl esayraCüenAviC½yBImun KWRBH)aT®nÞvrµ½nv:aTU EdlRtÚvnaMykmkkm<úCaCaeQøIy b:uEnþRtÚv)anRBHraCa km<úCaTukRBHT½y ehIycat;[Rtlb;eTArMedaHnKrcam:,avij. eBlmkdl;nKrcam:,a ®nÞvrµ½nv:aTU )an GMBavnavsuMCMnYyBIesþcraCburI. esþcraCburIsuriyavrµ½n)anelIkT½BvaylukdeNþImykviC½y)anmun cab;esþcC½y®nÞvrµ½nrasUbtieFVIXatrYcehIyRbkasxøÜnÉgCaRBHraCa. ®nÞvrµ½nv:aTUxUccitþCaxøaMgnwgkarRbRBwtþrbs;suriyavrµ½n ehIyRbEhlCaRtÚvkgT½BExµre)aHbg; ecalpg k¾eKcxøÜneTAenAÉGmravtI KWkVagNamsBVéf¶ bgáT½B rYcvilmkvayviC½yEdlesþcpanr:ag Kg; enA.v:aTURtÚvsuriyavrµ½neFVIXat)anenAkñúgkarRbyuT§mYyenAeBleRkaymk.eBlenaHRBHraCakm<úCa )aneQVgyl;GMBIGMeBIk,t;rbs;GtItyuvraC k¾bBa¢ÚnT½BeTAb®gáab EtRtÚvbraC½y. eTaHCay:agNakþI esþcsuriyavrµ½n)ane)aHbg;raCFanIviC½yecal Rtlb;eTAesayraCüenAÉpanr:agvij edayTukrC¢Ta- yaTbYnGgÁ enAesayraCübnþbnÞab;KñaenAelIraCblø½gáviC½y. ÉksarBgSavtarGaNÑam)anniyayfa esþcenH)anbBa¢ÚnraCTUteTAKal;esþcGaNÑam lIGaj; tugenAqñaM1190Edl)anc,aMgmanC½yCmñHelICnk,t;mñak;Edlcg;eFVIxøÜnfaCaraCbuRtesþcehIynig ]tþmesnIy_k,t;mñak;. 16 ehtukarN_enHbBa¢ak;GVIEdl)anGHGagxagelI ³ RBHyuvraCmin)anbegáItrdæmYyfµIeT KWesayraCüenAraCburImYy EdlmanrYcmkehIy.
  • 113. ÉksarRbvtþisa®sþcin )anelIkGMBIraCTUtkm<úCamñak; EdlnaMsYysarGakreTAfVayesþccinenA qñaM1200. eqøót»kasEdlcamQøanBankm<úCa nigkareFVIs®gÁamGUsbnøayminecHcb; kSRtRbeTscMNuH TaMgLayenAxageCIgRsukExµr)aneRkakTamTarÉkraCü pþac;cMNgTak;TgCamYymhanKr. b:uEnþRBH)aT C½yvrµ½nTI8)anelIkT½Bb®gáabrhUteTAdl;cnÞnbur³¬evogc½nÞ¦/RsIFmµKirI¬høÜgR)a)ag¦ehIycab;esþc nKrTaMgBIr[elIksYysarGakrmkfVay. kñúgeBlEdlRBHraCakm<úCasßitenAq¶ayRbmaNCa 900 KILÚEm:RtBIraCFanIdUecñHmanT½BmCÄimmYykgEdlsßitenAeRkambBa¢arbs;RBHkRmetgCaGPi)alnKr raCsIma¬kUr:at;¦eQµaHfaGjraeC®nÞvrµ½n)ancab;vatGMNacRtÜtRtaelIral;GaNaExRtxaglicKWRtÚv nwgRsukesom17 sBVéf¶. tamemIleTAGaNacRkExµreBlenaHlatsn§wghYsTwkdIsuexaT½yeTAeTot ehIykSRtRbeTs d¾xøaMgBUEkmYyenHk¾enAcMNuHesþcExµrpgEdr ebIehacNas;k¾tampøÚvkarEdr eTaHbIfamanesþcéf esay raCük¾eday. KWenAsuexaT½yenHÉgEdleKrkeXIjsilacarwkExµrmYycMnYn ehIynigÉksar man eQµaHfa éRtPUmi EdlRbEhlCaeKsresrenABak;kNþalTImYyénstvtSr_TI13 RtÚvnwgstvtSr_ TI12énmhaskraC. esþcGjraeC®nÞvrµ½n k¾RbEhlCa)andwknaMT½BrhUtdl;RbeTsPUmaeTotpg. dUcCaRBHraCamun²Edr RBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI8 minRKan;EtCaesþcEdlBUEkxagcm,aMgb:ueNÑaHeT b:uEnþk¾BUEkxagkarRKb;RKgRbeTs nigCaGñkc,ab;mñak;pgEdr. silacarwk)anelIkeLIgfa {RBHGgÁ )anRbKl;Gvyv³TaMgGs;rbs;RBHGgÁ[eKaéRB} mann½yfa RBHGgÁGnuvtþnUvyutþiFm’. RTg;yl;dwg nigrMElkTukçlM)akrbs;RbCara®sþ ehIy)ancat;[ksagmnÞIreBTüCaeRcIn enAtamTIRkúg nigvtþGaram EdlmanRKÚeBTüBIrrUbenAcaMBüa)alCMgWvNѳTaMgbYn CamYynwgKilanubdæakmñak; KilanubdæayikaBIrnak; Gñkkan;XøaMgBIrnak; GñkdaMsøBIrnak;.l. 1155-- RRBBHH))aaTT®®nnÞÞvvrrµµ½½nnTTII22 ¬¬11220011¦¦ RBH)aT®nÞvrµ½nTI2 EdlRtÚv)anGPieskCaRBHyuvraCtaMgEtBIkñúgrC¢kalmun )aneLIgesay- 110 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 17 tamemIleTATMnabGagTenøemNamxageRkam)anRtÚvcinehAfaLÚhUehIyGagTenøemNamxagelIEdlmanBYkesom b¤éf kan;kab;rYceTAehIy cinehAfa eson.
  • 114. 111Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa raCübnþBIRBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI8enAqñaM1201eRkayeBlEdlkm<úCa)anbBa¢ÚnraCTUteTARsukcinbnþic. ÉksarRbvtþisa®sþcin)anerobrab;fa esþcGgÁenH )anvaylukratt,atTwkdICaeRcIn Edlsßit enAeRkamGaNaBüa)alrbs;cin CaGaTiKWTwkdIEdlsßitenABIxageCIghøÜgR)a)ag ehIyesþccin)an bBa¢ÚnTUtmkkm<úCaenAqñaM1206edIm,IsaksYrmUlehtuehIyesþcExµrk¾yl;RBmbBaÄb;karvayRbhar enaH. RbmaNCa12qñaMeRkaymk RBHyuvraCEdldwknaMnKrcam:,a CMnYsRBHraCakm<úCa )aneqøót »kasEdlmans®gÁamépÞkñúgeFVI[GaNÑamcuHexSay k¾erobcMT½BmYykgmancRmúHExµrcam ehIyeFVIkar lukluyExRteg:GannigvayeTAelIT½BGaNÑamEdlecjmkTb;Tl;.b:uEnþBIrqñaMeRkayBIeCaKC½yenHKW enAqñaM1220 mindwgCaedaymUlehtuGVI Rsab;EtRBHyuvraCe)aHbg;nKrcam:,aecal ehIydwknaMT½B Rtlb;cUlmkkm<úCavij.mkTl;nwgeBlenaHnKrcam:,a)ansßitenAeRkamGaNaniKmrbs;km<úCaehIy manraCvgS ExµresayraCüGs;eBl 32qñaMKt;. tamemIleTA RbEhlCaenAedImstvtSr_TI13enaH manekItkarbHe)arrbs;BYkGñkRsukesom ehIyCaeBlEdlesþcéfcab;epþImbHe)arTamTarÉkraCüEdr18 . ebIeTaHCay:agNakþI enAcugstvtSr_TI13 raCTUtcin)anerobrab;faRsukExµreBlenaHxSt;RbCa CnGaRs½yedaymans®gÁamminecHcb;minecHehIyCamYyBYkesom.ebIsinCaerOgehtu)anekItman dUecñaHEmn enaHehIyCamUlehtuEdlnaM[e)aHbg;nKrcam:,aecal eRBaHExµrRtÚvRbmUlpþú¿kmøaMgTb;Tl; nwgBYkesomvij. 1166-- RRBBHH))aaTTRRssII®®nnÞÞvvrrµµ½½nn RBHraCaEdlesayraCübnþBIRBH)aT®nÞvrµ½nTI2KWRBH)aTRsI®nÞvrµ½n EdlRbEhlCaRBHGgÁKg; enA yesaFbur³ dEdl k¾b:uEnþeKmindwgfa etIRTg;eLIgesayraCüenAqñaMNa nigsuKtenAqñaMNaeT. 18 eKRbEhlCaRtÚvniyay[RsYlsþab;CagenHvijfa KWenAsm½yenaHehIyEdlBYkéf )anmkrs;enABaseBjTwkdI esomsBVéf¶ EdlBImunCaTwkdIrbs;BYkmnExµr )ancab;epþImbHe)areLIgeRkamkardwknaMrbs;esþcsuexaT½y nigkSRt RbeTsEk,rxagmYycMnYn. ebIdUecñaHEmn TwkdITaMgGs;enaHRtÚv)at;bg; putBIédExµreTA EdleKcab;epþImcat;TukfaCasRtÚv vij ehIyRbCara®sþ RtÚvFøak;kñúgGMNacBYkéfvijmþg.
  • 115. 1177-- RRBBHH))aaTTCC½½yyvvrrmm³³TTiibbrreemmssVVrr³³ RBH)aTC½yvrm³TibremsVr³ EdlsilacarwkxøHehAfa C½yvrm³bremsVr³ )aneLIgesayraCü bnþBIRBH)aTRsI®nÞvrµ½nb:uEnþeKmin)andwgBIkalevlaeT.RBHGgÁ)anb®gáabBYkbHe)arrYc)aneFVIs®gÁam CamYymhaGMNacsRtÚvmYy {EdlRTg;)andeNþImykraCFanIy:agRsYldUcCaeKdkesµA} ehIy {eFVI[C½yCmñHRBHGgÁmanrsµIbIdUcCabus,úkmYy EdleKelIkeLIgenAcenøaHstVsigðBIrk,al}. KWCaesþcmYyGgÁEdlmankusll¥{RbesIrCagTaMgRBH®nÞeTAeTot edaysarRTg;)aneR)aHRBM BiPBelaktQb;QredayTwkePøógéneTBekaslürbs;RBHGgÁ ehIyRTg;senþasRbNIEteTAtam Rkmc,ab;EdlmanEcgenAkñúgKm<Irsa®sþa nigeRkayBI)anBinitühµt;ct;}b:ueNÑaH. RBHGgÁk¾RtÚv)aneKcat;Tukfa CaRBHraCamYyGgÁEdlRbkbeTAedaykitþiKuN edayniyayfa {RBHGgÁQr enABIelIsirsaénRBHraCaTaMgLay} ehIyGMNacrbs;RBHGgÁvatrhUteTAdl;mat; smuRT. enHKWCaesþccugeRkayEdleKsÁal;tamsilacarwkehIyc,as;Nas;faRTg;CaRBHraCaénsm½y kalGab;»n CaRBHraCanacugbBa©b;énmhaGaNacRkkm<úCaRBhµBaØniym. k¾b:uEnþ enAkñúgrC¢kalrbs; RBHGgÁ raCaNacRkExµrenAmanvisalPaBFMeFgenAeLIy KWlatsn§wgBI GatUBW énnKrcm:,aBIxagekIt eTAdl;QUgsmuRTesom nigeTAdl;PñMPYglYg enAÉnayTenøsalUGg; BIxaglic eTAdl;RBMRbTl;Rsukcin q¶ayhYshøÜgR)a)agehIyenAxageCIgrhUtdl;smuRTcinnigcMNuckam:g;enAxagt,Úg.TwkdIGaNacRk km<úCaeBlenaHFMNas; KWmanRbEhlCamYylanKILÚEm:RtRkLa EdlEbgEckecjCakSRtRbeTs sVy½tRbmaNCaémÖ kSRtRbeTsTaMgenaH cMNuH b¤k¾RKan;EtTTYlsÁal;GnutþrPaBrbs;RBHraCakm<úCa b:ueNÑaHb:uEnþrMeCIbrMCYlxøaMgNas;ehIyeRtómxøÜnCaeRscnwgcab;kan;GavuFts‘UEdleFVI[RBHraCakm<úCa RtÚvvayb®gáabCaerOy² edIm,IXuMRKgTukenAkñúgGMNac. enAsm½yEdleyIg)anQanmkdl;enaH vahak;dUcCafa BYkkSRtRbeTsTaMgGs;enaH rg;caMEteBlGaNacRkkm<úCamankar)ak;EbkKña nwgGal egIbeRkakrkesrIPaB nigÉkraCüb:ueNÑaH CaBiess KWBYkesom b¤éf Etmþg EdlkeRmIkmuneK. 1188-- RRBBHHrraaCCaaEEddlleeKKmmiinn))aannssÁÁaall;;RRBBHHnnaamm ¬¬11225500??--11330000??¦¦ enAeRkamrC¢kalrbs;RBHraCamYyGg ÁEdleyIgminsÁal;RBHnam Gacnwgniyayfa enAeRkam raCüRBH)aTC½yvrµ½nbremsVr³ CaRBHraCaEdleKsÁal;eRkayeKbg¥s;tamsilacarwk b¤k¾fa enAeRkam raCürbs;esþcEdlesayraCübnþBIRBHGgÁ manraCTUtcinmYyrUbmkdl;km<úCa enAqñaM1296. cinmñak; 112 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 116. 113Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa Edl)anmkCamYyEdr b:uEnþminEmnCasmaCikrbs;KN³RbtiPU eQµaH QavtakVan; )ansresrkMNt; Rtad¾cEmøkmYyGMBIkm<úCa EdleK)anbkERbBIrelIkCaPasa)araMg19 . QavtakVan;ehARsukExµrfa qanLa b¤eqnLa Et)anniyayfaeKk¾ehAfa kanBUeq pgEdr Ca eQµaHEdlRtÚvnwgBaküsM®sáwt km<úC³ sBVéf¶Ganfa km<úCa. GñkniBn§)aneFVIkarerobrab;RtÜs²GMBIraCFanIGgÁrFMnigfaraCvaMgmanR)asaTmasmYymankMBUl sRmab;RBHraCapÞM. RbCara®sþTaMgRbúsTaMgRsIbYgsk; esøóksMBt; RBHraCaBak;mkuddaMeBRC nigman RBHhsþ nigRBH)aTlabBN’Rkhm ehIykan;RBHx½nmaseBlecjBIRBHblø½gá. QavtakVan;)anerobrab;lm¥itpgEdrGMBITMenomTmøab;rbs;GñkRsuk GMBIkarRbsURtkUn BiFIerob GaBah_BiBah_nigBiFIepSg²munerobGaBah_BiBah_.Kat;)anniyayBIBYkQYgEdlRtÚv)aneKykmkeFVI Ca´beRmI³R)akdNas;faenaHKWBYkCgEdlrs;enAExRtkMBg;esamcnÞtab‘unry:gnigRsukEdlsßitenA BIxagekIt nigxagt,ÚgExRtTaMgGs;enaH. Kat;)anR)ab;GMBItémøEdleKlk;BYkenaH nigniyayfa BYkenaHRtÚveKemIlgayemIlefakxøaMgNas;ebIeLIgpÞHRtÚvlUnnwgCgÁg;ehIydak;édsMBHelIf¶as.Cn NaRslaj;RsICg nwgRtÚveKemIlgayemIlefakdUcBYkenaHEdr. bnÞab;mk QavtakVan; niyayGMBIc,ab; CMgWXøg; EdlekItmaneRcInedaysarGñkRsukmanTmøab; gUtTwkeRkayBI)anrYmsgVasnwgKñarYc. mnusSsøab;eKykeTAecalkñúgéRBb¤dut ebICaesþcvij eKyk sBb¤GdiæFatudak;kñúgectiy.QavtakVan;k¾)anBiBN’naGMBIksikmµnigBaNiC¢kmµplitplksikmµnig pléRBeQIpgEdr. Kat;)anniyayfa km<úCaeBlenaH mankSRtRbeTscMNuHeRcInCagekAsib PUminImYy²manvtþ mYy ehIyeKeKarBemmñak;EdlKat;ehAfaém:suI. tamemIleTABaküenH RbEhlCakarehAminRtÚvnUv Baküem. bnÞab;mk Kat;niyayGMBIT½BefµIreCIgEdlmanxøÜnTeT kan;lMEBg nigExl b:uEnþKµanFñÚRBÜj ehIyKµanGaveRkaHb¤mYkRkas;Bak;eT. Rtg;enHhak;dUcCaminRtÚv eRBaHeyIg)aneXIjBIxagelIrYc ehIyfa FñÚRBÜj)anRtÚveKeRbIenAkñúgkarRbyuT§ ehIycmøak;rak;enAR)asaTGgÁrvtþ )anbgðajrUbGñk 19 enHCaerOgmYyKYr[sgS½yNas; BIeRBaHeKRtÚvTTYlsÁal;fa manesþcbIRBHGgÁesayraCüenAkñúgstvtSr_TI13 edaymYyGgÁ²esayraCüCamFümcMnYn31qñaM.
  • 117. RbyuT§xøHmanBak;GaveRkaH ehIyédeqVgmankan;ExlEdr. QavtakVan;)anbBa©b;kMNt;Rtarbs;Kat;edayniyayfa RBHraCakRmnwgyagecjBIraCvaMg Nas; xøÜnKat;)aneXIjRBHraCaEtbYnR)aMdgb:ueNÑaH ehIyvahak;dUcCaRBHGgÁxøaceKeFVIXat. RBHkayrbs;RBHraCamanBaseRkaHEdk. eBlyageTANamkNa RTg;Kg;elIERKEsñgEdlEsg edaynarIbYnnak; ehIyCnTaMgGs;EdlsßitelIpøÚvRtÚvRkabf¶asdl;dI. Rtg;enH QavtakVan;ehAfa sanBas KWsMBH. RBHraCaebIksvnakarmYyéf¶BIrdg edIm,IedaHRsaykic©karRbeTs. namuWn nigRbCara®sþ Edl cUlmkKal;esþcGgÁúypÞal;dI. enAxageRkAÉeNaH sMeLgePøgcab;bnøWeLIg eKpøúMs½gç rYcPIelog cab; ebIkvaMgnn.RBHraCaelcRBHP½®kþenAmat;bg¥ÜcRBHhsþkan;RBHx½nmas.BYkGamatüelIkhtßRbNm ehIy»nk,aldl;dIrhUtTal;EtsMeLgs½gçcb;. eBlcb;svnakar RBHraCayagRtlb;cUlR)asaT vij PIelogTaMgBIrTmøak;vaMgnn rYccakecjeTA. teTAenHKWCakarBiBN’naGMBIk,ÜnBüúhyaRtaenAeBlEdlRBHraCayagecjedaydMrI.eKsegát eXIjfa karBiBN’naenH Rbhak;RbEhlnwgk,ÜnBüúhyaRta EdleKRbTHeXIjsBVéf¶ enAPñMeBj b¤enA RbeTsesom eBlmanbuNüTanmþg²Edr. CaBiess KWsvnakarenAeBlEdlRBHraCaTTYlGgÁTUt dUc Edlelak LalUEb‘r/ bBVVCitQUsuI/ dWsUm:ug nigdWhV½r)aMg )anerobrab;enAcugstvtSr_ TI17. {eBlRBHraCayagecjBIRBHraCvaMg k,ÜndEgðcab;epþImedaykgT½BesHCadMbUg. bnÞab;mk KW Rkúmkan;Tg; nigRkúmePøg. BYkRsIPIelogmanBIbIryeTAR)aMrynak; esøókés,PJIpáa esotpáakñúgsk; kan; eTonFM²kñúgédeTonTaMgenaHdutCab;Canic©eTaHbICaeBléf¶k¾eday.bnÞab;mkKWRkúmPIelogkan;]bePaK PNÐeFVIGMBImas nigR)ak; nigeRKÓglm¥epSg²RKb;EbbRKb;m:Ut mindwgfasRmab;eFVIGVIxøHeT. bnÞab;mk eTot KWRkúmnarIkan;lMEBg nigExl EdlCakgrkSaRBHGgÁCaBiess. bnþBIenaH KWRkúmreTHecom reTHesH Etglm¥edaymas. rdæm®nþI GñkGgÁm©as; suT§EtCiHdMrI ecjdMeNIrmunemIlpøÚv )aMgkøs; BN’Rkhm. bnÞab; mkeTot KWRkúmRsIsñMrbs;RBHraCa GgÁúyelIERKEsñg b¤CiHreTH b¤dMrI. mankøs;CagmYyryEdltubEtgedaymas. eRkaykøs;TaMgenaH KWRBHraCa Kg;QrelIdMrI RBHhsþkan;RBHx½nmas. sUm,IEtPøúkdMrIk¾suT§Etlm¥eTAedaymasEdr. mankøs;sRbEhlCaémÖ EdlEtglm¥eTAedaymas nigmandgeFVIGMBImas. T½BdMrImandMrICaeRcInenAB½T§CMuvijRBHraCa. 114 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 118. 115Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa CMBUkTI9 bdivtþn_enAstvtSr_TI14 ´)anerobrab;rMlgedayectnanUvRBwtþikarN_mYy EdlmansarsMxan;Nas;Edr. LÚv´sUm Rtlb;mkerOgenHvij. GñkniBn§cinmin)anR)ab;[eyIgdwgpgeTfaetInrNaCaesþcesayraCüenA km<úCa enAeBlEdlKat;mkdl;enAcugstvtSr_TI13 ehIyeyIgk¾mindwgfanrNaesayraCü enAeBl enaHEdr.k¾b:uEnþKat;)anniyayfaRBHraCaEdlkMBugesayraCüenaHRtÚvCabuRtsuNisarbs;RBHraCa mun. RBHGgÁ)ancUleFVIT½BtaMgBIekµg rYcehIy)anerobGaBah_BiBah_CamYybuRtIesþc. enAeBlEdl buRtIesþclYcRBHx½nraCüBIRBHbitaykmk[ RBHGgÁk¾eLIgesayraCüeTA1 . RBHraCaEdlFøak;BIraC sm,tþienaHmanRBHraCbuRtamYyGgÁEdrb:uEnþedayKµanRBHx½nraCüminGacesayraCü)anRTg;k¾ekNçT½B RbqaMgnwgRBHeroméfø ehIyRtÚvRBHraCacab;kat;RmameCIgecjGs; CaehtueFVI[rwtEtKµansiTi§esay raCüNas;eTAeTot rYcehIyRtÚvXuMxøÜnkñúgKukggwt. erOgenHRbhak;RbEhlKñanwgerOgenARbeTs)araMg sm½yraCvgSemr:UvaMgsuIyag EdlkalNaeKekarsk;ecjGs;ehIy minGacesayraCü)aneT. etIRBHrC¢TayaTEdleKbeNþjecjBIraCsm,tþiedaydkhUtRBHx½nraCüenaHCanrNaehIyetI RBHraCaEdlERCkraCünigesayraCüenAeLIyenAqñaM1296enaHCanrNa?TaMgGs;enHeyIgmin)an dwgeT ehIyRbEhlCasilacarwkNamYyEdleKminTan;rkeXIj b¤minTan;)anbkRsay nwgR)ab;[ eyIgdwgenAéf¶eRkayNamYyminxan. b:uEnþmanerOgniTanmYyEdlelakDUdadWLaeRK/mUr:anigéGm:UnIejRbEmRbmUl)anmaneKniyay R)ab;´Cajwkjy Edl´KitfaKYrEtelIkykmkniyaynaeBlenH. ebIsinCaerOgenHminGacbMeBj )annUvcenøaHxVHxatcab;BIRBH)aTC½yvrµ½nbremsVr³ EdlRTg;esayraCüenAqñaM1240 mkdl;RBHraCa EdlQavtakVan; CYbenAqñaM1296 erOgenHRbEhlCaGacbMeBjcenøaHxVHxat cab;BIqñaM1296 rhUt dl;qñaM1340)an KWrhUtdl;eBlEdlmanraCBgSavtarkm<úCasm½yTMenIb. 1 deNþImykRBHx½nraCü)an b¤esVtcäRt)an )ann½yfaGacesayraCü)anehIy. cMNucRtg;dUcKñanwgenARbeTs NçaEdr ³ GñkNaGacdeNþImeLIgGgÁúyelIraCblø½g)an KWkøayCaesþcehIy.
  • 119. teTAenHCasac;erOgEdleFVI[eyIgcab;GarmµN_2 ³ manTwkCMnn;d¾FMcEmøkmYy EdleKyl;fa bNþalmkBIRBHraCakm<úCa )anbBa¢a[eKsmøab;kUnrbs;RBahµN_buerahitmñak;. eBlenaH esþcnKr GyuFüa )ancat;[ecjTUkCaeRcInmkCYyRsg;esþcExµr RBHEkv nigKm<IrRBHéRtbidk. TwkCMnn;enaH k¾)aneFVI[kgT½Bcam EdlkMBugEtratt,atcUlmkkñúgkm<úCa dkfyeTARsukpagrI-panr:ag vijEdr. RBH)aTesnk³ énkm<úCaRTg;suKteTA RBHraCbuRtRBHnam RBHsIhnuraC k¾eLIgesayraCübnþ Kab;CYnTwkRsk RTg;k¾vilRtlb;mkKg;enAraCFanInÞbtþvij3 . RBHraCaGgÁenHmanbuRtImYyRBHGgÁ RBHnambTum nigbuRtImYyRBHGgÁeTot EdleyIgnwgeXIjfa )ankøayCaRBHGKÁmehsIrbs;RBHmha kSRtEdlesayraCübnþBIRBHGgÁ. enAeBlenaHmanGñkcmáarmYyrUbeQµaHfatacayEdlÉksarBgSavtarmYyenaH)anbBa¢ak;fa mankMeNItedImCaCnCatiPaKticsMEr: BUEkxagdaMRtsk;Ep¥m. eKnaMKñaehAKat;fa {nayRtsk;Ep¥m} EdlEtgEtykRtsk;mkfVayRBHraCaesayCajwkjy eFVI[RBHraCasBVRBHT½y k¾bBa¢a[Kat; EfrkSapldMNaMRtsk;rbs;Kat;TaMgGs;TukfVayRBHGgÁ. nayRtsk;Ep¥mTUlRBHraCafa manecarEtg cUllYcebHRtsk;eBlyb; RBHraCasIhnuraC k¾RbTanlMEBgmYyTukRKan;yamcmáar nigsmøab;nrNa Edlh‘ancUlmklYcRtsk; lMEBgenaHsBVéf¶sßitenAkñúgraCvaMgPñMeBj. eBlbnþiceRkaymk RBHraCacg;dwgfa etItaRtsk;Ep¥myamkamEfrkSadMNaMEdrb¤eT yb;mYy eBls¶at; RTg;)anlYccUlkñúgcmáarRtsk; edaymanEtmhatlikBIrrUbtamEhhmb:ueNÑaH4 . b:uEnþ 116 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 2 mkdl;Rtg;enH ´sUmCMrab[dwgGMBIkarrkeXIjrbs;elak h‘UEb‘ EdlrkeXIjenAPUmanUverOgeRBgmYy edayKat; )ancmøgCaGkSrLataMgehIybkERbrYcBicarNaGMBIcMNucdUcKñarevagerOgeRBgExµrnigerOgeRBgPUma.Kat;k¾)aneFVIkar dkRsg;nUvsñaédPUmamYymaneQµaHfa suFmnsarim:agsamiFmµasaFRBHFM. erOgenaHdUcKñaRbhak;RbEhlnwgerOgecARtsk;Ep¥m EdleyIgnwgniTanteTAenH ehIyKat;)ankMNt;kalbriecäTenA stvtSr_TI10 cMENkesckþIdkRsg;vijfa mantaMgEtBImunsm½yRBHBuT§eTAeTot. enAkñúgerOgTaMgbI esþcmannamfa esþcBal. eXIjfa karrkeXIjenaH hak;dUcCaeFVI[RcbUkRcbl;Nas;Edr. sUmGanGtßbTenAkñúgRBwtþibRtsala)araMgcugbUB’a (Bulletin de l’ Ecole Française d’ Extrème-Orient) Rtg;EpñkLes Etudes Indochinoises rbs;elak Hubert k,alTI5 qñaM1905TMB½r176-184 ³ Le Jardinier régicide qui devient roi. 3 erOgTwklicraCFanInÞbtþenH)ansßitdk;Cab;kñúgkarcgcaMrbs;GñkRsukminEmnfamanelIkeLIgEtkñúgerOgeRBgxag elIenHeT. manlixitmYybBa¢ak;fa erOgenHekItmantaMgBImunTwkFMenAGgÁrFMeTAeTot KWmunerOgtaRtsk;Ep¥m. 4 tamkarniTanpÞal;mat;mYyniyayfamhatlikTaMgBIrenaHCanarI.
  • 120. 117Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa taRtsk;Ep¥mdwgTan; ehIysµanfa RBHraCaCaecarcUlmklYcRtsk; k¾ecallMEBgEdlRBHraCa RbKl;[enaH eTARtÚvRBHraCasuKteTA5 . eBlenaH namuWnsBVmuxm®nþIRbCuMKñariHrkmnusSmñak;[esayraCü edIm,IkuM[raCblø½gáTMenr dl;min dwgfaRtÚveRCIserIsyknrNa k¾seRmcelIktaRtsk;Ep¥m[esayraCüEtmþg edayfVayRBHnamfa RBH)aTsemþcRBHbrmmhabBiRtFmµikmharaCaFiraC ehIyGPieskRBHraCbuRtIc½nÞvravtI CaRBHGKÁ mehsI manRBHnamfa RsIcnÞraC. RBH)aTsemþcRBHbrmmhabBiRtFmµikmharaCaFiraC manRBHraCbuRtBIrRBHGgÁCamYyRBHGKÁ mehsIenH KWRBHbrmniBVanbT nigRBHsiT§anraCa. RBHGgÁRTg;esayraCü)an17qñaM eTIbsuKteTAkñúg RBHCnµ 70RBHvsSa kñúgqñaM1340. RBHraCbuRtac,gesayraCbnþBIRBHbita)an 6qñaM k¾suKteTA eTot ehIyRtÚv)anRBHGnuCsiT§anraCaesayraCüsm,tþibnþenAqñaM1347 ebIeTaHbIfaRBHGgÁmanRBH raCbuRtadl;eTABIrRBHGgÁk¾eday. erOgniTanenH ebIeTaHbIfa CakarcmøgykerOgniTanPUma b¤k¾erOgniTanNÐaEdlmanv½ycMNas; Cag mkeFVICaerOgExµrk¾eday k¾erOgenHGacnwgmanbgáb;nUvRBwtþikarN_d¾Gaf’kM)aMgmYy enArvagqñaM 1320 b¤1325 EdlmanRBHraCamYyGgÁ)anRtÚveKeFVIXat ehIyXatkrenaHminEmnCaGñkcaM cmáarRtsk;eT EtCam®nþImñak;EdlmanedImkMeNItCaCnCatiPaKticsMEr:6 . erOgenHbMeBj)annUvcenøaH EdleK)anelIkBIxagelI sRmab;stvtSr_TI14 ebIehacNas;k¾erOgenH)anR)ab;GMBIRbPBénraCvgS sBVéf¶ nigR)ab;fa RBHraCaExµrElgkan;RBhµBaØsasnaeTotehIy Ebrmkkan;BuT§sasnavij. eKGacTTYlsÁal;fa RBHraCamYyGgÁ EdlFøab;EthuWhaEbbRBHraCakm<úCanastvtSr_TI13 5 erOgniTandEdl)anniyayfa GdæiFaturbs;RBHraCa)anRtÚvRBHraCbuRtIRBHnamfa bTum ykmktmál;TukenAkñúg R)asaTERbrUbsBVéf¶ enABIxagekItGgÁrFM Ek,rTVarmrN³. {ERbrUb} CacMENkénBiFImYyEdl´GFib,ayenAkñúg esovePAmaneQµaHfa{Qabnkic©nigBiFIbBa©úHsBenAkm<úCaLa Crémation et les rites funéraires au Cambodge}.kñúgBiFIenaH eKRbmUlykepHEdlsl;BIkarbUCasBmksUnüCaragmnusSedk rYcehIyeTIbeKerIsFatueTAtmál;Tuk. 6 manerOgmYyEdleKCYbRbTHenAesomrab EdlRcLMesþcsIhnuraCfaCaesþcBal EdlesayraCüenAstvtSr_TI 10 )anniyayfaR)asaTbnÞaysMEr: enABIxagekItGgÁrFM sagsg;eLIgedaytacay manedImkMeNItCaGñksMEr:. elakéGm:UnIejeRkayBI)anBinitüR)asaTenHrYc)anniyayfaR)asaTenHeKsg;munR)asaTGgÁrvtþCakarbBa¢ak;faebI minEmnsagsg;edaytacayeT vaGacCaR)asaTsg;eLIgedayBYksMEr: edIm,IbUCaGaTieTBNamYyEdlBYkeKeKarB.
  • 121. yageTANamkNamanesnaEhhmes¥ksáH ebIehacNas;k¾manRsImhatliktamkarBarEdr eBl yagecjBIRBHbrmraCvaMg RTg;Bak;GaveRkaHeFVIGMBIEdkkarBarRBHkay GacnwgyagecjeBlyb; s¶at;eTARbBatcmáarRtsk;EdlRTg;sBVRBHT½yesay edIm,IBinitüemIlfa etIecAcaMcmáar)anyamkam karBarRtsk;EmnEdrb¤eT. k¾b:uEnþebIeKcg;TTYlsÁal;fa RBHraCaRtÚveKeFVIXatenaHminEmnCam©as; cmáareTEdlCaXatkrvaR)akdfaKWnamuWnsBVmuxm®nþINamñak;CaXatkrRKan;EtfaXatkmµenHeKeFVIenA kñúgcmáarRtsk; enAcMeBaHmuxGñkcaMcmáar b¤k¾XatkrenaHCanayRkúmdMNaMk¾mindwg. mü:ageTotebIRBHraCaRTg;suKtehIyehtuGVIk¾namuWnsBVmuxm®nþImineRCIserIsGñkesayraCüsñg kñúgkSRtiyvgS EdlR)akdCabnþkan;RBhµBaØsasnateTAeTot EtEbrCaeRCIserIsRbCara®sþ ehIy GacCaXatkrpgdUecñHeTAvij?Rtg;enHbBa¢ak;favaR)akdCamankarsmKMnitb¤faRBwtþikrN_enaH)an beRmI[plRbeyaCn_BYkeK b¤k¾mkBIfa eKsßitenAcMeBaHmuxRkúmXatkrEdlmanGMNacxøaMgCag ehIy RtÚvEtelIkBYkenaH[eLIgelIblø½gáraCüminGacnwgelIkykerOgXatkmµb¤erOgmansarCatiCaBYksMEr: ykmkBicarNa)aneT7 ? TaMgesþcneratþm TaMgGñkGgÁm©as;TaMgLay )anTTYlsÁal;karBiténRbPBedImenH ehIyminxøac nwgniyayfa raCvgSbc©úb,nñecjmkBIvgStaRtsk;Ep¥m EdlmanedImkMeNItedImCaBYksMEr: )aneFVI Xatesþc rYcerobGPieskCamYybuRtIesþc. erOgEbbenH P¢ab;CamYynwglMEBgraCüEdleKrkSaTukenAkñúgraCvaMgsBVéf¶ EdlminCal¥b:unµan sRmab;raCvgSbc©úb,nñ CaPsþútagmYycMENkbBa¢ak;GMBIlkçN³Rbvtþisa®sþénerOgniTan TaMgGMBIcrit lkçN³ TaMgGMBIkarBit. ehIyGVIEdlCakarBitCak;EsþgenaHKWfa RBHraCaEdlesayraCübnþBIRBH)aTsIhnuraC Caesþc 118 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 7 TaMgGs;enHKµanGVIKYr[sgS½yeT. eyIgFøab;)aneXIjBIxagelIrYcmkehIyfa manGñkEdldeNþImykRBHx½nraCü )an)anecjmkbgðajmux[RbCara®sþelIk[esayraCü.eyIgk¾Føab;)aneXIjEdrfaBYkRBahµN_buerahitEdlCaGñk EfrkSaeTvraC )anQremIleKeFVIXatesþcEdlxøÜn)anerobcMGPiesk rYcehIyTTYlerobcMGPieskXatk[eLIg esayraCübnþeTot. eyIgnwg)aneXIjeRkaymkeTot enAstvtSr_TI17 faRBHx½nraCüenH)anRtÚveKykeTAlak;Tuk kñúgrn§eQI rg;caM[RBHraCamYyGgÁyagmkkan;ykeTAelIkRKvI edIm,I[RbCara®sþTTYlsÁal;eRCIserIsCaesþc esayraCü. enAkm<úCa RBHx½nraCüCasBaØasmÁal;raCaniym. kalBIsm½ymhanKr RBHraCaRTg;kan;RBHx½nraCükñúg RBHhsþ eBlRTg;bgðajRBHGgÁtambg¥Üc.
  • 122. 119Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa kan;RBHBuT§sasna. karEdlRTg;manRBHnamfa RBH)aTFmµikCaPsþútagRsab;. ehIyRBHnamrbs; RBHraCbuRtc,gfa niBaVnbT mann½yfa RTg;)ancUlRBHniBVanehIynigRBHnamRBHGnuCfa siT§an man n½yfa CMenOsasna bBa¢ak;fa suT§EtCaBuT§sasnikTaMgGs;Kña. raCvgSfµIElgeKarBbUCasasnamun ElgbUCayBaØmnusSfVayRBHnagkalI enAkñúgR)asaTmYyenAÉxagbUB’araCFanI dUcEdleKerobrab; kalBIstvtSr_TI7 eTotehIy8 . ebIsinCadUecñHEmn bdivtþn_Edl)anekItmaneLIgenH CaerOgsasna minEmnCaerOgneya)ay eT Etk¾)anbeRmIplRbeyaCn_EpñksmÖarxøH Edlbgáb;enABIxagkñúgTMnas;enaHEdr ebIeTaHCafa eKemIl mineXIj k¾eday. k¾b:uEnþ edIm,I[karpøas;bþÚrd¾RCaleRCA dUcEdleyIg)anelIkxagelIenH GacseRmceTA)an ehIymankarKaMRTpgenaHvaetagEtRBHraCaNacRkmanmnusSmYycMnYnFMCaBiessenAraCFanInÞbtþ manmenaseBa©tnaCamYyRBHBuT§sasnamYyry³kalrYcmkehIypgEdr. tamemIleTA RbEhlCa RBHBuT§sasna )anQñHsasnadéT²eTotEmn enAcugstvtSr_TI13enaH ehIyRBHsgÇ EdlsuT§Ca 8 tamraCBgSavtarmYyc,ab;eTotEdl´man RBHraCaEdlesayraCübnþBInayRtsk;Ep¥m b¤tacay minEmnCa RBHraCbuRtRBHniBVanbTeT EtKWb¥ÚnEdlmaneQµaHfa tasYs EdlesayraCüsm,tþi 50qñaMeRkam RBHnamfa semþc RBHbrmmaXraCa. bnÞab;mkmanRBHraCaesayraCübnþCahUrEhdUcteTA ³ -RBHRsIsirIbuRt CabuRtnayRtsk;Ep¥m esayraCü)an39qñaM -RBHbrmlMBgSraCa CabuRtRBHRsIsirIbuRt eLIgesayraCüenAkñúgRBHCnµ 16RBHvsSa esayraCü)an55qñaM -RBHbrmraC»gÁarCabuRtRBHlMBgSraCaeLIgesayraCyenARBHCnµ16RBHvsSaEdresayraCü)an60qñaM -RBHRsIsurieyaBN’ CabuRtrbs;RBHbrmraC»gáar eLIgesayraCüenARBHCnµ16qñaMEdr esayraCü)andl;eTA 76qñaM RBHniBVanbT -rYcRBHsiT§anraCaCaRBHraCbuRtRBHGgÁ. ebItamraCBgSavtarenH manesþcdl;eTA 6GgÁEdlesayraCüenAcenøaHcab;BItaRtsk;Ep¥m mkdl;RBHniBVanbT nigsiT§anraCa EdleKcat;Tukfa CaRBHraCbuRtGs;ry³eBlrhUtdl;eTA 279qñaM eXIjfa EvghYseBk ebIeTaHCayk eTAbMeBjcenøaHtaMgBIRBHraCaEdleyIgsÁal;tamsilacarwkmk k¾minsmEdr. raCBgSavtarenH RbEhlCaÉksarEdlRBHsgÇmYyGgÁ)ancmøgykeTAbgðajdl;elak éGm:UnIej Etmanmun yUrehIy KWtaMgEtBIqñaM1848 KWmuneBlEdlelak éGm:UnIej mkdl;km<úCaemø:H.
  • 123. bBaØvnþkMBugEtbgðat;beRgónRTwsþIRBHBuT§dl;sisSKN³CaeRcIn pÞúyBIBYkRBahµN_ EdlKµansalabgðat; beRgón ehIylak;Km<IrTukEtkñúgcMeNamvNѳrbs;xøÜn minEckrMElkdl;GñkdéT dUcCaenARbeTs NÐaEdr. RbEhlCamannamuWnm®nþImYycMnYnFM )anTTYlykRBHBuT§sasnarYcehIy manEtraCvgSanuvgS b:ueNÑaH EdlenAkan;RBhµBaØsasna edayxøacrGaGaTieTBEdlFøab;ksagGaNacRk ehIyk¾RbEhl edaymanBYkRBahµN_bNÐitenACuMvij eTIbRtÚvEtbUCamnusSmñak;fVayRBHnagkalI Caerogral;qñaM. mü:ageTotedayBuMTan;h‘ane)aHbg;kareKarBeTvraCecalecj kareKarBenH ekItmaneLIgtaMgBIrC¢kal RBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI3 enAstvtSr_TI9 rhUtmk. CMenOsasnarbs;RbeTsCatiTaMgmUl RtÚv)anEkERbbnþicmþg² CamYynwgeBlevla EtraC vgSanuvgS EdlFøab;EtGPirkStamsPavKti ehIyEfmTaMgRbkan;TMenomTmøab;GaRs½yedaypl RbeyaCn_pgenaH enArkSaCMenOtamBImun EdleKarBGaTieTBRBhµBaØsasna eKarBRBHvisÑú eKarB RBHsiv³ nigRBHnagkalI b:uEnþ k¾FUrTUlayCamYyRBHBuT§sasnapgEdr. karrIkraldalénRBHBuT§sasnaeTAkñúgRsTab;RbCaCnkñúgRBHraCaNacRk enAeBlEdlRBHraCa enAEtRbkan;eKarBsasnacas;dUecñH GacnwgbegáIt[manbriyakasxagsµartI EdlGaceFVI[maneRKaH fñak;dl;raCaniym eFVI[GaNacRkRtÚvEbk)ak;edayRBHraCamin)ancab;GarmµN_eLIy. karbdivtþn_ mYy )ancab;epþImerobcMekIteLIgehIy b:uEnþ RBHraCamin)ancab;GarmµN_ dUcCaRBHecAGFiraCr:UmuaMg mun RBHecAkugsþg;taMg G‘ÍcwgEdr Edlmin)anemIleXIjfa GVIEdlkMBugEtKMramkMEhgmkelIGaNacRk. RBHraCaRbEhlCaRTg;)anTteXIj hVÚgmnusSEdlelIkKñaKas;rMelIgbdimaGaTieTB RBhµBaØsasna eXIjmanGñkxøHeTotnaMKñavaykemÞcRBHBuT§rUb nigeXIjBuT§sasnikCncUlrYmskmµPaBepSg² beRmI plRbeyaCn_sasna. RTg;k¾RbEhlCa)andwgGMBITMhMrIkraldalénBuT§sasna EdlTTYleCaKC½y rYceTAehIyenAkñúgbNþaExRtPaKBay½Bü hUrcUlmkkñúgRBHraCaNacRkkan;EtxøaMgeLIg BImYyéf¶eTA mYyéf¶. bdivtþn_naeBlenaH minEmnekIteLIgedayÉkÉgenaHeT b:uEnþvaCalT§plénPaBl¥k;kkr d¾yUrlg;mYy EdlekItecjBITMnas;CaeRcInrvagsasnaTaMgBIr BIPaBRcbUkRcbl; ehIyk¾RbEhlCa mankarbHe)arKaMRT b¤RbqaMgRTwsþIsasnafµIpgEdr. enAkñúgsßanPaBEbbenH eBalKWbdivtþn_)ancak; b£senAkñúgstisµartIyUrNas;mkehIy caM)ac;RtÚvEtelIkRBHraCaEdlkan;BuT§sasna[esayraCü edIm,IbMeBjtambMNgrbs;RbCaCn eCosvagkarminsb,aycitþ CaBiess KWRbCaCnTIRkúg eRBaHfa GñkRsukGñkERstamCnbT RbEhlCaenAbnþeKarBGbiyCMenO eKarBGñkta eKarBligÁ enAeLIyeT. 120 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 124. 121Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa kalNaebIGacekIteLIg)an bdivtþn_RtÚvEtekIteLIg ehIyTTYl)annUveCaKC½yCasßaBr. enAeBlenaHPasasM®sáwtEdlCaPasarbs;BYkRBahµN_bNÐitbuerahitGacarüRBhµBaØsasna CaPasarbs;RBHmhakSRtEdleKarBRBHsiv³ b¤RBHvisÑú b¤k¾eKarBRBHTaMgBIrRBHGgÁEtmþg eRkamrUb PaBCaRBHhrihr³ )anRtÚveKe)aHbg;ecalehIy ehIyCMnYsvijedayPasa)alI CaPasaBisidærbs; BuT§sasnikCnnasm½yenaHEdlbnÞab;mk)ankøayeTACaPasasRmab;GñkR)aCJenAeRkamraCvgSfµI. bdivtþn_etagEtCabdivtþn_RbCaRbiy ebIehacNas;k¾enAtamTIRkúgEdr. ebIdUecñH vaKWCabdivtþn_ RbCaFibetyü ehIyedIm,I[RbCara®sþenAEteKarBbUCa RBHraCak¾etagEte)aHbg;ecalnUvTmøab;xøH Ca BiessKWRbéBNIEdlRbCara®sþmincUlcitþCak;EsþgdUcCakarekNÐRbCaCnedayBYkRBHGgÁm©as;b¤BYk visVkmµ[elIkpøÚvfñl; [sg;vimanFM² sg;raCvaMg R)asaT bnÞay sRmab;lm¥raCFanI dUcCaR)asaT )ay½nPimanGakasGgÁrvtþbwgmalaRBHx½nb¤k¾R)asaTsRmab;karsRmakrbs;RBHraCaCaedImEdl RtÚvcMNaymasR)ak; TukçevTna nigTwkEPñkra®sþ CaeRcIn. KWedayehtuenaHehIy )anCakarsagsg; R)asaTmYycMnYn RtÚv)aneKe)aHbg;ecal dUcCaR)asaTGgÁrvtþ EdleKcab;sg;taMgBIstvtSr_munmk Etcmøak;k,ac;rcnaenAminTan;cb;sBVRKb;enAeLIy KWenAdEdldUcBImun eRBaHeRkaybdivtþn_ RBHBuT§ sasna )ankøayeTACasasnapøÚvkar ehIyRBHraCaKµanmeFüa)ayxagsmÖar b¤sµartINanwgbnþkar sagsg;teTAeTot)aneLIy. mü:ageTot CMenOsasnaeRkayhak;dUcCaminrvIrvl;nwgbegðIyGVI Edl CMenOsasnamun)ancab;epþImenaHeT rIÉRbCara®sþEdlFøab;EtrgnUvkarKabsgát;BIraCaniymRBhµBaØ sasna k¾hak;dUcCamanesrIPaBCagmun manesckþIkøahanCagCamYynwgraCaniymfµI CaBiess enA eBlEdlGaNacRkTaMgmUlkMBugEtrgnUvkar)ak;Ebk dUcenHKµanplRbeyaCn_GVIEdleFVI[eKcg;eFVIkar gard¾lM)akTaMgGs;enaHEdr. KWedayEbbenHehIyEdlkarGab;»ncuHénGaNacRkExµr )anbNþal[ mankarGab;»ncuHénsßabtükmµniyayedayxøIfaeRkayBIbdivtþn_BuT§sasnaGVI²TaMgGs;RtÚv)ak;Rsut cuH enAkm<úCa. xagelIenHCakarerobrab;GMBIkar)ak;EbkénGaNacRkExµr bnÞab;BImanbdivtþn_sasnaEdlnaM [eKelIkesþckan;BuT§sasna manRBHnam nigRBHzan³tamvaküs½BÞBuT§sasna [esayraCüelIraC blø½gáesþcRBhµBaØsasnaEtElgeRbIRBHnamfa{vrµ½n-GñkkarBar}eTotehIy.´eCOfaKWcab;BIeBl enaHehIy EdlmankarEbgEckTwkdIedayesþcRtaj;TaMgLay EdlFøab;EtcMNuHRBHraCaExµr. raC BgSavtarrbs;RbeTsTaMgGs; EdlTTYlGarüFm’hiNÐÚenANÐÚcin suT§Etcab;epþImeLIgkñúgeBlEtmYy KWRbEhlCaBak;kNþalTImYyénstvtSr_TI14 enAPUma esom lav m:ata)an k¾dUcCaenAkm<úCa.
  • 125. enHk¾CaPsþútagmYyeTotEdlbBa¢ak;fa RBwtþikarN_d¾FMmYy)anekItmaneLIgnaeBlenaH cMeBaHbNþardæ TaMgLayEdlFøab;EtcMNuHGaNacRkExµr enaHKWkar)at;bg;GMNacrbs;vgSvrµ½nenAkm<úCa karpøas;bþÚr sasna nigkarcuHexSayénGMNacRBHraCa bNþalmkBIbdivtþn_. karrMeCIbrMCYlGacnwgekItmanRKb; TisTI. bNþardæTaMgLayEdlFøab;EtcuHcaj; dak;xøÜnCacMNuH ehIyyl;RBmTTYlsÁal;GnutþrPaBrbs; GaNacRkExµr eBlenaHRbEhlCacab;epþImcab;kan;GavuFerIbRmHTamTarsV½yPaB rYcehIyRbkas ÉkraCükñúgeBlEtmYy. RBHraCakm<úCa EdlGs;GMNac ehIyKµanynþkarsgÁmGVI edIm,IekNÐRbCa ra®sþrab;Ban;nak;[eFVIsMNg;FM² k¾KµanGMNacNanwgekNÐBlerh_eFVIs®gÁam {eTATisTaMgbYn} dUcBImun emø:aHehIyk¾minGacnwgcab;BYkbHe)ar[cUlmkkñúgnwmRtÜtRtavijdUckalBIedIm)anEdr. mü:ageTot ra®sþénbNþardæTaMgGs;enaH k¾RbEhlCa)ankan;RBHBuT§sasnamunrYceTAehIypg ehIyEfmTaMgman esþc9 kan;RBHBuT§sasnamuneBlEdlkm<úCae)aHbg;esþckan;RBhµBaØsasnaeTAeTotCaehtubNþal[ rdæTaMgGs;enaH rwtEtmankmøaMgxøaMgeLIg ebIeRbóbeTAnwgRBHecAGFiraCEdlexSayRsab; enAkñúgRbeTs xøÜnÉgenaH. eKminGacBnül;tfPaBxagelIenHEbbdUcemþc)aneToteT KWfaGVI²TaMgGs;cMeBaHGñkRsuk NÐÚcin hak;dUcCacab;ekItmaneLIgRtwmBak;kNþalstvtSr_TI14 eRbóbdUcCakarcab;epþImsaCafµI eLIgvij. munqñaM1340KWCayb;ggwtQwg eRkayenaHKWCaéf¶PøWRsLHETg. ehtukarN_TaMgLay BIGtItkal RtÚvkb;lub)at;eTAkñúgkarePøcPøaMg. eKePøcGs;taMgBIRBHnamesþcesayraCü ePøcTaMg eQµaHraCFanI ePøcGs;TaMgRBwtþikarN_sMxan;²TaMgLay. mansilacarwksM®sáwtCaeRcInEdlRtÚv)at; bg; KµannrNaGacecHGan)an eRBaHmü:agPasaenHRbCaCnminEdlecHRsab;pg rIÉGñkR)aCJk¾min GacemIldac; emø:aHehIyk¾RtÚvTukecal b¤elIkRKvat;ecaleTAkñúgTenø bwg ebIsinCamin)ankb;eTAkñúg dIeT. Rbvtþisa®sþRtÚv)anpøas;CMnYsvijedayerOgeRBgniTaneRcInrab;minGs; erOgPaKeRcInminBit KYr[cg;esIc xøHeTotmanPaBGcäriy³hYsehtu erOgekIteLIgeRcInRbTaMgRbeTIsKñaBImYyéf¶eTAmYyéf¶ yUr²eTA køayeTACaerOgniTanRsemIRsém. manerOgrbs;esomEdleKykmkeFVICaerOgExµr dak; eQµaHTIkEnøgtameQµaHkñúgRsukExµr ehIyerOgExµrERbCaerOgrbs;esom maneQµaHTIkEnøg RtÚvnwg 122 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 9 eK)ancab;eronsURtRBHBuT§sasnataMgEtBIedImstvtSr_TI13mk enAÉraCvaMgesþcsuexaT½y. Km<IréRtPUmiman kMeNItenAkñúgBak;kNþalTI1énstvtSr_ TI13enaH.
  • 126. 123Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa eQµaHRsukPUmirbs;esom. karGnuvtþn_CMenOcas;enAmanesssl;xøHkñúgRsTab;RbCaCn CaBiess KWenAtamCnbTRsuk ERs EtecHEtsabrlabeTA² Cak;EsþgdUcCa rUbsMNakGaTieTBRBhµBaØsasna enAmaneKeKarBbUCa ehIyCYnkalxøacrGaeTotpg b:uEnþ GñkeKarBbUCaecHEtticeTA² ehIyCMenOenaH manGaf’kM)aMgkan;Et xøaMgeLIg kalNaeKXøatkan;Etq¶ayBIstvtSr_TI14. eKsÁal;eQµaHGaTieTBEdlrUbenaHtMNag[Et )anRtwmEtsÁal;y:agenaHb:ueNÑaH.km<úCaburaN)ankb;lic)at;eTAkñúgPaBggwterOgr:avBIGtIt)anpþit Cab;eTAnwgraRtIkal ehIyRbCara®sþExµrk¾dUcGñkRsukNÐÚcinÉeTot² EdlTTYlGarüFm’hiNÐÚEdr KW RtÚvcab;epþImecjdMeNIrsaCafµI RBmKñakñúgeBlEtmYy elImaK’afµImYy edayCMhanxusBImun ehIynaMKña kt;RtadMeNIrCIvitrbs;eKBImYyqñaMeTAmYyqñaM xusBITmøab;mun. mü:ageTot ebIsinNaCaRBwtþikarN_stvtSr_TI14 min)aneFVI[BYkeKÉkPaBKñaelIkarkMNt;eBl cab;epþIménBgSavtarrbs;eKeT etImanGVIeTAEdleFVI[eKÉkPaBKña? BitR)akdNas;fa GVIEdlnaM[eK cab;epþImeFVIRBmKñanUvGVIEdleKminmanTmøab;eFVIBImun enaHKWkarEdleK)anrYccakputRBmKñaBIkarsßitenA eRkamGaNaBüa)alEtmYy enAeBlEdlkm<úCakMBugEtmanbdivtþn_ )at;bg;RbCaCnGs; edaysar s®gÁamruaMér: ehIy)at;bg;TwkdIq¶ay² EdlExµrBi)aknwgbBa¢ÚnT½BeTAkarBar KWenAeBlenaHehIy Edl eKcab;manKMnitcg;sresrkt;Rta cg;niyay eRBaHfa eKmanesrIPaBehIy. eRkayBITwkdImYycMnYnRtÚv)at;bg;eTA eBlenaHRBHraCaNacRkhak;dUcCaenArkSa)annUvGaNa ExRtmYycMnYnenAxagt,ÚgraCFanI rYmTaMgGaNaExRtCab;nwgQUgsmuRTesom mancnÞtab‘un/ )at;dMbg/ TwkdIBIxageCIgGgÁrFMrhUtdl;kUr:at; ¬nKrraCsIma¦ nigenAelICYrPñMdgErkelIkElgEtTwkdIraCaNacRk )asak;ecjehIynigeTAdl;GatUBWpgEdr.TwkdIEdl)at;bg;rYmman³RsukesomEdlCasRtÚvsahav nigFMCageK/ raCaNacRktUc²enAtamdgTenøemNamxagelI/ raCaNacRkevogc½nÞ/ raCaNacRk høÜgR)a)ag ehIynigkSRtRbeTstUc²RbEhlCa40 enAelITwkdIlavsBVéf¶. KYrrMlwkfa Éksar Rbvtþisa®sþcin)anniyayfamanRsukcMnYn60EdlsßitenAeRkamGnutþrPaBrbs;RBHraCakm<úCaehIy QavtakVan; niyayfa cMnYnTaMgGs;KW 90. RBHraCaNacRkkm<úCaeBlenaH enACaGaNacRkd¾FMmYy enAeLIy manraCFanICabnÞay RbkbeTAedaykMEBgkarBard¾rwgmaMCageKenANÐÚcin nigCaraCFanIl¥ dac;eKkñúgcMeNamTIRkúgFM²TaMg30 b:uEnþ GMNac)ancuHexSay ehIyebIKitGMBIkmøaMgT½B EdlxVHvin½y ebIeRbóbeTAnwgsm½yenAeRkamRBHraCavrµ½n/ namuWnsBVmuxm®nþI nig]tþmesnIy_minsUveKarBekatxøac RBHraCa.km<úCaeBlenaHKµansmtßPaBnwgkarBarxøÜndUckalBI2stvtSr_muneToteTEtRtÚvRbQmmux
  • 127. nwgs®gÁamCamYycam/ esom RBmTaMgkSRtRbeTscMNuHÉeTot²Cajwkjab; rIÉRbCaCnk¾bHe)ar eLIgEdr edayemIleXIjfa GMNacrbs;RBHraCa)ancuHexSayehIy. cab;BIeBlEdlmanbdivtþn_enaHmk karGab;»ncuHmanel,ÓnelOnKµanGVIGacTb;)an KWGab;»ncuH TaMgxagsßabtükmµ TaMgxagkarRKb;RKg. BUCsasn_ecHEtehaceTA² mü:agKWedaysarRkúmBYkhiNÐÚ EdlFøab;EtdwknaM)an)at;bg;eTACamYynwgraCaRBhµBaØniym mü:ageTot KWedaysarkarkat;rlaycUl KñaCamYyGñkrdævasI. eK)ansegáteXIjtaMgBIeRcInstvtSr_munbdivtþn_enaHem:øH faeQµaH sSrCn nignayTahanCaPasasM®sáwtecHEtticeTA² ehIyeQµaHGñkrdævasItamPasasamBaØecHEtmaneRcIn eLIg² CakarbBa¢ak;fasmasPaKhiNÐÚecHEtehaceTA² ehIyFatuGñkRsukedImmankan;EteRcIn eLIg².bnþicmþg²ExµrElgenACaCatiFMmYymanGarüFm’hiNÐÚdUcBImunElgGPivDÆn_GarüFm’xøÜneTAtam maK’aEdlBYkhiNÐÚ)anRtÜsRtay[enaHeTotehIy. eKRtlb;EbrmkrkcritedImrbs;eKvij KWsßan PaBbuBVkaldUcEdlGñkRsukenArkSa)anenAeLIy. eBlenaH eKminGacTb;Tl;nwgcrnþBn§únisS½y Edl RbTaj[eKKaMgédKaMgeCIg ehIyFøak;cUl»nPaB)aneLIy. CMenOsasnafµIk¾KµanfamBlminsVahab; eFVI[kmøaMgfycuHBImYystvtSr_eTAmYystvtSr_. CamYyRBHraCavrµ½ncugeRkay famBlrbs;km<úCa )ancuHexSaybnþiceTAehIyb:uEnþenAGacTb;Tl;CamYyBYkesomEdl{e)assm¥atTIRkúgs¥atdUceKdk esµA} )anenAeLIy. b:uEnþeRkaymk eKKµansmtßPaBnwgkarBarxøÜnRbqaMgnwgBYkesomenaHeToteT eFVIs®gÁammþgcuHexSaybnþic rhUtTal;EtkøayeTACaGsmtßPaBEtmþg. cab;BIeRkayeBl Edlesom deNþImykRkúglEgVk)anenAqñaM1587 vahak;dUcCafa ElgmanGarüFm’ExµrteTAeTotehIy. BYk esom)annaMykKm<Irc,ab;nigePaKRTBüepSg²rbs;ExµreTAGs;ehIycab;BIeBlenaHmkesomk¾køay xøÜneTACaRbeTsmYymanGarüFm’Garüag eCOnelOnCageK enANÐÚcin. ExµrRtÚvcab;cmøgtamesom vij enAeBlNaEdleKmanlT§PaBegIbeRkakrYcmþg². mkdl;Bak;kNþalstvtSr_TI14enH munnwgeyIgeFVIdMeNIrbnþeTAq¶ayeTot ´Kitfa eyIgKYrEt kMNt;kalbriecäTénrC¢kalrbs;kSRt vrµ½n cugeRkay²enHsin. dMbUgKWRBH)aTC½yvrµ½nbremsVr³EdlRbEhlCaRTg;esayraCüenABak;kNþalstvtSr_TI13. bnÞab;mkmanesþcEdlesayraCütBIRBHGgÁmkEteyIgminsÁal;RBHnamehIyGacCaRBHraCa kMBugesayraCü enAeBlEdlraCTUtcinmkeFVITsSnkic©enAkm<úCaenAqñaM1296. bnÞab;mk KWraCbuRtrbs;RBHraCaxagelI EdlerOgniTanmYyfVayRBHnamfaGaLsraC. RBHGnuCrbs;RBHGaLsraC RBHnamRBHvrl½kraC )anesayraCübnþBIRBHerom. 124 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 128. 125Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa bnÞab;mkeTot KWRBHesnkraC EdlCaRBHGnuCeBArbs;RBHGaLsraC nigRBHvrl½kraC Edl eLIgesayraCübnþBIRBHerom ehIyKWenAkñúgrC¢kalrbs;esþcGgÁenHehIyEdlmankareFVIXatkUn RBahµN_ nigmanTwkCMnn; EdleyIg)aneXIjxagelIrYcmkehIy. RBHraCbuRtrbs;RBHesnkraC RBHnamsIhnuraC )aneLIgesayraCübnþBIRBHbita ehIyRtÚv eFVIXatedaytacay m©as;cmáarRtsk;Ep¥m enAkñúgRtImasTI1énstvtSr_TI14. TIbBa©b; KWtacay EdleLIgesayraCü)an17qñaM rhUtdl;qñaM1340 ehIyCasßabnikén raCvgSEdlkMBugesayraCüsBVéf¶enAkm<úCa. kkMMNNtt;;ccMMNNaaMM ³³ ebIsinCaeKcat;TukerOgniTanmYyEdl´manenAkñúgédCa)ankar ehIyEdlGHGag fa RBH)aTsIhnuraCRtÚveKeFVIXatenAqñaM1290 enaHmansmµtikmµfµImYyeTot)anelceLIg. ´sUm elIkyk bBaðaenHmkCRmabCUnnaeBlenH nigsUmeFVIkarBiPakSaeTAtamkaryl;eXIjrbs;´ TaMg jejItjejIm edIm,ITajGarmµN_rbs;Gs;elakGñk cMeBaHRBwtþikarN_d¾RcbUkRcbl;énsm½ykal Rbvtþisa®sþmYy EdleyIgswgEtmindwgGVITal;EtesaH. RBH)aTC½yvrµ½nTI7 )ansuKt b¤)at;xøÜneTA enAqñaM1201. RBH)aT®nÞvrµ½n CaRBHraCbuRt)anesayraCübnþenAqñaMenaH ehIyenAesayraCüenAeLIy enA qñaM1220. RBHraCbuRtrbs;RBH®nÞvrµ½n RBHnamRsI®nÞvrµ½n )aneLIgesayraCübnþBIRBHbita mindwgfa enAqñaMNaeT EteRkayqñaM1220. RbEhlCaesþcGgÁenHÉg EdlGñkxøHehAfa RBHesnk³ EdlenA kñúgraCüRBHGgÁmanTwkCMnn;FM. RBHraCbuRtrbs;RBH)aTesnkraCRBHnamRBH)aTsIhnuraC)anRtÚvtacaynayc,ardMNaMeFVI Xat enAqñaM1290. tacay enaH RtÚveKelIk[esayraCü ehIyerobGPieskCamYybuRtIesþc. EtQavtakVan;)anerobrab;faRBHraCaEdlesayraCüenAeLIyenAqñaM1296CabuRtsuNisa rbs;RBHraCamun ehIy)aneLIgesayraCüedaydeNþImBIrC¢TayaTmYyGgÁ. ebIdUecñaH esþcEdl esayraCüenAqñaM1296 KWtacay EdlerOgniTanehAfa nayRtsk;Ep¥m. kñúgkrNIenH bdivtþn_sasna nigneya)ay EdlelIkRBHraCakan;RBHBuT§sasna[esayraCü enAelIraCblø½gávrµ½nRBhµBaØniym minEmnekIteLIgenAqñaM1320enaHeT KWenARbEhlCa30qñaMmun KWqñaM 1290. GtßbTRbvtþisa®sþmYyEdl´manenAnwgédniyayfa kalbriecäTénXatkmµeTAelIesþc sIhnuraCekIteLIgenAkñúgmhaskraC1212RtÚvnwgqñaMxaleTas½k.ÉksarenaHniyayfatacay
  • 129. esayraCü)an 17qñaM ehIysuKtenAkñúgRBHCnµayu 70RBHvsSa KWRtÚvnwgqñaM1307. ÉksarmYyeTotehAtacayfaRBHC½yehIyniyayfaKWb¥ÚntacayeQµaHtasYsEdleLIg esayraCübnþeRkamRBHnamfaRBHmaXraCaesayraCü)an20qñaMehIysuKtenArvagqñaM1327. bnÞab;mk KWRBHniBVanbT CakµÜyRBHbrmmaX nigCabuRtrbs;tacay EdleLIgesayraCübnþ ehIyraCBgSavtar)anbBa¢ak;fa esþcGgÁenH enAesayraCüenAeLIyenAqñaM1340. ehtukarN_EdlQavtakVan;elIkeLIgfaRBHraCaEdlesayraCüenAqñaM1296eday)armÖxøac eKeFVIXat )anBak;GaveRkaHeFVIGMBIEdk nigmankgBlesnaEhhmENnNan;tan;tab; hak;dUcCaKaMRT dl;smµtikmµEdlniyayfa esþcesayraCüenAqñaM1296enaH KWCanaycaMcmáarenaHehIy eRBaHxøac eKtammkeFVIXatvij KWRbúgRby½tñeRcInCagesþcEdlesayraCütamc,ab;. KYrkt;smÁal;faGñkkt;Rtacin Edlniyayfa esþcesayraCüenAqñaM1296 )aneLIgesay raCütaMgBI5qñaMmunedayERCkraCüEtmin)anR)ab;fa)aneFVIKutesþcmunpgeTRKan;Etfa)anTmøak;BIraC sm,tþib:ueNÑaH. etIeKGackat;faeFVIXat)anEdreT? erOgXatkmµenHGacekItmanEmn)an eRBaHfaebIBuMenaH minEmnraCbuRteT EdlRtÚveKbMEbkecjBIraCsm,tþi. ebIraCTUtcinniyayEtBIraCbuRtenaH )an esckþIfa KµanRBHbitaeT eBalKWRBHbitaGacRtÚveKeFVIKutrYceTAehIy. enAmanerOgmYyeTot ³ GñkniBn§cinniyayfa buRtIesþcEdlesayraCümunqñaM1290 )anlYc ykRBHx½nraCümkRbKl;[sVamI eTIbsVamIenaHÉgRbkasEtgtaMgxøÜnÉgCaesþcesayraCüeTA. EtGñkniBn§cinmin)anbBa¢ak;eTfa RBHnag)anlYcRBHx½nraCüBIRBHbita. dUecñHeKGacsnñidan)anfa RBHnag)anlYcykRBHx½nraCüenAeBlEdlRBHbitasuKt rYcRbKl;[RBHsVamI edIm,I[RBHGgÁ)aneLIg esayraCüCMnYsRBHGnuC. ehIyenAmanerOgmYyeTot ³ QavtakVan;)anerobrab;Edrfa RBHraCaEdlesayraCüenAqñaM 1286 )ancab;ykGaCIBkñúgkgRbdab;GavuF taMgEtBIRTg;enAv½yekµg rYcehIy)anerobGaBah_BiBah_ CamYyraCbuRtIrbs;RBHraCa cMENkÉerOgniTan)anniyayfa munnwgeLIgesayraCü RTg;CaRbFan RkúmdMNaM TTYlbnÞúkEfrkSacmáarRtsk;Ep¥m. cMeBaHkarGHGagrbs;GtßbTTaMgBIrenH PaBxusKña RbEhlsßitenARtg;Bakü {nay} sMedAyk em b¤RbFan rIÉBakütavij sMedAykzan³CaemT½B munnwg )anmkeFVICaRbFanRkúmdMNaMkñúgraCvaMg. b:uEnþ GVIEdleFVI[q¶l;xøaMgbMputenaH KWRtg;Edlfa CnCatiedImsMEr:mñak; GacmkerobkarCamYy 126 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 130. 127Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa kSRtImYyGgÁ)an. cMNgemRtIPaBEbbenHsBVéf¶ eKehAfa vismsm<n§ KWkarykbþI b¤RbBn§Edlman zan³TabCagxøÜn EteKmin)anhamXat;TaMgRsugeT. ebIkalNam©as;kSRtImYyGgÁerobGaBah_BiBah_ CamYyra®sþ eTaHCardæm®nþIk¾eday RBHnagnwgRtÚv)at;RBHzan³CakSRtI ehIyerOgenaH KWvaEtb:ueNÑaH Ég. enAkm<úCasBVéf¶k¾enAmanerOgEbbenHenAeLIyEdr. ebIy:agenH krNIEdlRBHnaglYcyk RBHx½nraCü[bþI KWRKan;EtedIm,IeRsacRsg;RBHzan³cas;b:ueNÑaH b¤cg;[)anelIsenaHeTot KWkøayCa RBHmhakSRtIy_. mü:ageTot erOgehtuk¾GacnwgekIt)anEdrfa RBHnag)anlYcykRBHx½nraCüeTA[shay ehIy luHEtshayenaH )aneLIgesayraCüeRkaymk eTIb)anerobGaBah_BiBah_CasVamIPriyanwgKña b:uEnþ QavtakVan; min)anerobrab;lm¥itGs;eT. kñúgkrNIenH BYknamuWnsBVmuxm®nþI eRkayBITTYlsÁal; XatkmµnigRbkaselIkXatkCaesþcrYcehIyRtÚvEterobGPieskbuRtIesþc[edIm,IpSarP¢ab;raCvgSfµI eTAnwgraCvgSvrµ½nmun eFVI[manQamRBahµN_enAkñúgvgSesþckan;BuT§sasnaEdr. ´sUmsarPaBfa GVIEdl)anerobrab;xagelITaMgGs;enHRKan;EtCasmµtikmµb:ueNÑaH b:uEnþ etIman nrNaEdlpþl;Bt’manRbesIrCagenHeT ehIyetInrNaEdlGHGagfaerOgehtu)anekIteLIgxusBI enH? etImanerOgy:agNacab;BIRtwmraCüRBH)aT®nÞvrµ½nTI7 EdlesayraCüenAqñaM1220 rhUtmk dl;raCüRBH)aTniBVanbT EdlesayraCüenAqñaM1340 EdlRbesIrCagkaresayraCübnþbnÞab;Kña dUcEdlerOgeRBgniTanR)ab;? eTaHCay:agNakþI ´Kitfa eKminGacbdiesFfa Kµanbdivtþn_dUcEdl´erobrab;xagelIekIteLIg enaHeT bdivtþn_enaHekItmaneLIgenAqñaM1290 b¤1325 b¤k¾kñúgcenøaHenaH. erOgenH CaerOgsMxan; CageK. ebIsinCaerOgnaycaMcmáar)aneLIgesayraCü manRbPBedImecjmkBIhiNÐÚ ehIyCaerOgEdl ekItmanyUrlg;muneBlEdltacay ekIty:agNakþI EteKGacTTYlsÁal;)anfa tacay EdlCaXatk smøab;esþcxøÜnÉg )anRtÚveKelIkykerOgniTanburaNmkbMBak;[ CaehtueFVI[tYGgÁTaMgBIrRcLMKña.
  • 131. 129Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa CMBUkTI10 kMNt;smÁal;GMBIRbCaCnEdlmanTMnak;TMngCamYykm<úCa BIstvtSr_TI10 dl; stvtSr_TI14 11-- nnKKrrccaamm::,,aa enAsm½yEdlesþcvgSvrµ½nGs;GMNacBIRbeTskm<úCa ehIytacay EdlCanayRkúmdMNaM Rtsk;Ep¥m )anRtÚveKelIk[eLIgesayraCüelIraCblø½gá nKrcam:,a )an)at;bgnUvPaBfáúMefáIgBIGtIt kalrbs;xøÜnGs;eTAehIy. kalBIkñúgstvtSr_mun² kgT½Bcam)anlukluyT®nÞanTwkdIkm<úCa nigGaNÑamCaeRcIndg b:uEnþRtÚv caj;Canic© bNþal[mankaredjtamvayrhUtcUlmkdl;kñúgRbeTs dutbMpøajexÞcxÞI nigeFVI[ )at;bg;TwkdICaeRcInGaNaExRt. Cak;EsþgKWkm<úCa)anvaydutbMpøajnKrcam:,aenAqñaM969 bnÞab;mkenAqñaM1145 nigenAqñaM 1153 ehIy)anyknKrcam:,a dak;CaExRtcMNuHrbs;km<úCa Gs;cMnYn8qñaM. km<úCa)anvayyknKr cam:,amþgeTot enAqñaM1190 ehIy)andak;[RBHyuvraCExµrmYyGgÁesayraCüGs;eBl 30qñaM rhUt dl;qñaM1220 KWTal;Etdl;eBlEdlExµrRtÚvdkT½BeTATb;Tl;CamYynwgesomenATisxaglicvij. dl; eBlenaHeTIbesþccamC½ybremsVrvrµ½nTI2GugGgS³raCaeLIgesayraCüenAviC½y¬b‘íjDij¦EdlCa raCFanIcam:,axageCIg CMnYsRBHyuvraCExµr. cMENkBYkGaNÑamvij EdlcamEtgEtlYcvayqµk;tammat;smuRT b¤deNþImykbNþaExRt PaK xagt,ÚgCajwkjyenaH )anvaynKrcam:,a dutraCFanIkemÞcexÞcxÞIenAqñaM1015 RBmTaMgcab;mha- kSRtIy_ nigRsIsñMRkmkarykeTACamYypg. GaNÑamvaynKrcam:,amþgeTotenAqñaM1061 ehIyTal; Etcamyl;RBmRbKl;GaNaExRtxageCIgbI[eTIbyl;RBmedaHElgRBHraCacammkvij. cam caj; édGaNÑammþgeTot enAqñaM1241 EteRkayBI)andwgfa KUb‘ÍéLxan; )anTmøak;raCvgSsug BIraCblø½gá ehIydeNþImyk)anRbeTscinTaMgmUlrYcehIy enAqñaM1280esþccam C½ysigðvrµ½nTI21 )ansak l,gbMEbrKMnitdeNþImykTwkdIcam:,a edayeFVICasuMcuHcUl. k¾b:uEnþ esþcKUb‘ÍéLxan; )anyl;RBmcMeBaH 1 cinehAfa b:UyavBUelQU.
  • 132. karcuHcUlenH Etkñúgl½kçx½NÐEdlnKrcam:,aTTYlsÁal;GaNaniKm nigyl;RBm[manRkúmRbwkSaPi)al mYy begáIteLIgeday KUb‘ÍéLxan; xøÜnÉg RkúmRbwkSaPi)alenaH mansmasPaBCaBYktaktar. BYkcam )anTTYlykGaNaniKmenH EtbnÞab;mk)anbHe)areLIgenAqñaM1282 edaycab;Pñak;garrbs;RBHecA GFiraCXuMXaMgTaMgGs;. eBlenaH RBHecAGFiraCKUb‘ÍéLxan; )anbBa¢ÚnT½BcRmúHcin nigtaktarmYykgtamsMeBAmk eLIg enAkMBg;EpeqnQIgehIyvaydeNþImykraCFanIlInyI)an.RBHraCacamnigraCbuRtRBHnamb:UTIEdl )anpþl;eyabl;fVayRBHbita[bHe)arRbqaMgnwgcin )anrt;ePosRBHkayeTARCkekantaméRBPñM. BI CRmklak;xøÜnenaH esþccam)anbBa©ÚntMNag[ecjRbEmRbmUlT½BeLIgvij Et)anRbkassuMeFVIkar crcaCamYy]tþmesnIy_cin edIm,IbMP½nþEPñk rYcehIylYcqµk;vayeTAelIrhUtdl;TTYl)anC½yCmñH. edayyl;eXIjfaxøÜnmaneRbóbCagehIy cam)anesñIsuM[cinBicarNakrNIxøÜneLIgvij k¾b:uEnþ cinmin RBm ehIycab;bnþs®gÁamteTAeTot rhUtTal;EtKUb‘ÍéLxan;suKteTA edayKµan)ansgswknwg camvij pgeT2 . enAqñaM1300 cam)anvaydeNþImykGaNaExRt EdlxøÜn)anRbKl;[GaNÑamkalBIqñaM 1081mkvijEtRtÚvGaNÑamvaybk[braC½yehIybgç¿[RbKl;ExRtGs;cMnYn2EfmeTotRBmTaMg elIkbuRtIfVayesþcGaNÑam eTotpg. rhUtmkdl;qñaM1311 GaNÑam)annaMykcammñak;mk[esay raCüenAnKrcam:,a CMnYsesþcEdleK)andkecjBIraCblø½gá. yUr²mþg BYkcam)anvayqµk;cUlmkdutbMpøajkm<úCaEdlkMBugcuHexSay xSt;RbCaCn nigkMBug EtcuHGab;»nNas;eTAehIy. k¾b:uEnþraCaNacRkcam:,axøÜnÉgk¾Turn;TuraxøaMgNas;Edr enAcaMEteBlnwg rlt;rlayeTAb:ueNÑaH. rvagnKrcam:,a nigRsukcin mancm,aMgCab;CaRbcaM. ebIeTaHCaKµanT½Becjc,aMgRbQmmuxKña edaypÞal;kþI EtmanGriPaBruaMér:rvagKña nigKña bNþalmkBITMnas;kñúgBaNiC¢kmµtamsmuRT. manesþc cammYyGgÁEdlcinehAfa GuItataha KWRbEhlCaesþcRsI®nÞ³ EdlÉksarGaNÑamehAfa ecbugj:a )aneLIgesayraCüenAqñaM1373 esþcenaHminmanbnSl;sñaédGVI[eyIgdwgtamsilacarwkeT ¬eRBaH Casm½ycuHGab;»nehIy¦ )aneqøót»kasEdlraCvgSm:ugehÁalRtÚvKas;rMelIg ehIyraCvgSmij 130 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 2 P.Gaubil, Notice historique sur la Cochinchine, p. 57 du 31e vol, de Lettres édifiantes.
  • 133. 131Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa kMBugerobcMksageLIg )anbBa¢ÚnraCTUt nigvtßúmantémøeTAfVayRBHGFiraCcinfµI. bnþiceRkaymk esþccamenaH)anbBa¢ÚneQIRbNIt Edlcab;)anBIsMeBAecarsmuRTcMnYn20 eTAfVayRBHGFiraCcin eTot CaehtueFVI[RBHecAGFiraCcineRtkGrCaxøaMg. eTaHCay:agenaHkþI BYkcamEtgmanKMnitcg;rMedaHykGaNaExRtcMnYn5EdlGaNÑamdeNþImyk mkvijCanic© eRBaHeKmincg;[Rsukrlt;rlayeT k¾ekItmanKMnitcg;eFVIs®gÁamsgswk. esþcRsukcin )anhamcammin[eFVIcm,aMgCamYytugkwg KW[rkSasnþiPaB. k¾b:uEnþsnþiPaBenAeBlEdl)at;bg;TwkdI KW eRbób)aneTAnwgkarsøab;. pÞúyeTAvij ebIeFVIs®gÁam eKRbEhlCaGacdeNþImykTwkdImkvij nigGac ksagRbeTseLIgvijpg.emø:aHehIyeKk¾eFVIs®gÁamEdlmin)annaMmknUvplRbeyaCn_pÞal;GVIeTeTaH bICaRBHecAGFiraCcin)anhamR)amy:agNak¾eday eRBaHRBHecAGFiraCcinenaH k¾min)anyl;BITwkcitþ BYkcamEdr. enAkñúgqñaM1377BYkcamEdldwknaMedayesþcecbugj:a)aneFVIkarvayRbhareTAelIT½BGaNÑam rhUtdl;eCIgkMEpgca)anCaraCFanIfµIrbs;eK edaykab;smøab;esþcRtan;Dwktug nigesnabtIesÞIrEt TaMgGs;. eqøót»kasEdlxøÜnkMBugmaneRbóbenH BYkcam)anbnþeFVIkarvaylukeTAelItugkwgeTot Et RtÚvbraC½yenAnwgkMBg;EpédGan nigFanPU. b:unµanExeRkaymk CasMNagGaRkk;rbs;BYkcam xül;BüúH FMmYy)anbk;e)akbMpøajsMeBAGs; enAeBlEdlBYkeKRbúgecjdMeNIreTAvaytugkwg mþgeTot. enAkñúgqñaM1378 cam)anelIkGnuCrbs;GtItesþcGaNÑam EdlxøÜn)ancab;TukCaeQøIy [ esayraCüenATwkdItugkwgxagt,Úg eday)anerobcMkmøaMgKaMRTrwgmaM manTaMgBYkesnaEhhm nigBYk camkñúgRsukeTotpg. k¾b:uEnþT½BGaNÑam )anvaybeNþjBYkcamCab;rhUteTAdl;raCFanIcam:,a. raCFanIca)ank¾RtÚvFøak;kñúgédGaNÑammþgeTot ehIyT½BGaNÑam)anRbmUlRTBüsm,tþiCaeRcIn ykeTA CamYyenAeBlEdldkecjeTAvij. enAqñaM1382 eRkayBIerobcMRbeTssaCafµIrYcehIy BYkcam)anelIkT½BeTAvayeg:Gan nigfaj;v:a edIm,ICYyKaMRTBYkGñkRsukEdlPaKeRcInCacamkMBugbHe)arRbqaMgnwgGaNÑam. esþccam dwknaMT½BeCIgTwk EtRtÚvbraC½yeBleLIgmkelIeKak CaehtueFVI[T½BeCIgeKakRtÚvbraC½y rt;ykEt R)asGayuerog²xøÜnEdr.BYkcam)anelIkT½BmkmþgeTotvayykfaj;v:a)anEtk¾RtÚvvay[braC½y eTot ehIysMeBAcamRtÚvdutbMpøajexÞcxÞIGs;. Rtlb;mkdl;Rsukvij BYkcamk¾erobcMxøÜnRbúgecjeFVIs®gÁamCafµI. BYkGaNÑam)anecjT½B mkvaymun TaMgtameCIgeKak TaMgtampøÚvTwk. T½BpøÚvTwkRtÚvxül;BüúHe)akkemÞc Tuk»kas[esþc
  • 134. RsI®nÞ³ vaybMEbkT½BeCIgeKakrbs;GaNÑamkñúgsmrPUmicMnYn6 rYcvaycUlraCFanItugkwg)aneCaK C½y eFVI[esþcGaNÑamrt;ePosxøÜn)at;eTA. BYkcamenAkan;kab;tugkwg)ancMnYn6Ex k¾RtÚvdkfyeTA Rsukvij eRBaHGs;es,óg. BYkcamecjvayGaNÑam)anQñHmþgeTotenAqñaM1390EtRtÚvbraC½yvijenAeBl2qñaMeRkay mk ehIyRBH)aTRsI®nÞ³EdlCaRBHraCad¾manKuNsm,tþi minecHenOyht;kñúgs®gÁam )anRtÚvBYk GaNÑam)aj;kaMePøIgRtÚv ehIysuKtenAelIsMeBAenaHeTA. cab;BIeBlenaHmk camRtÚv)at;bg;TaMg GñkdwknaMTaMgfamBl. eRkayenaH man]tþmesnIy_mñak;eQµaH lIéx )andeNþImykGMNacenAcam:,a cMENkenAÉ GaNÑamvij k¾man]tþmesnIymñak;deNþImykraCsm,tþiEdr. PaBRcbUkRcbl;bNþalmkBIkarERCk raCüenH)aneFVI[nKrTaMgBIrp¥akkareFVIs®gÁamnwgKña mYyry³sin. s®gÁamcam:,a-GaNÑam)ancab;epþImeLIgvijenAqñaM1403 eRkaymrNPaBrbs;lIéx eRkam rC¢kalRBHraCaEdlGaNÑamehAfa)aDicéL ehIycinehAfaeqn):aFIéL. eBlenH KWBYkGaNÑam CaGñkecjvaycam:,avijmþg.BYkcamminGacTb;Tl;nwgT½BGaNÑam)ank¾suMcrcasnþiPaBEtRtÚvRbKl; EdndIkUluy[ EdlGaNÑamerobcMecjCaExRtfaj;v:a ¬kVagNam¦ nigTWga ¬kVagg:ay¦ edaydak;enA eRkamkarRtÜtRtarbs;emT½Bcamk,t;mñak;. eBlenaH BYkGaNÑammanKMnitcg;bM)at;nKrcam:,a EdleFVIs®gÁamCamYyBYkeKcMnYn6stvtSr_ mkehIy ehIyeTaHbICabraC½yeTAehIykþI k¾enAEtkan;GavuFRbqaMgCanic©. esþccam)andwgBIeKal bMNgenH k¾suM[RBHecAGFiraCcinCYyeFVIGnþraKmn_. b:uEnþGaNÑammineGIeBInwgGnþraKmn_rbs;cineT ehIy)anQøanBancUlExRtcalIy:a EdlBYkcamdeNþImyk)ankalBIb:unµanqñaMmun. esþccam eqn):a FIéL xwgnwgGFiraCcin edaysgS½yfa e)aHbg;xøÜnecal ehIyk¾taMgcgsm<½n§emRtICamYyembHe)ar tugkwgmñak; CaehtueFVI[RBHecAGFiraCcinrwtEtxwgxøaMgeLIg ehIye)aHbg;esþccamecalEmnETnEt mþg. BYkGaNÑamk¾taMgvayT®nÞanyknKrcam:,a EdlKµankmøaMgGVInwgTb;Tl; elIkElgEtraCFanIca)an mYyb:ueNÑaH EdlmankMEBgkarBarrwgmaM. edayRbeTseBlenaHRkIRkxøaMg Bi)aknwgrkes,óg BYk GaNÑamk¾dkT½BfyeTARsukvijeTA. b:unµanqñaMeRkaymk GaNÑam )aneFVIs®gÁamCamYycinEdlTamTarykExRtLagsWg. eBlenaH BYkcamKYrEteqøót»kasEdlsRtÚvCab;rvl; edIm,IksagRbeTseLIgvij. b:uEnþnKrcam:,aeBlenaHcuH exSayxøaMgNas;eTAehIy GVI²)ak;EbkexÞcxÞaM ra®sþk¾ElgeKarBRBHraCa. mñak;²KitEtBIRbeyaCn_ 132 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 135. 133Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa pÞal;xøÜn raCaNacRkTaMgmUlRtÚvEbgEckeRkamGMNacemekayepSg²Kña. GaNÑameBlenaHcMNuH Rsukcin Etedaycammin)anCYycin cink¾RbqaMgnwgcamEdr. camGacnwgcgsm<½n§PaBCamYyGaNÑam RbqaMgnwgcin ehIyGacTamTarCafñÚrnwgemRtIPaBenaH b¤CafñÚrnwgkarminCYycin nUvTwkdIEdlGaNÑam deNþImykmkvij)an.camk¾GacvaydeNþImykTwkdITaMgenaHedaypÞal;mkvij)anEdrehIyerobcM RsukeLIgvij kñúgeBlEdlGaNÑamCab;édeFVIs®gÁam10qñaMCamYycin. k¾b:uEnþcam min)aneFVIGVITal;Et esaH KWenARTwgGskmµeBjmYyry³kals®gÁamenaH nigeRkay²mkeTot. TRmaMEtcamnwkeXIj ehIybgðajxøÜnenAtamCayEdnGaNÑamenAqñaM1444 eRkamkardwknaM rbs;esþcmYyGgÁEdlGaNÑamehAfab‘ÍkayÉksarcinehAfam:ahUeBnékGVI²)anhYsGs;eTAehIy. tugkwg)anerobcMxøÜneLIgvijehIyGaNÑammansmtßPaBRKb;RKan;edIm,IkarBarxøÜn.GaNÑam)anTb;Tl; CamYyT½BcamCab; ehIyEfmTaMg)anvaybkrhUtmkdl;raCFanIca)aneTot. esþcm:ahUeBnék )anRtÚvcab;CaeQøIyCamYynwgraCvgS nigbriBar. eBlenaH namuWnsBVmuxm®nþIminGl;EGknwgTmøak;esþccMNab;xµaMgenaHecjeT eRBaHvarMxandl; vasnaRbeTsCati ehIyelIkraCvgSmYyGgÁEdlGaNÑamehAfa m:ahUKVILay ÉksarcinehAfa m:ahU EKVyLay RtÚvCakµÜyesþceqn):aTIéL [eLIgesayraCüCMnYsvij3 . eRCIstaMgesþcfµIenHrYcehIy BYknamuWnsBVmuxm®nþI)anesñIsuMkarÉkPaBBIGFiraCcin ehIyElgnwknadl;esþc EdlGaNÑamcab;Ca eQøIyteTAeTot. KWenAeBlenaHehIy EdlBYkGaNÑameFVIneya)aybMEbkbM)ak;sRtÚv edayedaHElgesþcm:ahU eBnék ehIycat;kmøaMg[CUneTAdl;Tl;EdnnKrcam:,a. eBlyageTAdl;raCFanI esþcm:ahUeBnék TTYldMNwgfaRBHraCaEdleKeRCIstaMgenaH)anRtÚveKeFVIXat)at;eTAehIyehIyCMnYsvijedayesþc EdlGaNÑamehAfaKVIdU. esþcKVIdUenHEdlyl;RBmcrcaCamYyGaNÑam )anRtÚveKcat;Tukfa )aneFVI Xatesþc ehIyGVI²hak;dUcCaenARtwmenaH. ÉksarRbvtþisa®sþcin)anerobrab;bnÞab;mkGMBIesþcmYyGgÁeTot EdlBYkeKdak;eQµaHfa m:UtU):anLayev EdlRTg;suKtenAqñaM1460. BYkGaNÑamehAesþcenHfa)anLaRtaeFVót ehIy niyayfa esþcenH)aneFVIXatesþcKVIdUdeNþImraCsm,tþi rYcehIy)andak;raCsm,tþi[eTARBHGnuC 3 ÉksarRbvtþisa®sþGaNÑamniyayfa KWBYkGaNÑamEdlbBa¢a[eRCIstaMgdUecñH.
  • 136. RBHnam)anLaRtalYn cinehAfa )anLafatSÜn. RBHraCafµIrbs;nKrcam:,aenH)anelIkT½BeTAvayExRthVacUv CaehtueFVI[BYkGaNÑam)anels rg;caMEt»kasl¥yUrNas;mkehIyenaH k¾seRmcbBa©b;erOg vayyknKrcam:,adak;bBa©ÚlmkkñúgTwkdI xøÜn. GaNÑambBa¢ÚnT½BefµIreCIgcMnYn16muWnnak; nigT½BeCIgTwk1muWnsMeBA manKñaminticCag10muWnnak; eLIy. esþccamP½y k¾RbkassuMcrcasnþiPaB. GaNÑamyl;RBmcrca EtminÉkPaBelIsMeNIrbs; cam:,aeT. cb;karcrcaenH s®gÁam)ancab;epþIm ehIyGaNÑameLamB½T§bnÞayFINayPøam. éf¶bnÞab; raC FanIcamRtÚvGaNÑamdeNþImyk)an eFVI[mankardutbMpøaj nigsmøab;rgÁal ³ mnusS4muWnnak;)anRtÚv smøab;nig3muWnnak;eTotRtÚvcab;CaeQøIynaMykeTAkan;tugkwg.RBHraCasßitenAkñúgcMeNamcMNab;xµaMg nwgeKEdr EtmankarEfTaMl¥Cag fVIebIminRBmcuHcUl nigmancritkacsahavy:agNakþI. RTg;suKttam pøÚvenA eg:Gan ehIyesþcGaNÑam)anbBa¢a[kat;RBHeksedatmuxk,ÜnsMeBA dak;eRkambdaBN’smYy sresrGkSrfa {k,alesþcRtalYn EdlCaRbPBénTukçesakrbs;nKrcam:,a}. erOgraCaNacRkBYkGñkcm,aMg)anbBa©b;eTAy:agdUecñH. GaNaExRtTaMgGs; elIkElgEtraCa NacRkpanr:ag mYyecj Edlminkan;sasnamham:at; )anRtÚvGaNÑamdak;bBa©ÚlCaTwkdI manGPi)al ExRtCaGaNÑamenARtÜtRta.manbBaØvnþcammñak;enAkm<úCa)anR)ab;´fa³{edIm,IeKcBInwmRtÜtRtarbs; GaNÑam GñkRsuknaMKñart;ecj xøHeTAenAkñúgéRBPñMCamYyBYkm:y xøHqøgeTAkm<úCa xøHeTAekaHs‘Um:aRta enA sl;EtBYkRsI² BYkkMsak BYkcas;Cra nigkumarb:ueNÑaH}. tamBit BYkGaNÑam)anTuk[emekaycamCaeRcInbnþtaMgTIlMenA enAPaKxagt,ÚgraCaNacRk CamYynwg´kMdrrbs;eKKWBYkEdlminEdleFVIs®gÁamCamYyGaNÑam.cMENkBYkGñkERscmáarvijeKenA rs;elIdIrbs;eK ehIycab;TTYlGarüFm’GaNÑambnþicmþg². BYkcamNaEdlenArkSaTMenomTmøab; RbéBNIrbs;xøÜnenAPaKxagt,Úg GaNÑamdak;eQµaH[fa {hUy}. eyIgnwg)aneXIjenAeBleRkay GMBItYnaTIrbs;BYkcamenHenAkñúgRbvtþisa®sþrbs;raCaNacRk GaNÑam ehIynigbc©½yEdlCYy[BYkesþckUsaMgsuIn eKcputBIGnutþrPaBesþctugkwg ehIyerobcM ksagraCaNacRkGaNÑamTI2eLIg. cMENkBYkcamEdlminRBmsRmbsRmÜlCamYyGñkQñHGaNÑam nigminRBmrs;eRkamkarRtÜt Rtarbs;GaNÑam RtÚveKcab;cuHTUksMeBAebIkekþagsMedAsmuRTxagt,Úg qøgkat;RcksigðburI sMedAeTA cMNucxageCIgekaHs‘Um:aRta EdlCaRsukkMeNItedImrbs;eK ksagraCaNacRkGaeq b¤ehAfa Gaecn 134 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 137. 135Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa b¤Gat;QInn½rEdlrdæenHmanenArhUtdl;sBVéf¶CYnkaldwknaMedayRBHraCamYyGgÁCYnkaleTotdwknaM edaykSRtImYyGgÁ. enAkñúgGaNacRkfµIenH BYkcamEdl)ankøayxøÜnCaBYkGat;QInn½r enAEtCaRbCa ra®sþmYydUcBImun KWrMeCIbrMCYl sVahab; cUlcitþcm,aMg køahan eFVIbdivtþn_ nigcUlcitþRbtibtþikar. enA stvtSr_TI19 BYkhuløg; RtÚveRbIeBlGs;30qñaM edIm,IdeNþImykC½yCmñHelIBYkenH)anCasßaBr ehIyraCaNacRkrbs;BYkenH eTIbEtRtÚvbMpøaj)anenAeBlsBVéf¶enHb:ueNÑaH KWenAqñaM19004 . 22-- GGaaNNÑÑaamm--ttuuggkkwwgg eRkays®gÁamTamTarÉkraCüBIRbeTscin GaNÑamRtÚvEbgEckTwkdICa 13ExRt enAqñaM968 eTAtamGMNacrbs;emT½BepSg² ehIysßitkñúgsPaBGnaFibetyü EdlnwgeFVI[RbeTsenHFøak;cUlkñúg nwmRtÜtRtarbs;breTsvij kñúgeBlminyUrb:unµan. eBlenaHmanGtItnayeKa)almñak; Ca´ecAhVayExRthagcUv eRkaymk)anmkenAbeRmIecA hVayExRtbUcaj; )anekNÐT½BvayykExRt)anmYymþg² rhUtRKb;TaMg13 rYcehIyk¾RbkasxøÜn CaesþcesayraCüenAPUj:ÚkVan ehIy)andak;eQµaHnKrfa édKUevot. éf¶mYy esþcenH nigraCbuRtc,g )anRtÚveKeFVIXatenAeBlEdlRsvwgRsaxøaMg ehIydYledkenAkñúgTIFøamuxraCvaMg. XatkRtÚveKcab; )an ehIyRtÚvRbCara®sþkab;ci®Ba©aMsac;EckKñabriePaK. ehtukarN_enHbBa¢ak;[eyIgdwgfa RbCaCn GaNÑam enAsuIsac;mnusSenAeLIy enAstvtSr_TI10 ehIyfa BYkenHCaBYksuIsac;mnusSebIehac 4 manEpnTINÐÚcinmYy KUrenAcugstvtSr_TI7 edayelak«Buk essVúIt EdleKbBa¢Ún[eTApSBVpSayRKisþsasnaenA RbeTsesomkñúgqñaM1685 )anbgðaj[eyIgeXIjGMBITwkdIEdlesssl;BImhaNacRkcam:,a ³ enaHKWCaTwkdImanrag CaRtIekaNtUcmYy man)atlatsn§wgBIRBMRbTl;xagekItrbs;kUsaMgsuInbc©úb,nñ eTAdl;mat;BamTenøsayhÁnenA xaglic ehIymankMBUlenAxageCIgeqogBay½BüRtwmkm<s;)aNam EtxiteTAekItbnþic. EpnTIenHminRtwmRtÚveT eRBaHfa RtIekaNcamRtÚvKUsrhUteTAdl;RKbdNþb;b‘íjFn;TaMgmUl. enAelIEpnTIenaH ´emIleXIjsÁal;TwkdIcam:,aBImun Edl)ankøayeTACaExRtrbs;GaNÑamrYceTAehIycab;BIxagt,ÚgeTA KW ³ panr:ag ¬bNÐúrgÁ¦ KWb‘íjFn;sBVéf¶/ KIjWúg b¤BULÚ kMb‘åsBVéf¶CaRsukmYyrbs;ExRtfaj;v:a/jab¤KIjWnKWCamcimeBalKWcamBitR)akdsBVéf¶RtÚvnwgExRtkVagNamEdl man TYr:an enAkñúgenaH kEnøgenHehIyCaTIkEnøgEdlniKmcammuneK)anmktaMgenA taMgBImunRKisþskraCemø:H/ faj;v:a/ enABI|sanenaHKWkVagb‘íj ehIyenABIxageCIgKWkVagvij ExRtxagt,ÚgeKrbs;tugkwg. kñúgEpnTIenaHeKehAnKrcam:,afa kUsaMgsuInrIÉGaNÑamvijeKehAfatugkwgk¾b:uEnþBYkGaNÑamxøÜnÉgeKehARsukTaMg2faGaNÑamExµrehAfaRsukyYn.
  • 138. Nas;k¾kñúgkarsgswkEdr. raCaniymTI1enHRtÚvrlt;)at;bg;eTACamYynwgbuRteBArbs;b‘íjeTonhYg EdlesayraCü)an 8Ex k¾RtÚv]tþmesnIy_eLh‘n;Tmøak;BIraCsm,tþi begáItsnþtivgSeLxagedImeLIg. esþceLh‘n; enH Ca esþcBUEkxagcm,aMg. RBHGgÁ)anvayBYkcinEdlQøanBancUlmkGaNÑamkñúgqñaM981 rYcvaynKr cam:,a Edl)anXat;TukTUtEdlGaNÑambBa¢ÚneTA deNþImykraCFanI)an rYcdutkemÞcecal. snþtivgS enH RtÚvrlt;)at;eTAenAqñaM1010 CamYynwgmrNPaBrbs;buRtrbs;eLh‘n;mYyrUb RBHnamfa eLg:avRTW Edl)ansmøab;bgb¥ÚnGs;3nak; edIm,IbMEbkBIraCsm,tþi manbgmYyenaHesayraCü)an Et3éf¶ eLg:avRTW enH RbyuT§Gs;8ExeTIbeLIgesayraCü)an. eRkayBIesþcenHsuKteTAraCbuRt rbs;RBHGgÁ )anRtÚveQµaH lIéftU EdlCaGñkemIlEfrkSa bMEbkecjBIraCsm,tþiEdr ehIyelIkxøÜn ÉgCaraCanusiT§imunnwgksagsnþtivgSpÞal;xøÜneLIg. snþtivgSTI3enH eKehAfa snþtivgSeLxageRkay manesþc9GgÁesayraCüenAGaNÑam )an 216qñaM BIqñaM1010 dl;1225. esþcTaMg9GgÁenaHRbEhlKg;enAraCFanIédLaTaMgGs;Kña EdleRkaymkeKehAfa fagLúg bnÞab;mkhaNUy. BgSavtarrbs;raCvgSenHKWCaRbvtþierOgr:avd¾Evg sþIGMBIkarRbyuT§deNþImraCblø½gá karbHe)ar CaeRcInCYnkalenAkñúgRbeTsCYnkaleTotenACayEdnkñúgcMeNamCnCatiPaKticminTan;suIvil½yEdl TTYlsÁal;GnutþrPaBGaNÑam Etcg;rs;enAÉkraCenAelITwkdIrbs;xøÜn/ BIs®gÁamCamYyRbeTscin Edl EtgEtb:ugb:gykGaNÑamdak;eRkamnwmRtÜtRtarbs;xøÜn b¤k¾[esþcGaNÑamyl;RBmcMNuHGFiraCcin nigs®gÁamCamYynKrcam:,a EdlEtgEtqµk;mkvaytammat;smuRT nigtamCayEdnminQb;Qr. T½Bcinc,aMgcaj;ehIyRtÚv)anrujRcan[dkfyeTAvij. cMENkÉBYkcamvij Edlkøahan Et Kµanvin½y CYnkalc,aMgQñHesÞIrEteFVI[GaNacRkGaNÑamregÁaHregÁI b:uEnþPaKeRcIn KWRtÚvGaNÑam vay kab;smøab; eFVI[fyédCabnþbnÞab; nigRtÚv)anbeNþjecjBIGaNaExRtxageCIg [dkfyrhUtdl; kVagNam enAxagt,ÚgTYr:an EfmeTot. cMeBaHBYkviRbCaBak;kNþalsuIvil½yenATisxageCIg nigxagBay½Büvij EdlcuHmkBIExRt yunNanehIymanedImkMeNItCaBYkfb¤éfeBalKWkat;éfCamYyGñkrdævasIminTan;suIvil½ynigBYkkul sm<½n§Edlrs;enAtMbn;GagTenøxagelIenAelIx<g;rabEdlBYkGaNÑamminsUveTAdl;BYkenaH)aneFVIcm,aMg nwgKña CYnkalqøgeTAvaycin CYnkalcuHmkvayGaNÑam dutbMpøajPUmitamvalTMnabexÞcxÞIEdlBYkenaH 136 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 139. 137Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa eTAdl;. RtÚvcinvayBIxageCIg nigGaNÑamvayBIxagt,Úg BYkenHRtÚvcaj;éd rYcdkfy b:uEnþ minyUr b:unµan k¾Rtlb;vilmkvijeTot CaeRcInelIkeRcInsa. BYkTaMgGs;enHKµanGVIeT eBldkfyecjeTA k¾KµanbnSl;TukGVIEdreTAdl;RsukkMeNItk¾KµanGVIEteKksagGVI²eLIgvij)anEtkñúgeBlBIr-bIéf¶b:ueNÑaH BYkenHminecHcaj;eT. BYkGaNÑamk¾dUcCaBYkcin minGacrMxanBYkeK)anyUreLIy EtBYkeKrMxansRtÚv rbs;eK)anCanic©ebIeTaHCafakarvaylukrbs;eKenaHmanry³eBlxøIk¾edayehIykarvayRbharenaH KµanmUlehtuGVIeRkAEtBIsgswk niglYcbøn; b:ueNÑaH. mankulsm<½n§mYy eQµaHfa kulsm<½n§nug mþgenaH )anRbEmRbmUlkulsm<½n§EdlenACitxag kñúg ExRtkVagenon [rYbrYmKñaenAeRkamkardwknaMrbs;emEtmYy. sm<½n§PaBenH EdlBYkGaNÑam nigcindak; eQµaHfa raCaNacRknug manCIvit)anRbEhlCa30qñaMEdr. kñúgry³kalenH emdwknaMrbs;eKmñak;² )anRbkasxøÜnCaRBHecAGFiraC. emmñak;manedImkMeNItmkBIraCFanIeRTÓgsaj;. mñak;eTotmkBI daylicCaRsukERscmáar.emTI3Edl)anvayT®nÞandl;ExRtkVagsuInigkVagTugrbs;cin)anRbkas xøÜnCaRBHecAGFiraCrbs;dayNam CamhaGaNacRkPaKxagt,Úg. k¾b:uEnþ sßitenAeRkamkarKabsgát; rbs;GaNÑam nigcin sm<½n§PaBrbs;kulsm<½n§Bak;kNþalsuIvil½yenHRtÚvbraC½y eRBaHemdwknaMrbs; BYkeK CaemT½BBUEkhankøa EtxVHkarbuinRbsb;kñúgkarEfrkSaC½½yCmñHEdldeNþIm)an minecHcat;Ecg minecHeFVIneya)ay ebIeTaHCaCYnkalmankarKaMRTxøHBIesþcGaNÑam Edls¥b;cink¾eday CaBiess enAeBlEdlBYknugenHdeNþImykExRtkVagsuI nigkVagTug)an. esþccugeRkayrbs;raCvgSeLCanarI EdlTTYlGMNactBIbitakMBugRbQYn. RBHnagman RBHnamfa lICavhYg EdlesayraCü)anb:unµanEx k¾dak;raCsm,tþiRbKl;[Rtan;kaj; CaPIelogEdl RBHnag)aneRCIserIsykeFVICaRBHsVamI. Rtan;kaj;k¾ksagsnþtivgSTI4eLIg KWsnþtivgSRtan; manesþccMnYn14 GgÁesayraCüenA GaNÑam )ancMnYn190qñaM BIqñaM1225dl;1414. snþtivgSmunhak;dUcCamin)aneFVI[RbeTsrIkceRmInxagGarüFm’b:unµaneT Etesdækic©enAqñaM 1225l¥RbesIrCagkalBIqñaM968CaBiessKWkgT½BmankarerobcMl¥esþcmanraCvaMgKg;enARsYl karRbmUlBn§Gakrk¾l¥ nig)aneRcIn. eRkamsnþtivgSTI4 karrIkceRmInelOnCag k¾b:uEnþmankl])ay karbHe)ar ehIymans®gÁam RbqaMgnwgcinpg nigCamYynKrcam:,apg eRcInCagBImun. esþcRtan;kaj;esayraCüeRkamRBHnamfa Rtan;éftug. b:unµanqñaMdMbUgénrC¢kalrbs;esþcenHmanPaBvwkvrCaxøaMg. RBHraCamunEdl)andak;raCü
  • 140. fVayraCbuRtI mankarrMxanCaxøaMgCamYybitulamñak;rbs;Rtan;éftug rhUtTal;EtRTg;seRmcRBHT½y pwkfñaMsmøab;xøÜn. RBHbitularbs;RBHraCafµIenaHk¾ykGtItRBHmhakSRtiyanICamehsIeTA. cMENkÉ RBHmhakSRtiyanIfµI Edl)andak;raCsm,tþifVayRBHsVamI k¾RtÚv)at;bg;RBHraCtYnaTIedaysarRBH GnuCkSRtI EdlmanKP’minEmnCamYyRBHraCa EtCamYybgb¤b¥ÚnRbúsrbs;RBHraCaeTAvij. RBHnag RtÚveKdkRBHzan³ rYcerobkar[]tþmesnIy_mñak;eQµaHfa eLPURtan;. RBHraCaTImYyénsnþtivgSRtan;enH fVIebIRBHGgÁ)ank,t;nwgRBHmehsI EtCakSRtkøahanmYyGgÁ enAkñúgsmrPUmi eRBaHRTg;)anTTYlC½yCmñHelIGFiraCcinsm½yBYkm:ugehÁal nigelIBYkcam d¾sahav pgEdr. RTg;CaRBHraCamYyGgÁEdlcUlcitþnwgRBHraCkic© niymkarEkTRmg; nigmankarKitKUr cg;[ RbCara®sþman)an. RBHGgÁ)ancat;[sagsg;TMnb; edIm,ITb;TwkTenø[hUrcUleTAsmuRT kuM[liclg; RbCara®sþ5 . RTg;k¾)anerobcM[mankarRblgrvagGñkbBaØvnþ eRCIserIsykEtGñkEdleronBUEk dUcenARbeTscinEdr eTaHCakUnra®sþRbCak¾eday. raCbuRtrbs;Rtan;kaj;EdleronsURtBIRBHbita )anrujRcankarlukluyrbs;cin eRkamkar dwknaMrbs;BYktaktar m:an;CU rbs; KUb‘ÍéLxan; [braC½y k¾b:uEnþRbCara®sþRtÚvrgTukçevTna Gt;)ay søab;Gs;CaeRcIn. eRkaymk BYkcam)anvaylukcUlmkkñúgRbeTsrhUtdl;haNUy B½T§raCFanICab; eFVI[RBHraCa eKcRBHkayecj. b:uEnþBYkcamminGacdeNþImykraCFanI)aneT eRBaHminecHpÁt;pÁg;es,óg rs;tam rebobéRB minecHerobcMRbeTs minecHdwknaM ecHEtdutbMpøaj. edayehtuenHBYkcamk¾RtÚvvay[ braC½yrYcbeNþjecjBIGaNÑamedayemT½BGaNÑammñak; KW]tþmesnIy_eLKVIlI. 138 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 5 mansMNYrmYy EdlecaTrhUtmkdl;sBVéf¶ mindwgfaetIkarksagTMnb;GmTenøEbbenHpþl;pll¥ b¤GaRkk; cMeBaH tugkwg b¤k¾y:agNaeT. GVIEdlCak;EsþgenaH KWsBVéf¶enH )atTenøvaenAx<s;CagTMnabEdlenAsgxag rIÉTMnb;enaHvij ebIeTaHCamankarEfrkSacak;dIbMeBjBICMnan;mYyeTACMnan;mYy EdlCaehtueFVI[cMNayGs;eRcIny:agNakþI k¾enARtg; kEnøgxøHTwkenAEtcg;hUrkat;dEdl. tamemIleTA esþcRtan;kaj; nigesþcEdlesayraCübnþmk RbEhlCa)anKitdl; plRbeyaCn_pÞal;rbs;RbCara®sþnaeBlenaH min)anKitdl;plvi)akénkarsg;TMnb;eTAGnaKteT. mü:ageTot na sm½yenaH RbEhlCaeKminTan;GacTsSn_Tay GMBIGnaKt)aneT eBalKWmin)andwgfakareFVIdUecñH nwgnaM[mankkrl,ab; eRcIn eFVI[)atTenøqab;rak; eLIgx<s;CagTMnabenAsgxag TIbBa©b;TenøRtÚvsßitenAkñúgGagsib,nimitþ gaynwgehorecjmk eRkANas; CaBiess enAeBlNaEdlrdæaPi)almin)anykcitþTukdak;.
  • 141. 139Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa cugbBa©b;énsnþtivgSTI4enHminCal¥b:unµaneT.eRkayBIC½yCmñHelIBYkcam]tþmesnIy_eLKVIlI )ankøayxøÜnCamnusSmanT§iBly:agxøaMgmkelIRBHraCa elIraCvaMg nigm®nþIesnabtITaMgLay. Kat; GacdkhUtesþcb¤dak;nrNamñak;[esayraCük¾)an eBalKW dwknaMRbeTs nigraCvaMgCMnYsmux[bNþa RBHraCaEdlKµan)ankarTaMgLay. esþcRtan;eg:tugsþab;bBa¢aTaMgGs;rbs;eLKVIlI hak;dUcCa)an dak;raCürYceTAehIy. esþcRtan;EPedRtÚveLKVIlIbBa¢a[eKRc)ac;kTal;Etsøab;enAqñaM1390. esþc Rtan;FYntug )aneLIgesayraCüedaysareLKVIlIenH. eLKVIlImansRtÚvCaeRcIn eRBaHKat;)ansmøab; ]tþmesnIy_eRcInnak;/smøab;raCvgSnigTIRbwkSaNaEdlmincMNuHKat;minEtb:ueNÑaHEfmTaMgdwknaMesþc eTotCak;EsþgesþcRtan;FavedEdlKat;elIk[esayraCüenAqñaM1399KWKµanGMNacGVITal;EtesaH. eLKVIlICabuKÁlEtmñak;Kt;EdldwknaMRbeTs dwknaMraCvaMg edayKµanxøacrEGgnrNamñak;eT. Kat;)an RbkasxøÜnfa Ca{RBHGyüekaénRBHraCaNacRk} esøóksemøókbMBak;BN’elOg CaBN’EdleKeRbI sRmab;EtRBHraCab:ueNÑaH ehIyecjeTANamkNaman)aMgkøs;BN’elOg nigBN’mas12Can;. bnÞab;mk eRkayBIesþcRtan;FavedesayraCü)an2qañM eLKVIlIk¾dkesþcenHecj ehIyeLIgesay raCüxøÜnÉgedayykRBHnamfahUKVIlI nig)andUreQµaHnKreTACa daygU vij. esayraCü)anmin)anb:unµanExpg mindwgfaedayenOyNay nigraCsm,tþi EdlKµansarsMxan; dUckareFVICam®nþI b¤k¾edaymankarKabsgát;BIsaFarNmti b¤k¾mnusSmYyRkúm EdlÉksarRbvtþi sa®sþmin)anR)ab;[eyIgdwghUKVIlIk¾RbkaselIkkUnrbs;xøÜnCarC¢TayaTrYcdak;raCsm,tþifVayehIy Rbkan;yktMENgCaRBHraCbitavij EtenAEtkan;GMNacdEdl. b:uEnþeBlenaHdl;eBlEdlcineFVIGnþraKmn_lµm. cinlukluynKrdaygU kan;kab;y:agtwgruwg. GaNÑambraC½yehIybraC½yeTot. hUKVIlI nigRBHraCbuRtEdlkMBugesayraCü RBmTaMgraCbuRtmYy GgÁeTot RtÚvcincab;)anCaeQøIy dwknaMykeTARsukcin EtRtÚveFVIXatGs;enAtampøÚv. cab;BIeBlenaHmk GaNÑamRtÚvFøak;kñúgnwmRtÜtRtarbs;cinGs;kalRbmaNCa 20qñaMeTot. 33-- RRssuukkcciinn enAedImstvtSr_TI13 T½Bm:ugehÁalrbs;eqghÁIxan; ¬hSg;hSúIxan;¦ EdleTIbEteFVIkarratt,at BaseBjGasuIeTAdl;m:UsáÚvIPaKxagt,ÚgnigrhUteTAdl;b‘ulkarIeTotpg)anQøanBancUlmkRbeTscin EdlRtÚvsßiteRkamkarRtÜtRtarbs;BYkm:ugehÁalenH cab;BIqñaM1214rhUtmk. BYkm:ugehÁal taMgraC FanIenAeb:kaMg. RbeTscineBlenaHmanGMNacxøaMgNas; eRBaHRtÚvdwknaMy:agbuinRbsb; nigtwgruwg
  • 142. bMput edaysnþtivgSeXareXAmYy Edlrs;enAedaykare)aHtg;kNþalraCFanIcin manTahantaktar nigm:ugehÁal yamkamy:agmWugm:at;. enAkñúgrC¢kalrbs;esþcm:ugehÁalmYyGgÁ KWKUb‘ÍéLxan; RtÚvCaecArbs;hSg;hSúIxan; manCnCati evnIsmñak; EdlCam®nþIsMNBVcitþRBHGFiraC )aneFVIdMeNIrmkkan;cugbUB’akat;nKrcam:,aeTAdl;NÐa nig cUlRbeTsmYycMnYneTot. elak m:akUb:ULÚ k¾)anbnSl;TuknUvBt’mand¾mansarsMxan; GMBIkarsñak;enA rbs;Kat; EdlKYr[cg;dwgcg;eXIjEdr. BYkm:ugehÁalTaMgenaH eRkayBIdeNþImykTVIbGasuIPaKxageCIg nigRbeTscin)any:agqab;rh½s rYcmk k¾taMgcab;Gnuvtþtamneya)ayrbs;BYkGFiraCEdlBYkeK)anTmøak;BIGMNac. BYkeKKaMRTsiT§i Edlcin)anGHGagfa manGFiraCPaBtaMgBIeRcInstvtSr_mkehIyelIbNþaRbCaCatiCitxag ehIyk¾ taMgcab;epþImbgç¿[bNþaRbCaCatiTaMgenaH TTYlsÁal;GnutþrPaBrbs;xøÜn TaMgedayRbeyal TaMgkñúgkar Gnuvtþn_Cak;Esþg. cMENkÉbNþaRbCaCatiTaMgenaHvij EdlFøab;EtKitfaGaNacRkcinFM manGMNac ciBa©acciEBa©g eKmin)anRbEkkRbqaMgGVIeT ebIeTaHCafaGFiraCenaHmkBIcm¶ay nigfaGFiraCenaH min EdllUkédcUlkñúgépÞkñúgrbs;eK edayTTYlsÁal;TaMgGs;nUvGVI²Edl)anseRmcrYcmkehIy ehIyeFVI RBegIycMeBaHerOgXatkmµelIRBHraCa erOgdeNþImraCsm,tþid¾GaRsUvEdlb:HBal;dl;suvtßiPaB rbs; RbCara®sþEdlGFiraCenaH)anRbkasxøÜnfa CaGñkkarBark¾eday. T§iBlrbs;GFiraCcinmansar sMxan;kan;EtxøaMgEfmeTot CaBiess enAeBlNaEdlGFiraCRtÚvkarkarTTYlsÁal;eRkayBIeK)anlYc qk;ykGMNac)an. emø:aHehIy RKb;RBHraCaTaMgGs;EtgEtbBa¢ÚnraCTUt nigvtßúGnusSavrIy_epSg²eTA fVayRBHecAGFiraCcinCanic©rYcehIyTTYlykmkvijnUvkartbsñgCavtßúb¤zan³tYnaTImYyEdlCYnkal KYr[sgS½y Cak;EsþgdUcCa zan³Ca {]tþmesnIy_énTkSiNTissnþiPaB} EdlGFiraCcinmYyGgÁ )an fVaydl;RBH)aTekaNÐBaس CaedIm. GnutþrPaB nigGFiraCPaBenH cinmanmktaMgEtBICagmYyBan;qñaMmun mk rhUtmkTl;eBlEdleyIgkMBugniyayenH. RBH)aTekaNÐBaسesayraCüenAstvtSr_TI5 ehIy esþcesommYyGgÁ )anTTYlRtaBIGFiraChugvUrbs;cin enAqñaM1376. ehIyeyIgnwg)aneXIj mþg eTotfa enAqñaM1570 esþcesommYyGgÁeTot KWRBHNaert RTg;)ansuM[GFiraCcinbþÚrRtafµICaCMnYs Rtamun Edl)anTTYlkalBIqñaM1376 Edl)an)at;bg;eTA enAeBlBYk):akan dutTIRkúgGyuFüa enAkñúg qñaM1555. eyIgnwg)aneXIjPaBcMNuHedayRbeyalEbbenHenAtugkwgpgEdr enAeBlEdl)araMg cab;c,aMgdeNþImyk enAcugstvtSr_TI19. enAstvtSr_TI13 BYkGFiraCm:ugehÁal kñúgenaHmanTaMgKUb‘ÍéLxan;pgEdr )ancab;GarmµN_ 140 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 143. 141Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa CaxøaMgcMeBaHTwkdIRbeTsCitxag CagbNþaGFiraCcineTAeTot. munBYkm:ugehÁalmkdl; sMeBAcinmin EdlcuHeTAeRkamhYsBIRckm:aLakaeT ebImanmkdl;ekaHCVa b¤s‘Um:aRta k¾mantictYcEdr. eRkayenaH sMeBAcin)anmkkan;ekaHTaMgBIrCajwkjab;ehIyqøgRckm:aLakacUleTAkñúgQUgsmuRTbwgháal;bnþeTA eFVIBaNiC¢kmµenAtameqñrkUr:Um:g;Edl b¤eFVIkarqk;bøn;k¾man. CYnkaleKRbTHeXIjsMeBAcinenAkñúgsmuRT GUm:g; nigQUgsmuRTEBkS eTotpg. elak m:akUb:ULÚ RbEhlCa)aneTAdl;TIenaH kñúgebskkmµeTA RbeTscin. sMeBAcink¾manTMnak;TMngkan;EtxøaMgCamYyraCaNacRkTaMgLay enANÐÚcinpgEdr BIeRBaH fa TMnak;TMngCamYyelakxageRkAkan;EtmansarsMxan; ehIysMTuHénkarvatGMNacGFiraCk¾kan;Et xøaMgEdr. KWenAkñúgrC¢kalrbs;GFiraCKUb‘ÍéLxan;enHÉg EdlmanraCTUtcinmkdl;RsukExµr kñúgenaHman TaMg QavtakVan; pgEdr edIm,ItamrkBYkEdlRbqaMgnwgraCaniymfµI ehIyePosxøÜnmkRCkekanenA TIenH. tamBit KUb‘ÍéLxan; manbMNgcg;vatGnutþrPaBrbs;cin edaydeNþImGMNacdUcCaBYkcinmun² G‘ÍcwgEdr rYcehIylatsn§wgGnutþrPaBenaHeTA[kan;Etq¶ayEfmeTot. 44-- RRssuukkeessoomm bb¤¤ RRssuukkééff cMENkBYkéf sBVéf¶eKehAfaesom EdleyIg)aneXIjrYcmkehIyfa )anmkbgðajxøÜnenAkñúg GagTenøemNamtaMgBIstvtSr_TI9énRKisþskraCemø:H BYkenHcinehAfaéGLav b¤éfLav6 taMgBIyUrlg; Nas;mkehIy KWRbEhlCataMgBIqñaM90munRKisþskraCeTAeTot b:uEnþÉksarRbvtþisa®sþcin man niyayBIBYkenHEtBIRtwmqñaM629mkb:ueNÑaHenHebItameyIgdwg.BYkenHBImunrs;enAkEnøgmYyEdlcin ehAfa Nanqav ¬mann½yfa esþcénRsukkNþal¦ enABIxaglicyunNan EdlekokbMputnwgTIeb. tamemIleTABYkenHRbEhlCamanedImkMeNItecjBIniKmCnhiNÐÚEdlecjBImKF³ mkpSBV pSayGarüFm’enATIenaH rYcehIyk¾RtÚvRsUbcUl)at;eTAkñúgcMeNamGñkRsukGay Edlkat;TIebBak; kNþal. KWedayehtuenaHehIy )anCaBYkeKmanlkçN³CahiNÐÚkat;TIeb. sBVéf¶enH PasaEdleK niyayenAtamRsukERsrbs;yunNan CaBiessxiteTAxaglicbnþic nigenACuMvijTIRkúgtalI nigbNþa ExRtCitxagenaHKWCaPasaéfedImEdl)anERbkøayeRcInehIylayLMCamYyPasacinehIyPasaéf enaH KµanBakü)alIeT. 6 BYkGaNÑamenAeRbIBakü éGLav enHsRmab;ehA BYklav nigBYkesomPaKxageCIg EtsBVéf¶.
  • 144. ehIyvahak;dUcCafaGkSrEdlBYkeKsresrBIdMbUgenaH køayecjmkBIGkSrsM®sáwtpgEdr. BYkenHmanEckecjCakSRtRbeTscMnYn6 b¤7 CYnkalCa8 b¤9 EtrYmKñaCashB½n§mYy. KW edayehtuenaHehIy )anCaCYnkal cinehABYkenHfa {BYkqavTaMg6 b¤TaMg9} ehIyenHk¾CakarbBa¢ak; pgEdrfaBYkenHrs;enACaRkúmGm,ÚrsVy½tmYyc,as;las;enAxagnirtIGaNacRkcin.BYkenHmaneQµaH BitR)akdfasay:amEtBYk):akannigPUmaehAminc,as;faCaéfb¤sanehIydl;eRkay²mkBYkenHk¾ ehAxøÜnÉgfadUecñHEdreTA7 enAeBlenaH. b:uEnþ BYkGñkRsukEdlrs;enARtg;TwkdIPUmasBVéf¶ k¾ehATwkdI rbs;xøÜnfa kUsanBüI mann½yfa {nKrsanTaMg7} b¤fa raCaNacRkm:a b¤raCaNacRkb:ug pgEdr kalBI stvtSr_TI7. enAkñúgBak;kNþalTImYyénstvtSr_TI8 esþcrdæqavéfEdlsßitenAxagt,ÚgeKbg¥s;kñúgbNþardæ TaMg6KWesþcb:ULÚkUb¤suILÚkUénRsukemOghuIqav)aneqøót»kaseBlEdlcineFVIs®gÁamCamYyTIebvay deNþImykRsukqavÉeTot²dak;CacMNuH. KWRbEhlCaenAeBlenaHehIy eRkayBI)ankøayxøÜnCa m©as;elITwkdId¾FMmYyrYcehIy EdlesþcqavenaH)anRbkan;ykzan³CamharaC EdlKUb‘ÍéLxan; TTYl sÁal;5stvtSr_eRkaymkcMeBaHesþcqavEdlesayraCübnþeRkayBI)anyknKrqavdak;CacMNuHrYc mk.GFiraCqavenaHesayraCüenAraCFanItalIemø:aHehIynKrenaHk¾RtÚveKehArt;mat;faraCaNacRk talI²dUecñHeTAb:uEnþBYkcinnigBYkGñkRsukCitxagmYycMnYneTotenAEtbnþehAfaraCaNacRkNanqav² b¤raCaNacRkénesþcTisxagt,Úgerogmk.BYkGaNÑamehABYkenHfalukCavmann½yfaesþc6b¤kSRt RbeTs6. enAedImRKisþskraCrhUtdl;munstvtSr_TI6 RsukenHmanRbeTsCitxag KWPUma nigTIebBI xaglic/ cinBIxageCIg nigxagekIt/ tugkwg b¤g:anNanBIGaeKñy_ ehIynigmanPüÚ/ PüÜr b¤eborm:anBIxag t,Úg. enAedImBak;kNþalTI2énstvtSr_TI8 KWenAkñúgrC¢kalesþcRBHnamkaLÚhVúg CabuRtrbs;esþc b:ULÚkU Edl)anbRgÜbbRgÜmÉkPaBéf ehIybegáIt)anraCaNacRktalIeLIg BYkcinEdlminsb,ay citþnwgeXIjraCaNacRkd¾rwgmaMmYyenHekIteLIg CaCagmankSRtRbeTs6EdlTn;exSay k¾cab;ebIk karvayRbharmkelInKrNanqavb¤raCaNacRktalIenAqñaM751kñúgeKalbMNgkm©at;[)at;Etmþgb¤ 142 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 7 enAkñúgPasaPUma GkSr s rbs;PasasM®sáwt)anRtÚveKbþÚreTACa F dUcCa skümunI eTACa FKamunI/ sueTa§Tn³ eTACa FueT§aTn³/ yesaFr³ eTACa yeFaFr³/ Rs³vasÞi eTACa FvaTÞi/ evsaLI eTACa evFalI.l.
  • 145. 143Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa k¾edIm,IerobcMsNþab;Fñab;tamrebobcas;eLIgvij. k¾b:uEnþBYkéfeBlenaHmanGarüFm’eCOnelOnbnþic ehIy ehIyecHerobcMxøÜnl¥sRmab;eFVIcm,aMg. bursRKb;rUbEdlmankaysm,TamaMmYn RtÚvcUlbeRmI kgT½BesøókBak;ÉksNæanEdlRBHraCapþl;[.RBHraCapÞal;CaGñkbBa¢aelIkgT½BesHEdlerobcM)an RbesIrCagT½Bcin. RBHGgÁk¾manCRgukeBjeTAedayRsUv ehIynigmanRbB½n§Bn§dar d¾manRbsiT§PaB EdlGac[eFVIs®gÁam)anyUrGEgVg. emø:aHehIy BYkcinRtÜvBYkéfvay[braC½y CaeRcInelIkenAqñaM 754 ehIyRbtibtþikarrbs;cin)anCMruj[esþcnKrtalIxiteTArkcMNgemRtIPaBCamYyTIeb. b:uEnþ sm<½n§PaBenHminsßitesßreT eRBaHeyIgnwgeXIjenAeBleRkayfa nKrNanqav )aneFVIs®gÁamCamYy TIebenAqñaM794 ehIy)anC½yCmñH. cin)anbnþvaymkelINanqavCaeRcInelIkeTot EtRtÚvbraC½yrhUt ehIybgç¿[vaydkfy ecjeTAvij. nKrNanqaveBlenaH manTMnak;TMngjwkjab;CamYynKrEdleyIgehAsBVéf¶fa PUma EdlenA sm½yenaHmaneQµaHfa Pav b¤PüÚ b¤PüÜr CaTIkEnøgEdlBYkeKedIrqøgkat;enAeBlEdleKeFVIdMeNIrecjBI NÐasMedAeTARbeTscinkalBIrab;ryBan;qñaMmunehIytaMgBIeBlenaHmkTMnak;TMngCamYyKñakñúgPaBCa GñkCitxagminsUvCal¥b:unµaneT.GacnwgfaBYkNanqavminEmnRKan;Et)anedIrqøgkat;Pavb¤PüÚb:ueNÑaH eT KWGacFøab;TaMg)antaMgTIlMenA enARtg;enHeTotpgk¾mindwg munnwgRtÚvedj[eFVIdMeNIrbnþeTAmuxeTot edaymUlehtuNamYy taMgBIyUrlg;Nas;mkenaH. b:uEnþGVIEdlBitR)akdenaH KWfa eRkayBI)aneKc putBIKeRmagvaykemÞcrbs;cinkalBIqñaM754rYcmk esþcéfeQµaH yImavsuIyun )anqøgkat;RBMRbTl; PaKxagt,ÚgenAqñaM800 vaydeNþImykGagTenøravtIxagelI rYcehIycab;eFVIs®gÁamCamYyRsukPav KWRbeTsPUmaPaKxagelIbc©úb,nñykdak;CacMNuHehIynig)aneFVIs®gÁamCamYyRbeTsTIebeTotpg. enAedImstvtSr_TI9eRkayBIcaj;édBYkNanqavrYcehIyBYkPav)anTTYlsÁal;GFiraCPaBrbs; GFiraCcin edIm,IykcineFVICaGaNaBüa)alRbqaMgnwgNanqav EtRtÚvesþcBYkenH elIkT½Bmkvay RbharmþgeTotenAqñaM833 cab;mnusSbIBan;nak;CaeQøIyykeTAkan;eQtug sBVéf¶ehAfa yunNan Esn CaraCFanITI2rbs;BYkeK. minEtb:ueNÑaH RbEhledaymankarKMramBIGñkRsukCitxagrbs;PUma pgEdlcinehAfamIeqn¬RbEhlCaGar:akan;b¤GasSamsBVéf¶¦esþcrbs;éfb¤talIenaHk¾)anelIk T½BcuHmkvaybNþaRsuktammat;QUgsmuRTbwgháal;enAqñaM835Tmøak;esþcecjBIGMNacEfmeTot. enAcugstvtSr_TI9 ÉksarRbvtþisa®sþcin nigGaNÑam)anraykarN_[eyIgdwgGMBIBYkNanqav vaykgT½BcinmYykgEdlecjmkBItugkwg rYcqøgkat;RBMEdnxagt,Úgrbs;RsukenHcUleTAdl;GaNÑam
  • 146. deNþImykraCFanIhaNUy)anenAkñúgqñaM863RtÚvnwgmhaskraC785.eRkayBIRbtibtþikard¾Gg;- GackøahanminKYr[eCOenH esþctalIb¤éf)anvilRtlb;mkkan; yunNan vijBIrqñaMeRkayBI)anyk Rsukb¤kulsm<½n§rbs;cinenHcMnYn378 dak;CacMNuHrYcmk.KWenAeBlenaHehIyEdlcin)anrab;Nan- qav cUlkñúgbNþaeRKaHfñak;TaMg4rbs;mhaGaNacRk eRKaHfñak;bIeTot manTIeb BYkrdæGuIhÁÜr nigBYkTYk EdlcinehAfa TYekV. raCaNacRkéf b¤talI )anrIkceRmIndl;kMBUlrhUtdl;eBlmYyRsab;EtRtÚvEbgEckecjCardæ BIr enAstvtSr_TI10 mindwgCamkBIehtuGVI ³ rdæmYyenAxaglicmanraCFanIenAtalIdEdl rdæmYyeTot enAxagekIt Rtg;ExRtyunNan EdleBlenaHCashB½n§énkulsm<½n§cMnYn37. karEbk)ak;KñaenH min manGVICaF¶n;F¶rNas;NaeT RKan;EtfaesþcEdlesayraCüenAtalI EdlBImunRtÜtRtaelIshB½n§Rsuk TaMg37 dUcCaRtÜtRtaelIkSRtRbeTséfTaMg6G‘ÍcwgEdr eBlenHRtÜtRta)anEtTwkdIcas;TaMg6b:ueNÑaH eBalKWfa mankarfycuHGanuPaBbnþic. vaTMngfakarEbk)ak;KñaenH)anbnþCaeRcInstvtSr_tmkeToteRBaHeyIgeXIjfaenAqñaM1253 mharaCtalIRtÚvyl;RBmcMNuHBYkm:ugehÁalrbs;KUb‘ÍéLxan; edIm,Ise®gÁaHRbeTskuM[rlay)at;bg;. edayehtuenHRsukyunNanRtÚvRtlb;mkCaExRtmYyrbs;cinvijrIÉbNþaraCaNacRkéfk¾RtÚvkøay CanKrsamnþraCrbs;cinEdr9 . cab;BIeBlenaHmk BYkéfEtgEtsakl,gerIbRmHTamTarrkÉkraCüCaeRcInelIkeRcInsa k¾b:uEnþ RtÚvcinb®gáabRKb;eBl. enATIbBa©b; esþceRkayeKRtÚvcincab;)anCaeQøIy ehIynaMykeTAkan; raCFanINanKIg rYcehIyeFVIXatedaycat;TukdUcCaRkúmbHe)ar. muneBlEdlBYkm:ugehÁalmkdl; vahak;dUcCamanRBwtþkarN_FMmYy)anekIteLIg BIeRBaHfa eK eXIjmanBYkéfenH cuHmktaMgTIlMenA enAPaKxageCIgRsuklavsBVéf¶ Rtg;høÜgR)a)ag/ enAm:g;/ enA 144 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 8 tamemIleTAKWCaEpñkTwkdIEdlNanqav)andeNþImykmkCacMNuHehIy)anTTYlnUvsV½yPaBrbs;eKvij. 9 elaksgÇessVIútmYyGgÁRBHnamfam:aFIy:aqag)ansresrraylMGitenAkñúgRBwtþbRtrbs;sala)araMgcugbUB’a qñaM1901 k,alTI1 Rtg;TMB½r312dl;321 CaGkSrcin nigmanbBa¢ak;CaGkSrLataMgpgEdr nUveQµaHesþcNanqav 46GgÁEdlesayraCüBIqñaM629dl;1251 nigeQµaHmharaCtYn11GgÁ EdlesayraCüeRkayeBl KUb‘ÍéLxan; yknKrdak;CacMNuH cab;BIqñaM1261dl;1381 rhUtdl;eBlEdlesþccugeRkayeKRBHnam mij RtÚv)ancincab;eFVI CaeQøIynaMykeTAkan; NanKIg.
  • 147. 145Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa eQogém:bgábegáIt)anCardæsannigrdæxøaMgmYyeTotenAGagTenøemNamxagelI.mundMbUgBYkenHCardæ samnþraCrbs;esþcExµr manraCFanIenAs½gçelak ¬enABak;kNþalTIBIrénstvtSr_TI11¦. bnÞab;mk )anmkesayraCüenAsuexaT½y10 ¬cMENkcugeRkayénstvtSr_TI11¦ rYcesayraCüelITwkdICitxag TaMgGs; EdlCaTwkdIrbs;BYkmnExµr b¤taLaMg. KWecjBIraCFanIsuexaT½yenHehIy nigbnÞab;mk BIraC FanI GyuFüa EdlBYkéfcab;begáIt)anCakSRtRbeTstUc²mYycMnYn enAEk,rGagTenøemKgÁxagelI xag sþaM rYcbegáItraCaNacRkéf b¤esom EdlmanraCFanIelIkBIGyuFüaeTA)agkk enAstvtSr_TI18. enAeBlEdltaMgraCFanIenAsuexaT½y BYkéf)anRtÜtRtarYceTAehIyeTAelITwkdIEdlenACuMvij enaH. eKmin)andwgfaetIraCaNacRkfµIenaHmanRBMRbTl;rhUtdl;RtwmNaenaHeT k¾b:uEnþvahak;dUcCafa RBMRbTl;xagekItmin)anmkdl;eQogém:eT ehIyRBMRbTl;xaglick¾mineTAdl;smuRTEdr. RBMRbTl; xageCIgRbEhlCaenARtwmRBMEdnrvagesom nigPUmasBVéf¶ ehIyRBMRbTl;xagt,ÚgRbEhlCaenABIelI GyuFüabnþic. tamemIleTARbeTsEdleyIgehAfa esomsBVéf¶ KWCaTwkdIrbs;rdæmnExµrtUc²BIr taMgBIeRcIn stvtSr_Nas;mkehIy CanKrsamnþraCrbs;km<úCakñúgry³eBlRbEhlCag600qñaM EtrdænImYy² manesþcesayraCüsBV²xøÜn. Éksarcin)anehArdæxageCIgfa esonLÚ manraCFanIenALahug ¬hribnü³sBVéf¶KWlMBUn¦nigehArdæxagt,ÚgfaLÚh‘U.eRkaymkRbeTséfKWesonb¤esom)anÉkraC putBIkm<úCak¾b:uEnþLÚh‘UenAsßitenAeRkamkarRtÜtRtaenAeLIy.KWenAsm½yenaHehIyEdlelcRBHerag b¤ramakMEhgecjmkCaemb¤ecAénTwkdIsuexaT½y11 mindwgfaedayERCkraCüb¤y:agNaeTEtRTg;CaGñk ksagsnþtivgS esþcRsIsBa¢naly³suexaT½y EdleyIg)ansÁal;esþcmYycMnYn12 . RBHeragenH EdlerOgniTanExµr)ancat;Tukfa CaemkgxagdwkCBa¢ÚnTwkbrisuT§ecjBIl¥agPñMs½kþisiT§imYykEnøg mkkan; 10 karkan;kab;TwkdIkalBIstvtSr_TI14enaHmindUcsBVéf¶eT eRBaHtamsilacarwkéf esþcsuexaT½yRBHnamfasYéfRtÚv eFVIkarRbyut§Tb;Tl;nwgBYkéfTaMg6 enAPaKxageCIg EdlelIkKñamkvayykraCFanI. 11 ´)armÖxøacEtkarpÁÚesþcramakMEhgCamYynwgRBHerag EdlGñkRbvtþiviTUbs©imRbeTskMNt;enH mankarxusqÁgeT eRBaHfaRBHeragGacRKan;EtCatYGgÁkñúg erOgeRBgniTan b¤k¾CavIrburskñúgsm½ybuerRbvtþimñak; EdleKykmkdak;[eFVICa tYÉkénerOgNamYyeRkaymk. 12 manerOgniTanesommYyerobrab;faRBHeragenHCabuRtrbs;kSRtInaKmYyGgÁ mann½yfa kUnGñkrdævasI CamYynwg esþchribnünKr KWlMBUnsBVéf¶ Edl)anCYbnagenAkñúgeBlelg. esþcenaH)anRtÚvRBHmata EdlCam©as;kSRtIrC¢Ta
  • 148. raCFanInÞbtþmYyqñaMmþgnigCaGñkEdlnaMeKÉgeFVIkeBa¢Il¥IlabRm½kSN_hak;dUcCamanedImkMeNItenAÉ LÚh‘UeT b:uEnþedayman bBaðGVImYy k¾eKcxøÜneTAenAÉesoneTA. enAÉesonenaH mundMbUgKWCaembHe)ar EteRkaymkmanzan³CaecA bnÞab;BImanC½yCmñHelIBYkeson nigT½BExµr rYcehIyk¾)aneLIgesay raCü. erOgesomniyayfa RBHGgÁCabuRtesþc ebIehacNas;k¾CabuRtciBa©wmEdr ehIyRTg;)anerob GaBah_BiBah_CamYykSRtIy_rC¢TayaTrbs;nKrsuexaT½y em:øaHehIyk¾køayRBHGgÁ CaRBHraCa eRBaHfa CasVamIrbs;RBHkSRtIy_. GtßbTsilacarwksuexaT½y)anniyayfa ebIsinNaCakarRbdUc RBHrama kMEhgeTAnwgRBHeragBitR)akdG‘ÍcwgEmnenaH RBHGgÁKWCabuRtarbs;RBHecAmñak;CaemT½B CaemRkúmbøn; d¾rIkray nigCaesþc. eTaHCay:agNak¾eday RBHGgÁ KWCaGñkEdlrMedaHRbeTs[)anÉkraCü minRKan; EtcMeBaHnKreson b¤GagTenøemNamxagelIb:ueNÑaHeT EdlRbEhlCa)anÉkraCmunrYceTAehIy enA eBlEdlRBHGgÁTTYlRBHzan³CaRBHecA EtCaBiess cMeBaHLÚh‘U b¤GagTenøemNam xageRkam. tam ehtukarN_TaMgGs;enH vahak;dUcCa)anbBa¢ak;rYceTAehIyfa RBHramakMEhg esayraCüenAqñaM1296 RtÚvnwgmhaskraC1218. KWenAeBlenaHehIyEdlGñkkt;Rtacin)ansresrfa RbeTskm<úCanaqñaM1296 )ancuHexSay ehIymanRbCaCntic eRkayBImans®gÁamCamYyesomrYcmk nigfaGagTenøemNamTaMgmUl)anRtÚv bRgÜbbRgÜmmkCaraCaNacRkéfEtmYyEdlcinehAfaesonLÚnigLÚh‘UKWehAtamrebobcinykeQµaH nKr TaMg2dak;P¢ab;KñaEtmþg. km<úCaeBlenaH edaymanbdivtþn_neya)aypg bdivtþn_snþtivgSpg nig bdivtþn_sasnapgdUcEdl´)anerobrab;xagelI minmanlT§PaBnwgcab;bgç¿kSRtRbeTsEdlerIbRmHrk 146 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa yaTénraCblø½gásuexaT½y e)aHbg;ecal EtRtÚv)anRBHbitaTTYlsÁal; ehIyykmkciBa©wm dak;RBHnamfa GaruNkumar KWedayehtuenaHehIyeTIbRTg;GaceLIgesayraCüCaRBHraCa)an ehIymanRBHnamkøayCaRBHerageTA. BaküeragenH kñúgPasaExµrmkBIBaküGaruN b¤GrCun. erOgdEdlenH)anniyayfa esþcGgÁenaHxVHkarKYrsmCamYynwgesþcsamnþ- raCLúgKU k¾RtÚvBYkenaHtameFVI)ab rhUtQWcitþ k¾elatTwksmøab;xøÜneTA. manerOgniTanxøHniyayfa RBHGgÁRtÚveKeFVIXatenAkñúgRBHraCvaMg. manerOgniTanxøHeTotniyayfaeK)anfVayRBHnam[RBHGgÁfaBjadaM ¬esþcexµA¦ b¤BjaéhV ¬esþcePøIg¦ nigfaRBHGgÁ)andeNþImykExRtcnÞtab‘unBIesþcExµr ehIy)annaMT½Blukluy m:aeLsIu eTotpg. BYkm:aeL)anehAesþcGgÁenH enAkñúgraCBgSavtarrbs;eKfaBjaGaBi ¬sUmGan Hardouin, Légendes historiques siamoises, enAkñúg Revue Indochinoise, cuHéf¶TI30 Exmkra qñaM1904 TMB½rTI45.
  • 149. 147Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa ÉkraCü [cUlmkkñúgnwmRtÜtRtarbs;xøÜn)anvijeT. eBlenaHRBHBja]Tg13 EdlesayraCüenA cenøaHnKrTaMg2 k¾)anseRmce)aHbg;raCFanIcas;rbs;éf mktaMgenAelIekaHmYykñúgTenøemNam cm¶ayRbEhlCa 500KILÚEm:Rt enAxagt,ÚgsuexaT½yvij. ekaHenH b¤ebIehacNas;k¾Rtg;TItaMgraCvaMgfµIEdr maneQµaHfa Ngesña ¬mann½yfa valesña¦ dUecñHehIy)anCaExµrehARsukesomeBlenaHfaCaraCaNacRkNgesña ÉBYkGWr:ubk¾ehAERbtamenaH fa rayaume du marais des sarnau b:uEnþBYkeb:háan nigPUmaenArkSaeQµaHsM®sáwtfa TVarvtI. raCvaMgfµIenH enA eBlEdlksagrYc eKdak;eQµaH[fa RkúgeTBmhanKrRsIGyuFüa14 . cMENkÉnKrvij eKehAfa raCaNacRkGyuFüa b¤raCaNacRkesom b¤raCaNacRkéf rhUtmkdl;qñaM1763 enAeBlEdl esþcBjatak; e)aHbg;GyuFüaeTAKg;enAÉ)agkk ¬FnburI¦ vij. raCFanIGyuFüasßitenAcm¶ayRbEhlEt100KILÚEm:Rtb:ueNÑaHBIRBMEdnkm<úCa EdlkaleNaH enAÉxageCIgkUr:at; ¬nKrraC¦. edaycg;gakecj[q¶ayBIBYkeb:háanEdlBYkeKxøacrGa BYkesom)an xitmkCitkm<úCa ehIybgáCaeRKaHfñak;mYycMeBaHkm<úCaEdlkMBugEtman»nPaB. KWecjBIGyuFüaenaH ÉgEdlExµr)anerobcMkarBarsRtÚvy:agrwgmaM EdlT½Besomecjmkvaykm<úCaGs;kMLúg5stvtSr_. karEdlraCFanIGyuFüarbs;éfsßitenACitGtItraCFanIExµrKW nÞbtþmhanKr CamUlehtu mYyEdlbgç¿ [RBHraCaExµreFVIdMeNIrcuHmkxagt,Úg rhUtdl;RsIsn§r rYceTAPñMeBj bnÞab;mklEgVk ehIyeRkaymk eTot eTA]tþúgÁ ebIeTaHCaRBwtþikarN_épÞkñúgtRmÚv[vilmkenAlEgVkvijk¾eday. 44-- RRssuukkllaavv bb¤¤ gg::aayyLLaavv RbeTslavCaEpñkmYyenAxageCIgeKbg¥s;énnKrhVÚNn kalBICMnan;esþcekaNÐBaس. lav )an TTYlsÁal;GFiraCPaBénmhaNacRkExµr Edl)ancak;b£senAPaKxagt,ÚgNÐÚcin k¾b:uEnþeKBi)ak nwgeCONas;faesþchVÚNnEdlmanraCFanIenAÉtUmUkñúgExRtéRBkb,assBVéf¶ÉeNaH)anvatGMNac BitR)akdEmneTAelIbNþaRbCara®sþEdlrs;enABIxageCIgPñMdgErk nigeRCaHexmr:at;. 13 RBHGPiesknamKW RsIsuriyamhaFmµraCaFiraC EtcinehAfa):aLÚLanmIs‘unLÚ ¬):aLÚ=RBH/ LanmI=rama/ s‘unLÚ= suriya¦. manÉksarxøHfVayRBHnamfa RBHramaFibtI. tamemIleTA ]Tg b¤]fg CaeQµaHFmµta )anCaeKehAdUecñH mkBIGRgwgrbs;RBHGgÁeFVIGMBImas. 14 GyuFüa CaeQµaHBImunrbs;raCaNacRkmYyenANÐa KWraCaNacRkG‘Ud. GñkxøHfaGyuFüakøaymkBITVarvtI.
  • 150. RBHraCaNacRkkm<úCaenAkñúgeBlEdlcab;ksageLIgCadMbUgk¾dUcCaenAeBlksageLIgCaelIk TIBIr minEdlmanRBMRbTl;xageCIghYsBIexan ehIyRBMRbTl;xag|sanhYsBIGatUBWeT. RBHraCaRkúgkm<úCa)ancab;vatT§iBlrhUteTAdl;xageCIgraCaNacRkhøÜgR)a)agsBVéf¶ EtenA eBlEdleK)anelIkraCFanIeTAtaMgenAÉnÞbtþ elImat;bwgTenøsabb:ueNÑaH. T§iBlCam©as; b¤Gnutþr PaBenH eRkaymk)anrIkceRmInFMeLIg b:uEnþ)anfycuHeTAvijbnÞab;BIekItmanRBwtþikarN_epSg² Cabnþ bnÞab; KWmanEteQµaH minmanGVICaBitR)akdeT. RBHraCakm<úCaGacnwgelIkT½BeTAtamdak;eTas esþc nKrsamnþraC NamYy EdlbHe)arRbqaMgTamTarÉkraCü ehIyminRBmeKarBtam/ RBHGgÁGacnwg bgákarlM)akdl;BYkkulsm<½n§sanenAtamRBMEdnyunNan Edlcin)anykmkdak;CaGaNaniKmenA stvtSr_TI13 CaehtueFVI[RBHecAGFiraCeb:kaMgbBa¢ÚnraCTUtmYyeTAkm<úCaedIm,IeFVIkartv:a. RBHGgÁ GacTTYl[sñak;enAkñúgraCvaMgrbs;RBHGgÁnUvraCvgSNamYyGgÁEdlminsb,aycitþb¤mankMhusdUcCa krNIBjav:at; buRtBjakMBg; CaesþcenAhøÜgR)a)ag Edlrt;mksuMRCkekan rYcehIyeRbIGMNac eFVIGnþraKmn_BIelIraCblø½gá [rkSasnþiPaB [edaHRsaybBaðaedaysRmÜl nigCaBiess TTYlsÁal; esþcNaCaesþcNa b:uEnþminEmnRKb;eBleT. RBHGgÁGacTTYlesþcnKrsamnþraCEdlenACit² [cUl Kal; edIm,I{»nRBHeksykmkudRtdusRkckRBH)aTa}. RBHGgÁk¾GacGnuBaØat[esþcnKrsamnþraC TaMgenaHnaMyksilacarwkmkkb;enAEk,rraCvaMgdUcCasilasayhVúgEdlenAEtb:unµanKILÚEm:Rtb:ueNÑaH BIevogc½nÞ. b:uEnþRBHGgÁminGnuBaØat[manesþcNamYyGgÁ EdlmanGMNacCagesþclav bgðajxøÜnCa m©as;BIelIeToteT elIkElgEtRBHecAGFiraCcinecj EdlFøab;)anTTYlsÁal;fa manGFiraCPaBelI km<úCa esom nigCVa rYcmkehIy. etImuneBlEdlBYkéfGay-Lavmkdl; BYklavenHCaGñkRsukedIm b¤y:agNa ? ´hak;dUcCa mineCOeT. ebIdUecñH etIBYkenHmanedImkMeNItmkBINa? BYkenHmanTMenomTmøab;RbéBNIdUcExµreRcIn ehIyKWRbEhledayehtuenaHehIy )anCaBYkcin)ancat;TukBYklavenHfa CaGñkRsukhVÚNn taMgEtBI munRKisþskraCem:øH edaymin)anEbgEckGFibetyüPaBrbs;eKeT. BitR)akdNas;fa BYkenHman lkçN³ dUcKñanwgBYkExµrEdlCasm<½n§jatinwgGñkRsukrs;enAGagTenøemNamEdr. BYkenHdUcCaminTan; kan;RBhµBaØsasnaenAeLIyeTenAsm½yhVÚNnTal;Etdl;eBleRkayyUrmkeTIbTTYlyksasnaenH rYcehIymin)anERbeTAkan;BuT§sasnaenAeLIyeTmunstvtSr_TI14KWrhUtdl;eBlEdlhVag:umdeNþIm ykRbeTs)an. etIGñkRsuklavenaHmansac;QamEtmYy b¤k¾y:agNa? vaGacnwgdUecñH enAmuneBlmanBYkGñk 148 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 151. 149Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa EdlcuHmkBITIeb nigGaNaExRtxagt,ÚgénRbeTscin CaRkúmtUc² EtTIbBa©b; )anmkdeNþImykRsuk TaMgmUlehIyeFVI[GñkRsukedImrlay)at;nUvCatisasn_rbs;xøÜnb¤k¾mkrs;enAlayLMCamYyGñkRsuk edIm edayTTYlykTMenomTmøab;RbéBNImYycMnYnFM. KWedaysarBYklavenHmanQamC½rEtmYy dUecñH ehIy )anCaeKEtgEtniyayfaBYkenHEbkecjmkBIbuBVbursEtmYy ehIyebIeTaHCaplRbeyaCn_ xagsmÖartRmÚv[eKEbkKñaecjCaCati5y:agNakþI k¾eKenAEtminePøcfa eKmanRbPBedImrYmKñaEdr. eKmin)andwgc,as;faetIenAeBlNaEdlBYksan b¤éf b¤esom EdleyIg)aneXIjBIxagelIrYc mkehIyfa manedImkMeNItCahiNÐÚEdr cuHBIxaglicyunNanmkkan;RsuklaveT15 b:uEnþvaR)akdNas; fa ehtukarN_enHekItmaneLIg eRkayeBlEdlBYkéfcUllukluynKrsan. KYrkt;smÁal;faBYkéfmanBIrRkúm ³ RkúmTI1 KWBYkEdlrs;dMbUgenAkñúgGagTenøemNamxagelI rYceRkaymk)anvatykTwkdIkñúgGagTenøemNamxageRkameTot eKehAfa BYkéfFM/ nigRkúmmYyeTot Edlmkrs;enARbeTslav eKehAfa BYkéftUc. ÉBYksank¾manBIrRkúmdUcKñaEdr KWmYyRkúmmktaMgTI lMenAenAxagelIGasSamnigmYyRkúmeTotenAxagekIt)anqøgkat;RbeTsPUmarYcmktaMgTIlMenAenARtg; kEnøgEdleyIgehAfa rdæsansBVéf¶. ÉksarRbvtþisa®sþcink¾)anniyayfa manBYkéfBIrRkúmEdr k¾b:uEnþmin)anehAfaéfFM nigéftUc eT EtehAfaéfexµA nigéfs. karEbgEckRbEhlCanwgRtwmRtÚvCag RbsinebIeKniyayfa manBYkéf edIm eBalKWBYkéfhiNÐÚEdlexµA nigBYkéffµI eBalKWBYkGñkRsukedImEdlrs;enAyunNan ehIy)ankøay eTACaéfEdr bnÞab;BIBYkéfhiNÐÚmkdeNþImykRsuk)an ehIyrs;enAlayLMKña ebIeTaHCafa BYkenHman Catisasn_Cacin16 mansm,úrelOg b¤s b¤Rbhak;RbEhlenaHk¾eday. enAmanviRbCaCaeRcIneTotenAkñúgRbeTslav xiteTACittugkwgbnþic EdlRbkan;fa xøÜnCaéfexµA 15 KWenAeBlenaHehIyEdlBYkcinehABYkenHfa éfLav b¤fLav edIm,IkuM[RcLMCamYyBYkéfEdlenAyunNan. 16 BYkéfEdl)ancuHmktaMgTIlMenA²Rtg;RbeTsesomCaBYkéfexµA eBalKWCaBYkEdlecjmkBIRbeTsNça man kMeNItedImCahiNÐÚ )anmkdeNþImykGaNaExRtEdlmanBYkcinEs,kelOgrs;enAEdleKehAfaCaBYkéfs. BYkéfs enH min)ancuHmkRbeTsesomtamBYkéfexµAeT eRBaHeKCaGñkcaj;. KWedayehtuenaHehIy)anCamanBaküEdlehA BYkéenAesomenaHfa süam mann½yfa exµA. karEbgEckGñkRsukCaexµA nigsdUecñH eKRbTHeXIjmaneRcInNas;enAcugbUB_a dUcCaBYkTIebEtgehABYkhiNÐÚfa QahÁa mann½yfa QaexµA ÉcinvijeKehABYkhiNÐÚfa QaNak mann½yfa Qas.
  • 152. b¤Caéfs k¾b:uEnþkarEdlRbkan;y:agenH eKsMGagPaKeRcIneTAelIBN’semøókbMBak;EdleKesøók eTAvijeT. dUecñH eKminRtÚvelIkykerOgsBVéf¶enHmkniyay edIm,IedaHRsaybBaðaEdleyIgkMBug niyayxagelIenaHeT. ´Kitfa KWBYkéfexµAenHÉg EdlkalenaH)anRtÜtRtaeTAelIBYkéfs dl;RtÚvBYkcinedjvay Rbhar )aneFVIdMeNIrvilRtlb;mkkan;RbeTsPUmavij CaTIkEnøgEdlBYkeKFøab;)anedIrkat; b¤k¾Føab;rs; enApgk¾mindwgkalBIeRcInryqñaMmun. ehIyk¾KWBYkéfexµAenHÉg EdleRkayBI)aneFVIdMeNIreTAdl;Rsuk cin ehIy)anbnþdMeNIrcuHmktaMgTIlMenA enAkñúgGagTenøemNamxagelI taMgBIstvtSr_TI9 rhUtdl; stvtSr_TI11 rYcehIybnþBRgayKñamkkñúgRbeTslaveTot. eBlenaH BYkkulsm<½n§lavsßitenAeRkamkardwknaMrbs;BYkecA b¤Xun EdlminEmnCaéfenAeLIy eT ehIy´KitfaRbeTslav)ansßitenAy:agdUecñHrhUtmk elIkElgEtenAeQogém: nigeQogEsn EdlsßitenACitraCaNacRksuexaT½y EdlRbEhlCamanesþcesayraCümanedImkMeNItCaéf ehIy )ankøayxøÜnCasRtÚvrbs;BYklav. b:uEnþGVIEdlR)akd KWRbeTslav)ansßitenACaRbeTsÉkraC min )ancMNuHéfeTrhUtmkdl;sBVéf¶ ehIyenAeBlEdlBYkkulsm<½n§Edlrs;enAxageCIgTenøemNam naMKña gakeTAcMNuHsuexaT½ytaMgEtBIstvtSr_TI13rhUtmk BYkkulsm<½n§lav)annaMKñaEbrmkrk suvNÑaPYn esogdug nig esogtugemOgsVa ¬sBVéf¶KW høÜgR)a)ag¦ ÉenHvij. BYkéfEdlmkdl;RsuklavmanGarüFm’eCOnelOnCagBYkGñkRsukGay. mü:ageTot BYkenH mkdl;manKñaeRcIn ehIymanBYkéfFM ¬KWBYkEdleRkaymkmaneQµaHfa esom¦ enABIeRkayxñg CYy CMrujCYyRcanBYkeKCYypþl;GavuFehIyCYnkalk¾GacCYyCakmøaMgT½BpgEdr.emø:aHehIyBYkenHman eRbóbelIBYklavEdlenAminTan;suIvil½y cab;taMgBIcugstvtSr_TI13mk enAeBlEdleKdeNþImyk TwkdITaMgGs;enAcenøaHGagTenøemNamxagelI nigGagTenøemKgÁxagelI deNþIm)anraCFanITI2rbs;lav ehIytaMgxøÜnCasRtÚvrbs;høÜgR)a)ag. raCFanIenaHsBVéf¶eKehAfaevogc½nÞ EtkalenaH BYkéfdak; eQµaH[fa cnÞ³burI mann½yfa CaraCFanIxøwmcnÞn_Rkwsña. tamemIleTA BYkéfRbEhlCaenARtÜtRtaelITwkdImYycMnYnFMenABIxageCIg xaglic nigxagt,Úg raCFanIenHenAeLIyenAqñaM1336enAeBlEdlvIrbursrbs;lavKWhVag:um)anelcxøÜneLIgKWRbEhl edaysñaédRBH)aTramakMEhg. dUecñH enAeBlEdlraCaNacRkkm<úCaFøak;cuHGab;»n manraCaNacRkFM²BIrekIteLIgenAÉ RbeTslav KWraCaNacRkLanqanhUmxav b¤suILagsWghUmxav mann½yfa {raCaNacRkdMrIrab;lan 150 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 153. 151Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa nigkøs;BN’s}ehIynigraCaNacRkcnÞ³burImann½yfa{raCaNacRkxøwmcnÞn_Rkwsña}.raCaNacRkTI1 enACaraCaNacRklavenAeLIy ÉraCaNacRkTI2 )ankøayCaraCaNacRkéfeTAehIy. 55-- RRbbeeTTssPPUUmmaa bb¤¤ RRssuukkmmnn RbCaCnExµr )ansÁal;RbeTsEdleyIgehAsBVéf¶fa PUma CaeRcInstvtSr_Nas;mkehIy eRkameQµaHfa Rsukmn b¤Rsuk)aKU ¬eb:háan¦ fVIebIsilacarwkminmanniyayGMBIRsukenHk¾eday. edaykalBImunenaH Rsukmn nigRsukExµr manRBMRbTl;Cab;Kña EdlRtÚvnwgRBMRbTl;rvagPUma nigesom bc©úb,nñ vaR)akdNas;fa RbCaCnTaMgBIrBitCaFøab;manTMnak;TMngnwgKña ehIyk¾GacFøab;eFVIcm,aMgnwgKña eTotpgk¾mindwg RtwmmunstvtSr_TI14. tamBiteTA manEtsilacarwktaRBhµmYyb:ueNÑaHEdl)anniyayGMBI´beRmICatimn eRkABIenaH minmansilacarwkNaelIkeLIgeT EdlCaehtuGaceFVI[eKKitfaBYkExµrmin)anykcitþTukdak;cMeBaH GñkRsukEdlrs;enAÉxageCIgnigBay½BüRsukesomb¤RsuksaneLIyGñkRsukTaMgGs;enaHcMNuHkm<úCa EtExµrdak;eQµaH[epSgBIeQµaHEdleyIgehA. ´mineCOfa Exµrmin)andwgmin)anB¤GMBIRBwtþikarN_TaMg LayEdlekItmanenAPUma ¬mIy:an;m:a¦ b¤)aKU ¬eb:hÁÚ¦ muneBlEdlkekItraCaNacRkéfenaHeT. Exµr R)akdCa)ansÁal;raCFanIepSg²rbs;PUma ehIyedayehtuenaHehIyeTIb)anCaeKmanBaküCaeRcIn sRmab;ehAGñkRsukenaH.LÚvenHsUmBinitüemIlRBwtþikarN_epSg²EdlekItmaneLIg nigkarpøas;bþÚr TItaMgraCFanI EdlCaplvi)ak b¤k¾CamUlehtuénkarpøas;bþÚrneya)ayFM². kalBIyUrlg;Nas;mkehIy KWtaMgBIsm½yEdlRBHecAGFiraCGaLicsg;LWRkg; ¬stvtSr_TI4 munRKisþskraC¦)aneFVIkarvayRbhardeNþImykRbeTsNÐaPaKxageCIgrYcehIy]tþmesnIy_rbs; RBHGgÁ)anbegáItraCaNacRkGaMgdURkic mYyenAelImat;TenøKgÁa eBlenaHmanBYkhiNÐÚEdleFVIdMeNIr mkBIRsukkligÁb¤kligÁn³ )anmktaMgTIlMenA enAelImat;smuRTbwgháal;xagekIt KWNÐÚcinenaHÉg. TwkdImat;smuRTRtg;kEnøgenaHeBlenaHmanBYkviRbCaminTan;suIvil½y CaGñkRsukedImrs;enA maneQµaH fa BilU b¤Bal³ EdlmanenAesssl;kulsm<½n§xøHrhUtdl;sBVéf¶enAkñúgRbeTsesom. eKmindwgfa etIBYkGñkRsukedImTaMgenaH )anTTYlBYkhiNÐÚy:agNaeT b:uEnþvahak;dUcCafaBYkeKmin)anRbqaMgTb;Tl; nwgBYkGñkcMNUlfµI EdlmanGarüFm’RBhµBaØsasnarYceTAehIy ehIyEfmTaMgecHeFVIs®gÁameTotpg eT. BYkeKGacnwgbeNþay[BYkhiNÐÚmkrs;enAkñúgcMeNamBYkeK b¤mYyk¾eKnaMKñadkxøÜnfy TukkEnøg[ Etmþgk¾fa)an. bNþaRkúm]bnievsn_hiNÐÚTaMgGs;enaHminxusKñaBIGVIEdl)anekItmanenAÉNÐÚcinPaK
  • 154. xagt,ÚgnigGaeKñy_enaHeTKWcab;epþImBIkarbegáItRKwHsßanBaNiC¢kmµtUc²rYcbnþeTAbegáIt)anCardækm<úCa nigcam:,aeLIg. bNþaRkúm]bnievsn_hiNÐÚenAtammat;smuRTbwgháal;naeBlenaHRbEhlCataMgenA Rtg;TItaMgRkúgtav:y/ EmrKuy/ etNaesrIm nigm:ata)ansBVéf¶ EdlBImunGñkRsukedImdak;eQµaH[fa favy/ m:an;/ taNavRsI/ m:atam:a. eyIgmin)andwgGMBIeQµaHBitR)akdrbs;TIRkúgTaMgGs;enaHeT enAeBlEdleKksageLIg RKan;Et)andwgfa BYkhiNÐÚ)andak;eQµaHtamPasasM®sáwt[fa rmBaØeTs³ mann½yfa {RsukRss;bMRBg} eTAtamTidæPaBRsukEdleK)aneXIj. KWedaymaneQµaHedImfarmBaØdUecñHehIyeTIb)anCaeRkaymkkøaymkCarmnü³rYcmkCam:anI/ emanI ehIyenATIbBa©b;mkCamn b¤mnI. ebIeTaHCaRsukenHmanRbvtþieQµaHedayELky:agenHkþI EtExµr ehARsukEdleyIgehAfaPUmaenaHfaRsukmndUecñHtaMgBICag1000qñaMmunrhUtmkdl;sBVéf¶enH. RsukEdlenABIxageCIgrmBaØeTs³ EdlBYkmn b¤Bal³ b¤BilU rs;enAmaneQµaHCaPasasM®sáwt EdlBYkbBaØvnþhiNÐÚdak;[fa{suvNÑPUmi}mann½yfa{TwkdImas}b:uEnþtamemIleTABYkGñkRsukRbEhl )andak;eQµaH[epSg EteyIgmin)ansÁal;. BYkGñkRsukedImenAsm½yEdlBYkkligÁb¤kligÁn³mkbegáItGaNacRkrmBaØeTs³eLIgenaHKWBYk kaern Edlmankarcat;taMg manemdwknaMrYcehIy b:uEnþminTan;manGarüFm’eCOnelOndUcBYk BilU b¤Bal³ enAtameqñrsmuRTetNaesrImenAeLIyeT. BYkenHsBVéf¶enAmanrs;enAray):ayBaseBjRbeTs PUmaPaKxageRkam Rtg;mþúMeb:hÁÚ nigenAPUmaPaKxagelI Rtg;Gv³17 . BYkeKrs;tamPUmitUc²enACnbT q¶ayBITIRkúg manTMenomTmøab;xusEbøkBIBYkGñkEdlmkRtÜtRtaBIelIeK. eKmanPasaniyayxus²Kña KWenAGv³ niyayxusBIenAeb:hÁÚ k¾dUcCaPasaGñkeb:háanxusBIPasaBYkPUma PasaBYkkaern xageCIg xusBIBYkkaernxagt,Úg. BYkniKmCnkligÁEdlmkdl;muneK)anBRgayxøÜneTATisxageCIg rhUteTAdl;mat;BamTenøsalU Gg; rYc)anksagraCFanImYyenATIenaH dak;eQµaHfa falun EdleyIgehAsBVéf¶fa taligÁ. karEdl BYkeKmanraCFanItaMgenAq¶ayeTAxageCIgy:agenH CakarbBa¢ak;fa BYkeKR)akdCa)anvatGMNaceTA q¶ayrhUtdl;kEnøgEdleyIgehAfaPUmaxageRkambc©úb,nñ.karbegáItraCFanIenHRbEhlCaekItman eLIgenAedImRKisþskraC KWdMNalKñanwgkarbegáItraCFanItamU enAhVÚNn Edr. eRkaymkenAstvtSr_TI6eKniyayfamanesþcmnenAfalunb¤taligÁmYyGgÁ)annaMraCbriBar 152 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 17 raCFanIrbs;RsukEdlcMNuHesþcGv³ enH maneQµaHdMbUgfa emOgkaM.
  • 155. 153Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa eFVIdMeNIreTATisxageCIg ehIy)anksagraCFanIeb:hÁÚ enAkñúgRsukvUkam EdltamemIleTAKWCaTwkdImYy kEnøgrbs;kulsm<½n§kaern Rtg;eb:KUsBVéf¶ rYcRTg;)andak;eQµaH[fa hgSavtI. raCFanIenaH GñkRsuk NÐÚcineRkaymkehAfa eb:hÁÚ b¤)aKU EtBYkGWr:ubehAfa eb:háan. enAkñúgsm½yEdlBYkkligÁksagraCFanIfalun manRbCaCnmYyRkúmeTot ecjmkBIRBMRbTl; TIeb b¤k¾mkBITIebEtmþgk¾mindwg )anmkdeNþImykTwkdIEdleyIgsBVéf¶ehAfaPUmaPaKxagelI rYcehIy )aneFVIdMeNIrcuHmkt,Úgbnþicmþg²tamGagTenøravtIénTwkdIsuvNÑPUmi.BYkGñkmkdl;fµIenH)anRbkan; xøÜnfa CaCatisasn_x<g;x<s;CageK ehIy)andak;eQµaHxøÜnÉgfa mrmµ³ b¤Rmmµ³ b¤mümµ³ EdlRcLMKñanwg BaküRBahµN_EdrEtBYkGñkRsukedImehABYkenHfakULamann½yfabreTs.tamBitBYkenHmanEs,ks CagBYkmnbnþicEmn b:uEnþBYkenH )anmkdl;TwkdIsuvNÑPUmiRbEhlCa 2stvtSr_eRkayBYkmnb:ueNÑaH ehIyKµanGVICaéføfñÚrCagb:unµaneT eRBaHeKmanedImkMeNItecjBIRsukmYy EdlTTYlGarüFm’mYycMENk BINÐa nigmYycMENkeTotBIRbeTscin. edaymanemaTnPaBnwgC½yCmñHdMbUg² niggay²rbs;xøÜn BYkb‘Írm:an hak;dUcCa)aneFVIdMeNIrcuH mkeRkambnþeTot rhUtmkdl;RBúm CaPasasM®sáwtKWRsIekSRt³ ehIy)anksagraCFanITI2 mYy eTotmaneQµaHfaRBÚ.eQµaHenHeRkaymkkøaymkCaRBM/CaRBMm³EdlBYkPUmaehAfaRBhµ½nehIyBYk GWr:ubfa R)ak;m:an/ rYcb‘Írm:an. cMENkBYkcinvij EdlminGacGanGkSr {r} )anehAfa PüÚ b¤Pav rhUt cab;BIstvtSr_TI7mkdl;stvtSr_TI12. etIeRkayBIksagraCFanITI2enHrYc BYkb‘Írm:an)anb:HBarCamYyBYkmn ehIyRtÚvbgç¿[eFVIdMeNIr eTAeCIgvij b¤y:agdUcemþc ? Rtg;enHeKmin)andwgdUcemþceT EtGVIEdlR)akdenaHKWfa enAeBlEdl BYkmn kMBugdeNþImykTwkdIPUmaPaKxageRkamenAstvtSr_TI5 BYkb‘Írm:an)anksagraCFanIenA):akan EdlmaneQµaHeRkaymkfa taháúg18 rYc)ane)aHbg;raCFanIenaHmktaMgenAÉemonvij. KWedayman raCFanITI4enAemonenHÉg eTIb)anCaCYnkaleKeXIj BYkcinehABYkb‘Írm:anfa BYkemon² dUecñH. cMeBaHBYkExµrvij eKmindwgfaetIcab;BIeBlNamkeTEdleKehABYkb‘Írm:anenHfa kULa nigPUma edaymin)andwgpgeTGMBIGtßn½yrbs;BaküTaMgBIrm:at;enH.BakükULaGacmkBI{kuLa}mann½yfaéføfñÚr b¤mkBIBakü{kULa}mann½yfabreTs.b:uEnþBaküenHBYkb‘Írm:anxøÜnÉgniyayfaminEmnCaeQµaHrbs; xøÜneT ehIyBYkEdl)anmkeFVIBaNiC¢kmµenAtammat;TenøemKgÁniyayfa manEtBYkExµr niglavb:ueNÑaH 18 raCFanIburaNenHsBVéf¶enAmanenAeLIy EtRKan;EtCaTIRkúgtUcmYyb:ueNÑaH.
  • 156. EdlehAxøÜny:agenH. cMENkÉBaküPUmavij ´KitfakøaymkBIBaküsuvNÑPUmi ³ eKGaccaM)an EtBakü xagcugfa PUmI yUr²eTAk¾køayeTACa PUma19 . Et´)anRbTHeXIjmþgEdleKsresrfaPUmimas. BYkb‘Írm:anenHminEmnmanEtBYkmn b¤eb:hÁÚ nigBYkkulsm<½n§GñkRsukedImCasRtÚvb:ueNÑaHeT. enAxageCIgq¶ayÉeNaHmanBYkNanqavb¤éf EdlmanRbPBedImCaBYkhiNÐÚEdr )anmktaMgTIlMenA enAcenøaHTIeb nigRsukcintaMgBIyUryarNas;mkehIy. BYkNanqavenH EdleTIbEtrYbrYmKñaCaraCa NacRkEtmYy)anvayRbhareTAelIcindeNþImykTwkdIyunNanehIykMBugEtmankmøaMgrulcuHmkTis xagt,Úg. BYkNanqav RbEhlCaFøab;)anQøanBanRsukPUmaCaeRcInelIkeRcInsaenAstvtSr_TI8 nigTI9ehIy)anykRsukenHdak;CacMNuHy:agyUreTotpg.BYkcinehAkSRtRbeTséfenAyunNanfa NanqavEtBYkb‘Írm:anehABYkNanqavenHRBmTaMgBYkcinpgfatar:ub/tar:ukb¤taruikehIyRtÚvBYkcinnig BYkéfyunNan ehAvijfa emon² tameQµaHraCFanITI4rbs;eK. tamemIleTA KWRbEhlCaenAeBlEdlBYkéfkMBugRtÜtRtaelITwkdIPUmaPaKxagelIenHÉg Edl BYkenHlUkédcUlkñúgbBaðaépÞkñúgrbs;GñkRsukenAkñúgGagTenøemNamxagelI edIm,ICYyBYkGñkRsukenH[ RbqaMgnwgkm<úCa rYcehIyk¾cab;epþImcuHmktaMgTIlMenA enAkñúgGagTenøemNamenH enAkñúgstvtSr_TI10 edayksagraCFanIhribunüKü³ ¬hribunünKr¦ KWlMBYnsBVéf¶ nigraCFanIsuexaT½y. enAeBlCamYy KñaenaHEdr manBYkéfÉeTot²cUlmkrs;enAkñúgTwkdIlav ehIydeNþImykraCFanIevogc½nÞ. Rsuklav eBlenaH sßitenAeRkamkarRtÜtRtarbs;km<úCa. enAxagt,ÚgÉeNaHvij karksagraCFanIeb:hÁÚ edayBYkmnenAstvtSr_TI6 CakarbBa¢ak;fa BYkenH )andeNþImykBamTenøravtI )anehIy ehIy)anrujRcanBYkb‘Írm:an [eFVIdMeNIreLIgeTATis xageCIg eTACYbCamYyBYkNanqav. GVIEdlBitKWBYkb‘Írm:anenHRtÚvRbQmmuxnwgBYkNanqavcab;BIstvtSr_bnÞab;mkehIyk¾RtÚveFVI s®gÁamTb;Tl;nwgBYkeb:háanenAxagt,ÚgpgEdr rhUtdl;eBlmYyeRkaymk EdlBYkNanqavqøgkat; RBMEdn eTAdeNþImykGagTenøemNamxagelITaMgmUl. eBlenaHBYkb‘Írm:an nigBYkeb:háan c,aMgKñat 154 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 19 mansa®sþaExµrmYy)anniyayGMBIesþcmYyGgÁEdlmanRBHnamfaPUmaEtsa®sþaxøHeTotfaPUmIman½yfam©as;Twk dI. ehtukarN_enHeFVI[´mancm¶l;CaxøaMg mindwgfaetIBaküenHmann½ydUcemþc b¤k¾køaymkBIBaküNamYym:at; Edl´ minGacsµan)an.
  • 157. 155Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa Qb;Qr rhUtdl;eBlBYkGWr:ubmkdl; eFVICaGaCJakNþalEbgEckTwkdIeTIbs¶b;. GVIEdleKGacdwg)ansRmab;ry³kalmunstvtSr_TI11 KWfa RBúm ¬RsIekSRt³¦ CaraCFanItaMg BIstvtSr_TI7mk EteKmindwgfaCaraCFanIrbs;GñkNa etICarbs;BYktaligÁ ¬eRkaymkkøayCaBYk eb:háan¦ b¤Carbs;BYkRmmµ³ ¬eRkaymkkøayCaBYkb‘Írm:an¦. erOgenHfatictYck¾)an b:uEnþk¾CacMNuc KYrkt;smÁal;mYyEdr KWraCFanIRBúmmanvtþmankñúgsm½yEdlvgSvrµ½nesayraCüenAvyFbur³ Edlman R)asaT)ak;Ebksl;dl;sBVéf¶enAxagt,Úg)aTI kñúgRsukéRBkb,as. enAkñúgstvtSr_TI11 raCaNacRkeb:han)anRtÚvBYkb‘Írm:an vayykdak;CacMNuH BYkenH)an taMgraCFanIenAdaLa ¬KWr:g;hÁÚn¦ enAnwgmat;BamTenøravtI. raCFanIsMxan;²epSgeTotnaeBlenaHman m:ata)an nig)asaMg EdlsßitenAelIédTenømYyéndIsNþravtI. enAraCFanIcas;KW):akanb¤GrimµTn³ÉeNaHvijeKeXIjmanrUbsMNakrbs;RBHraCab‘Írm:ancMnYn 51GgÁ ehIycab;taMgBIeBlEdlBYkenHcuHmktaMgTIenAxagt,ÚgRbeTsenAstvtSr_TI13 eKniyayfa manesþceqñIm²CaeRcInGgÁ CaGaTi KWRBH)aT]hSam eLIgesayraCüenAqñaM1250 rYcRtÚvdMrIeRBc suKtenAqñaM1283. Gs;BIRBHGgÁeTA RBH)aTnrsßbti CaraCbuRtrbs;RBHGgÁCamYybuRtICagRkLwg mñak; )aneLIgesayraCübnþ eRkayBIraCbuRtRsbc,ab;RBHnamfa sIh³sur³ RtÚvBYkm®nþIeFVIKut. RBHraCaGgÁenHCaykSkalBICatimunemø:aHehIykacsahavqab;xwgRkGWtRkTmelµaPsuIRbmwk ehIycUlcitþesaysac;. raCBgSavtarerobrab;mü:ageTotfa RTg;k¾elµaPkamNas;Edr manmehsI 3000nak; enAkñúgRBHraCvaMg kñúgenaHmanRBHraCGKÁmehsITI1mYyGgÁ nigTI2R)aMGgÁ. RBHGgÁ)an bBa¢a[RBHraCbuRtmYyGgÁcab;xøÜnRBHraCbuRtmYyGgÁeTot EtRBHraCbuRtTI2enH )anrt;eKcxøÜnrYc ehIyk¾bHe)arRbqaMgnwgRBHGgÁ nigcab;RBHGgÁCaeQøIyenAkñúgqñaM1286. enATIbBa©b; RBHraCak¾RtÚv RBHraCbuRtenaHdak;fñaMbMBul[suKteTAenAqñaM1288. RBHraCbuRtEdlbHe)arRbqaMgenaHKWRBH)aTsIh³sura CaRBHGgÁm©as;elIraCFanIRBúm k¾eLIg esayraCübnþmk EtRtÚvsuKtnwgRBÜjrbs;RBHGgÁÉg kñúgeBleFVIs®gÁamCamYyRBHGgÁm©as;énraC FanIdaLaCaRBHGnuC enAkñúgqñaM1288 dEdlenaH. RBHGnuCmYyGgÁeTotRBHnamfaküÚsV³ )aneLIgesayraCübnþmk. RBHraCafµIenH manlkçN³ sm,tþiBiess KWqøatév eKarBkuslFm’ PkþInwgsasna ehIymanKtibNÐit. RTg;)ancat;TukRbCa nura®sþ nigGñkkan;sasnadUcKñaCa {sac;RBHkaypÞal;} k¾b:uEnþvahak;dUcCafa RBHGgÁminmaneTBeka slükñúgkareFVIneya)ayeT BIeRBaHRBHGgÁKµanlT§PaBkñúgkarrkSaTwkdIEdlRBHbita)anksagTukmk
  • 158. beNþay[rebHExRtGs;mþgmYy². RBHGgÁ)anRtÚvRBHGnuC3GgÁmanedImkMeNItmkBInKrsan Edl RBHGgÁ)anykmkenAkñúgRBHraCvaMg nigRBHGKÁmehsITI2EdlCamnusSBiessmYyGgÁ EtRBHGgÁ minEdl)ansaksYreyabl;kñúgRBHraCkic© Tmøak;BIraCblø½gáenAkñúgqñaM1298 cab;ekarRBHeksa rYcehIydak;[bYsenAkñúgvtþGarammYy.RBHraCbuRtrbs;RBHGgÁRBHnamfasUnIt)aneLIgesayraCü bnþmk edayRbkan;ykRBHzan³d¾GFikGFmdUcRBHraCaExµrenAstvtSr_TI16Edrfa siriRtIPvnTitü³ brvFmµraCa. RBHraCaGgÁenH esayraCü)an27qñaM ehIysuKtenAqñaM1326. bnÞab;mk KWRBHraCbuRtRBHnamfa sUmunIt )anesayraCübnþrhUtdl;eBlEdlRTg;suKtenA qñaM1368. enAkñúgGMLúgeBlenH RbeTscin)anlukluyRbeTsPUmamþgenAkñúgqñaM1277 ehIyvayBYk b‘Írm:an [braC½yy:agxøaMgenAm:ugTI ¬NaneTon¦. bnÞab;mk BYkcin)anvayykPema k¾b:uEnþRtÚvdkfy eTAvijenAqñaMbnÞab; eRkayBIminGacdeNþImyk):akan)an. enHKWCakarQøanBanelIkTI1rbs;cin. enAqñaM1281 cinQøanBanPUmamþgeTot eRkayBITamTar[PUmaRbKl;dMrIs nigsYysarGakr epSg²eTAfVay kñúgnamCaRBHecAGFiraC min)an. eRkayBIdeNþImykPema)anrYcmk T½Bcin)anvay yk g:esagküaM {raCFanIenAk,alTenø} EdlenAcm¶ayEtb:unµanKILÚEm:Rtb:ueNÑaHxagTisGaeKñy_. enAeBlenaH RBH)aTnrsßbti)ancat;[eKeFVIkMEpgkarBarraCFanI):akany:agrwgmaM b:uEnþedayenAEtmin TukRBHT½y RTg;k¾)anePosRBHkayeTAenAÉ)asaMg ehIyRtÚvT½BcinedjtamrhUtdl;RBúm Etminh‘am tameTAq¶ayeT. karQøanBanelIkTI2rbs;cinenH GñkRsukenAmancgcaMenAeLIy. karQøanBanrbs;cinelIkTI3ekItmaneLIgenAkñúgraCüRBH)aTsUnIt edIm,IelIkRBH)aTküÚsV³ [eLIgesayraCüvij. k¾b:uEnþedayRTg;Cakmµvtßúéns®gÁam RBHGnuC3GgÁrbs;RBHGgÁk¾)aneFVIKut RBHGgÁrYckat;ykRBHeksepJICUn]tþmesnIy_cinRBmCamYynwgvtßúGnusSavrIy_CaeRcIneTot.emT½Bcin k¾vilRtlb;eTARsukvij)at;eTA. karlukluyrbs;cinelIkTI3enHmin)aneTAq¶ayhYsBImüindaMg raCFanIrbs;PUmaPaKxageCIgeT.eBlenaHRbEhlCaBYkeb:háan)anksagGaNacRkeLIgvijenAxag t,ÚgrYcehIy. enAsm½yeBlEdleyIgerobrab;mkdl;enH manRbCaCnBIrCasRtÚvnwgKñaenAPUma KWmYyenAxag eCIg mYyeTotenAxagt,Úg RbCaCnTaMgBIrenHb:HTgÁicc,aMgrujKñaeTAvijeTAmkdeNþImTwkdIsuvNÑPUmi. ral;eBl GñkEdlQñHEtgEtbnþs®gÁameTAelIBYkéf dUc²Kña. dUecñH BYkeb:háan nigBYkb‘Írm:an EdlCa sRtÚvnwgKña mansRtÚvsYBUCrYmKñaKWBYkéf ehIyKMnuMrYmenHÉgbegáIt)anCamenaseBa©tnaCatirYmmYy 156 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 159. 157Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa EdleFVI[eKrYbrYmKña)anenAeBlNamansnþiPaBnwgKña ebIehacNas;k¾mYydgmYykalEdr kalNaeK maneKalbMNgrYmKñaEtmYy CaBiesskñúúgkarsþar nigksagRbeTseLIgvij ebIeTaHCafa TMnas;)an bnSl;nUvkarxUcxatCaeRcIn k¾eday. RBHraCaTwkdIsuvNÑPUmiGgÁNak¾eday minfaRTg;manQamC½rCaGVI eT KWsuT§EtCasRtÚvnwgBYkéf b¤esom TaMgGs; ehIyEtgEteFVIs®gÁamCamYyBYkéfenHCanic© minEdl manesþcGgÁNa EdlERskrt;rkCMnYyBIéfmþgNaeT20 . 55-- RRbbeeTTssmm::aaeeLLssuuII Baküfa m:aeLsuI Edl´eRbIenH sMedAykbNþaRsukTaMgGs;EdlmanBYkm:aeL b¤GñkRsukEdl sßitenAeRkamkarRtÜtRtarbs;BYkm:aeLrs;enA ehIyenAeBlenH ´nwgelIkEtGMBIT§iBlEdlBYkenH manmkelINÐÚcinb:ueNÑaH. TwkdIm:aeLsuIrYmman ekaHs‘Um:aRtaEdlCaRbPBedImrbs;BYkm:aeL/ ekaHCVa CaekaHEdlBYkenHdeNþIm)anmuneK/ ekaHtUc²EdlenACuMvij]bTVIbb‘½reNGU ehIynigeTobekaHm:aLaka EdlBYkRkic nigLataMgsÁal;eRkameQµaHfa EQsUENsmas. ´min)anrab;bBa©ÚlpgeTnUvBYkcam EdlCabcäajatirbs;BYkenH ehIyEdl´)anerobrab;ehIyBIxagelIrYcmkehIy. eyIgKµanBt’manGMBITwkdITaMgGs;enHkalBIsm½yburaNeT. manEtBYkcinb:ueNÑaH Edl)an sresrBt’manxøH²GMBIRsukenHmuneK eRkABIenHeyIgesÞIrEtmindwgGVITal;EtesaHmunstvtSr_TI13. EtBt’manrbs;BYkcinenaHeTotesatk¾cEmøkxøaMgNas;Edr eRBaHQµaHEdleKdak;[tamGkSrcinPaK eRcIn minGackMNt;rkeXIj mindwgRsukNaCaRsukNaeT. karsikSaEdlGñkR)aCJmYycMnYn)aneFVI Ca Biess elIRsukenHk¾minc,as; smµtikmµEdlBImuneKTTYlsÁal;faRtwmRtÚv LÚvenHEbrCafaxuseTA vij. ´nwgxitxMelIkykmkniyayenAeBlenHEtGMBIGVIEdlR)akdRbCa edIm,Ibgðaj[eXIjfa BiPB m:aeLenaHdUcemþc ehtuGVIk¾KµanGVI[rwgmaM GñkRsukCaBYkecarsmuRT b:uEnþmantYnaTImYysMxan;enAkñúgRbvtþi sa®sþrbs;NÐÚcin ebIniyayGMBINÐÚcinRtÚvEtniyayGMBIBYkenHpgEdr. ekaHs‘Um:aRtamaneQµaHdUecñHedaysarraCFanIEdlmaneQµaHsmuRT³.BImuneKehAfaekaHCVaFM 20 sBVéf¶enH BYkeb:háan)anRtÚveKkemÞc bM)ak;exÞcxÞI b¤k¾rlaycUlCamYyBYkb‘Írm:anGs;ehIy GñkEdlenAsl;rs; rebobCaCnbreTsenAelITwkdIrbs;xøÜn b¤CaRkúmCnKµansarsMxan; elIkElgEtBYkEdl)anePosxøÜnmkenARsukesom manRbmaNCa10muWnnak;b:ueNÑaH.
  • 160. ÉekaHCVasBVéf¶CaCVatUc. BYkhiNÐÚehAfaCVaTVIb Edl´KitfaCaeQµaHcas;CageKTaMgGs;. EtGñkRsuk m:aeLxøÜnÉg nigGñkRsukCitxag)anehAekaHenHfa taNasm:aLayU mann½yfa TwkdIBYkm:aeL. R)akd Nas;faekaHTaMgGs;enHKµaneQµaHGVI[c,as;las;eTkalBIsm½ybuerRbvtþieRBaHdUc´)anCRmabBIxag elIrYcmkehIy eK[eQµaHRsukmYyeTAtamEtraCaNacRkEdl)ankekIteLIgb:ueNÑaH. CYnkal vaGacnwgfa karEdleKehAfaCVaFM nigCVatUcy:agenH KWGaRs½yeTAtameQµaHraCaNacRkEdlxøaMgCag eK GacvatGMNaceTAelIraCaNacRkÉeTot²)an b:uEnþniyaydUecñHvahak;dUcCaTUlMTUlayeBk. eKTTYlsÁal;fa ekaHCVaFM b¤s‘Um:aRta CaRsukedImrbs;BYkm:aeL b¤m:aLayU. eKniyayfa BYk m:aeL)anecjBIekaHenHeTAdeNþImykekaHCVarYcykRbCuMekaHesELbnigeTobekaHm:aLakaCaTIEdl eK)anCYbCamYyviRbCamanCatisasn_Rbhak;RbEhlnwgeK KWBYkmn ehIybnÞab;mk)anCYbCamYy GñkRsukedImCaGñksagnKrhVÚNn EdleRkaymkkøayCakm<úCa nigesom. BYkm:aeL)antaMgTIlMenA enARKb;TisTI ehIyebIsinCa´minRcLMeT KWenAeBleRkayBIkartaMgTI lMenAenHrYcehIyEdlBYkenH)ane)aHbg;ecalkareKarBbUCaduMfµnigCIdUnCItaEbrmkkan;RBhµBaØsas- navij EdlCasasnamYyeKarBbUCaGaTieTBtMNagedayrUbbdima enArvagqñaM70énRKisþskraC enAeBlEdlmanBYkNÐaRbmaN2muWnRKÜsarmkrs;enAlayLMCamYynwgBYkeK. edaymanTMnak;TMng Cab;CamYybNþaTwkdIcMNuHrbs;eK BYkCVaRBahµN_TaMgenaHk¾taMgnaMykCMenOfµIenHmkpSBVpSayEdr dUc Edlbcäajatirbs;eKnwgeFVIenA12stvtSr_eRkaymk eBlpSBVpSayc,ab;mham:at;. tamemIleTA BYkm:aeL cab;kan;RBhµBaØsasnaenAkñúgsm½yEtmYydUcKña. eday)anrkSaTMnak;TMngCaRbcaMCamYyNÐaPaKxagt,Úg CaTIkEnøgEdlRBhµBaØsasnamankar rIkceRmInxøaMgCagPaKxageCIg BYkm:aeLmanCMenOsasnamutmaMNas;. Cak;EsþgdUcCaenAnKrcam:,a EdlCaGaNaniKmm:aeLmYyEdrenaH eKeXIjfaBYk®sþI²EtgEtelatcUlkñúgePøIgEdleKbUCasVamI edIm,IsMEdgPkþIPaB RBmCamYyenaHk¾manTmøab;mYyeTotEdl´KitfaRbEhlCamanedImkMeNItecjBI BYkm:aeLvij KWesnaTaMgLaysuxcitþbUCaxøÜnenAkñúgePøIgEdleKdutemekay EdlBYkeKFøab;beRmI. nKrhVÚNn nKrcam:,a Rsukesom ehIynigeTobekaHm:aLaka TaMgGs;KñaenHmanTMenomTmøab;min sUvxusKñaeT. ÉksarRbvtþisa®sþrbs;cink¾)aneFVIkarkt;smÁal;eXIjy:agenHEdr. ´Kitfa Tmøab; EdleKeRbIenAkñúgraCvaMgesþc BiFIkarepSg² karerobcMcat;taMgraCvaMg c,ab;Tmøab;sRmab;RbCara®sþ Gnuvtþ nigkartubEtgTaMgLay mankarxusEbøkBIKñatictYcNas; BIeRBaHfarebobrbbTaMgGs;enaH eKcmøgecjBINÐaTaMgGs;Kña ehIymñak;²Edlkan;RBhµBaØsasnadUcKña xitxMeFVIRtab;y:agNa[)an 158 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 161. 159Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa dUcBYkhiNÐÚCam©as;edIménsasna. dUcEdleK)aneXIjBIxagelIrYcmkehIyfa Baküvrµ½n mann½yfa GñkkarBar EdleKeRbIP¢ab;eTAnwgRBHnamRBHraCaenAhVÚNn nigeRkaymkenAkm<úCa manedImkMeNIt ecjmkBINÐa eRbIdUecñHedaysnþtivgSbløv³ nigsnþtivgSmYycMnYneTot ehIyRBHraCacam:,a CVa nig s‘Um:aRta k¾)anykBaküenHmkdak;lm¥RBHnamCaPasasM®sáwt EdlRTg;TTYlykenAéf¶GPieskdUc KñaEdr. ´segáteXIjfaeTobekaHm:aLakamin)anGnuvtþtamTmøab;enHeT ehIyRBHraCarbs;eKminman RBHnamfavrµ½nEdr. cMNucRtg;enH eKKYrKitfa rhUtmkdl;stvtSr_TI13 muneBlEdlTwkdIrbs;eTob ekaHTaMgmUlFøak;eTAkñúgkarRKb;RKgrbs;raCaNacRkm:aLakaenAqñaM1252rYceRkaymkenAeRkamkar RKb;RKgrbs;BYkesom eTobekaHenHRKan;EtCaRsukmYyenAcMNuHnKrhVÚNnb:ueNÑaH ehIytamFmµta esþccMNuHminsmnwgmanzan³esµI esþcGFiraCeT. eyIg)ansÁal;eQµaHRsukTaMgGs;enH edaysar BYkcinEdlehAxusBIeQµaHedImehIyk¾min)anbBa¢ak;GMBITItaMg[)anc,as;las;pgEdrCaehtueFVI[man karlM)aknwgkMNt;TItaMg[)anRtwmRtÚvNas;. BYkcinerobrab;famanRsukmYy maneQµaHfa TYnsuIyun enAcugstvtSr_TI5 dwknaMedayKYnelVn ¬KULúg¦mñak; KWKrug/ Rkúg mann½yfa esþc GñkRsukmansk; Rkjaj;sm,úrexµA.Rsukpanpan21 BaküenHGacCazan³rbs;RBHraCaGñkGgÁm©as;b¤k¾rbs;m®nþI.Rsuk Lagy:aesov ¬RbEhlKWetNas;esrIm¦ niyayPasamndUcpanpanEdr PasaenHmanGm,ÚrCamYy PasaExµr22 . RsukLÚEy EdlGñkniBn§cinmñak;niyayfa enAx½NÐBIRsukExµredaysmuRTtUcmYy ¬QUg smuRTesom¦tamemIleTAKWekdah_.RsukhVÚeqenAcugxagt,ÚgéneTobekaHEtenAxagelIekaHsigðburI. eekkaaHHss‘‘UUmm::aaRRttaa ³³ enAstvtSr_TI5énRKisþskraC eKsÁal;ekaHenHtameQµaHm:aeLfa taNas m:aLayUmann½yfaTwkdIBYkm:aeLÉeQµaHtamPasasM®sáwtfaCVaTVIb.enAeBleRkaymkekaHenHman 21 elakvresnIy_ehSrInIKitfaTYnsuIyunRbEhlCasßitenAcenøaHm:ata)annigsuexaT½yehIyfapanpanenAxagelI TYnsuIyun cenøaHPñMtav:y nigTwkdIGyuFüa. kar):an;sµandUecñHGacRtwmRtÚv k¾b:uEnþebIy:agenHraCaNacRkTaMg2 nig Lagy:aesov minsßitenAkñúgeTobekaHm:aLakaeT. 22 elak EBlIy:U )anBnül;fa BYkmn nigBYkExµrenH)anRtÚvEbkKñaedaysarkarhUrcuHmkénBYkéf EdleFVI[BYkeKdac; TMnak;TMngCamYyKña.sUmGanÉksarrbs;Kat;maneQµaHfaDeux itinéraires de Chine en Inde EdlcuHenAkñúgRBwtþbRtsala )araMgcugbUB’a.
  • 162. eQµaHfa RsIePaC³ EdltamemIleTAKWCaeQµaHEdlCaeKehAtameQµaHraCaNacRkNamYy EdlxøaMg BUEk GacvatGMNaceTAelInKrCitxag)an ehIycinehAminc,as;faeclIhVÚeq. ekaHd¾FMenHmanrdæTaMg Gs;cMnYn29. rdæEdlFMCageKKW):alwm)agEdlRbEhlCamaneQµaHfaRsIePaC³enaHÉgehIyEdlGñkRsuk eRkAKitfalatsn§wgelIekaHTaMgmUl.rdæenHmantYnaTIsMxan;Nas;kalBIGtItkal23 .esþcrbs;nKr enH)anGHGagfa eKCab;ExSRsLayCamYyRBHecAGFiraCGaLicsg;LWRkg; Edl)anTMnak;TMngesñha Ca mYybuRtIrbs;esþcKIdahiNÐIEdlc,aMgcaj; manraCbuRtmYyRBHGgÁRBHnamfaGasÞÚn CaRBHraCa mYyGgÁmuneKkñúgcMeNamRBHraCahiNÐÚEdll,Il,aj.RBHraCaEdll,Il,ajCageKKWRBH)aTs‘UErm. esþcenHmanbcäajatimYyGgÁRBHnamfasg;saBY)a¬b¤esEB)a¦RTg;)anyagmkKg;enAsmuRT³enAelI PñMsaKuntagmhamIrU CaPñMskþisiT§irbs;BYkm:aeL bnÞab;mk )anyagmkKg;enA):alwm)agvij. RBHGgÁ CaemsnþtivgSénraCam:aeLTaMgGs; EdlesayraCüenA):alwm)ag enAemNagkabU ):ahÁarUy:ug mC):a hIt enACVa b‘íntag sigðburI m:aLaka ehIyebIsinCaeKeCOtamerOgeRBg RTg;k¾Caemrbs;snþtivgScin mYyEfmeTot Edl)anerobGaBah_BiBah_CamYyRBHnagRsIeTvI CabuRtI rbs;RBH)aTsg;saBY)a. esþc):alwm)agk¾dUcCaesþcm:aeLTaMgLayEdrEtgEtelIkraCvgS[esayraCüenAnKrenHnKr enaH ebIBuMenaHeTelIkkSRtIfVayesþcenH b¤esþcenaH Canic©. Cak;EsþgdUcCaesþcmC):ahIt Edl)an erobGaBah_BiBah_CamYyRBHnagQ®nÞeTvI CaRBHGanuCesþcRsukcin ehIymanGaBah_BiBah_ CaeRcIn eTot EdlrwtcMNgemRtIPaBekIteLIgehIyenH [kan;EtRbesIreLIgEfmeTot. manbcäajatirbs;esþcsg;saBY)amYyGgÁ)anksagraCFanICaeRcIn.RBHraCbuRtrbs;RBHGgÁ RBHnamfasg;nILaG‘Utam:abnÞab;BIesayraCüenAebntam)anksagraCFanIsigðbur³enAÉnKrtam:asak; b¤Fmµsk³ ehIyRTg;CaRBHraCaTImYyEdlmanRBHnamfa RsIRtIPUvn³. BYkcinEdl)anmkkan;):alwm)ag taMgBIqñaM670énRKisþskraCrhUtmk )ancat;TuknKrenHfa CanKrxøaMgBUEkCageKTaMgGs;kñúgtMbn;enH.enAkñúgqñaM720RBHraCa):alwm)agmYyGgÁ)anyagkat;mux 160 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 23 enAstvtSr_TI6 rdæenHmaneQµaHfakNÐrI ehIyenAstvtSr_TI10 cinehAfasanhVÚTSI ¬sMePaC³¦. eBlFøak;kñúgkar QøanBanrbs;BYkCVaenAkñúgqñaM1397 BYkenHdak;eQµaH[faKavküg; ¬KUkag¦. sm½yenaH BYkGar:ab;ehARsukenHfa Es‘bUy:a.
  • 163. 161Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa bUCnIeysk_cineQµaH yItSúIg RTg;)aMgkøs;CaeRcInCan; ehIyKg;enAkñúgbus,úkeFVIGMBImas elIERKeFVIGMBI masEdr. raCFanIrbs;RBHGgÁCaraCFanIrbs;ekaHCVaFM CaTImCÄmNÐlBaNiC¢kmµCamYybreTsd¾ sMxan;. tamemIleTAekaHs‘Um:aRtaeBlenaHsßitenAeRkamT§iBlrbs;):alwm)ag ehIyCasm,úk mnusSd¾FMmYy EdlCaRbPBedIménBYkGñkEdl)anmkdeNþImyknKrcam:,a nigtaMgTIlMenAdMbUg² enA km<úCaenAbNþaekaHm:aeLsuITaMgLayrYcsayPayeTAeBjRbCuMekaHTaMgmUlnig]bTVIbm:aLakapgEdr. eekkaaHHCCVVaa³³BYkNÐaehAekaHCVafaCVaTVIbEdlcinehAtamEtminc,as;eTACaqUb:U/QUb:Ub¤TUb:U24 .enA sm½yCamYyKñanwg):alwm)agenaH manrdæmYyEdlRtÜtRtaelIkSRtRbeTscMnYn18epSgeTotenAelI ekaHenaH KWrdæmC):ahIt mkBIeQµaHedImeQImYyedImKW mC³ nigEpøEdlmanrs;CatilVIg ¬):ahIt¦. eK mindwgfa rdæenHcab;kekIteLIgBIeBlNamkeT. enAstvtSr_TI13rdæenHmanraCFanIfµIEdlhak;dUcCamaneQµaHfamCbhIt³sßitenAelImat;Tenø ekDIrI enAkNþaléRBém:sak;d¾FMmYy. mansMENsesssl;rbs;raCFanIenHsBVéf¶enAelIdICaeRcIn Ban;Em:Rtkaer: EdlCakarbBa¢ak;fa KWCardæd¾xøaMgBUEkmYy kalBIsm½yenaH. vahak;dUcCakarBitEdlfaTIRkúgenHmaneQµaHfa CVa muneBlEdl)anRtÚvksageLIgvij eday esþcviC½y. KWCaTIRkúgFMCageKenAelIekaHenH CaehtueFVI[eKehAekaHTaMgmUlfaCVadUecñHEdr taMgEtBI muneBlEdl)anvatGMNaceTAelIkSRtRbeTsÉeTot²emø:H. manGñkxøH)anGHGagEfmeTotfa ekaH enHBImunmaneQµaHfa hUlIg b¤kligÁ dUceQµaH rdækligÁ enANÐaG‘ÍcwgEdr EdlCakarbBa¢ak;rwtEtc,as; EfmeTotfa enHCaGaNaniKmmYyrbs;BYkhiNÐÚ mkBIkligÁ. erOgehtuGacekItmany:agenHEmn Et´ Kitfa BYkGñkeFVIdMeNIrtamnavamkdl;ekaHCVaetagEtehAekaHenHeTAtamTIRkúgEdleK)ancuHct ehIy kligÁ/ CVa nigmCbhIt³ GacCakMBg;EpnavabnþbnÞab;EdlmanBaNiC¢kmµsMxan;CageK. edayehtuenH ekaHenHk¾RtÚveKehAfaCVadUecñHeTA ehIyBYkbreTsehA nigsresreQµaHeTAtamGkSreK BYkhiNÐÚehA fa hUlIg b¤kligÁ ÉBYkcinehAfa qUb:U.l. CaedIm. ebIeTaHCay:agNakþI eKminGackMNt;eBlénkarksagTIRkúgmCbhIt³muncugstvtSr_TI12 )aneT. b:uEnþ´dUcCaecHEtenAcg;kMNt;kalbriecäTenaHeTABIrstvtSr_mun KW[RtÚvnwgsm½ykalvIr 24 ExµreyIgehAfaekaHCVaRsukCVanKrCVa.
  • 164. burssuInEbd rbs;GñkniBn§Gar:ab; nigEBkS b:uEnþKµanmUlehtuRKb;RKan;. mYyryqñaMeRkaymk RBHecAGFiraCcinKUb‘ÍéLxan;)anbBa¢ÚnT½BmYykg[mksgswknwgkar Rbmafrbs;esþcmCbhIt³mkelIraCTUtcin. T½BcinvayT½BCVaQñHmundMbUgenARtg;dIsNþs‘Ur:a)ay:a Ek,rmat;BamTenøekDIrI. bnÞab;mk)antammkvayrhUtdl;kMEpgraCFanImCbhIt³ dutbMpøajRsukexÞc xÞI EtdeNþImykraCFanImin)an k¾Rtlb;eTAvijeTAeBl4ExeRkay. RBwtþikarN_enHekIteLIgenAkñúg qñaM1293. karcaj;édcinenHmin)aneFVI[raCaNacRkCVacuHexSayeT BIeRBaHeyIgeXIjbnÞab;mkfa BYkenH)anecjmkvayEpñkGaeKñy_ekaHs‘Um:aRta deNþImykraCaNacRk):asIdak;CacMNuHenAedIm stvtSr_TI14. mankarbBa¢ak;c,as;fa rhUtdl;muncugstvtSr_TI14 rdæmCbhIt³enH)anvatGMNaceTAelI raCaNacRkcMnYn18 EdlsßitenAelIekaHEk,r²ekaHCVa eTAelIraCaNacRkcMnYn8enAelIekaHb‘½reNGU nigeTAelIraCaNacRk3eTotenATisxagekIt enAkñúgRbCMuekaHhVIlIBIn. RBHraCaCVa minGacrkSardæd¾eRcInTaMgGs;enHenAeRkamkarRtÜtRtarbs;xøÜn)anyUrb:unµaneT b:uEnþ eKeXIjfa enAstvtSr_TI14manRBHraCamYyGgÁ)ancab;epþImeFVIs®gÁamCamYyraCaNacRk):asI rYc)anvaykemÞchSmb‘I nig):alwm)ageBleFVIdMeNIrRtlb;mkvij RBmTaMg)annaMykBYkeQøIyswk mkdak; enAelIekaHCVa EfmeTotpg. gb;gulnwgC½yCmñHenAelIekaHs‘Um:aRta RBHraCaGgÁenaHk¾cab;epþImeFVIkarvaydeNþImykkSRt RbeTsTaMg29xagelI RBmTaMg)anvaydeNþImykkSRtRbeTsÉkraC5eTot dak;CacMNuH. RBHGgÁ )anksagsMeBA600 manT½B nigGavuFyuT§PNÐRKb;RKan; eRkamkarbBa¢arbs;]tþmesnIy_3rUb. kñúg s®gÁamxagelI RTg;RbmUl)anC½yPNÐCaeRcIn rhUtdl;RbvtþiviTUrbs;):asI huIkay:utr:aCa ¬r:aCa):asI¦ niyayfa minGacKNna)an. s®gÁamvatGMNacenH )aneFVI[esþcmCbhIt³ mankitþiname)aHsMeLgCaxøaMg enAkñúgcMeNam RBHraCadéTeTot Edlcab;bBa¢ÚnsYysarGakrd¾eRcInelIslb;mkfVay ehIymCbhIt³ k¾køayCa {TIkEnøgEdlmanmnusSmñaeFVIdMeNIreTAmkBIRsukcMNuHtdac;}. raCFanImCbhIt³)anrIkFM manRbCa CneRcIn sm,Úrsb,ay {B¤EtsMeLgsÁrKgeXµaHbnøWlayLMCamYysMeLg]bkrN_t®nþIÉeToty:ag BIeraHrg¿}. GñkRbvtþiviTU)anbnþeTotfa{eKeXIjmanEl,g nigTsSnIyPaBEbøk²CaeRcIn dUcCaelçan sil,ésy elçantukáta nadükmµ)aMgmux ceRmógCaRkúm nigRkúmesokd¾buinRbsb;. manbuNüTaMgyb; TaMgéf¶ mðÚbGahark¾minxVH maneTscrmkBIRKb;TisTIcUlmkTsSna}. 162 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 165. 163Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa ))::aassII ³³ enAedImstvtSr_TI12 TIRkúgmYyenAcugxageCIgekaHs‘Um:aRtamaneQµaHfa sam:aLg;. TIRkúgenHCaraCFanIrbs;raCaNacRktUcmYyEdlCardæcMNuH):alwm)ag. manRBHraCa2GgÁ Cabgb¥Ún Edl)anksagTIRkúgenHeLIg RBHraCaenaHkan;sasnatamBYkGar:ab; RbEhledaysasnaenaH CasasnaeFVIs®gÁamRbqaMgBYkk,t; nigRbEhledaysarBYkGar:ab;Edl)aneFVIdMeNIrmkdl;TIenaH niyayEtGMBIcm,aMgvatTwkdI EdlBYksasnikeFVIcab;BIcugEpndIxaglic rhUtmkdl;smuRTbwgháal;. BYkGñkRsukk¾)ancUlsasnaGar:ab;enH dUcCaRBHraCaeKEdr. dUcenH raCaNacRkenHKWCaraCaNacRk TI1 Edlkan;sasnamham:at;. manm®nþImñak;eQµaH m:ar:asuIlU EdlRtÚveKbeNþjecjBInKrsam:aLg; )anmktaMgTIlMenA enAnwg PUmitUcmYy maneQµaHfa b‘ULÚetLúg. eKniyayfam®nþIenaH)ankøayxøÜnCaemecarsmuRTd¾kacsahav manRTBüsm,tþihUrehorEtcitþTUlayBUEkeFVIcm,aMgnigmanl,iceRcIn.GñkRsukenATIenaH)anelIkm®nþI enaH[eFVICaesþc ksagraCFanImYyfVay nigelIktemáIgRBHraCaGgÁenHdUcCabNþas‘ultg; rbs; sam:aLg;G‘ÍcwgEdr.RBHGgÁ)anRbkan;ykRBHzan³Cas‘ultg;sumuRT³enAqñaM1250.RBHraCaGgÁenH )aneFVIs®gÁamRbkbeTAedayC½yCmñHCajwkjab; CamYys‘ultg; sam:aLg; CaehtueFVI[eKxøacrGa RBHGgÁRKb;KñaenAkñúgtMbn;. KWenAeBlenaHehIyEdlRTg;)anksagraCFanI):asIeLIg cUlkan;sasnaGuIsøam ehIye)aHbg; ecalRBHzan³m:ar:asuIlU edayRbkan;ykRBHzan³CaemLwkEGlsaeLsvij. RTg;)andak;eQµaH[ raCFanIsumuRT³fa sumuRT³daEGlsaLaM mann½yfa {sumuRT³CaTIsMNak;snþiPaB} BIeRBaHfa GñkRsuk )anbþÚrcUlkan;sasnaGuIsøamedaymincaM)ac;mankarbgçitbgç¿25 . RBHGgÁ)anerobGaBah_BiBah_CamYy buRtIRBHraCa EBrLak; ehIymanraCbuRtmYyGgÁKW emLikEGlsaEh‘ EdlesayraCübnþBIRBHGgÁ)an b:unµanqñaM k¾suKtteTA bnSl;TukraCbuRta2GgÁ[enACamYy RBHGyüekaemLikEGlsaeLs mYyKW emLikEGlm:amUdmYyeTotKWemLikEGlm:g;sY.emLikEGlm:amUdeRkaymkCas‘ultg;esayraCüenA ):asI ÉemLikEGlm:g;sY Cas‘ultg;enAsumuRT³. 25 eQµaHEbbenHhak;dUcCakan;EtbBa¢ak;fakarbþÚrcUlkan;sasnaGuIsøamenAcugbUB’aenAbUB’anigenAbs©imRbeTsminEmn RbRBwtþeTAedaykarsµ½RKcitþenaHeT.
  • 166. raCaNacRkTaMg2mankitþinaml,IsuHsayeTARKb;TisTI ehIyenAkEnøgNak¾B¤EteKniyayGMBI s‘ultg;emLikEGlm:amUdnigemLikEGlm:g;sYfamanGMNacxøaMgkøasm,Úrsb,ayEdr.ehtukarN_enH )aneFVI[esþcesombBa¢ÚnT½BtameCIgTwkmYykgFMmkkan;sumuRT³ edIm,ITamTar[elIksYysarGakr eTA fVayedayRbkan;faCaRbeTscMNuHePøcbMeBjkatBVkic©EdltamemIleTAKWCasiT§iEdlmantBIRBHraCa km<úCamk.emLikEGlm:amUdRTg;eRkaFnwgGakb,kiriyarbs;esomenHCaxøaMgehIy)anbBa¢a[vayeTA T½BesomEdleTIbnwgcuHdl;dI rYc[sagsg;kMEBgkarBarraCFanI. s®gÁammanry³eBlyUr EtTIbBa©b; m:amUd TTYlC½yCmñH smøab;T½Besom)anesÞIrEtTaMgGs; GñkxøHRtÚvGñkRsuksmøab; esssl;tictYcrt; eLIgsMeBARtlb;eTARsukvij. emRtIPaBrvagbgb¥ÚnTaMg2l¥Nas; rhUtdl;eBlmYyEdlemLikEGlm:g;sY eFVIdMeNIreTAkan; raCvaMgrbs;bgEtemLikEGlm:amUdminenARbeTHeXIjnarIs¥atmñak;edIrecjmkKYrRslaj;k¾cab;yk eTA. m:amUdxwgNas; k¾erobEpnkarsgswk edayeFVICaGeBa¢Ijm:g;sY[mkcUlrYmBiFIkat;Es,kGgÁCati buRta rYccab;ykeTAbMbrbg;elIekaHq¶aymYy. m:amUd)anyksumuRT³mkdak;CaTwkdIrbs;xøÜn. dl; eRkaymk m:amUd nwkeXIjGaNitb¥Ún sþaykMhus k¾bBa¢a[eKtameTAykb¥ÚnRtlb;mkvij b:uEnþ m:g;sY RtÚvsøab;tampøÚv.erOgenHrwtEteFVI[m:amUdmanvib,disarIxøaMgeLIgEfmeTotRTg;k¾dak;raCsm,tþifVay RBHraCbuRtaRBHnamfa GaemdeTA. KWenAkñúgrC¢kalrbs;esþcGaemdenHÉg EdlesþcmCbhIt³)anbBa¢ÚnkgT½Bmkvayyk ):asI ehIydutbMpøajexÞcxÞI eFVI[rdæenHrlt;rlay)at;eTA min)anmYystvtSr_pgcab;BIeBlksagmk enA qñaM1250. b:unµanqñaMeRkaymk BYkcamenANÐÚcinEdlRtÚvBYkGaNÑamvay[braC½y )aneFVIdMeNIrmkkan; TwkdIRtg;enH begáItCamYyBYkm:aeLkñúgRsuk)anCardæGaeceLIg EdlmanGtßiPaBrhUtdl;qñaM1900. mm::aaLLaakkaa ³³ ry³kalyUreRkaymkesþcmCbhIt³)anvaydeNþImyksigðburIEdlsagnILaG‘Uta m:a )anksageLIgkalBIeRcInstvtSr_mun ehIymansah_26 GuIság;EDrkMBugEtesayraCü. tamBit 164 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 26 Bakü sah_ enHCaBakü EBkS køaymkBIBaküsM®sáwtkSRtiy³ bBa¢ak;fa GñkEdleFVI[tMbn;enHEbreTAkan;sasna GuIsøamvij KWBYkEBkS b¤BYkm:ugehÁal mkBINÐa.
  • 167. 165Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa raCFanI )anRtÚvFøak;eTAkñúgédsRtÚvdUecñHedaymkBImanm®nþIk,t; KWebndahar:asg;r:g;CUnta):a eRBaHxwg nwgRBHraCaEdl)ansmøab;buRtIrbs;xøÜnCaGKÁmehsI y:agefakTabbMput edayRTg;ecaTfa RBHCaya bM)ak;muxRBHGgÁ k¾sgswkedayebIkéd[sRtÚvcUlmk. GuIság;EDreKcxøÜnrYc)anePosRBHkayCamYyRBHraCvgSnigesnaPIelogeTAKg;enAÉm:UGarYceTA kUtab‘UrU eTAsg;hÁg;G‘UhSúg TIbBa©b; eTAKg;enAelImat;Tenøbg;taM EdlRTg;yl;faq¶ayputBIédBYkCVa ehIy k¾cat;[ksagraCFanIhSakULaeLIgenAkñúgRKisþskraC1375RtÚvnwgmhaskraC1297.raCFanI enH eRkaymkKW m:aLaka27 . enAeBlTTYl)andMNwgGMBIkarksagraCFanIfµIenH GñkRsukCaeRcInEdlePosxøÜnecjrYcBIsigðburI putBIkarsmøab;rgÁal¬manmnusSCag4muWnnak;RtÚveKsmøab;¦)annaMKñart;BBak;BBUnmkrs;enAeFVI[ekIt CaraCaNacRktUcmYyRbkbeTAedayRbCaCnGg;Gachankøa eRBaHsuT§CaGñkpSgeRBg CaGñkmankMhwg QWcab; EdlePosxøÜneKcBIkarkab;smøab;rbs;BYkCVa. raCFanIfµIenHmanTItaMgl¥ KWsßitenAelIRckd¾ ceg¥óténsmuRTm:aLaka enAcMBImuxekaHr:U):at;. raCFanIenHbnÞab;mk)ankøayCaTIkEnøgsRmak nigpÁt; pÁg;es,ógsRmab;BYkGñkefµIrsmuRTEdlecjcUlCajwkjab;. RBHraCaEdlesayraCübnþBIGuIság;EDrbnÞab;TI3 KWektCitebsa eLIgesayraCüenAqñaM1276 )anERbcUlkan;sasnaGuIsøamehIydUreQµaHeTACas‘ultg;mhaemdsah_vij.eBlenaHGñkRsukTaMg Gs;TenÞjcaMmat;nUvrUbmnþBIrXøa{KµanGaTieTBdéTeTotNaeRkABIGaTieTBEdlmanEtmYyKt;KµanGñkNa RbdUc ehIymhaemdCa´beRmI nigCaGñknaMsarrbs;RBHGgÁ}. edayehtuenHm:aLaka)ansßitenACa raCaNacRkkan;sasnaGuIsøamGs;kald¾xøI enAkNþalrdætUc²CaeRcInEdlkan;RBhµBaØsasna. enAeBlenaHs®gÁam)anRtÚvRbkaseLIgeTAelIBYkRbqaMgehIyTwkdIEdlsßitenAxagekItm:aLa- ka rhUtdl;smuRTesomk¾RtÚv)andeNþImdak;CacMNuH rYmman):ahag/ eRtghÁanU/ rYcRbCuMekaHligÁ³ nig RbCuMekaHebntag EdlBImunCaTwkdIcMNuHesþcsigðburI )ann½yfaRKb;RKgedaybuBVbursrbs;s‘ultg; m:aLaka. eyIg)aneXIjBIxagelIrYcmkehIyfa esþcesom)anTamTarfaxøÜnmansiT§iGFiraCPaBelIraCa NacRk):asI enAxageCIgekaHs‘Um:aRta dUecñHvac,as;Nas;fa eKrwtEtmansiT§ixøaMgNas;eTAeTotmkelI 27 Baküm:aLaka enH CaeQµaHrukçCatimYyedIm KW emblica officinalis.
  • 168. eTobekaHm:aLakaEdltamemIleTAGnutþrPaBenHbnþBIGFiraCPaBrbs;esþckm<úCamk.esþcesommYy GgÁEdlRbvtþisa®sþraCaNacRkm:aLakaehAfab‘U)anIy:a28 edaymanbMNgcg;ykraCaNacRkfµIenH dak;eRkamkarRtÜtRta )anbBa¢ÚnT½BmYykg[mkvay eRkambBa¢arbs;rdæm®nþIxags®gÁam. EtT½BenH RtÚvesþcm:aLakavay[braC½y ehIyT½BEdlbBa¢ÚnmkelIkTI2eRkambBa¢arbs;eteCaesom k¾RtÚv braC½yEdr EfmTaMgRtÚvedjvayRbharrhUtdl;cugeTobekaH. cab;BIeBlenaHmk esþcesomk¾ e)aHbg;KMnitcg;)anraCaNacRkenHEdlecHkarBarxøÜn)any:agBUEk ehIyeKk¾ElgeXIjmanT½Besom cUlmkeTotEdr. enAedImstvtSr_TI14 s‘ultg;EdlesayraCübnþBIs‘ultg;enHmaneQµaHfa m:g;sYsa RTg;)an eFVIs®gÁamdeNþImyk):ahagEdlRbEhlCa)anerIbRmHrYcBInwmRtÜtRtarbs;m:aLaka ehIyEdlkal enaHsßitenAeRkamkardwknaMrbs;mharaCeTv³suriya Casac;sarelahitb¤k¾CaesþcsamnþraCrbs; esþcesom. m:g;sYsa)annaMmharaCenHCaeQøIyykmkkan;m:aLakaCamYyraCvgSTaMgGs; bnÞab;mk k¾)anerobGaBah_BiBah_CamYybuRtIRss;s¥atRBHnamfa vNagRsI. GaBah_BiBah_enHeFVI[esom nigm:aLakaxiteTACitrkKña eRBaHbnþiceRkaymks‘ultg;m:aLaka )anbBa¢ÚnraCTUtmYyeTAkan;GyuFüa ehIydUcEdlelak m:arI )anniyayG‘Ícwg sm<½n§emRtI nigmitþPaB )anekItmaneLIgrvagraCaNacRkesomd¾manGMNacCamYynwgrdætUcm:aLaka KWrdæmYykan;RBHBuT§ sasnardæmYyeTotkan;sasnaGuIsøam. b:unµanqñaMeRkaymk s‘ultg;)anerobGaBah_Bibah_CamYybuRtIesþcmCbhIt³ RBHnag r:aDin hÁaLac®nÞekr:aNaehIy)anTTYlCacMNgédnUvraCaNacRk®nÞKirI/esogtagnig):alwm)agEdlsßit enAelIekaHs‘Um:aRta b¤ekaHCVaFM. tamemIleTAnKrTaMg4minTan;ERbeTAkan;sasnaGuIsøamenAeLIy eRBaHfaeQµaH ®nÞKirI k¾dUcCaeQµaHrbs;nKrRBHnagkSRtI minEmnCaeQµaHtamPasaGar:ab;eT. enAeBlRtlb;mkkan;nKrvij s‘ultg;m:aLaka )anelIkbuRtIRBHGgÁ[eTARBHraCa®nÞKirI eFVICa mehsI. eKniyayfa sUm,IEtesþcRsukcinEdl)anGHGagfaCab;ExSRsLayCamYyRBHecAGFiraC GaLicsg;LWRkg; k¾R)afñacgsm<½n§emRtICamYys‘ultg;m:aLakaEdr Cak;EsþgKWRTg;)anelIkRBHraCbuRtI RBHnamhuglIb:UfVay EdlEhhmeTAedayraCTUt nigPIelogRsIRbúscMnYn500nak; suT§EtCakUn Gs; 166 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 28 etICaBakü {Bja} b¤?
  • 169. 167Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa BYknamuWnsBVmuxm®nþIBYkenHeRkaymkbegáIt)anCaGaNaniKmcinenAb‘UKitéqNa¬PñMcin¦EdleRbób)an eTAnwgPñMm:ugm:aRtmYyenAm:aLaka. edayRBHkSRtIRTg;yl;RBmcUlsasnaGuIsøam esþc s‘ultg; k¾ TTYlerobkareFVICamehsIeTA. enAsm½yCamYyKñaenaH sg;GaCI b¤esþcb‘½reNGUk¾)ancuHsn§isBaØamitþPaBCamYys‘ultg; m:aLakaEdr Edl)ankøayeTACamhaGMNacxøaMgkøamYy. RTg;)anseRmccitþkm©at;emecarsmuRTd¾ sahavmñak; enAkñúgsmuRTxagt,Úg KWesþcm:g;kasa EdlEtgEtratt,atTwkdItammat;smuRTCVa esom sigðburI nigs‘Um:aRta. RTg;)anbBa¢ÚnT½BedjvayemecarsmuRTenaH ehIybgç¿[vadkfyecjeTAsm¶M enAkñúgRbeTsvavij. bnþiceRkaymkeTot RTg;)aneFVIcm,aMgCamYys‘ultg;):asI EdldeNþImraCsm,tþiBIRBHerom nigcab;deNþImTwkdIrdæepSg²eTotrbs;RBHGgÁ. s‘ultg;EdlesayraCübnþBIRBHGgÁKWRBHraCbuRtaRBHnamGaLaEGlDInr:ay:atsah_.RBHraCa GgÁenH )anvaykm©at;BYkecarEdlEtgEtmkqk;bøn;m:aLaka rYc)anvayb®gáabesþcharU:EdlecHEt mkratt,atmat;smuRTm:aLaka ehIycab;bgç¿[cuHsn§isBaØasnþiPaBmYy. raCbuRtrbs;GaLaEGlDInr:ay:atsah_ KWs‘ultg;m:amUdsah_ CamnusSxilxUc )anvayyk Rsukm:g;Cg/ eb:r:ak;29 nigkaLg;tg;dak;bBa©ÚlmkkñúgTwkdI EdleFVI[mankarPJak;ep¥IlCaxøaMg b:uEnþRbvtþiviTU m:aLaka niyayfa enHKWmkBIkaMePøIgEdlT½Bm:aLakamYycMnYnmankñúgéd GavuFTaMgGs;enaHBYkB½rTuyehÁ EdleTIbmanvtþmankñúgtMbn;)anfVay s‘ultg; CaGnusSavrIy_. enAsm½yenaHRbéBNIm:aLaka)anRsutcuHCaxøaMg manbBaðapitk,t;CaerOy² eFVI[GVI²l¥k;kkr Gs; ehIyerOgGs;enHekIteLIgmkBImanKMrUminl¥rbs;RBHraCa RBHerom nigRBHGnuC nigesnasBV muxm®nþI. manerOgcab;BRgt;®sþI nignarIral;yb; ehIyebIkuMEtmannaykrdæm®nþImñak;rwgmaM KWebndahar:a RsImharaCamWugm:at;kñúgkarRKb;RKgkic©karnKrmindwgCaRsukeBlenaHkøayCaGaRkk;y:agNaeTeRBaH RBHraCamin)anykRBHT½yTukdak;nwgdwknaMnKreTKitEtBIkarsb,ay.ebndahar:aenH)anrujRcanT½B RBHraCalIK½r Edlesþcesom)anbBa¢Ún[mkvayRbharTIRkúg):ahag [dkfyeTAvij rYc)ancab;bgç¿ GgÁm©as;esommñak; Edl)aneKcxøÜnmkksagkSRtRbeTs):atanI [dUrcUlkan;sasnaGuIsøam ehIy 29 CaPasaExµr KWR)ak;.
  • 170. dak;xøÜncMNuHs‘ultg;m:aLaka RBmTaMgbþÚreQµaHeTACa s‘ultg;Gaemdsah_ én ):atanI vij. ebndahar:a enH k¾)anENnaM[esþcekdah_ dak;xøÜnCacMNuH s‘ultg;m:aLaka pgEdr. edayrdæm:aLakasßitenAkñúgRckd¾ceg¥óténsmuRT ehIy)ankøayeTACaRckecjcUlénsMeBA smuRT CamCÄmNÐlBaNiC¢kmµd¾BiessmYy nigCaTIpSarmanskmµPaBy:agskmµenaH ehtukarN_enH )anTak;TajBYkB½rTuyehÁ[mankarcab;GarmµN_CaxøaMg. BYkenHmansMeBAFM² EdleFVIdMeNIrkat; smuRTEBkSsmuRTNÐabwgháal;eTAdl;PaKxagt,ÚgRsukcinnigRbeTsCb:unEfmeTot.m:aLakaeBl enaH manRbCaCn19muWnnak; kMBg;EpmansMeBAcUlctelIkdak;TMnij b¤pÁt;pÁg;es,ógmunnwgcakecj eTAvij minticCag20eRKÓgeTkñúg1éf¶² ¬TMnijmans<an;b¤kaLaCaedIm¦. KWCaTIRkúgénkarsb,ay EdleKykR)ak;RbmUl)anmkBIq¶aymkcajvaybMpøajkñúgbnEl,gb¤bnRsI.mansMeBAhiNÐÚEBkS m:aeL CVa esom eb:háan km<úCa cam cin mkBIRKb;TisTI ehIynaMykkitþinamTIRkúgsb,ayenHeTApSBV pSayRKb;TIkEnøgvij. Rsab;EtenARBwkmYy eBlRBHGaTitüeTIbEtrH mank):al;hVar:g;hÁI30 mYy )an bgðajxøÜneLIg enaHKWCak):al;rbs;BYkB½rTuyehÁ EdleFVI[mankarPJak;ep¥IlCaxøaMg EtbnÞab;mk embBa¢a kark):al;enaH)anRtÚvnaykrdæm®nþITTYly:agGFikGFm. embBa¢akark):al;TTYlsÁal;fa TIRkúgenH FM s¥at ehIysm,Úrsb,ay. embBa¢akark):al;enaH)anraykarN_CUnelak]tþmnavIB½rTuyehÁ elak Gal;b‘uyEKk enAeBlRtlb;eTadl;ekaHháÚGavij. edayyl;TIRkúgm:aLakaenH CaRckbiT nigebIkTVar eTAkan;cugbUB’aRbeTs elak]tþmnavI)anbBa¢a[elak hÁúghSalev:eb:ruIr:a dwknaMnavacm,aMg7eRKÓgmk vaydeNþImykTIRkúgenH.b:uEnþelakebndahar:aRsImharaC)anrujRcankarQøanBanenaH[dkecj eTAvij eFVI[BYkB½rTuyehÁdwgfa eKminGacdeNþImyk TIRkúgenaH)aneT drabNamanelaknaykrdæ m®nþI.b:unµanqñaMeRkaymkBYkeKRtlb;mkvaym:aLakamþgeToteRkayBIelakebndahar:a)anRtÚvRBH raCabBa¢a[eKsmøab;CamYynwgkUnRbúsRBmTaMgkUnRbsaeQµaH TYnGalI pg enAeBlEdlRBHGgÁ )an cab;bgç¿ykbuRtIelak ebndahar:a KWPriyarbs;TYnGalI eFVICamehsI. edays¥b;RBHraCa mehsIenH )an[qµbrMlUtkUnecjral;eBlEdlmanépÞeBaH. eRkaymk edayyl;fa ra®sþElgKaMRTRBHGgÁ 168 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 30 BaküenHCakarehAmincMnUvBaküRhVg; Franc eBalKWsMedAykBYkGWr:ub BIeRBaHcab;taMgBImans®gÁamdeNþImykTIRkúg esruysaLim BIBYkmuls‘uym:g; nigmankarbegáItrdæ):aeLsÞIn enAqñaM1099mk BYkGñkcugbUB’aRbeTssÁal;BYkGWr:ub dUecñH.
  • 171. 169Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa eTotehIy RTg;k¾)andak;raCsm,tþifVayRBHraCbuRtaeTA. RBHraCbuRtaenH fVIebIcUlcitþkarsb,aybnþicEmn EtRTg;Gg;GackøahanNas;. RTg;minbEg¥ bg¥g;eT KW)anbBa¢a[ekNÐT½B rYcRTg;cUlRbyuT§eRbóbdUcraCsIh_. karRbyuT§manry³eBl2éf¶ TIbBa©b; BYkB½rTuyehÁmaneRbóbCag31 . s‘ultg;Gah_emd RtÚvrbYs )aneKcRBHkaymundMbUgeTAenA ):akU rYc)anyageLIgsÞwgeTAKg;enA):aNarIhÁg; rYceRkayBIRBHbitayageTAdl; )anyageTA):ahag EdlCanKrsamnþraCmYy. eTAdl;TIenaH esþcTaMg2)anEckpøÚvKña m:amUdbnþeFVIdMeNIreTAkan;ekaH b‘Íntag É s‘ultg;Gah_emd CamYynwgraCbriBar )anksagTIRkúgkUeBh_eLIg. edayRtÚvnamuWnsBVmux m®nþI EdlEhhmmineBjcitþnwg s‘ultg; eRBaHGakb,kiriyaemIlgayemIlefakrbs;RBHGgÁ RBHbita )an[eKeFVIXats‘ultg;ecal ehIyRTg;)annaMraCbriBarmYycMnYnbnþdMeNIreTAksagraCaNacRk hSÚh‘r. CamYyKñaenaH RTg;)aneFVIkarRbyuT§CamYyBYkB½rTuyehÁbnþeTot. mYyryqñaMeRkaymk KWBIhSÚh‘r nigrdæGaec enHÉg EdlBYkcammkBINÐÚcinbegáIteLIg eday mankgT½BecjmkvaybM)ak;GMNacrbs;BYkB½rTuyehÁenAm:aLaka deNþImGMNacRbKl;[BYkhuløg; vij. BYkB½rTuyehÁdeNþImykm:aLaka)anenAqñaM1511 dUecñHraCaNacRkenHmanGayu)an136qñaM. 88-- NNÐÐaa nniiggGGññkkkkaann;;ssaassnnaaGGuuIIssøøaamm eyIg)aneXIjBIxagelIrYcmkehIyfa eRkayBIdeNþImyknKrEBkS)anehIy BYkGar:ab;)an EbgEckTwkdIenHCaeRcInkSRtRbeTsGuIsøamehIykSRtRbeTsnImYy²)anTamTarÉkraCüBIGFiraCenA )akdadmYymþg².eyIgk¾)aneXIjpgEdrfacab;taMgBIstvtSr_TI7mkBYkenH)ancUlmkdl;RbeTs NÐaPaKxageCIg ehIy)antaMgTIlMenA enATIenaH eRkayBI)ankm©at;GaNacRksSúItecj. karlukluyrbs;BYkGar:ab;enHenAmanbnþCab;mkeTotenAkñúgstvtSr_TI8TI9nigTI10Edl)an eFVI[rdæsuIn rlt;rlayGs;eTA ebIeTaHCafamin)anksagGVIk¾eday. kñúgcenøaHeBlb:unµanstvtSr_enH manEtkarbMpøicbMpøajmkelINÐaeFVI[cuHRkeTA²rIÉEBkSvijkan;Etm,Úrsb,ayeLIg².TIbBa©b;kar lukluyGs;kal8qñaMrbs;m:amUdxan; CaesþcénnKrhÁasNa BIqñaM992dl;qñaM1000 )anbnSl;Tuk 31 enAkñúgs®gÁamenH BYkB½rTuyehÁ )anTTYlkarKaMRTBInaysMeBAcin 5nak; EdlctsMeBAenAkñúgkMBg;Ep.
  • 172. nUvGanusSavrIy_d¾lVIgCUrct;minGacrlubecjBIsnþancitþrbs;RbCaCn)aneLIy. bnÞab;BImanC½yCmñHmkelIRBHraCaénmharaCTaMgLay EdlCam©as;elIkSRtRbeTssamnþraC mYycMnYn kñúgenaHmankSRtRbeTsEdløI/ GaCEmr/ kaNUeC nigkalighÁúg rYcmkm:amUdk¾cab;taMgTIlMenA rwgmaMs‘b;EtmþgenAkñúgRbeTs rYcEbgEckRbeTsCas‘U)ab‘Í nigCaNa)ab‘Í ehIyRtÜtRtaBYkhiNÐÚy:ag twgruwg eFVI[BYkenHenAmankarcgcaMesssl;rhUtdl;sBVéf¶. m:amUd)anksagsnþtivgSmYyEdlmanGayucMnYn150qñaMrhUtdl;qñaM1152eTIbmanesþcnKr hÁr mYyGgÁ Edl)anRbkasxøÜnfa Cabcäajatirbs;esþcEBkShSÚr:asBIGtItkal mkdeNþImyk GMNac)an. esþchÁ½renHmanRBHnamfa kasuIn )antaMgRBHraCFanIenALah‘r. RBHraCaEdlesay raCübnþBIRBHGgÁ)anlukluycUleb:nhSab rYcbnÞab;BI)anQñHs®gÁamd¾FMmYyenAfaensar ehIybnþ lukluycUlEdløI/kaNUeCrYc)anbnþkarvayRbhareTAq¶ayhYsBIenaHeTAeTotEdlminEdlmankal BIkñúgrC¢kalsnþtivgSmun². enANÐaPaKxagt,ÚgrdæEdldeNþIm)anmankaNar:a/ b‘ÍsNahÁar/ raCaNacRkmUltg;. cMENkenAPaKkNþalvij manraCaNacRkebNaer:s. k¾b:uEnþenAqñaM1215 esþchÁ½r )anRtÚveKeFVIXat GaNacRkTaMgmUlk¾RtÚvEbkExJk rYcFøak;kñúgkNþab;éd]tþmesnIy_rbs; RBHecAGFiraCcugeRkaymansBa¢atiGahVhÁanIsßan b¤):atg; KUTUb Edl)anRbkasxøÜnCaRBHecAGFiraC enAraCFanIEdløI. KWenAeBlenaHehIyEdlmanelcBYktaktar-m:ugehÁal rbs; hSg;hSúIxan; ecjmk. BYkenH )anratt,atEBkS/ GuIr:g;/ hÁasNaEdlkalenaHeKehAfadar:ulm:asá 1222¦/ kg;dahar rYc)anmk e)aHT½BenABImuxraCFanIEdløI Rsab;EtmindwgCaedayehtuGVI k¾dkecjPøamBINÐaedaynaMykC½yPNÐ y:ageRcIneTACamYypg EbreTAlukluy m:UsáÚvI nigRbeTscinvij. GaRs½yedaycitþsavarbs;BYkm:ugehÁalEbbenH GaNacRk):atg; b¤GahVhÁanIsßan k¾)anrYcxøÜn BIkarbMpøicbMpøajeTA ehIyraCFanIEdløIk¾dUecñaHEdr. cMENkRbeTsNÐaRBhµBaØniymvij edayRtÚvbraC½y RtÚvKabsgát; bnÞúcbg¥ak;kñúgCMenO sasna k¾cab;RbKl;xøÜn[BYkGñkQñHs®gÁambnþicmþg² ehIyKµanKMnitRbEmRbmUlKñaRbqaMgTb;Tl;nwg BYkGñkQøanBanvijeT. cab;BIeBlenaHmk eKsegáteXIjfanKrd¾FMenHRtÚvebIkcMhsRmab;GñkQøan BanbreTsCanic© ehIycaj;eKCanic©. eBlenaH BYkmUsø‘Ím kan;kab;NÐaPaKxageCIg nKrEBkS eGhSúIb nigéb‘kat ehIynigedykat TaMgGs;enAGa®hVikxageCIg.RbeTseGs:,ajk¾RtÚvcMNuHBYkenHEdrelIkElgEtGar:ahÁúgkasÞIyxag 170 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 173. 171Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa eCIg nigkataLÚjb:ueNÑaH. BYkmUsø‘Ímk¾)andeNþImykGasuImIn½rBIGaNacRkbUB’apgEdr ehIyraCFanI kugsþg;TINUbRtÚvFøak;xøÜnP½yj½ry:agxøaMg eBleXIjBYkenHbgðajxøÜnenAEk,r²enaH. s®gÁamrMedaH rbs;BYk®hVg;BIqñaM1095dl;qñaM1099nigkarbegáItrdæmYyenAeh‘SruysaLim/s®gÁamrMedaHrbs;Rkúm cRmúH®hVg; Gg;eKøs nigGaløWm:g; BIqñaM1145dl;1149 nigBIqñaM1189dl;1192/ s®gÁamrMedaH rbs;BYk®hVg; enAeh‘SruysaeLm CamYynwgBYkhugRKI BI1219dl;1221 ehIynigs®gÁamrMedaH2 elIkrbs;®hVg; BIqñaM1248 dl;1270 )anCYyBnüareBlmin[kugsþg;TINUbqab;Føak;cUlkñúgéd BYkmUsø‘Ím k¾b:uEnþ kardeNþImykGaNacRkbUB’aedayBYk®hVg; EdlelIkemrbs;BYkeKmñak;eFVICaGFiraC enAb‘ÍhSg;kñúgqñaM1209RBmCamYykarksagGaNacRkLataMgmYyenAbUB’aminEmnCakarBRgwgrdæmYy EdlmanTItaMgenAmuxeK nigmanGMNacxagsµartI sRmab;karBarGWr:ub nigRKisþsasna RbqaMgTb;Tl;nwg BYkmUsø‘Ím enaHeT. enAeBlEdlRBwtþikarN_FM²TaMgLayRbRBwtþeTAy:agdUecñHEdleFVI[BiPBelakmYycMENkFMFøak; cUlkñúgkNþab;édBYkGar:ab; KWBYkGñkkan;sasnaGuIsøam ehIytamry³RbeTsNÐa )antP¢ab;BYkGar:ab; nigEBkSeTAnwgcugbUB’aRbeTs GMNacrbs;RBhµBaØsasnaenANÐa)ancab;fycuHCaxøaMg. enAtam TIRkúg BYkhiNÐÚmYycMnYnFMEdlP½yxøac )anERbcUlkan;sasnafµI. viharEdleK)anksag]TÞisfVay RBHsiv³ RBHvisÑú Rkwsñ³.l. )anRtÚveKvayrMlMecal ehIyBYkGñkQñH)anyksmÖarTaMgenaHeTA ksagviharmUesávij.cMENkBYkRBahµN_EdlenAbnþesµaHeKarBbUCaRBhµBaØsasnaEdlrgkareFVI)ab BIBYkGñkEdleCOelI {RBHGaTieTBEtmYy KµanGñkNaeRbóbpÞwm} k¾)anrt;eKcecjBINÐaPaKxageCIg eTArkTIkEnøgNaEdlsuxCag enAÉcugxagt,Úgrbs;]bTVIbvij. C½yCmñHrbs;BYk®hVg;eTAelIBYkGar:ab; )anl,IsuHsayeTABaseBjcugbUB’aRbeTs eFVI[buBV bursrbs;BYk®hVg;enH Edl)anbegáItrdæmYyenA):aeLsÞIn Ek,r²nwgTIkEnøgEdlCaedImkMeNItrbs; mham:at;mankitþinamEtmñak;ÉgtMNagGWr:ubTaMgmUlehIyEdlGñkcugbUB’aRbeTsehAfahVar:g;hÁI.eBl enaH enAelIBiPBelak eKsÁal;EtBYkGar:ab; nigBYk)araMg b:ueNÑaH. enAGasuIeKmin)andwgc,as;eTfa manRbCaCnxus²Kñay:agNaenAGWr:ubenaHeT eKdwgEtfamanBYkhVar:g;hÁImYyb:ueNÑaH EdlExµrehAfa )araMg faCaRbCaCnGg;Gackøahan deNþImeCaKC½y nigeFVI[BYkGar:ab;xøbxøac)an. k¾b:uEnþenAÉcugbUB’aRbeTsÉeNaHvijenAeBlEdlT½BEBkSdeNþImykRbeTsNÐaPaKxageCIg [ERbcUlkan;sasnaGuIsøam nigbegáIt)anCamhaNacRkm:ugehÁal sµartIpSBVpSaysasnarbs;BYk enH)anRCabcUlmkdl;Rsukrbs;BYkm:aeL. enAedImstvtSr_TI13 manraCa2GgÁ EdleTIbEt)an
  • 174. ksagrdæsam:aLg; )anERbcUlkan;sasnafµIenH. rhUtdl;cugstvtSr_TI13kSRtRbeTsm:aeLesÞIrEtTaMgGs;)ankan;sasnaGuIsøamehIyk¾man GñkeCOCaeRcInlannak;eTotEdrenAÉRsukcin. enAGasuIEb:kGaeKñy_ km<úCa nigcam:,ak¾e)aHbg;GaTieTB cas;ecalEdr. RBhµBaØsasna)anrlt;)at;Gs;eTAy:agqab;rh½s enAGaMgs‘uyLaMg ehIymaness sl;CMenOcas;EtenAtamRsukERsb:ueNÑaH. enARKb;TIkEnøgEdlGñkRsukkan;sasnafµIenH EtgEtmans®gÁamCanic© s®gÁamenHnaM[mankar dUrcUlkan;sasnaenHTaMghVÚg². sasnaenHCaTIeBjcitþrbs;Catisasn_EdlGg;GackøahanbMput BIeRBaHfaeK)aneFVI[davrbs;eKRbLak;eTAedayQamedIm,IRBHGaTieTB mü:ageTot BIeRBaHkardeNþIm ykNÐaedayBYkGñkkan;sasnamham:at;)aneFVI[rBa¢ÜyGasuITaMgmUlnigBIeRBaHsasnafµIenHsamBaØ RsYl minBi)aknwgRbtibtþieTcMeBaHGñkEdlcUlfµI KWRKan;EtRtÚvTenÞj[caMfa {manGaTieTB EtmYyGgÁ KµannrNaRbdUc)an ehIymham:at;KWCaTUtrbs;RBHGgÁ}. edIm,IfVaybgÁ¿RBH eKRKan;EteFVIkareKarB edayEbrmuxeTATisxaglictRmg;eTArkTIRkúgLamic EdlmanpñÚrrbs;TUtRBHEtb:ueNÑaH. bNþaesþcTaMg Lay)ane)aHbg;RBHzan³BIRBHraCamkCas‘ultg;vij ebIBuMenaHeRbIBaküTaMg2P¢ab;KñaEtmþg. RTg;Qb; eRbIGkSrsM®sáwt EdleKsresrBIeqVgeTAsþaMeTotehIy ehIyEbrmkeRbIGkSrGar:ab; EdlsresrBI sþaMmkeqVgvijmþg. eKTTYlykKm<IrkUr:g;Cac,ab;sRmab;BUCGñkcm,aMg EdlecjeFVIs®gÁamrMedaHBiPaB elakTaMgmUlBIédBYkk,t; eBalKW BYkGñkEdlmineCOmham:at;. eTaHCay:agNakþI enAeBlEdlsasnaGuIsøamGacdeNþIm)anBYkm:aeLTaMgGs; sasnaenH minGacTTYleCaKC½ymkelIRbCaCnEdlmansBa¢atihiNÐÚb¤NÐÚcin )aneT. km<úCa esom lav PUma )ane)aHbg;RBhµBaØsasnaecal b:uEnþ)anRtwmRtlb;mkkan;BuT§sasnavijEtb:ueNÑaH. GaNÑam tugkwg k¾minbeNþayxøÜn[lg;tam ehIyenArkSaTsSnviC¢arbs;kugh‘VúysWdEdl enAeKarBCIdUnCIta nigRbtibtþiBiFIBuT§sasnalayLMCamYysasnatav. eyIgnwg)aneXIjfamanesþcExµrmYyGgÁenAkñúgstvtSr_TI17 Edl)anRbkan;ykRBHnamfaCa GuIR)ahuIm ehIydUrcUlkan;sasnamham:at; ykBYkcam nigm:aeLCabriBar ehIysVHEsVgrkcgsm<½n§ emRtICamYyesþccamEdlemIlgayemIlefakRBHGgÁEtRtÚvsuKteTAedaymin)annaMRbCara®sþm®nþI nigraCvgS[GnuvtþtamRBHGgÁpgeT.esþcmYyGgÁenaHRbvtþisa®sþExµr)andak;RBHnam[faCa{esþc ecjsasna} b¤{esþccUlsasnaCVa}. 172 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 175. 173Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa k,alTI2 RbeTskm<úCatamraCBgSavtarnigÉksarRbvtþisa®sþepSgeTot____________ CMBUkTI1 RbeTskm<úCacab;BIqñaM1340 rhUtdl;karEbkbnÞaylEgVk 11-- RRBBHH))aaTTnniiBBaaVVnnbbTT ¬¬11334400--11334466¦¦ tacay EdlnamuWnsBVmuxm®nþI)aneRCIstaMg[esayraCüelIraCblø½gákm<úCa nigCaGñkksag snþtivgSmhakSRtExµrbc©úb,nñ )ansuKteTAenAkñúgqñaM1340. ebItamkarniTant²Kña tamerOgeRBg nigraCBgSavtar KWRBHraCbuRtc,grbs;RBHGgÁRBHnamfaRBH)aTsemþcRBHbrmniBVanbT1 CamYy RBHGKÁmehsIEdlRtÚvCaRBHraCbuRtIrbs;RBH)aTsIhnuraC EdlRTg;)anerobGaBah_BiBah_ edIm,I[ mancMNgTak;TgCab;CamYysnþtivgSmun )aneLIgesayraCübnþBIRBHGgÁ. raCBgSavtarniyayfaRBH)aTniBVanbTRTg;Kg;enAÉnÞbtþmhanKr2 KWGgÁrFMsBVéf¶ ehIyRTg; esayraCüsm,tþiedaysuxsnþiPaBCamYyRbeTsCitxagmanRsuklavesomnigGaNÑam.eyIgGac bEnßm)aneTotfa CamYynKrcam:,apgEdr. RBHGgÁesayraCü)an5qñaM ehIysuKtenAkñúgqñaM1346. 22-- RRBBHHssiiTT§§aannrraaCCaa ¬¬11334466¦¦ RBHGnuCrbs;RBH)aTniBVanbT RBHnamsemþcRBHsiT§anraCa)anRtÚveKeRCIserIs[eLIgesay raCüsm,tþibnþBIRBHGgÁ3 edayTukRBHraCbuRt2GgÁedayELk k¾b:uEnþRBHGnuCenH)ancUlTivgÁt 6Ex eRkaymk edayminTan;TaMg)anTTYlkarGPieskpg. kareRCIserIsRBHraCaEbbenHRbEhlCa RbRBwtþeTAtamTmøab;EdlmanenAesssl;rhUtmkdl;sBVéf¶KWc,ab;sñgraCücas;buraNEdltRmÚv[ RBHGnuCesayraCübnþBIRBHerom c,ab;enHmanbBaðaCaeRcInenARsukesom nigRsukPUma. 1 tamemIleTARBHnamenH smEtCaRBHmrNnameTAvijeT. 2 mann½yfa RBHraCFanIrbs;RBH®nÞ. 3 ÉksarmYyenaHniyayfaRTg;esayraCü)anEt4ExeT.
  • 176. eyIgnwg)aneXIjxageRkamenHfaRBHPaKienyüeBalKWbuRtrbs;RBHeromeLIgesayraCübnþBI RBHbitula. edayehtuenH´snñidæanfa GVIEdleKcg;)anenaH KWRBHraCamYyGgÁeRCIserIsecjBI raCvgSCitbMputnwgRBHraCa EdlmanRBHCnµcas;smlµmkñúgkardwknaM nigKYr[eKeKarB)an. 33-- RRBBHHRRssIIllMMBBggSSrraaCCaa ¬¬11334477--11335511¦¦ Gt;BIRBHsiT§anraCaeTA esnasBVmuxm®nþI )aneRCIserIsRBHraCbuRtc,grbs;RBHniBVanbT GPiesk[eLIgesayraCübnþeRkamRBHnamfa RBH)aTsemþcRBHraC»gáarRBHlMBgSraCaFiraC nigEtg taMgRBHraCbuRtb¥ÚnRBHnamfa RBHsurieyaT½y [eFVICa]braC. RBHraCa nigRBH]braC)ancat;Ecg [eKerobcMBiFIbUCasBRBHvrraCbita nigRBHbitula rYcehIyerIsRBHGdæiFatudak;kñúgekadæmas tmál;Tuk kñúgRBHectiy. enAsm½yenaHRbeTsesomEdlFøab;EtcMNuHExµrBImun)anÉkraCehIy.ÉksarraCBgSavtar )anniyayfaBYkesomenH)anTTYlesrIPaBenAkñúgraCüRBH)aTbTumsurieyavgSEdl´KitfaKWRBH)aT suriyavrµ½nTI2 EdlesayraCükñúgqñaM1162 edayRTg;Cab;rvl;nwgRKb;RKgkSRtRbeTsCaeRcIn enA PaKxageCIg. enAeBlEdlRBHsurieyavgS b¤suriyavrµ½n suKteTA manbursmanGMNac nigBUEkqøatévmñak; eQµaHfa Bjaerag )aneLIgesayraCüenAsuexaT½y ehIy)anbRgÜbbRgÜmrdæesomTaMgGs; Edlsßit enAkñúgGagTenøemNam dak;mkkñúgGMNacrbs;xøÜn eFVI[suexaT½ykøayeTACaraCaNacRkd¾xøaMgmYy. m:üageTot esþclavenAeQogér4 eRkayBIRtÚvvay[braC½yedayesþcnKrCitxagmYyGgÁ k¾)annaMRbCanura®sþcuHmkrYmrs;CamYysuexaT½y5 ehIybRgÜbbRgÜmbcäajatirbs;BjaeragTaMgGs; mkkñúgGMNacrbs;xøÜnvijnig)anmktaMgraCFanIenAkMEpgeBRC6 d¾FMTUlay.bcäajatirbs;RBHGgÁ)an esayraCüsm,tþiedaysuxsanþ t²Kñadl;eTA4CMnan;. 174 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 4 esogér:KWesogéhsBVéf¶sßitenAelIExSry³TTwg19GgSa50kñúgGDÆeKalxageCIgnigExSry³beNþay97GgSa 10 xagekIt enAelIédmYyénTenøemKgÁ BIxageCIgrdæsan. 5 enAelImat;TenøemNamxagsþaM Rtg;ExSry³TTwg17GgSaxageCIg nigExSry³beNþay97GgSa30xagekIt. 6 sßitenAelImat;TenøemBIgxageeqVg cm¶ay40KILÚEm:RtBIxagBay½BüsuexaT½y.
  • 177. 175Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa eRkayenaH manGñkRsukmñak;eQµaHfa esnabUm )aneLIgesayraCüenArdælavmYyCab;nwg suexaT½y eRkayBI)anerobGaBah_BiBah_CamYyRBHraCkSRtIrbs;nKrenaH. RTg;)anksagraCFanI RkúgeTB7 rYc)anykRBHzan³CaRBHecAesrIviC½yCagEsn8 ehIyesayraCü)an20qñaM. raCbuRtrbs;RBHGgÁRBHnamfa]TgEdlesayraCübnþBIRBHGgÁ )anksagraCFanIenANgesña ehIydak;eQµaH[fa RkúgeTBmhanKrbvrFiraCvtIRsIGyuFüa EdleRkaymk)anRtÜtRtaelInKrtUcFM cMnYn16. eRkayBI)anksagraCFanIfµIenHrYc RBH]TgxøÜnRBHGgÁk¾dUrRBHzan³eTACaRBHecAramaFibtI RBHecARkúgRsIGyuFüa9 vij. kartaMgraCFanIGyuFüaenAelIekaHNgesña kñúgGagTenøemNam )aneFVI[esommanraCFanI xitmkCitRBMRbTl;EdnExµrCaehtueFVI[Catisasn_TaMg2EdlmankmøaMgEtmanplRbeyaCn_epSg²Kña cab;mankarb:HTgÁicnwgKñaedayecosminrYc. karEdlesomksagraCFanIGyuFüa enAekokmkEk,rnwg raCFanInÞbtþy:agdUecñH CakarbBa¢ak;c,as;fa RBHraCaNacRkkm<úCaenAkñúgstvtSr_TI14 enaH)ancuH »nfyeTAehIy KµansRtÚvNaxøbxøaceToteT eRBaHfaeKminxøacrGanwgmkenAEk,renaHeLIy pÞúyeTA vij BYkesomenH)anR)akdxøÜnfa Gg;Gac nigkacsahav. 7 mann½yfaraCFanIrbs;eTvta tamemIleTARbEhlKWemOgeTBsBVéf¶ enAelImat;TenøemgYnxageqVg. 8 BaküExµrfaecA esom niglavfaqav cinfacUbU sanfasUbU GaNÑamfaCav b‘Írm:anfasabU mann½yfaesþc b¤GgÁm©as; eRkaymkeKeRbIsRmab;ehAm®nþIEdlminmanCab;sac;raCvgSpgEdr. KWecjBIBaküenHehIy²rYmpSMCamYyBakü Edlb‘Írm:g;faGY mann½yfak,al emb¤RbFan esomfahY ExµrfahVa EdlekIt)anCa BaküfaecAhV‘a KWnaykrdæm®nþI ecAhVayRsuk. BaküPUmafa cabY mann½yfa esþcbreTsEdlcMNuH. Bakü san fa cUbU b¤sUbU køayecjmkBIBakü edImenHEdr. BaküesomfahY b‘Írm:anfabY ExµrfahVa lavfav:a eRbIP¢ab;CamYyBaküEkv mann½yfamantémø )anCaBaküEkvh‘Va Cazan³mYyrbs;raCvgSbnÞab;BIzan³]braC. 9 ebItamkarerobrab;enHGyuFüaEdlCaraCFanIrbs;esomBIqñaM1350dl;1768minEmnksageLIgedayesþcmk BIsuexaT½yEdlCabcäajatirbs;RBHerageT KWksagedayesþcesogEsnmYyGgÁmanedImkMeNItCara®sþsamBaØ Edl )anesayraCüenAkSRtRbeTsmYyenAkñúgGagTenøemNamxagelI. kSRtRbeTsenaHmanraCFanIdMbUgenAkMEpgeBRC ksageLIgedayesþclavmYyGgÁEdlesþcnKrCitxag)anbgçM[dkfyeKcRBHGgÁmkxagt,Úg.´KitfavaKµanGVICaEbøk eT ebisinCaéf¶NamYyeKrkeXIjfa esþcEdlmanC½yCmñHenaHKWCaesþcéfmYyGgÁ mkBIRbeTsPUmaCamYynwgRbCa ra®sþéf.
  • 178. s®gÁamEdlFøab;mantaMgBIeRcInstvtSr_Nas;mkehIyCamYyBYkmn Edlrs;enARtg;TwkdI esomsBVéf¶enHmunBYkesomeTAeTot )ancab;epþImeLIgsaCafµICamYykarksagraCFanIGyuFüa eday RBH]Tgrbs;éf nigRBHlMBgSraCarbs;Exµr. ebItamraCBgSavtarExµrEdl´mankñúgéd enAkñúgqñaM1352 esþcesom)anseRmcBRgIkTwkdI edaydeNþImykkm<úCaEdlRBegIykenþIyminRBmTTYlsÁal;GFiraCPaBrbs;xøÜn10 . esþcesom)an erobcMT½BCa2kg kgTI1manBlerh_5Ban;nak;sßitenAeRkambBa¢arbs;RBHraCntþaRBHnamfa suIsav:at; kgTI2 manBl1muWnnak;sßitenAeRkambBa¢akarrbs;RBHraCbuRtramasYn rYcRTg;)anbBa¢a[eFVIdMeNIr TaMgéf¶TaMgyb;mkvayykRBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa. eBlenaH GaCJaFrExµrenAtamCayEdnmin)anKitfaesomnwgcUlmklukluykm<úCaeT emø:aH ehIymin)aneRtómxøÜnnwgeFVIkarTb;Tl;eLIy k¾naMKñadkfyeKcecjCamYyRKÜsarBImuxT½Besom Et)an cat;GñknaMsar[naMdMNwgBIkarlukluyenHmkfVayRBHraCaEdlKg;enAÉraCFanInÞbtþburI. GñknaMsar )anmkdl;mhanKrehIy)ancUlKal;RBHraCaeBléf¶Rtg;RBHlMBgSraCa)anbBa¢a[RBHGnuCsurieya T½yCaRBH]braCekNÐT½B2muWnnak;kñúgbNþaRbCara®sþkñúg nigCit²raCFanI ehIyecjerobcMtTl;nwg T½Besom. ecjRBHraCbBa¢arYc RTg;)anyageTAkan;salsvnakar CYbCuMnamuWnsBVmuxm®nþIrebobCa RkúmRbwkSas®gÁammYyrYc)anelIksMNYreLIgfa{RBHraCaNacRkrbs;eyIgmansuxsnþiPaBCayUrmk ehIy eyIgminEdlmanhVwkhat;kgT½BeT Rsab;EtLÚvBYkesomelIkT½BmkvayeyIgy:agenH etIGs; elakyl;fadUcemþcEdr?}. RBH]braC)aneqøIytbeTAvijfa {T½BesomR)akdCamankarenOyht;edayRtÚveFVIdMeNIrTaMg yb;TaMgéf¶cab;BITl;Ednmk eRBaHcg;mkdl;qab;nwgGalvayeyIg TaMgeyIgmin)andwgxøÜn. BYkenH RbmafemIlgayExµr KitfaeyIgminecHeFVIcm,aMg ehIyeCOfaeyIgminecHkarBarxøÜneT. cMENkT½B rbs;eyIgfVIebIfaminFøab;)anhVwkhVWnEmnBitEtCaT½BfµIminTan;Gs;kmøaMgehIymanectnacg;RbyuT§}. manbnÞÚldUecñHehIy RTg;)ansuMkarGnuBaØatBIRBHraCaecjdMeNIr edIm,ITb;Tl;nwgT½Besom[)anq¶ay BIraCFanIbnþic Rtg;kEnøgEdlBYkenHkMBuge)aHT½B. 176 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 10 raCBgSavtaresomniyayfa esþcesom)anRbkass®gÁameLIg edaymkBIBYkxm KWExµr RBehInEbrxñgdak;min RBmeKarB.
  • 179. 177Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa RBHraCa)anecjRBHraCbBa¢atamsMeNI RBH]braCEdlKg;elIdMrI )anyagecjdMeNIrTaMgyb; enaH. T½BExµrmanEckecjCaT½BesH T½BdMrI nigT½BefµIreCIg. T½Besommin)anKitfa Exµrecjvaymun dUecñHeTk¾RtÚvbraC½yehIyRBHGgÁm©as;suIsav:at;k¾RtÚveFVIKutenAelIkdMrIeTA.cMENkT½BExµredayrvl; Etsb,ayrIkraynwgC½yCmñH k¾min)anKitedjtamT½Brbs;RBHramasYn11 EdrKW beNþayTuk[BYkenH vilRtlb;eTAvij)at;eTA. T½BExµrRtlb;cUlmkkan;nÞbtþvijRbmUl)anC½yPNÐCaeRcIn mantaMgBI esHdMrI nigeQøIyswkpg. eRkayBITTYl)andMNwgGMBIbraC½y nigmrNPaBrbs;RBHraCntþasuIsav:at; esþcesom)anbBa¢a [ekNÐT½BCaeRcInbEnßmeTot edaydak;eRkambBa¢arbs;RBHGnuCéføRBHnamfabrmraCa nigEckT½BCabI kgsßitenAeRkambBa¢arbs;raCbuRtTaMg3 ¬b¤RBHGnuC k¾mindwg¦rbs;RBHramasYn KWecA)asaF/ ecA)aGat nigecAkMbg;BisI. T½BTaMgGs;enHecjdMeNIrBIGyuFüamkCYbCamYyT½Brbs;RBHramasYn rYcehIynaMKñae)aHCMrMenAcm¶ayBIRBMRbTl;EdnesomExµrRbEhledIr BIr-bIéf¶ edayefµIreCIg. eBlenaHRBHraCakm<úCaEdleQVgyl;fabraC½yelIkenHminGnuBaØat[esomvilRtlb;mkeFVI s®gÁamvijeTot)an k¾bBa¢a[rMsaykgT½Becj nigQb;eFVIkMENnepSg²teTAeTot TukEtT½BrkSaRBH GgÁb:ueNÑaH. dl;eBlesomelIkT½BcUlmkmþgeTot RTg;)anbBa¢a[ekNÐkgT½BeLIgvijEdr EtRBHraC bBa¢amun[rMsayeTIbEtpSBVpSayecjminTan;putpg emø:aHehIyk¾KµankmøaMgTb;Tl;nwgT½Besom d¾eRcIn elIslb; CagT½BEdlRBH]braC)anvay[braC½yeTAeTot. RTg;)anseRmc[Tb;Tl; EtkñúgbrievN RBHraCFanIsin TRmaMcat;kmøaMg[ecjekNÐTahanCafµI)an. GñkRsukEdlrs;enACayraCFanInÞbtþ )anrt;cUlmkRCkekankñúgraCFanI EdlmanerobcMkMEBgdak;kmøaMgkarBary:agrwgmaM. RBHraCaRTg;)anerobcMRbCuMRkúmRbwkSas®gÁamenAkñúgsalsvnakar ehIyRbkasR)ab;GgÁRbCuM fa T½BesomelIkmkelIkenHeRcInCagBIqñaMmun10dg ÉRBHraCaNacRkKµankmøaMgT½BeT. eRkayBI RBHGgÁ sNþab;RBHeyabl;rbs;RBHmha]braCsurieyaT½y nigeyabl;rbs;esnabtI m®nþI RTg;k¾cat; RBHPaKienyürbs;RBHGgÁ RBHRsIsurieyavgS CaraCbuRtrbs;RBHsuKn§bT nigRtÚvCaRBHraCntþarbs; RBHniBVanbT [yagecjekNÐkgT½BtambNþaExRt ykmkCYyraCFanI. bIéf¶eRkaymk T½Besomk¾mkbgðajxøÜnenABImuxraCFanInÞbtþburI ehIycab;epþImeFVIkarvay 11 mann½yfa{sßansYK’rbs;RBHrama}b¤{c,ardMNaMrbs;RBHrama}kñúgn½yfasßansYK’Edr.
  • 180. Rbhar.RBHramasYnrayT½BBIxageCIgecA)asaFenABIxagekItecA)aGatenABIxagt,ÚgnigecAkMbg;BisI enABIxaglic. T½Besom)ansakl,gvayCaeRcInelIk EttRbeyaCn_ eRBaHkMEBgraCFanIrwgmaM manKUTwkFM nigeRCAB½T§CuMvij cMNucRtg;Namans<ansuT§EtmanTahankarBarmWugm:at; nigyamkam tamCBa¢aMgkMEBgTaMgéf¶TaMgyb;eTotpg. eBlenaHRBHecARkúgkm<úCa EdleBareBjeTAedayesckþIkøahan )andwknaMT½BpÞal;RBHGgÁ ecj vayT½Besom. karRbyuT§bgðÚrQam)anRbRBwtþeTAy:agsahav b:uEnþminmanT½BNamanC½yCmñHelIT½B NaeT RBHlMBgSraCak¾yagcUlmkkñúgraCFanIvijenAeBll¶ac. b:unµanéf¶eRkaymk RBHramasYn)ancat;[ksagR)agÁx<s;²CaeRcIn Rbhak;RbEhlnwgkm<s; kMEBgGgÁrFMEdr edIm,IgayRsYlkñúgkar)aj;kaMePøIg12 cUlkñúgraCFanI nigedIm,IecosvagkarxUcxat. T½BExµr nigesomc,aMgKñarebobenHGs;eBl4Ex cab;BIExFñÚ qñaM1352 rhUtdl;cugExmIna qñaM1353 EtKµannrNaQñHnrNaeT. eBlenaHRBHlMBgSraCa)anepJIraCsarmYyc,ab;[eTA]tþm- esnIy_esomsYrfa {km<úCaCamhaNacRkmYyFM ÉesomRKan;EtnKrtUcmYycMNuHkm<úCab:ueNÑaH. esom)anÉkraCüeyIgk¾mincg;rMxaneRBaHmincg;mansRtÚv.etIehtuGVIk¾esombBa¢ÚnT½Bmkvaykm<úCa sUmR)ab;[eyIgdwgGMBImUlehtupg}. ]tþmesnIy_esomeqøIymkvijfa ebIkm<úCayl;RBmTTYlsÁal;GFiraCPaBrbs;esþcesomenaH eKnwgdkT½BfyeTAvijTaMgGs;. 178 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 12 kaMePøIg=kaM ¬RKab;¦+ePøIg. RtÚvdwgfaGñkcugbUB’aRbeTs)ansÁal; nigeRbIR)as;rMesvCaeRcInstvtSr_Nas;mk ehIy munBYkGWr:ubmankaMePøIgFMtaMgBIstvtSr_TI14 ehIyExµr)ansÁal;GavuFenHyUrehIy. enAkñúgqñaM1398 BYktaEmr Lg; )aneRbIkaMePøIgFMenAkñúgs®gÁamdeNþImTwkdIrbs;BYkhiNÐÚ ehIyenAGgÁrFMmankEnøgmYymaneQµaHfa {XøaMgRKab;kaM ePøIg}. elak v:UsuIyus )anGHGagfa cinmankaMePøIgFMeFVIGMBIsMrwT§ nigEdktaMgBIqñaM1055 ehIyecHeFVIRKab;EbktaMgBI qñaM1232 EdlGacsmøab;mnusSEdlsßitenAkñúg rgVg;10Em:Rt)an. QavtakVan; )anniyayfa enAkñúgqñaM1295 enAGgÁrFMmaneKecHeFVIkaMRCYc nigpav kaMRCYcxøHehaHx<s;Gac[eKemIl eXIj)anBIcm¶ay40KILÚEm:Rt kaMRCYcxøHeTotFM dUcduMfµehIypÞúHlan;rMBg eFVI[rBa¢ÜyTUTaMgraCFanI. GñkniBn§xøH)anniyayGMBIkareRbIR)as;kaMePøIgFMedaysUlIm:an kñúgkarvayykTIRkúgEblRkadenAqñaM1073 nig edIm,IkarBarTIRkúgesvIlenAqñaM1247. ehIyvaR)akdNas;fa emrbs;BYkm½reQµaHfa GuIsµaEGl )anvayykTIRkúg ebhSa rbs;eGs:,aj enAkñúgqñaM1325 edaysareRbIkaMePøIgEdr.
  • 181. 179Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa RBHraCaExµr)aneqøIytbeTAvijfa RTg;suxcitþsøab;CaCagcuHcUl EdlnwgeFVI[eyIg)at;bg;Gs; nUvkitþinam xµasRbCanura®sþ. RTg;k¾yagecjRtÜtBlpÞal;RBHGgÁ ehIyRbkasfa nwgTb;Tl;rhUtdl; TIbBa©b;. cMENkÉT½Besomvij k¾)anbegáInkarRbharRBmTaMg)anxitxMBRgwgkarkarBarpgEdr. rdUvvsSamkdl; emT½Besom)anepJIsareTAfVayesþceK TUlfaebIcg;deNþImykkm<úCa RtÚvcab; vays®gÁúbxøaMgLÚvenH [)anmuneBlEdlT½BCMnYyBIExRtmkdl;. esþcesomÉkPaBnwgsMeNIenH k¾ekNÐT½BbEnßmehIy elIkmkpÞal;RBHGgÁ rhUtdl;eCIgkMEBgnÞbtþburIEtmþg enAcugrdUvvsSa. eBlenaHRBHGgÁm©as;RsIsurieyavgS13 EdlecjekNÐT½BGs;eBl8ExehIy )annaMT½BcUlmk dl;kMEBgraCFanI. edaymin)anrg;caM[T½BmkCYbCuMmUlKña RTg;)andwknaMT½BmYykgcUleTACitT½Besom eBkedaymindwgxøÜnk¾RtÚvT½BesomvaymkelIkñúgeBlEdldkfypgeFVI[RBHGgÁbraC½yT½BTaMgLay k¾EbkExJkKñaGs;eTA. RBHRsIsurieyavgSxøÜnRBHGgÁ)aneKceTAKg;enARsuklav kñúgRkúgsuIsuTÞnaka Nah‘ut14 ¬KWhøÜgR)a)agb¤evogc½nÞ?¦sBVéf¶RbEhledIm,IbMpusbMpulGnþraKmn_BIxag|sanmkvij. enAeBlEdlRBHRsIsurieyavgSyageTAdl;RbeTslav T½BÉeTot²EdlRBHGgÁekNÐ)an )an eFVIdMeNIrmkdl;raCFanI ehIyTTYldMNwgGMBIbraC½y nigkar)at;xøÜnrbs;RBHGgÁ eFVI[BYkeKGs;sgÇwm CaxøaMg. eqøót»kasenaHBYkesomk¾ebIkkarRbyuT§mkelI eFVI[T½BEbkExJk rt;eTARsukvijGs;eTA. eXIjT½BExµrEbkExJkdUecñH esþcesom)anbBa¢a[ebIkkarRbyuT§eTAelIraCFanI b:uEnþRtÚv)at;bg; T½BCaeRcIn nigRtÚvrujRcanfyeTAvij. esomenAbnþh‘umB½T§raCFanIRbEhlCamYyqñaMeTot b:uEnþenAEt deNþImmin)an RKan;EtRbmUl)annUvC½yPNÐepSg²tamExRtCitxagraCFanIb:ueNÑaH. eBlenaH RBHRsIlMBgSraCaFiraCk¾Føak;RBHGgÁRbQYn rhUtdl;suKteTAkñúgqñaM1353. dUecñHRBHGgÁRTg;esayraCsm,tþi)anbYnqñaM kñúgenaHRTg;cMNayeBlmYyqñaMedIm,IeFVIs®gÁam. 44-- RRBBHH]]bbrraaCCRRssIIssuurriieeyyaaTT½½yy ¬¬11335533¦¦ RBH]braCRsIsurieyaT½y CaRBHGnuCrbs;RBHraCa RTg;)anerobcMTukdak;sBRBHeromenAkñúg mhaR)asaTrg;caM»kaseFVIBiFIbUCarYccab;cat;Ecgkic©karRBHnKredayseRmcbnþeFVIs®gÁamteTAeTot 13 ÉksarxøHeTotniyayfa KWRBHsurieyaT½yeT EdlekNÐT½BenH eRkaymkRTg;)anRtÚvelIk[esayraCüsm,tþi. 14 CYnkaleKRbTHeXIjfaeKehAfa suIstþNakah‘ut/ suIstþNahÁah‘ut nigsuIstþNa]tþlam:acrat;satanI pgEdr. eQµaHCaPasasM®sáwtKW RsIsuT§mµn KirI suT§mµ³enHKWCasalkat;kþIrbs;RBH®nÞ.
  • 182. EdlÉksarraCBgSavtarniyayfaKWCamhnþraymYycMeBaHRBHraCaNacRk. raCBgSavtarerobrab; fa {eKB¤sUrEtsMeLgERskyMrbs;RbCara®sþ ]tþmesnIy_ nigemT½Bsøab;bnþbnÞab;Kña sUm,IEtbkSa bkSI k¾ERskyMRseNaHraCFanIEdlxµaMgsRtÚveLamB½T§CitCuMEdr}. eXIjExµrFøak;kñúgkþIGs;sgÇwmdUecñH esþcesom)andak;bBa¢a[cab;eFVIkarvayRbharmþgeTot {nrNaeKcxøÜndkfyeRkaynwgRtÚvTTYleTasRbharCIvit nrNakøahaneRCótcUlkñúgraCFanI)annwg TTYl)anrgVan;}. karRbyuT§k¾cab;epþImeLIgy:agsahaveXareXA. T½BesomebIkkarvayRbhary:agGg;Gac køahan b:uEnþRtÚvT½BExµrrujRcanTmøak;cUlkñúgKUTwkvijGs;. cugbBa©b; TVarTisxagekIt15 mYy )anRtÚv sRtÚvvayebIk)an.karRbyuT§bnþRbRBwtþeTAy:agbþÚrpþac;enAelIdgpøÚvénraCFanIehIyRBH]braCEdl dwknaMkarts‘UsVitsVajenAmuxkgT½Bk¾RtÚvsRtÚvRbhar)an. mrNPaBrbs;RBH]braCrwtEteFVI[kgT½BGs;sgÇwm TaMgGñkEdlFøab;Etkøahank¾eKcxøÜnGs;. manEtBYk)arKURBahµN_eTEdlCaGñkEfrkSaektnPNÐraCaniymkm<úCataMgBIburaNkalmkedayyl; faminRtÚvbeNþay[ektnPNÐTaMgenaHFøak;eTAkñúgédsRtÚveTk¾RbEmRbmUlKñaCaeRcInBan;nak;enACuMvij RBHbrmraCa/RBHFmµesakraCnigRBahµN_buerahitEdlrkSaRBHx½nraCü/lMEBgraCFñÚnigektnPNÐÉ eTot² )annaMKñaeKcecjBIraCFanICamYyesnasBVmuxm®nþImYycMnYn nigRbCara®sþRBmTaMgRKÜsarpg. BYkeKvaysRmúkeTAelIT½BesomEdlh‘umB½T§CuMCity:agGg;Gackøahan ebIkpøÚvecj RtÚvsøab; )at;bg; kmøaMgGs;CaeRcIn EtGacrMedaHektnPNÐTaMgGs;EdlCanimitþsBaØaCatikm<úCa)an. enHKWCakarRbyuT§ cugeRkay nigCaC½yCmñHeRkaybg¥s;EdlExµrmanelIT½Besomnasm½yenaH. 55-- cceennøøaaHHrrCC¢¢kkaalléénneessþþcceessoomm33RRBBHHGGggÁÁ ¬¬11335533--11335577¦¦ raCFanI)anFøak;eTAkñúgédsRtÚvehIyesþcesomyagecjcUlcuHeLIgrebobCaGñkQñHesI¶csr esIrraCvaMgEdlsg;eLIgGMBIfµ RbkbeTAedayrUbcmøak;k,ac;k,Úrrcna bnÞb;mYy²l¥tex©aH. RTg;yl; 180 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 15 raCFanImanKUTwkFM nigeRCAB½T§CuMvij BIeRkamCBa¢aMgkm<s;Cag10Em:Rt. manRckecjcUlCapøÚvlMcak;dI manbgáan;éd CarUbykSRTnaKraCmYy.eKkarBarRckecjcUlenHedaydak;T½BenAelIR)agÁx<s;enABIelIpøÚvnigenAelICBa¢aMgBIxageqVg nigxagsþaM. k¾b:uEnþeKmin)andwgGMBIkareFVIs<anelIkdak;)anenaHeT emø:aHehIy sRtÚvGaccUlmkdl;TVar ehIybukTmøúH cUlmkkñúg)an.
  • 183. 181Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa eXIjfa mhanKrl¥mincaj;sßansYK’33Can;rbs;RBH®nÞb:unµaneT. enAeBlEdlRTg;yagcUleTAkñúg RBHbrmraCvaMg RbTHeXIjsBRBHlMBgSraCa k¾ekItkþIsegVKCaxøaMg eTIbRTg;ecjbBa¢a[erobcMBiFIbUCa fVay[skþismnwgTMenomTmøab;buraN. eRkayBiFIbUCasBenH esþcesom)anelIkRBHraCbuRteBARBHnamecA)asaF[esayraCüelI raCblø½gákm<úCa ehIybBa¢a[RBHerom2GgÁeTot KWecA)aGat nigecAkMbg;BisI enACYykic©karRBHGnuC CamYynwgkgT½BcMnYn1muWnnak; edIm,IkarBarraCFanI16 . bnÞab;mk eRkayBIRTg;)anEtgtaMgecAhVayExRtesom[RKb;RKgExRtbs©im nignKrraCsIma ehIyEckrgVan;elIkTwkcitþdl;BYkGñkGg;GackøahanrYcmk RTg;)anecjbBa¢a[naMRbCara®sþ Edlrs; enAkñúgraCFanITaMgGs; ykeTARsukesom elIkElgEtra®sþRbmaNCa1muWnnak;17 b:ueNÑaH edayyk TaMgRTBüsm,tþikñúgraCvaMg CamasR)ak; Carbs;mantémøepSg²dUcCakenÞlmas kenÞlR)ak; esH dMrI raCrf CaedImeTACamYypg. ecA)asaFRTg;)anEtgtaMgecAhVayExRtesom nigExµr[erobcMkardwknaMExRteLIgvij ehIy[ eTAb®gáabExRtEdlminTan;TTYlyl;RBmcMNuH. ecAhVayExRtTaMgGs;enaHGacerobcM)anEtbNþa ExRtCit²raCFanIb:ueNÑaH ÉExRtq¶ay²enAxagekIt xageCIg nigxagt,ÚgminRBmcMNuHeT. ecAhVay ExRtTaMgenaHRbkasxøÜnÉkraC ehIycab;epþImRbRBwtþGMeBIecarkmµ nigcm,aMgrvagKñanwgKña eFVI[RbCaCn Føak;kñúgTurPikSy:agF¶n;F¶r. eBlenaH RBHRsIsurieyavgS yagRtlb;BIRsuklavmkvijCamYyT½BmYy kg nigeQøIyswkRbmaN9muWnnak; EdlRTg;deNþIm)anBIesom eBlkMBugekorBInÞbtþeTAkan;nKr raC. RTg;)anRbmUlbNþaExRtEdlmincMNuHesommkkñúgGMNacrbs;RBHGgÁvijeday qab;rh½s. RBHecA)asaFesayTivgÁtenAkñúgqñaM1355 RtÚvnwgmhaskraC1277 culøskraC717 eRkayBIRTg;esayraCü)an3qñaM. RBHeromrbs;RBHGgÁ ecA)aGat EdleLIgesayraCübnþ)an3Ex k¾suKteTAeTot edayCMgW 16 eyIg)aneXIjBIxagelIfaraCBgSavtar)anniyayfa RBHGgÁm©as;TaMg3RBHGgÁRtÚvCaecArbs;RBHramasYn minEmn CabuRteT. Et´KitfaRbEhlCamankarP½nþRcLMenATMB½rmun EdlRtÚvniyayfa {T½BTaMg3kg)anRtÚvRbKl;[bgb¥ÚnTaMg 3rbs;RBHramasYn} minEmn[ecArbs;RBHGgÁeT. 17 tamraCBgSavtar cMnYnRbCaCneBlenaHmanRbEhlCa10muWnnak; b:ueNÑaH.
  • 184. GasnñeraK. eBlenaH RBHRsIsurieyavgS )andeNþImykbNþaExRtEdlcuHcUlCamYyesom)an mkvijehIy. ecAkMbg;BisI CaraCbuRtc,grbs;esþcesom )aneLIgesayraCübnþBIRBHGnuC enAkñúgqñaM 135718 . mYyExeRkaymk RBHRsIsurieyavgS)anelIkT½BmkvaydeNþImykraCFanI)anvij ehIyraC BgSavtarniyayfa T½Besom9PaK10)anRtÚveKkab;smøab;. ecAkMbg;BisIRTg;)an)at;xøÜnkñúgeBl enaHeTA ehIyKµannrNadwgfa RTg;køayeTACay:agNaenaHeT. cab;BIeBlenaHmk RBHraCaNacRk)anRtÚvrMedaH ehIyksageLIgvij EtExRtbs©im19 nignKr raCsIma enACarbs;esomenAeLIy. 66-- RRBBHHRRssIIssuurriieeyyaavvggSS ¬¬11335577--11336666¦¦ RBHRsIsurieyavgS eRkayBIc,aMgdeNþImykbNþaExRtEdlÉkraCminRBmcMNuHesom nig vayesom[braC½yrYcmk k¾RtÚv)aneKelIk[esayraCsm,tþieRkamRBHGPiesknamfa RBH)aT semþcRBHraC»gáarRBHRsIsurieyavgSraCaFiraC20 . RTg;)ancat;EcgEckrgVan;dl;nayTahaneTAtam kic©karEdl)anbMeBj rYc)anEtgtaMgnamuWnsBVmuxm®nþI[kan;kic©karRBHnKr. 182 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 18 raCbuRtc,grbs;esþcesomKWRBH]Tgrama b¤ramasYn EdleyIg)aneXIjdwknaMT½BesommkvayExµr ehIy)aneLIg esayraCübnþBIRBHbitaenAkñúgqñaM1369. tamemIleTARBHecA)asaF EdlRBH]Tg elIk[esayraCüenAkm<úCaCa buRtRBHraCaTI4/ ecA)aGatCaraCbuRtTI3 ehIyecAkMbg;BisICaraCbuRtTI2. 19 ExRtbs©imsBVéf¶KWR)aCImsßitenAelIpøÚvBIGgÁrFMeTAGyuFüaRtg;ExSry³TTwg14GgSaxageCIgnigExSry³beNþay 99GgSaxagekIt. 20 RTg;CaraCbuRtrbs;RBH)aTRsIsurieyaT½yCamYyRBHraCGKÁmehsI eBleLIgesayraCü RTg;manRBHCnµ43 RBHvsSaehIy. GtßbTxagedImniyayfa RTg;CaraCbuRtrbs;RBHsuKn§bT nigRtÚvCaecArbs;RBHniBVanbT/ ebIsin CadUecñaHEmn RTg;RtÚvCaecAkµÜyrbs;RBHRsIsurieyaT½y BIeRBaHfa RBHsuKn§bT CabuRtrbs;RBHniBVanbT ehIyRBH surieyaT½y CabuRtrbs;RBHsiT§anbT. b:uEnþebIsinCaRBHRsIsurieyavgSmanRBHCnµ 43RBHvsSaenAeBleLIgesay raCsm,tþi eKBi)aknwgTTYlsÁal;faRTg;RtÚvCabuRtmha]braCRsIsurieyaT½yNas; eRBaHRTg;RtÚvCaRBHGnuCrbs; RBHsiT§anEdlsuKtenAqñaM1346 ehIyxøÜnRBHGgÁÉg suKtenAkñgqñaM352. EterOgenHGacfaBit)an ebIsinNaCa TTYlsÁÁal;fa RBHsiT§an nigRBHlMBgSraCa eLIgesayraCümanv½ycMNas;²eTAehIy.
  • 185. 183Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa manraCBgSavtarmYyenaHniyayfakñúgrC¢kalrbs;RBHraCaGgÁenHRBHraCaNacRkkm<úCaman RBMRbTl;xagekItdl;dugNay RtÚvnwgExRt)araCsBVéf¶ KWCab;nwgnKrcam:,a ehIyRBMRbTl;xaglic latsn§wgeTAdl;nageragGgÁrraC enAGaeKñy_ExRtkUr:at;sBVéf¶ xagt,ÚgTl;nwgQUgsmuRTesom xageCIgeTATl;nwgsñamxSac;eKakxan; eBalKW valxSac;eKakxan;. RBHraCvgSanuvgS)anRtÚvRbEmRbmUleLIgvij BYkRBahµN_buerahitk¾)annaMykektnPNÐmk vijEdrRBHRsIsurieyavgS)anEtgtaMgkµÜyRBHGgÁbuRtrbs;RBHRsIsurieyaT½yEdlsuKtkñúgs®gÁam CamYyesom Ca]braC. bnÞab;mkRTg;)anbBa¢ÚnT½BmYykg[eTAkan;kab;ExRtnageragenABIxag|sannKrraCsImaykTI enaHCaRBMRbTl;EdnRBHnKrxageCIg ÉExRt2eTotEdlesþcesom]Tg21 b¤RBHecAramaFibtIdeNþIm )an enAEtCarbs;esomdEdl. naeBlenaHBYkesommanCMenOelIxøÜnÉgxøaMgNas;ehIyemIlTabemIlefakExµrEdlxøÜn)anvay [braC½y eFVI[ExµrRTaMRTkarRBehInenHedaylM)ak. edayehtuenaHehIy)anCaenAeBlEdlBYk esomcUlcab;ExµrRbmaNCa100nak; enAkñúgExRtCayEdnCab;nwgmat;smuRTnaMykeTARsukesom ecAhVayExRtenaH )ansgswkedaycUlcab;BYkesomehIynaMykmkdak;enAcugExRtxagt,Úgvij. ecAhVayExRtesomxwg )anekNÐT½B2Ban;nak;eFVIdMeNIrmkkan;Tl;Edn. eBlTTYl)andMNwgenH RBH raCaExµr)anecjbBa¢a[ekNÐT½B5muWnnak;BIkñúgExRtRTaMg/)asak;/RBHRtBaMg/GUrm:Ul/RkmYns/TwkexµA/ Bam/ kMBt nigkMBg;esam22 ecjeTATb;Tl;. emT½BFMKWesþcRtaj;EdlCaecAhVayExRtRTaMg ÉemT½B RsYc KWecAhVayExRt)asak;. T½BesomRtÚvbraC½ytaMgEtBIeBlCYbRbyuT§CamYyT½BExµrmundMbUg ehIyenAkñúgkaredjtam Exµr )andeNþImykvalFM nigExRtry:g/ cnÞtab‘un/ mgÁlburI23 ehIy)annaMykeQøIy8Ban;RKÜsarmkkan; 21 raCBgSavtaresomEcgfaesþcenHminEmnCab¥Únéførbs;RBH]TgeTEtKWCabuRtaTI2. 22 )asak;sBVéf¶KWLúgesog/ GUrm:UlCacMENkmYyénRsuksukRtaMg/ RkmYnsCacMENkmYyénRsukLúgesog/ TwkexµACa cMENkmYyénRsukr:aCy:a/ ÉBam kMBt nigkMBg;esamsßitenAmat;QUgsmuRTesom. 23 ExRtTaMg3enH sßitenAelITwkdIEdllatsn§wgBImat;QUgsmuRT)agkkrhUtmkdl;ExRt)at;dMbg nigBIPñMdgErk rhUtdl;QUgsmuRTesom. tamemIleTA ExRtTaMg3enHeBlenaHElgCaTwkdIkm<úCaeTotehIy RbEhlCa)anpþac;cUl eTAesomkñúgsm½ys®gÁammun nigenAeBlEdlesþcesomesayraCüenAnÞbtþ.
  • 186. km<úCavij. eRkayC½yCmñHenH RBHraCa)anEckrgVan;dl;GñkEdlmansñaéd ehIy)anecjbBa¢a[ecAhVay ExRtTaMgtUcTaMgFMRbjab;Rbjal;ekNÐT½B hVwkhat;[)ansÞat;CMnaj nigeRtómxøÜnCanic© eday)armÖ xøacesomRtlb;mkvayRbhareTot. eBlenaHRtÚvcMeBlEdlesþcesomvilRtlb;mkBIeQogém:vij edaynaMyklavCaeRcIn RKÜsarmkCamYypgdl;TTYldMNwgGMBIC½yCmñHrbs;T½BExµrmkelIT½BesomRTg;k¾cat;[BjaBiC½ydar:ug dwknaMT½BnaMmuxecjlukluykm<úCaÉRBHGgÁnaMT½BFMmktameRkay.esomdeNþImykExRtTaMg4enATis nirtI EdlExµreTIbyk)anmkvijy:agqab;rh½s rYcbnþeFVIdMeNIrcUlmkkñúgkm<úCaeTot EtRtÚvT½BExµr eRkamkardwknaMrbs;RBH]braC)anvaykat;Rtwms<anEjk. karRbyuT§cab;epþImeLIgCadMbUg rvagT½B RBH]braC CamYyT½BBjaBiC½ydar:ug RbyuT§Gs;eBlCaeRcInéf¶edayKµancaj;QñH Rsab;EtT½Besþc esommkdl;RTg;bBa¢a[eLamB½T§T½BExµr. edayeXIjT½Besomraycak;mkcMehogdUecñH ehIyeday xøacRtÚveKB½T§Cab;pgemT½BExµrk¾bBa¢a[dkfyqøgs<anRbjibRbjab;rYccuHsMeBAecjeTA.T½BeCIgTwk EdlmansMeBACaeRcInkMBugctcaMkñúgsÞwgk¾minGaceFVIGVI)an eRkAEtBIEhhmkarBarsMeBA]braCecjeTA b:ueNÑaH. écdnüGVIRsab;EtrMesvpÞúHeLIg eFVI[rbYsRBH]braC nigesnakarBarCaeRcInnak;24 . eqøót »kasEdlT½BExµrkMBugEtRcbUkRcbl;y:agenH sMeBAesomk¾cUlmkdeNþImyksMeBA]braCeFVI[RTg; suKteTA3éf¶eRkaymk. eBlTTYl)andMNwgsþIBIbraC½yenH RBHRsIsurieyavgS )andwknaMT½BpÞal;RBHGgÁEtmþg ecjmk rkT½Besom EdlTn;édbnþicehIy minh‘anRbQmmuxnwgRBHraCaeT k¾vaydkfyeTArkkEnøgsRmak. T½BExµr)antamedjRbkitBIeRkay min[T½BesomsRmak)an eFVI[esomrt;EbkExJkKñacUleTARsuk esomvijeTA sl;xøHRtÚvcab;xøÜn)anCaeQøIyCamYyGavuFyuT§PNÐCaeRcIn. bnÞab;BIenaHmk RbeTskm<úCasÁal;suxsnþiPaB)anb:unµanqñaMEdr. RbCara®sþrs;enAsuxsb,ay RBHraCaNacRkk¾mansuvtßiPaBl¥. RBHraCaNacRkkm<úCaeBlenaHmanRBMRbTl;xaglicTl;nwgExRtbs©imxagBay½BüTl;nwgeQog r:ug nignKrraCsIma xageCIgTl;nwgsñamxSac; xag|sanTl;nwgeKakxan; xagGaeKñy_Tl;nwg )araC 184 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 24 eyIgeXIjfamanniyayGMBIrMesvmþgeTotehIy elIkenHRbEhlCaenArvagqñaM1360.
  • 187. 185Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa dugNay xagt,ÚgTl;nwgsmuRT. RBHRsIsurieyavgS )ansuKtedayeraKaBaFenAkñúgqñaM1366eRkayBIesayraCü)an10qñaM. 77-- RRBBHHbbrrmmrraammaa ¬¬11336666--11337733¦¦ Gs;BIRBHRsIsurieyavgSeTA raCvgSanuvgS nignamuWnsBVmuxm®nþI)aneRCIstaMgRBHraCbuRtrbs; RBHlMBgSraCaRBHnambrmrama EdlRtÚvCakµÜyrbs;RBHraCa [eLIgesayraCübnþ. GVIEdleK)andwgGMBIRBHraCaGgÁenH KWTI1RTg;)anerobcMbUCasBRBHbitula nigTI2RTg;suKt edayeraKaBaFeRkayBIesayraCü)an7qñaM. cMENkesþcesomvij )ansuKteTAenAkñúgqñaM1369 ehIyraCsm,tþiRtÚvFøak;eTAelIRBHraC buRtc,g RBHramasYn EdlesayraCümindl;mYyqñaMpg k¾RtÚvRBHbitulaéfø RBHbrmraCa EdlCasVamI rbs;RBHGnuCkSRtIRBHraCa ehIyEdleyIgeXIjdwknaMT½Bmkvaykm<úCaBImun Tmøak;BIraCsm,tþieTA. RBHraCaesomfµIenHesayraCü)an8qñaM ehIy)aneFVIs®gÁameTAxageCIgRBHnKr deNþImyk raCaNacRktUc²enAxageCIgGyuFüa EdlrkSa)annUvÉkraCürhUtmkdl;eBlenaHmYymþg² man emOgNaxnpagxa nigemOgesgsav enAkñúgqñaM1372/ emOgPisÑúelak kñúgqñaM1373/ emOgCakag r:ay kñúgqñaM1378 eRkayBIcm,aMgdeNþImykbraC½y2elIk KWkñúgqñaM1373mþg nig1377mþg/ emOg TaMgGs;kñúgRsuklaveBaHexµA ¬ehAdUecñHedayBYkenHlabBN’eBaH¦. esombraC½ykñúgkar deNþImykeQogém: 2dg b:uEnþbraC½yenHmin)aneFVI[eK)at;bg;kitþis½BÞCaGñkcm,aMgBUEksVitsVaj nigbuinRbsb;enaHeT BIeRBaHfaraCFanIenaHmankMEBgkarBary:agrwgmaMminGac[sRtÚvvaycUl)an ehIynigmaneTvtaCYyEfkarBareTotpg25 . 88-- RRBBHHFFmmµµeessaakk³³ ¬¬11337733--11339944¦¦ RBHGnuCrbs;RBHbrmrama KWRBHGgÁm©as;Fmµesak³ )aneLIgesayraCübnþBIRBHeromeRkam RBHGPiesknamfaRBH)aTsemþcesþcRBHraC»gáarRBHFmµesak³raCaFiraC. 25 Tal;Etdl;qñaM1384eTIbeQogém:Føak;cUlkñúgGMNacrbs;esom ehIyrhUtTal;Etdl;qñaM1430eTIbesomerobcM raCFanI)anl¥ eRkayBI)anCemøósRbCaCnecjGs;2muWnRKÜsar.
  • 188. RBHraCaGgÁenHesayraCü)an9qñaM enAeBlEdlesþcesomRBHbrmraCasuKteTA ehIyRBHraC buRtRBHnamfa fgLaM esayraCübnþ)an7éf¶ bnÞab;mkRtÚveFVIKutedayRBHramasYn CaraCbuRtrbs; RBH]TgEdlRtÚvRBHbrmraCadkecjBIraCsm,tþienAkñúgqñaM1369bBa¢Ún[mkKg;enAExRtlBVburIvij CakEnøgEdlRTg;CaecAhVayExRtBImun. RBHramasYnesayraCü)an6qñaMk¾suKteTA ehIyRBHraCbuRt RBHnam RBHecArama raCBgSavtarExµrehAfa ecAsMPüacan; )anLIgesayraCübnþeRkamRBHnamfa RBHecAbrmraCa kñúgqñaM1388. RBHraCaesomenHmanRBHT½yelaPln;cg;vatTwkdINas; k¾cat;[ekNÐT½BCaeRcIndak;[RBH raCbuRtRBHnamfaRBH®nÞaraCakan; rYc)anbBa¢a[ecjmkvaydeNþImykRBHraCaNacRkexmra b¤Exµr26 . tbeTAnwgmhicätarbs;esomenH RBHraCakm<úCa)anerobcMT½BCa4kg dak;eRkambBa¢arbs; BjaEkv/ BjatI/ ecABjay:at ¬ecABjaenHCab;sac;raCvgS¦ nigecAhV‘aTlð³27 Canaykrdæm®nþI [ ecjTb;Tl;nwgT½Besom. raCBgSavtarExµr)anelIksresIrCaeRcInGMBIemT½BTaMg4 k¾b:uEnþmin)anerob rab;pgeTfaetIkgT½BnImYy²)aneFVIGVIxøH.GVIEdlBitR)akdenaHKWfaT½Besom)ancUlmkdl;eCIgCBa¢aMg raCFanInÞbtþedIrrukerIraCFanIcab;cak;dIbMeBjKUTwkehIyebIkkarvayRbhardMbUg²sahaveXareXA xøaMgNas;. esomebIkkarvayRbhar3pÞÜn²KñakñúgeBlEtmYyy:agxøaMgkøa EtkarTb;Tl;BIxagT½BExµr k¾Gg;GackøahanNas;Edr. T½BesomRtÚvrgrbYsy:agdMNMedayduMfµ EdlRbCaCnKb;ecjBIelICBa¢aMg fµmk. T½BesomB½T§raCFanIGs;eBl7Ex EteFVIGVImin)an. enAeBlenaH esþcesomeFVIklCaecaT Tahan6nak;fa )anRbRBwtþxus [eKdak;TNÐkmµedayvaynwgrMBat;epþA mñak;50rMBat;enAmuxT½BExµr. yb;eLIg eKeXIjesomTaMg6nak;enaH EdlmanKUssBaØaeCIgEk¥kelI f¶as mkbgðajxøÜnenAnwgTVar kMEpgraCFanIniyayfaesþcesomGyutþiFm’dak;eTaseKminRtwmRtÚveKkac;exñaHlYcrt;ecjmkehIy 186 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 26 enHKWCaelIkTI1ehIyEdl´RbTHeXIjeKeRbIBakü exmra enH. niyayfaRBwtþikarN_enHekIteLIgenAkñúgqñaM1384 dUcCaRtwmRtÚvl¥Nas; ebIsinCaeKeCOtamraCBgSavtaresom BIeRBaHfaraCFanIkm<úCaRtÚvesomvayyk)an kñúgqñaM1385. b:uEnþebIdUecñHEmn RBwtþikarN_enHRtÚvekIteLIgeRkam rC¢kalRBHramasYn minEmnkñúgrC¢kalRBHecAc½nÞ CaRBHraCbuRtenaHeT. 27 enHKWCaelIkTI1ehIyEdl´CYbCamYyzan³enH EdleyIgnwgRbTHeXIjeTotenAeBleRkay². BaküenHdUcCaman RbPBecjBIPasaeb:háan.
  • 189. 187Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa eKsUmbeRmIExµredIm,Isgswknwgesþcesomvij. eK)annaMesomTaMg6nak;enaH eTAcUlKal;RBHraCa ehIyenAeBlEdlRBHraCakMBugsNþab;r)aykarN_rbs;BYkenaH manm®nþImYyrUb)ancUlmkray karN_fVayRBHraCafa BYkesomeTIbEtelIkedImb£sSImYyedImenAcMBImuxRckTVarkMEpgxaglicedImb£sSI enaH manedatk,alGñkyamEdleFVsRbEhseFVI[BYkk,t;TaMg 6nak; rt;ecjrYc. RBHraCarwtEteCOelIerOgTaMgGs;enHEfmeTot enAeBlEdlmanTahanesom2nak;kñúgcMeNam 6nak;enaH søab;b:unµanéf¶eRkaymk28 . RTg;[rgVan;dl;BYk4nak;eTotEdlenArs; rYc)an[namuWnsBVmux m®nþIykcitþTukdak;EfmeTot.BYkenH)ancUlrYmRbyuT§kñúgCYrT½BExµrRbqaMgnwgesomRKb;elIkehIy)an bgðajsñaédCaeRcIn eFVI[emkgrbs;BYkeKeCOTukcitþelIeKCaxøaMg. k¾b:uEnþ ral;eBlEdlT½BExµrerobcM ecjeFVIRbtibtþikar BYkenHEtgEtsresrlixitpþl;Bt’manGMBIéf¶Ex TIkEnøg nigem:ageBlRbtibtþikar cgCab;CamYyRBÜjmYyrYc)aj;RBÜjenaHcUleTAkñúgCMrMT½BesomCanic©.éf¶mYykarRbyuT§cab;epþImtaMg BIRBwkRBlwmrhUtdl;eBll¶ac eFVI[TahanTaMgsgxagsøab; dYleBjKUTwkTaMg4Tis Rsab;EtBYkesom TaMg4nak; edaymankarCYy]btßmÖBIBjaEkv nigBjatI EdlBYkeK)anbBa©úHbBa©Úl[cUlrYmk,t; ebIk TVarTisxaglic[xµaMgcUl. BYkesomTaMg4nak;)anRtÚvsmøab;enAnwgkEnøg k¾b:uEnþGVI²)anknøghYseTA ehIy T½BesomEdlrg;caMEt»kasenHyUrNas;mkehIy )annaMKñasRmúkbukcUlmkkñúgraCFanI ehIy deNþIm)ankñúgeBlenaHeTA.RBHraCak¾RtÚvT½BesomeFVIKutkñúgkarRbyuT§enaHEdrExµrRtÚvdak;GavuFsuMcuH caj;enAkñúgRKisþskraC1394 RtÚvnwgmhaskraC316 culøskraC659. esomcab;)annamuWnsBVmuxm®nþI nigT½BCaeQøIyy:ageRcIn naMykeTAkan;Rsukesom b:uEnþmanGñk RsukmYycMnYnFM)aneKcxøÜnrYcCamYyecABjay:at nigBYkRBahµN_buerahit edaynaMykRBHx½nraCü lMEBgraCrbs; tacay nigektnPNÐrbs;raCaniymExµreTACamYypg. 99-- cceennøøaaHHrrCC¢¢kkaall ¬¬11339944¦¦ esþcesom)an[eKe)assm¥atRbmUlexµacTahanEdlsøab;y:ageRcInkñúgs®gÁam ecjBIraC 28 karGFib,aylm¥itEbbenHeBkdUcCaeFVI[mankarsgS½yfaraCBgSavtarerobrab;bMéPø BIeRBaHfa ebIsinCaesom 6nak;enaHRtÚvesþcesomdak;TNÐkmµedIm,I RKan;EtbnøMEPñkExµreT vaminsmnwgF¶n;F¶rrhUtdl;GaceFVI[maneRKaHfñak;Ebb enHeLIy.
  • 190. FanIedIm,IbM)at;køinGesacrYcRBHGgÁ)anelIkRBHraCbuRtRBHnamBjaERBk29 [eLIgesayraCsm,tþi eRkamRBHnamfaRBH®nÞaraCa. raCBgSavtarExµrerobrab;fa eRkayBIerobcMBiFIraCaPieskrYc)anbnþic esþcesom)anyagkat; mhaR)asaT RTg;nwkq¶l;k¾sYrfaehtuGVIk¾RBHraCdMNak;d¾l¥enHmanbnÞb;eRcInemø:H? eBlenaH m®nþIExµr mñak;)anTUlfVayfabnÞb;TaMgGs;enaHsRmab;TTYlraCbuRtrbs;esþcsamnþraCTaMgLayEdlRtÚvbBa¢Ún mkkan;raCvaMgkm<úCa. RbTHeXIjRBHeKa esþcesomsYrfaetICaGVI? m®nþIExµrcas;mñak;EdlecHcaMGnusSavrIy_BIGtIt kal)anTUlfVayfaRBHbdimaRBHeKaenHksageLIgtaMgBIyUrlg;Nas;mkehIykñúgsm½yEdlkm<úCa CamhaGMNac sRmab;dak;Km<IrRBHéRtbidk. eKeKarBbUCaRBHeKaenH ehIycat;Tukfa KWCaRBHpñÚlén RBHraCaNacRk. esþcesomeBjcitþnwgcemøIyTaMgGs;enHNas; ehIyenAeBlEdlyagRtlb;eTARsukesom vij RTg;)annaMykRBHeKaenaH nigRBHBuT§bdimaCaeRcInEdlksagBImas nigR)ak; ykeTACamYypg. RTg;k¾)annaMykeTApgEdrnUvGñkkan;sasnaExµr BYkk,t;BjaEkv nigBjatI nigGñkRsukCaeQøIyswk cMnYn7muWnnak;. cMENkÉRBH®nÞaraCa Edlesþcesom)anelIk[esayraCükñúgraCFanIkm<úCavij eRkaymk )antamrkektnPNÐraCaniymExµreXIj eRBaHfaebIKµanvtßúTaMgGs;enaHeT eKminGacesayraCsm,tþi eBjlkçN³CaRBHraCa)aneLIy. edayP½yxøaceKlYcykeTAvij RTg;)anBicarNafanwgbBa¢Únvtßú TaMgGs;enaHeTATukenAÉRkúgGyuFüa Rsab;EtpÁrlan;rMBgeLIg ehIyePøógk¾bg¥úrmky:agxøaMgeBjmYy raRtImunéf¶EdlRtÚvbBa¢ÚnecjBIraCFanInÞbtþ enHebItamraCBgSavtarerobrab; eFVI[RBH®nÞaraCa 188 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 29 BaküExµrfaBjaenH RbEhlCakøaymkBIBaküeb:háanfab‘Íj:a Cazan³rbs;esþcBIburaN ÉBaküfaecAk¾sMedAyk esþc Edr. BaküecABjaenHCazan³rbs;BYkGñkGgÁm©as; nigRBHraCaExµrenAstvtSr_TI14 nig15 EtbnÞab;mk)aneRbI BaküenH sRmab;ehAEtBYkGñkGgÁm©as;b:ueNaH rYcehIysRmab;EtnamuWnFM². kñúgPasalav eKfa ):aj:a b¤paj:a. eKminRtÚvRcLMBjaERBkenH EdlRtÚvCaraCbuRtrbs;esþcesom ehIyRtÚveKelIk[esayraCüenAkm<úCaeRkam RBHnamfa RBH®nÞaraCa CamYynwgbuRtesþcesommYyGgÁeTotEdlmanzan³dUcKñaEdrEteFVICaemT½BesomeT. ehIy k¾minRtÚvRcLMCamYyRBH®nÞaraCamYyeTotEdlRtÚvCaRBHjatirbs;esþcesomRBHPüaramEdldeNþImraCsm,tþikñúgqñaM 1401 Edr.
  • 191. 189Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa mankarP½nþPaMgCaxøaMg ehIyRTg;RsémfamanGtItRBHraCaExµrmYyGgÁmkKg;BIelI ehIyRBmanRBHGgÁ fa nwgeFVI)abRBHGgÁebIRBHGgÁbBa¢ÚnektnPNÐTaMgenaHeTARsukesomEmn. RBHGgÁP½yxøac k¾seRmc TukvtßúTaMgGs;enAnwgnÞbtþvijeTA. eKmindwgfaetIRBH®nÞaraCaesayraCüenAkm<úCa)anb:unµanqñaMeT ehIyk¾mindwgfamanmUlehtuGVI EdleFVI[RTg;yagRtlb;eTARsukesomvij. GVIEdleKdwgKWfa RBHGnuCrbs;RBHGgÁPüarama EdleLIg esayraCsm,tþibnþBIRBHramasYnenAkñúgqñaM1375 )anRtÚvm®nþImYyrUbTmøak;BIraCsm,tþi enAkñúgqñaM 1380 ehIyelIkRBH®nÞaraCa[esayraCüelIblø½gáraCesomvij cMeBlEdlRBHraCaNacRk km<úCa kMBugEterobcMRbeTs bnÞab;BITTYl)anÉkraCüeLIgvijedaysñaédRBHGgÁm©as;mYyGgÁénraC vgSanuvgS. 1100-- RRBBHHRRssIIssuurriieeyyaavvggSS ¬¬11440011--11441177¦¦ putBIkarRtÜtRtarbs;esom namuWnsBVmuxm®nþI)anelIkRBHRsIsurieyavgS EdlRtÚvCaRBHraC buRtrbs;RBHsurieyaT½yEdlesayraCüBIqñaM1353dl;1359 [eLIgRKgraCblø½gákm<úCa enAeBl EdlRBHGgÁmanRBHCnµayu43RBHvsSa. raCBgSavtarniyayfaRTg;esayraCü)an16qñaM ehIysuKtenAkñúgqñaM1417 kñúgRBHCnµ59 RBHvsSa edaybnSl;TUkRBHraCbuRtamYyGgÁRBHnamecABjay:at manRBHCnµ17RBHvsSa. 1111-- RRBBHHbbrrmmeessaakk³³ ¬¬11441177--11442211¦¦ RBHraCaEdlRtÚveKeRCIserIs[esayraCübnþBIRBHsurieyavgS KWRBHPaKienyürbs;RBHGgÁ EdlmanRBHCnµ29RBHvsSa eRkamRBHnamfaRBHbrmesakraCa. tamraCBgSavtar esom)anvayyknÞbtþburImþgeTotkñúgrC¢kalesþcGgÁenH enAkñúgqñaM 1420 ehIyRBHGgÁ)ansuKteTAeRkayBIesayraCü)anRbEhl3qñaM kñúgRBHCnµ32RBHvsSa. karcUlTivgÁtrbs;RBHraCaCaehtubNþal[BYkesomvaycUlmkdl;kñúgraCFanI. k¾b:uEnþerOgr:avenHhak;dUcCaRcbUkRcbl;bnþic GacnwgfaBYkGñkEdlsresrraCBgSavtarmankar RcLMkalevlarvagrC¢kal2 KWrC¢kalesþcFmµesak³ nigbrmesak³ BIeRBaHfamanraCBgSavtarxøH min)anTaMgelIkGMBIesþcbrmesak³ b¤surieyavgS pgeT emø:aHehIyvaGacnwgmankarlM)akkñúgkarbnSúI kalevla. EteTaHCay:agNakþI raCBgSavtarTaMgGs;ÉkPaBKñaRtg;cMNucEdlfarC¢kalrbs;esþc
  • 192. Bjay:at )ancab;epþImeLIgtaMgBIqñaM142130 . 1122-- RRBBHHRRssIIssuurriieeyyaaBBNN’’ bb¤¤eeccAABBjjaayy::aatt ¬¬11338844--11443311¦¦ RBHecABjay:at min)anFøak;kñúgkNþab;édesomeT RTg;)anecjeXasnabBa©úHbBa©ÚlnamuWnm®nþI nigRbCara®sþ[RbqaMgnwgesomvij. RTg;kT½B)an rYce)aHCMrMenAkñúgbnÞaymanrbgkarBarrwgmaMmYy enAkñúgRsukRsIsQr ¬RsIsn§r¦31 EdlerOgniTanniyayfa CakEnøgRBH)aTbkSIcaMRkúgKg;enAmun eBl)aneLIgesayraCü32 .RTg;)ancat;[ksagraCFanItUcmYymanrbgkarBarrwgmaMehIymanRbCa ra®sþCaeRcInmkBIExRtepSg² cUlmkrYmrs;eRkamkarRKb;RKgrbs;ecABjay:at kñúgenaH mYycMnYnFM EdlmanbMNgbeNþjesomecjBIRBHnKr )ansµ½RKcUlbeRmIkñúgCYrkgT½Brbs;RBHGgÁ. ecABjay:atmincg;eFVIs®gÁamRbqaMgnwgT½Besom nigesþcesomEdlesayraCüenAelIraC blø½gákm<úCaedaycMheT RTg;manbMNgcg;lYceFVIXatvij. RTg;)ancat;mhatlik2nak;[eFVIkargar enH ehIy)ansnüa[rgVan;eRcIndl;GñkTaMg2nak; Edlsµ½RKcitþeFVIdMeNIreTAkan;nÞbtþburI CamYykmøaMg 15nak;eTot. BYkenH)anCYbm®nþIesommñak; rYc)ansuMcUlKal;esþcesomedIm,IsuMbeRmIesµaHRtg;Gs; mYyCIvit. eBlenaHesþcesomKg;enAkñúgsYnkñúgRBHbrmraCvaMg m®nþIesomk¾naMGñkTaMg 17nak; eTArg; caMRtg;pøÚvEdlRBHraCayageFVIdMeNIrrYceqøót»kasbgðajxøÜnGñkTaMgenaHEtmþg.esþcesomenAnÞbtþ eRtkGrxøaMgNas;edaymanRBHbnÞÚlfataMgBIRTg;)aneLIgCaRBHecARkúgkm<úCaeTIbEtmanGñkTaMg17 nak;enHeT EdlPJak;rlwkmksuMbeRmIRBHGgÁmuneK emø:aHehIyRTg;yl;RBmTTYl ehIynwg[rgVan;dl;Gñk TaMgGs;Kña. RTg;)anbBa¢a[eKyksemøókbMBak;mk[ ExµrTaMg17nak; Rsab;EtBYkenH dkykkaMbit esñótEdllak;kñúgKl;ePøAecjmk ehIyRBÜtKñacak;eTAelIRBHraCasMedARtg;eBaH nigRTÚgeFVI[RBHGgÁ suKtPøameTA. BYkesnakarBaresþcesomeBlenaH)an ecjmkCYyPøamEdr b:uEnþ )anRtwmEtkab; 190 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 30 manÉksarmYyniyayfa esþcBjay:at eLIgesayraCükñúgqñaM1432. tamemIleTARbEhlCaqñaMEdlRTg;TTYl RBHraCaPieskeT KWqñaM1423 b¤ 1433. 31 enAcm¶ay40KILÚEm:Rtxag|sanraCFanIPñMeBj elIRcaMgTenøemKgÁxageqVg. 32 erOgRBH)aTbkSIcaMRkúgenHCaerOgniTansuT§saFEteQµaHTIkEnøgRtÚveTAnwgeQµaHRsukeTsBitR)akdEmn.enARsuk esomk¾manerOgniTandUcKñaenHEdr RKan;EteQµaHTIkEnøgbþÚreTACaeQµaHRsukeTskñúgRbeTsesomeTAvij.
  • 193. 191Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa smøab;BYkXatkb:ueNÑaH Éesþcesom)ansuKtputeTAehIy33 . b:unµanéf¶eRkaymk ecABjay:at EdlecjdMeNIrBIbnÞaymkrg;caMEtdMNwgenH k¾)anbgðajxøÜn RBHGgÁenAmuxnÞbtþburI ehIycab;epþImebIkkarRbyuT§. eBlenaHBYkExµrEdlrs;enAkñúgraCFanI k¾naMKña cab;kan;GavuFeLIgkab;smøab;BYkesomrYcebIkTVarraCFanI[T½BecABjay:atcUl.enAeBlEdlkMBugEt mankartamkab;smøab;sRtÚvtampøÚvepSg²énRBHraCFanI ecABjay:at )anyagcUlkñúgRBHraCvaMg ehIy)anCYbnwgRsIesoms¥atmñak;kMBugEtyM. RTg;saksYreTAnagenaH EdlRkabfVaybgÁ¿ecalknÞúy EPñkedogemIlRBHGgÁ rYcTUlfa nagmaneQµaHfa nagRsegom CabuRtIGkxun nigRtÚvCaRBHCaya rbs; esþcesomEdlExµrTaMg17nak;eFVIKutenaH. ecABjay:at eBjRBHT½ynwgsRms;nag Rsegom xøaMg Nas; k¾elIknageFVICasñMÉk. ecABjay:at)anRtÚveKelIk[esayraCükñúgqñaM1384énRKisþskraC k¾b:uEnþTal;Et12qñaM eRkaymk KWkñúgqñaM1396 eTIbRTg;)anerobcMGPieskeRkamRBHnamfaRBH)aTsemþcesþcRBHraC »gáarRBHbrmraCaFiraCramaFibtI RBHRsIsurieyaBN’FmµikmharaCaFiraC RBHbrmnafbrmbBiRt. enAqñaM1388 énRKisþskraC34 RBHraCa)anRbCuMRBHraCvgSanuvgS namuWnsBVmuxm®nþI nigesna btITaMgLay rYcRTg;manRBHbnÞÚlfa {RBHraCaNacRkkm<úCaeyIgmanraCaNacRkesomCasRtÚv. BI 33 esþcenHminEmnCaRBHBjaERBk EdleLIgesayraCüenAkm<úCaeRkamRBHnamfa RBH®nÞaraCaeT BIeRBaHRBHGgÁ esayraCüenAesomtaMgBIqñaM1401. ebIdUecñH etIRBHGgÁCaesþcmYyNa. RBHsgÇraCExµrR)ab;´fa esþcenHGacCa esþcEdlesayraCübnþBIRBH®nÞaraCa k¾b:uEnþebIsinCadUecñaHEmn etIRBHRsIsurieyavgS nigRBHbrmesak³esayraCü enAeBlNa ehIyenAÉNa? 34 ÉksarmYyenaHniyayeRcIndgfaenAkñúgqñaM1310 énmhaskraC RtÚvnwgculøskraC751 EdlRtÚvnwgRKisþsk raC1374b¤1388b¤1389.eyIgnwg)aneXIjenAxageRkamfakarcakecjBIGgÁrKWenAkñúgculøskraC735Ca qñaMerageTas½k. k¾b:uEnþqñaM735 énculøskraCEdlRtÚvnwgRKisþskraC 1373 minEmnCaqñaMerageT ehIyk¾minEmnCa qñaMeTas½kEdr KWCaqñaMmSaj;bBa©s½keTAvijeT. ÉmhaskraC1310 EdlRtÚvnwgRKisþskraC1388 eTIbCaqñaMerag eTas½k. KWedaymUlehtuenHehIy)anCa´KitfakalbriecäTenHsmCag ehIymü:ageTotmankarerobrab;enAxageRkam BIqñaMculøskraC751 nig752 ¬RtÚvnwgRKisþskraC1389 nig1390¦. cMNucmYyeTot KWeKniyayxageRkamfa RBHGgÁesayraCü)an 47RBHvsSa kñúgenaH 17RBHvsSaenAmhanKr ehIyebIyk 17qñaMeTAbUkCamYy qñaMEdlRBH Fmµesak³suKt1373 eyIg)an1390 KWxusKñaEt2qñaMb:ueNÑaH. ´BinitüeXIjfamankarminsUvsmCaeRcInenAkñúg kalbriecäT Et´Gac)anRtwmEtpÁÚpÁgdUcxagelI ehIysuM[GñkNaEdlmanÉksareRcInCagCYyEksRmÜlpgcuH.
  • 194. munbNþaGaNaExRtPaKxaglicmanRbCaCneRcInNas; LÚvExRtPaKeRcInRtÚvesomykGs;ehIy. esomk¾)anekorykRbCaCnBIExRtepSg²eTot EdleyIgkan;kab; naMykeTACaeQøIyEfeTot eyIgBi)aknwgeTArkRbCaCnBINamkdak;vijNas;. ebInwgcg;deNþImykGaNaExRtEdlesomyk eTAenaHmkvijk¾min)an eRBaHmankaryamkamrkSamuWgm:at;Nas; NamYyeyIgk¾Bi)ak nwgeFVIs®gÁamt eTAeTotpg. ExRtCab;RBMEdn minGac[erIsT½BsRmab;Tb;Tl;nwgkarlukluyrbs;esom)aneT. raCFanIeyIgFM manrbgkarBarrwgmaM EtminsUvmanRbCaCn dUecñHminRKb;RKan;nwgkarBareLIy. ebIsinNaCaesomelIkT½BmkvaymþgeTot TaMgsasnikTaMgBYkRBahµN_nwgRtÚvrgTukçevTnadUcKña. eyIgKYrEtcakecalraCFanIenHEdleyIgminGackarBar)an ehIyeTAksagraCFanIfµImYy enAÉ ExRtRsIsQr ¬RsIsn§r¦ vij. ebIBYkesommk vaRtÚvqøgkat;ExRtepSg²EdlvaRtÚvRbyuT§CaeRcIn kEnøgGacTukeBl[eyIgekNÐT½BTb;Tl;Tan;munnwgbeNþay[BYkvacUlmkdl;eCIgrbgrbs;eyIg}35 . manRBHbnÞÚlrYc RTg;saksYreyabl;namuWnsBVmuxm®nþI Edlyl;RsbtamRBHraCtRmiHEdr ehIyk¾seRmc[dwkCBa¢ÚnraCRTBüraCbriBarnigesnabtIeTAkan;RsIsn§r.luHdl;qñaM1388eRkayBI )aneRCIserIseBlevlal¥rYcehIyRTg;)anyagcakecjBIRBHraCvaMgnÞbtþburItamRBHraCTInaMgnava FMmYy EhhmeTAedaynavatUcFMCaeRcIn eRkamsMeLgKgeXµaH nigsÁrlan;B¤rMBg KYbpSMCamYysMeLg eh‘ake®Ba¢óvrbs;kgT½BeCIgeKaknigeCIgTwkGWgkgedIm,IeFVI[RBHraCdMeNIrRbkbeTAedayeCaKC½y. navaRBHraCa)anmkcuHctenAnwgTYl)asan ehIyPøam²enaH eKk¾cab;ksagraCvaMgh‘umB½T§eTA edaykMEpgkarBarrwgmaMsg;eRkalesHeRkaldMrInigCRmkRBHraCTInaMgnava.RBHraCvaMgEbrmuxeTArk Tenø.RBHraCbriBaresvkamatüsg;pÞHCuMvijRBHraCdMNak;Rtg;kEnøgNaEdlmanTYlehIyRTg;RbTan nam[RBHraCFanIfµIfa RkúgRsIsn§rbvrFanI. rdUvvsSamkdl;ePøógFøak;eCakCaMeFVI[liclg;TUTaMgRBHnKrRBHraCak¾seRmcmkKg;enAÉctumµúx vij KWraCFanIPñMeBjsBVéf¶ Rtg;GaeKñy_PñMtUcmYy36 . RBHraCa)anbBa¢a[]kj:aeteCaekNÐkmøaMgmnusSCaeRcInCIkdIRtg;kEnøgmYyehIyErkykmk 192 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 35 eyIg)aneXIjBIxagelIrYcehIyfa RBHraCa)ansÁal; nigFøab;)anrs;enAkñúgExRtenHmYyry³rYcmkehIy. 36 RBHsgÇRBHnamcan; Ca)aLat;vtþ]NÑaelam )anGHGagfaKWeteCaRkhmkEdl)anBUnkUnPñMenHeLIgenAkñúgqñaM 1605 rYcehIy)ansg;ectiyFMmanragCa BIr:amId. k¾b:uEnþraCBgSavtarniyayfaectiyEdlsßitenARCúgxagBay½Bü enaH KWCaectiyEdldak;FatuesþcecABjay:at Edl)anykctumµúxCaraCFanI.
  • 195. 193Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa cak;bMeBjmat;TenøxagekIt nigxagt,ÚgPñM. kEnøgEdleKCIkenaH)ankøayeTACabwgmYy EdleRkay mkeKehAfa bwgeteCa enAxaglicmhavifIDUdadWLaeRksBVéf¶ BImçagERBkCIkxagnirtI. bnÞab;mk RBHraCa)anbBa¢a[CIkERBkmYyEdleKehAfaERBkBampøúg edIm,InaMykTwkBITenø mk eRbIenAkñúgraCFanI. ERBkenaH sBVéf¶enAmansñamRtg;kEnøgEdlmanBammYy tRmg;eTArks<anqµaM 4nak;cenøaHtIrvifIEveNvIlnigtIrvifIBIek.eKcak;bMeBjkEnøgNaEdlTabkEnøgNamanGUreKeFVIs<an tUcsRmab;qøgkat; ehIyeKksagb:mmYyenABIxageCIgsRmab;karBarraCFanI. rYceKCIkGUrmYy B½T§CuM vijb:menaHEdleKehAfaGUrcindMEdkedaymkBImanBYkcinrksuIdMEdkenAkEnøgenaH.GUrenaHsBVéf¶Ca RBMRbTl;xagt,ÚgéndIKruPNÐ EtRtÚv)aneKcak;bMeBjeFVICapøÚvGs;ehIy. sMNg;karBarsRtÚvrYmmankMEBgB½T§CuMvijraCFanImYy cab;epþImBIb:mxageCIgsMedAeTATisxaglic rYcbt;eTAt,ÚgBIxageRkAbwgeteCaEdleKTuksRmab;eFVIERs rYcehIyEbrmkrkTenøvij kat;tamRtBaMg GUr eBareBjeTAedayPk;EdlRbLayTwks¥úyhUrkat; BIxageRkayvtþFmµyutþi Føak;eTAkñúgbwgEvgmYy enAxagt,ÚgvtþRBHBuT§mrkt37 . eKk¾)anelIkkMEBgB½T§tammat;TenøpgEdr edIm,IbgáarkarvayRbharBI sRtÚvtampøÚvTwk. enAelIkMBUlPñM RBHraCa)anbBa¢a[sg;vtþmYy salamYy enAtameCIgPñMRTg;[sag GaRsmtUc²sRmab;BuT§sasnikCn. Gñktam©as;TwkdIb¤XøaMgemOgEdlmaneQµaHfaGñktaR)abeKdak;enAEk,rmat;BamERBkBampøúg. sg;GVI²rYcehIyRBHraCa)anyagcUlKg;kñúgRBHbrmraCvaMgehIyseRmc[eKehATenøEdlCab; nwgraCFanIenHfa TenøctumµúxmgÁlsklkm<úCaFibtI. enAeBlenaH RbeTsmansnþiPaBsuxsanþ)anyUrl¥Nas; RbCara®sþrIkraysb,ay BaNiC¢kmµ rIkceRmIn ehIysasnikTTYl)anGMeNayTanCaes,ógCaerOy². sasnacRmúgceRmIn sgÁmman yutþiFm’smRsbeTAnwgRBHT½yrbs;RBHraCa. sRtÚvTaMgLay rYmTaMgBYkecarlYcecarbøn;pg xøbxøacGMNacRBHraCaxøaMgNas;. manCnbreTs CaeRcIncuHTUkk):al;cUlmkkan;raCFanIEdlrIkFMeLIg².kitþinamrbs;raCFanIl,IrnÞWCaehtueFVI[BYkcin 37 tamemIleTAraCFanIctumµúxeBlenaHlatsn§wgenAelImat;Tenøsabxagliccab;BIs<antaEkvb¤stþXatdæanrhUtdl; s<anLWvIs b¤s<anPUmikatUlik nigeTATisxaglicrhUtdl;s<an)ak;TUkenAelIpøÚveTAkMBt s<anenHenAmaneXIjenAeLIy rhUtdl;qñaM1908.
  • 196. yYn m:aeL esom NÐa lavecjcUleFVIBaNiC¢kmµ b¤k¾mktaMgTIlMenAEtmþgk¾man. esþcsurieyaBN’esayraCü)an47qñaM ebIKitTaMgry³kal12qñaMEdlRBHGgÁesayraCümin Tal;TTYlGPieskpg. RTg;Kg;enAnÞbtþ17qñaM kñúgenaH12qñaMkñúgRBHnamCaraCanusiT§i nig2qñaM Ca RBHraCa. bnÞab;BInÞbtþ RTg;)anyageTAKg;enA)asankñúgExRtRsIsn§rmindl;1qñaMpg k¾yagmkKg; enActumµúx)anCit30qñaM. eRkayBIesayraCsm,tþi)an47qñaM RTg;k¾dak;raCü fVayRBHraCbuRtac,g RBHnamnrayN_raCa rYcRTg;TTYlyktMENgCaRBHmha]beyaraCbrmbBiRt38 . 194 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 38 CaPasa)alI³]vyuvraC.zan³enHmanenARsuklav/esomnigPUmaEdrEtenHKWCaelIkTI1ehIyEdleKRbTHeXIj kñúgraCBgSavtarExµr. ÉksarBgSavtarcinehAecABjay:atfaPIgy:a nigfaRBHGgÁ)anbBa¢ÚndMrICaeRcInk,alCamYynwgplitplBIkm<úCa mYycMnYn eTAfVayesþcRkúgcin enAkñúgqñaM1419. ÉksarenaH)anelIkBIRbvtþisa®sþbreTsEdl[dwgfa raCTUtkm<úCa )aneTAdl;raCvaMgesþccinehIy)anpþl;Bt’manlMGitGMBIraCaNacRkfa{raCFanImanTMhM70lI¬28KILÚEm:Rt¦ehIy RbeTsmanvisalPaBCaeRcInBan;lI ¬1lIesµInwg400Em:Rt¦. enAkñúgraCFanImanR)agÁmYy nigs<anmYyeFVIGMBImas nigmandMNak;esþccMnYn30. erogral;qñaMRBHraCa EtgEtebIksm½yRbCuMenAkñúgdMNak;lMEhmYyenAelIekaHR)agÁ100 EdlmanstVsVa ek¶ak dMrIs nigrmas cUlTTYlcMNIGaharEdldak;kñúgsñÚk nigepIgmas. mnusSRbúsRsIbYgsk; nig esøóksemøókbMBak;xøI²Rkvat;ExSRkvat;eFVIGMBIRkNat;. eKdak;TNÐkmµedaykat; RcmuH kat;édeCIg b¤smøab;ecal ¬smøab;yWt²b¤edayBi)ak¦eTAtamsßanTm¶n;éneTas.cMeBaHBYkecareKdak;eTaskat;eCIgb¤kat;éd}.mancMNucKYr[ q¶l;mYy KWRtg;EdleKniyayfa {ebIsinNaCaExµrsmøab;cin ExµrenaHRtÚvTTYleTasRbharCIvit EtebIsinNaCacin smøab;Exµrvij cinenaHTTYleTasRtwmEtbg;R)ak;Bin½yb:ueNÑaH ehIyebIKµanR)ak;bg;eT eKlk;}. manBt’manlMGitCaeRcIneTot EdleyIgKYrEtBinitüemIl eRBaHvaGac[eyIgdwgGMBITMenomTmøab;ExµrenAstvtSr_TI 15 ³ {kalNamnusSBIrnak;erobGaBah_BiBah_CamYyKña eKenAEt2nak;kñúgpÞHcMnYn8éf¶minecjeTANaeT ehIydut cegáóg b¤eTonCab;min[rlt;eLIy}. {ebImanmnusSsøab; eKTukexµacecalkñúgTIrehazan[stVEhksuICacMNI. Rbús²kan;Tukçedayekarsk; EtRsI² RKan;Etkat;sk;xagmuxBIxagelIf¶asbnþicb:ueNÑaH}. {eKsresrGkSrelIEs,keRbIs b¤stVepSgeTotEdleKlabBN’exµA}. {ExcnÞKtieRkayeKCaExTI1énqñaM}. Exµrqøas;ExenAExTI9 ¬cMNucRtg;enHenAmanrhUtdl;sBVéf¶ eRBaHfaExTutiya saF RtÜtCaExTI9énqñaM qñaMfµIcab;epþImenAkñúgExmiKsir ehIyExmiKsirenHCaExTI10énqñaMnkçtþeyaK Edlcab;epþIm enAExEcRt¦. {raRtImanEckecjCa 4yam}. {manmnusSBUEkxagtarasa®sþ ecHTsSn_TaysUrüRKas nigcnÞRKas)anRtwmRtÚv}.
  • 197. 195Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 1133-- RRBBHHnnrraayyNN__rraammaaFFiibbttII ¬¬11443311--11443366¦¦ RBHraCaGgÁenH manRBHGPiesknamfa RBH)aTsemþcRBHraC»gáar RBHnrayN_raCaFiraCrama FibtI. eKmin)andwgfa etIRBHraCamunmanRBHCnµrs;enA)anb:unµanRBHvsSa enAkñúgrC¢kalRBHraCbuRt EdlesayraCübnþBIRBHGgÁeT eKRKan;EtdwgfaeK)anbBa©úHRBHGdæiFaturbs;RBHGgÁkñúgectiymYy enA elIPñMctumµúx Rtg;RCúgxagBay½Bü. tamemIleTA RBHGgÁRbEhlCamanRBHCnµ)an10qñaMeTot ehIy)anRKb;RKgRBHraCaNacRk rhUtdl;eBlRTg;suKtenAkñúgqñaM1431 BIeRBaHvahak;dUcCamancenøaHcab;BIRtwmeBlEdlRBHGgÁdak; raCsm,tþi mkdl;eBlEdlRBHnrayN_ramaFibtITTYlkarGPiesk. eKniyayfaRBHnrayN_rama)anksagBIr:amId5 mYy²mankm<s;120Em:Rt kñúgeBlEt 5Ex b:ueNÑaHk¾b:uEnþ´mindwgfaetIBIr:amIdTaMgenaHenAÉNaeTminmansMENsesssl;GVIbnþiceLIy. RBHnrayN_esayraCü)an5qñaMk¾suKteTAenAkñúgqñaM1436. RTg;manRBHraCbuRtmYyRBHGgÁ RBHnamfa RBHRsIsurieyaT½y. 1144-- RRBBHHrraammaaFFiibbttII ¬¬11443366--11446688¦¦ RBHGnuCrbs;RBHnrayN_ramaRBHnamRsIraCa)aneLIgesayraCübnþBIRBHeromkñúgRBHCnµ19 RBHvsSa eRkamRBHzan³fa semþcRBHRsIraCaFiraCramaFibtI. RKan;EteLIgRKgraCblø½gáPøam RBHraCaGgÁenHRtÚvRbyuT§Tb;Tl;CamYyRBHPaKienyüRsIsurieya T½yCaRBHraCbuRtrbs;RBHeromEdl)anekNÐT½BRbqaMg edIm,ITmøak;RBHGgÁecjBIraCsm,tþipg ehIy RtÚveFVIcm,aMgCamYyBYkesomEdlcUlmkdeNþImykExRtnKraC GgÁr nigcnÞtab‘un pg. RBHraCa)ancat;[RBHGnuCecABjaFemµaraCa39 ecjeTAerobcMkmøaMgTb;Tl;CamYyT½BRsYcrbs; esomenAGgÁrFM rYcehIybnÞab;BIRBHGnuCRtlb;mkctumµúxvij [yageTAkan;bNþaExRtxagt,Úg ekNÐT½B[)an12muWnnak;. eBlecABjaFemµaraCayageTAdl;)aPñM RTg;)anTTYldMNwgfa T½Besom )anqøgkat;RBMEdnvaycUlmkehIy ehIyRBHraCa CaRBHerom)anecjT½BeTATb;Tl;RbyuT§CamYy esom enARtwmExRt)at;dMbg. eBlenaHRBHRsIsurieyaT½yk¾eqøót»kasdeNþImykctumµúx)an 39 RBHraCbuRtrbs;RBHBjay:at CamYyGñkmñagesom.
  • 198. ehIy)ancUlkan;kab;ExRtsÞwgRtg; )arayN_ nigeCIgéRBpgEdr40 . eRkayBImankarRbyuT§CaeRcIn elIkeRcInsa esþcesomk¾cab;)anRBHraCanwgRBHGgÁm©as;EdlbHe)arykeTARsukesomeTA. ecABjaFemµaraCa )anRbEmRbmUlT½BRbjibRbjab;mkCYyctumµúx EtRtÚveFVIyuT§nakarGs; eBlminticCag3qñaMeT. TIbBa©b;T½Besom EdlRtÚvT½BExµrlbvayCajwkjy Gs;kmøaMg nig)at;bg; TahanGs;CaeRcIn k¾seRmcdkfyqøgEdneTARsukvij. RBHBjaFemµaraCa EdleBlenaHkan;tMENgCaraCanusiT§RBHraCaNacRk )anerobcMcat;taMg sñgkarraCkarPøam rYccat;GñkTaMgenaH[cuHeTAdwknaMbNþaExRtTaMgLay cab;BIExRtsMeragTgenAxag licPñMeBjBIxageRkayBjaB¤rhUteTAdl;TwkexµAenAtammat;smuRTxagTkSiN/nigBIekaHsøaEktenAkñúg ExRtlVaÉm rhUtdl;BamemsréRBnKr41 nigBamkeBa¢I ¬dIsNþTenøemKgÁ¦ edIm,ICMnYsecAhVayExRt EdldwknaMT½BEhhmeTA tamRBHraCa. bnÞab;mk RTg;)ancat;m®nþI[eTATUlRBHraCaGMBIGVIEdlRBHGgÁ )aneFVI nigkarEdl)anrYcxÜnmkvij ehIykMBugEtKg;enAÉbs©imburI. TTYl)andMNwgenH RBHraCa)anyagRtlb;cUlmkkñúgRBHnKrvijCamYynwgkgT½B nigBYkesom EdlRTg;)ancab;ykmkCaeQøIy. eBlyagmkdl;ExRt)at;dMbg RTg;)anbBa¢a[ecAhVayExRt naM kmøaMg5Ban;nak;eTAkan;qaghug42 edIm,IeRtómTb;Tl;T½BesomEdlRbúgEtnwgcUlmkmþgeTot cMENkxøÜn RBHGgÁ )anbnþyagmkKg;enAkñúgExRteBaFisat;. mkdl;eBaFisat; RTg;)anTTYlGñknaMsarrbs;RBH- FemµaraCaEdlnaMlixitmYyc,ab;mkfVayRBHGgÁedayfVayeyabl;fasUm[esþcyageLIgeTAxageCIg edIm,IekogGñkGgÁm©as;RsIsurieyaT½yEdlKg;enATIenaH [yagcuHmkxagt,Úgvij nwgGaleFVIkar RbyuT§. Gnuvtþtameyabl;RBHFemµaraCa RBHraCa)anyageTAkan;ExRteCIgéRB nig)anCYbRbyuT§Ca eRcInelIk CamYyRBHRsIsurieyaT½yemk,t; EdlmankmøaMgticCag ehIyecHEtvayedaHédecjrYc eKcmkKg;enAkñúgExRtRsIsn§r e)aHbg;bNþaExRtEdlkan;kab;)anTaMgb:unµan[RBHraCavij. 196 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 40 ExRtTaMg3enHsßitenAelIRcaMgTenøemKgÁxagsþaMExRtTI1enAelIRcaMgTenøExRt2eTotenAbnþBIxageRkaytamlMdab; lMeday. 41 ExRtxagt,ÚgenHsBVéf¶KWsayhÁn eKehAdMbUgbg¥s;fa éRBKr minEmnéRBnKreT. 42 tamemIleTARbEhlKWcgðÚrfµenAelIsÞwgmgÁlburIcm¶ay42KILÚEm:Rtxaglic)at;dMbg.
  • 199. 197Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa enAeBlEdlT½Brbs;RBHraCaqøgTenø rYcmke)aHCMrMenARtg; xJÚgmhaesok ¬TIenHCaRsukrbs;´¦ Rsab;EtT½BRBHRsIsurieyaT½ymkdl; TaMgtameCIgTwkTaMgtameCIgeKak vays®gÁúbeTAelIT½BhøÜg enAeRtIyxaglic min[dwgCamun eFVI[T½BenaHbraC½yeTA. C½yCmñHrbs;BYkbHe)arenH )annaMmknUv C½yCmñHCabnþbnÞab;eTot ehIyBYkTahanhøÜgEdlekNÐmkBIExRtk¾cab;epþImlYcrt;eKceTARsukvijCa hUrEhEdr edayxøacRBHRsIsurieyaT½yeFVI)abRKÜsar. karrt;ecalCYrd¾sn§wksn§ab;y:agenH rYmpSM CamYykarmkdl;énrdUvePøógpgeFVI[RBHraCaRtÚvbgç¿RBHT½ye)aHT½BenAkñúgExRtkMBg;esomnigsÞwgRtg; sinEtxøÜnRBHGgÁ cg;yagRtlb;mkctumµúxvij edIm,IekNÐT½BCafµIc,aMgCamYyRBHPaKienyü. k¾b:uEnþRBHFemµaraCa Edlyl;fas®gÁamenHnwglM)akehIyGUsbnøayeBlEvg ehIyxøÜnRBHGgÁ Gaceqøót»kaseLIgKg;elIblø½gáraC)an RTg;)ancab;epþImekNÐT½BkñúgbNþaExRtxagt,Úg nigxaglic ehIy)anepJIsarmYyeTAfVayRBHraCabBa©úHbBa©ÚlsuMkuM[RBHGgÁlHbg;bNþaExRtxageCIg[esaHeRBaH RBHRsIsueeyaT½yGacnwgyagcUlmkkan;kab;PøamenAeBll¶ac ebIRBHraCayagecjBIRBwk. tamBit KWRBHFemµaraCamanbMNgeFVIy:agNa[RBHraCaramaFibtIXøatkan;Etq¶ayBIraCFanI. b:uEnþRBHraCamin )andwgGMBIbMNgGaRkk;enHeT RTg;k¾eFVIdMeNIryagRtlb;eTAExRteBaFisat;vij tammtiRBHGnuCeTA. eBlenaHRBHFemµaraCa)anEbgEckT½BCaeRcInkg mYykgRTg;[mkQreCIgenA]dugÁ mYykgeToteTA QrenARtg;BamsÞwgRkaMgBénø kgTI3eTAQrenAxSac;kNþal nigkgTI4enAlVaÉm cMBImuxctumµúx. rYcehIyRTg;)ancat;[mankaryamkammWugm:at;tamRckrebogepSg² TaMgtameCIgeKak nigeCIgTwk CaBiessRckecjcUlBIxageCIgnigxagekIt.eFVIy:agenHeTIbRTg;GackarBarxøÜnRBHGgÁBIRBHraCaCa RBHerompg nigRBHRsIsurieyaT½yCaRBHPaKienyüpg. T½Brbs;RBHFemµaraCamankarhVwkhat;Caerogral;éf¶enActumµúx ehIyk¾manGavuFyuT§PNÐ sm,Úr EbbeTotpg. raCFanImankMEBgkarBarrwgmaM manes,ógRKb;RKan;. rYcehIyRBHGgÁ)ancat;bBa¢Ún RBHCayaTaMgGs;rbs;RBHraCaEdlKg;enAPñMeBj ehIyEdlEbkBIRBHraCayUrNas;mkehIy [eTA CYbCuMnwgRBHraCavij. eFVIdUecñHmann½yfa RTg;)ankat;pþac;TMnak;TMngCamYyRBHraCaCaeRsc ehIyk¾Ca sBaØaTUlRBHraCafa sUmkuM[RBHGgÁmanRBHT½ycg;Rtlb;mkkan;ctumµúxvijeFVIGVI. cMENkÉRBHx½nraCü ektnPNÐsmÁal;raCaniym RTg;min)anepJIfVayRBHraCaeT KWRTg;rkSaTukxøÜn RBHGgÁÉg EdlCaehtueFVI[eXIjy:agc,as;GMBIEpnkark,t;rbs;RBHGgÁEdl)anerobcMeLIgy:agl¥ taMgBIyUryarNas;mkehIy rhUtmkdl;eBlenH. RBHraCa k¾cab;mineBjRBHT½ynwgsarlixit nigTUtrbs;RBHFemµaraCa ehIyRTg;manRBHbnÞÚlfa
  • 200. RTg;nwgekNÐT½BedIm,IvaycUlctumµúxbeNþjRBHGnuCecj rYcyageTARsIsn§reFVIs®gÁam CamYy RBHPaKienyüCabnþeTot. k¾b:uEnþnamuWnsBVmuxm®nþI)anfVayeyabl;fa sUm[RBHGgÁKg;enAes¶ómhak; dUcCamindwgGVIsin edIm,IkuM[BYkk,t;TaMg2cgsm<½n§emRtICamYyKñaRbqaMgnwgRBHGgÁ. RBHraCa)anyagmke)aHCMrMenAbribUN_EdlkaleNaHmaneQµaHfa GRmwtbUr43 edIm,I[RBHGgÁ gayRsYlkñúgkarRtÜtBinitübNþaExRtxaglic rYmmanrlaeb¥ór eBaFisat; )at;dMbg nignagrg EdlenA Cab;nwgRBMEdnesom/bNþaExRtxageCIgcab;BIkMBg;esomeCIgéRBeKakesH¬)arayN_¦sÞwgRtg;kMBg; sVay rhUteTAdl;eKakxan;EdlenAxagt,ÚgPñMdgErk nigsurinGgÁakEdlenAPaKxageCIgPñMpgEdr. enAeBlenaH RBHRsIsurieyaT½y k¾cat;[erobcMGPieskxøÜnRBHGgÁeRkamRBHzan³CaRBH)aT semþcesþcRBHraC»gáar RBHRsIsurieyaT½yraCaFiraC RBHraCaénRkúgRsIsn§rburaburI. RBHraCa NacRkRsIsn§renHrYmmanbNþaExRtEdlesþcbHe)arenHdeNþIm)anKWcab;BIt,ÚgXµúMRsIsn§r)aPñMrhUt eTAdl;)araCdugNayEdlenACab;nwgraCaNacRkcam:,a eBalKWTwkdITaMgGs;enAcenøaHCYrPñMGaNÑam nigTenøemKgÁcab;BIsm,ÚrcuHmkrhUteTAdl;mat;smuRTelIkElgEtlVaÉmnigéRBnKr¬sayhÁn¦ecj EdlsßitenAeRkamkarRtÜtRtarbs;RBHFemµaraCa KWRbhak;RbEhlCaTwkdIkm<úCaEdneKakBImun. kñúgeBlCamYyKñaenaH enActumµúxÉeNHvij namuWnsBVmuxm®nþIk¾)ansMNUmBr[RBHFemµaraCa eLIgesayraCCMnYsRBHeromCaRBHraCapgEdrEtRBHFemµaraCaeFVICaRbEkkehIymanRBHbnÞÚlfaRTg; cg;dwknaMbNþaExRtEdlTTYlsÁal;GMNacrbs;RBHGgÁ edIm,I[RbCanura®sþ)ansm,Úrsb,ayCagmun dUecñH RBHGgÁmincaM)ac;eFVICaRBHraCaeT. bNþaExRtEdlRBHFemµaraCaRKb;RKgnaeBlenaHman³enAxagliccab;BIsMeragTgrhUtdl;kMBg; esamenAelImat;smuRT/ enAxagekIt nigxagt,Úg cab;BIekaHsøaEktenAcenøaHédTenøemKgÁTaMg2 lVaÉm éRBnKr ¬sayhÁn¦ enAelImat;TenøFM rhUtdl;BamkeBa¢I ¬dIsNþTenøemKgÁ¦. dUecñHRBHraCaNacRkkm<úCaeBlenaHEckecjCa3eRkamkarRtÜtRtarbs;esþc3GgÁ KWRBHraCa eBjsiT§iRsIramaFibtIesayraCüenAxageCIgbribUN_/ esþcbHe)arRsIsurieyaT½yCaRBHPaKienyü rbs;RBHraCa esayraCüenAxagekIt nigesþcbHe)armYyGgÁeTotKWRBHFemµaraCa RtÚvCaRBHGnuCrbs; 198 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 43 GRmwtbur³ CaeQµaHTIRbCuMCnmYyenAelImat;TenøsabxagsþaM. raCFanIcugeRkayrbs;PUmamYyEdlsg;eLIgeday esþcGaLMRpak¾maneQµaHdUcKñaenHEdrfaGRmbur³.
  • 201. 199Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa RBHraCaesayraCüenAxagt,Úg. kñúgeBldMNalKñaenaH nKrcam:,a nigGaNÑamkMBugEtCab;eFVIs®gÁamnwgKñabnþmkCayUrqñaMehIy. BYkcamcaj;édBYkGaNÑam)anelIkRBHGgÁm©as;mhaKVIéLEdlRtÚvCaRBHPaKienyürbs;esþcmunehIy manedImkMeNItecjBIcam:,a EdlGaNÑamFøab;deNþImyk)anrYcmkehIy [eLIgesayraCü. RBHGgÁ m©as;cammYyGgÁeTotEdlminRBmcuHcUlCamYyGaNÑammanRBHnamfaeBaFirugÁkøaRtaRKútb¤eBaFiPInYs GaNÑamehAfa KVIdU )anekNÐT½BCaeRcInvaylukluyGaNÑam. esþcenH deNþIm)anExRt2 b:uEnþ RtÚv dkfyvijenAkñúgqñaM1445 eRkamkarvayRbharBIesþcGaNÑameLj:aj;tug44 EdldwknaMT½BCa 3kg vaydeNþImykTwkdImkvij nigtamvayrhUtdl;mkkñúgRBHraCaNacRkEfmeTot. eBlenaHesþccam )anbBa¢ÚnsarmksuMCMnYyBIRBHRsIsurieyaT½y tamry³ecAhVayExRt)araCdugNay. RBHRsIsuri eyaT½y min)anbBa¢ÚnT½BeTACYycameT RBHGgÁmanRBHbnÞÚlfa RBHraCaNacRkkMBugEtmans®gÁam Edr. KµanCMnYyBIExµr esþccamk¾RtÚvbraC½y GaNÑamcab;)anCaeQøIy ehIyRsukcamk¾RtÚvEbgEck Ca {raCaNacRktUcFM} sßitenAeRkamGMNacesþccamepSg²EdlsßiteRkamkarRtÜtRtarbs;er:suIdg; GaNÑammñak;. manBYkcamCaeRcInnak;CaBiessKWBYkEdl)ants‘URbyuT§rhUtdl;dMNak;kalcugeRkayrYmman BYkm®nþI nigesnaEhhmpg minRBmTTYlykGaNaniKmrbs;GaNÑameT emø:aHehIyk¾naMKñart;mkRCk ekanenAkm<úCa. xøHeToteKcxøÜneTArs;enACamYyBYkBñg emag rEd car:ay nigm:y. enAkñúgqñaMenaHRBHraCaTisxageCIgRBHramaFibtIEdlKg;enAÉGRmwtbUr¬bribUN_¦cenøaHkMBg;qñaMg nigeBaFisat; )ansresrlixitmYyepJIfVayRBHGnuCCaraCanusiT§enATisxagt,Úg sUm[epJIRBHx½nraCü GaveRkaHsRmab;Tahan esH nigdMrI EdlRBHGgÁ)anRbEmRbmUlenActumµúxBImun mkfVayRBHGgÁ. RBHFemµaraCa )anRbEkkminRBmRbKl;mk[eT edayRTg;manRBHbnÞÚlfaektnPNÐTaMgGs; Carbs; sRmab;raCFanI b:uEnþRTg;yl;RBmepJIGaveRkaH20sRmab;²BlreTH b¤´brreTH. RBHraCa xJal;CaxøaMg nwgcemøIyrbs;RBHGnuC ehIyk¾R)ab;GñknaMsarfaRBHGnuC)anepJIGaveRkaHBIsm½ymun EdleKElg eRbIeTAehIy RTg;mincg;)aneT. rYcehIy)ank¾[GñknaMsarenaHeTAsuMykektnPNÐ saCafµIeLIgvij nig)ancat;mnusSdéT[eTActumµúxCYysuMCaeRcIndgpgEdr EttRbeyaCn_. RBHFemµaraCa bdiesF 44 manRBHnammYyeTotfa bg;KI.
  • 202. minRBmRbKl;RBHx½nraCü GaveRkaH esH nigdMrI mkfVayRBHeromeT. enARKisþskraC1468 RtÚvnwgmhaskraC1390 nigculøskraC830 RBHFemµaraCa EdlkalBIb:unµanqñaMmunRbEkkminRBmeLIgesayraCü )an[eKGPieskRBHGgÁeRkamRBHnamfa semþc esþcRBHraC»gáar RBHFemµaraCaFiraCramaFiraCaFibtI RBHraCaénkm<úCa. eBlenaHRTg;manRBHCnµ 22 RBHvsSa. RBHmehsITI1rbs;RBHGgÁEdlCab;sac;sarelahitraCvgS )anRtÚveKdMeLIgCaRBHGKÁ mehsI manRBHzan³CasemþcRBHPKvtIeTBFItaraCeTvI. bnÞab;mkRBHraCa)ankMNt;zan³ nigsBaØa smÁal;bNþam®nþIRBHraCvaMgsmaCikRBHraCvgSanuvgSehIy)anelIkbNþaGñkEdltamdEgðRBHGgÁCa m®nþITaMgGs;45 . dMNwgGMBIkarelIkRBHFemµaraCa[eLIgesayraCüdUecñH )aneFVI[RBHraCaRsIramaFibtI rwtEt xJal;xøaMgeLIg. RBHGgÁehobEtnwgerobcMT½BeFVIdMeNIrmkvaydeNþImykctumµúx beNþjesþcERCkraCü ecjeTAehIy Rsab;EtesþcbHe)armYyGgÁeTotKWRBHRsIsurieyaT½yEdlKg;enAÉRsIsn§r )anvay deNþImyksÞwgRtg;)an enAedImrdUvvsSa. T½BEdlekNÐbRmúgykmkvayesþcenActumµúxk¾RtÚvbMEbr [eTAvayesþcenARsIsn§rvij. mankarCYbRbyuT§CaeRcInelIkeRcInsaenAkñúgExRtsÞwgRtg; k¾b:uEnþ KµanQñHKµancaj;. eBlrdUvsabeRBaHmkdl; T½BTaMg2xagk¾rMsayecjedIm,I[BlTahaneTAeFVIERs cmáarsin¬1469¦. RBHraCaNacRkmanesþc3RBHGgÁRbqaMgKñaenAesayraCü3kEnøgb:uEnþminc,aMgKñaeT hak;bIdUc Ca)anTTYlsÁal;karEbgEckTwkdIrvagKñanwgKñamansnþiPaBbeNþaHGasnñcab;taMgBIqñaM1467rhUtdl; qñaM1473eTIbcab;mankarRbyuT§KñaeLIgvij. enAqñaM1474 RBHraCaTisxageCIg eRkayBIerobcMksagTUksMeBA)anmYycMnYn nigRbEmRbmUl es,ógRKb;RKan; k¾cab;epþImebIkkarvayRbhareTAelIRBHPaKienyüCaesþcenARsIsn§r. RBHraCa RsIsn§r )anbeBa©jkmøaMgT½Bsn§wksn§ab;Tb;Tl;tvij TaMgxageCIgTwkTaMgxageCIgeKakeFVI[RBHraCa TisxageCIgminGaceFVIGVI)an. eBlenaH RBHraCaenAÉctumµúxk¾)anerobcMkmøaMgT½BpgEdr eRtómxøac ERkgkarRbyuT§ehormkdl;nwgGalRcanecj eTaHCamkBIxageCIgb¤BIxagekItkþI. 200 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 45 raCBgSavtar)anniyayfa enAqñaMenaHmanrBa¢ÜyRBHFrNIGs;ry³eBl 5em:ag tamemIleTARbEhlCakarrBa¢Üy bnþbnÞab;kñúgry³eBl 5em:ag.
  • 203. 201Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa GaRs½yedayRBHraCaTaMg3RBHGgÁ nigBlerh_TaMgGs;RtÚvkan;GavuFeRtómCab;Canic© nigeday s®gÁamépÞkñúgGUsbnøaypgenaH bNþa[RbeTsmanGnaFibetyüCaxøaMg. enAtamRsukERscmáarman ekItecar xµÜj GMeBIlYcqk;ekIneLIg eFVI[RbCanura®sþEdlRtÚvrgkarqk;bøn;Cab;Canic© rgTukçevTnaCa xøaMg. mü:ageTot raCaNacRkRtÚvrgkarKMramBIBYkesomEfmeTot EdllUkédcUlmképÞkñúg edayman sMNUmBrGnþraKmn_BIRBHFemµaraCa Edl)anepJIsarlixitmYyc,ab;eTAesþcesom. esomcUllukluykm<úCaenAdMNac;rdUvvsSa kñúgExGsSúC eRbIT½B3muWnnak;dwknaMedayecABja mñak;RBHRsICatikmñak;nigedayRBHetCaEdlCaraCTUtrbs;RBHFemµaraCamkcuHk):al;enAExRtkMBtnig Bam¬sBVéf¶KWhaeTog¦rYcedIrtampøÚvbnÞaymassMedAmkrkctumµúx.cMENkÉesþcesomvijEdlRKg semøókbMBak;cm,aMg )anyagelIxñgdMrIecjdMeNIrmk)at;dMbg. esþcesommanT½BRsYcmYykg sßit enAeRkambBa¢akarrbs;]kj:aRkLaeham emT½BxageCIgTwk/ T½BsøabeqVgmYykg bBa¢aeday]kj:acRkI emT½BdMrIb¤rdæm®nþIxags®gÁam/ ehIynigT½BsøabsþaMmYykgeTotsßitenAeRkambBa¢akarrbs;BjaRBH XøaMg rdæm®nþIxagesdækic©. eBlenaHRBHFemµaraCa)andwknaMT½BecjBIctumµúx eFVIdMeNIreq<aHeTATisxageCIg. RTg;)anyag mke)aHCMrMenAGRmwtrNbur³ sg;raCBnøamYyrg;caMTTYlesþcesom Edlyagkat;tam)at;dMbg eBaFi- sat; nigRkaMg. esþcesomnigRBHFemµaraCaCYbKñaenAbribUN_enaHehIyedayesþcesommanRBHCnµticCagRTg; ehARBHFemµaraCafaRBHeromÉRBHFemµaraCaehAesþcesomfaRBHGnuC.esþcTaMg2GgÁBiPakSaKñaGMBI EpnkarRbyuT§EdlRtÚvGnuvtþ rYc)andwknaMT½BsMedAeTAeLamB½T§vayExRtkMBg;esom EdlCaraCFanI rbs;RBHraCaTisxageCIg. RBHraCaTisxageCIgRsIramaFibtI k¾RbCuMnamuWnsBVmuxm®nþIsaksYreyabl; m®nþImYycMnYn fVay RBHeyabl;fa edayRBHGgÁmanT½BticCagT½BsRtÚv NamYyes,ógk¾xVHxatpg RBHGgÁminKYrRbyuT§ tbteT KYrsakl,gsuMcgsm<½n§emRtICamYyRBHraCactumµúxvij. k¾b:uEnþBYkemT½BRbEkkminRBmÉkPaB CamYymtik,t;EbbenHeT eKRbkasfaRtÚvEteFVIs®gÁamrhUtGvsanCIvit edIm,IkarBarRBHraCaNacRk RbqaMgnwgBYkesom nigBYkExµrRkúmesþcFemµaraCa. RBHRsIramaFibtI)anyl;RsbtammtiBYkm®nþI Edlmincg;eFVIs®gÁam ehIy)anseRmcfanwgsuMcuHcaj;RBHGnuC CaRBHraCaERCkraCüenActumµúx. RTg;)ancat;]kj:aeyamraC rdæm®nþIyutþiFm’ nig]kj:avaMg Cardæm®nþITTYlkic©karRBHraCvaMg [eTAcrca BIkarsuMcuHcUlrbs;RBHGgÁenH.
  • 204. eK)anÉkPaBKñafanwgerobcM[mankarCYbKñarvagesþcTaMg3GgÁenAkñúgExRtsMeragTgkñúgCMrMmYy EdleKsg;RBHBnøaCabnÞan;sRmab;RBHraCa nigm®nþIrbs;RBHGgÁ EdlyagmkedayminmanGavuFCab; mkCamYypgeT. esþcesom)anRbkasfa RBHGgÁEdlyagmkkm<úCaeBlenH KWedIm,ICYyerobcM snþiPaBnigbBa©b;s®gÁamrvagRBHbitulanigRBHPaKienyüEdlmanry³eBlCayUryarNas;mkehIy ehIyminmanQñHmancaj;. rYcRTg;manbnÞÚleTAkan;RBHraCakm<úCafa {edIm,IplRbeyaCn_RBHBuT§ sasna nigedIm,IerobcMRbeTsTaMgmUl[mansNþab;Fñab;eLIgvij sUmesþcyagecjBIRBHnKreTAKg; enAÉRbeTsesom ehIysUmRbKl;RBHraCbuRtrbs;RBHGgÁ BjaGug [TUlRBHbgÁ¿eFVICabuRtciBa©wm EfrkSateTA. m®nþITaMgGs;GacnwgtamRBHGgÁeTARsukesom b¤mineTAtamcitþcg;}. manRBHbnÞÚlcb; esþcesomdak;bBa¢a[BlesnatamBinitüskmµPaBrbs;RBHraCakm<úCa[Cab; rYcyagcUlkñúgRBHBnøa)at;eTA rYcehIy)ancat;m®nþImñak;[eTAyagRBHRsIsurieyaT½ymkCYbRBHGgÁ. esþcdeNþImraCüTisxagekItenHrIkrayxøaMgNas; nwgeXIjRBHbitulaRsIramaFibtI Cab;CacMNab;xµaMg rbs;esþcesom. RTg;manRBHtRmiHfaRBHraCaNacRknwgRtÚvEbgEckEt2cMENkrvagxøÜnRBHGgÁ nig RBHbitulaFemµaraCa EdlmanRBHCnµticCagRBHGgÁpgenaH RTg;k¾yagmkCYbesþcesom. eBlmkdl; RBHRsIsurieyaT½yeXIjRBHFemµaraCa Kg;enAcaMCamYyesþcesomenAkñúgRBHBnøaCa eRsc. esþcesom TTYlsVaKmn_RBHGgÁBIelIRBHBnøamk edaymanRBHbnÞÚlfa RBHGgÁ)aneFVIs®gÁam CamYyRBHbitulayUrehIymincaj;minQñH LÚvenH RBHbitula)anseRmcyagecjBIRBHnKreTAKg; enAÉRsukesomehIy dUecñHvaminyutþiFm’eTebIsinCaRBHGgÁenAKg;kñúgRbeTs. bnÞab;mk esþcesom )anyagRBHsurieyaT½y cUlkñúgbnÞay rg;caMeBlecjdMeNIreTAkan;Rsukesom. RBHRsIsurieyaT½yehobEtnwgeFVItambBa¢aesþcesomeTAehIy Rsab;EtTahanrbs;RBHGgÁ EdlBinitüeXIjfaRBHGgÁkøayCacMNab;xµaMgrbs;esþcesom )annaMKñasRmúkcUlmkkñúgbnÞaytam RBHGgÁ k¾ekItCaCemøaHeLIgCamYyT½BesomEdlraraMgpøÚv b:uEnþRtÚvedjvayEbkExJkKñaeTARsukvij Gs;. 1155-- RRBBHHFFeemmµµaarraaCCaa ¬¬11446688--11550044¦¦ RBHFemµaraCa nigRBHraCaesom)aneFVIdMeNIrCamYykgT½Bmkkan;lEgVk edaynaMykRBHraCa cMNab;xµaMgTaMg2GgÁEdlRtÚvykeTAkan;GyuFüa mkCamYypg. mkdl;raCFanIrbs;km<úCaxageCIgenH esþcTaMg2 )anfVayvtßúGnusSavrIy_KñaeTAvijeTAmk rYcehIyesþcesom k¾bnþdMeNIreTAeBaFisat; 202 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 205. 203Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa )at;dMbg mgÁlburI RsIb£sSIsaj; )aTg nigTgEksMedAeTArkRBHraCFanIRBHGgÁeTA46 . bNþaRKÜsar esom EdlesþcExµr)anekNÐmkCamYyBImun k¾naMKñaeFVIdMeNIrtamT½Besom Rtlb;eTARsukvijEdr. enAeBlenaH RBHFemµaraCa )anyagRtlb;mkkan;ctumµúxvij rYcehIyRTg;)anecjbBa¢a[T½B esomEdleFVIdMeNIrmktamsmuRTRbjibRbjab;cuHTUkecjtamsÞwgbnÞaymasnigBamRtlb;eTAvij Edr. niyayBIesþcesomvijeRkayBIqøgputRBMRbTl;EdnehIy)anbBa¢a[T½Be)aHCMrMsRmak3éf¶. enAeBlenaH RBHramaFibtI EdlRbEkkBuMRBmesayGahar nigminRBmRsg;Twkcab;taMgBIeBlecj dMeNIrBIlEgVkmk k¾Føak;xøÜnRbQYnrYcsuKteTAedayTukçesakseRgg nigGt;Gahar. esþcesom )an erobcMsBRBHraCadak;kñúgmQUsRbKl;[ BjaGug CaraCbuRtrbs;RBHGgÁ. RBHBjaGugenH esþc esom )ansuMeFVICabuRtciBa©wm rYcfVayRBHzan³CaRBHsupanraCa KWCazan³rbs;RBHraCbuRtc,grbs; esþcenARsukesom. eRkaymk esþcesom)anelIk[eFVICaecAhVayExRtsuvNÑelak nigerob GPieskbuRtIrbs;RBHGgÁ[CaRBHCaya. cMENkRBHsurieyaT½yvij )ansuKt)at;eTA eRkayBIyageTAdl;GyuFüa)an 15éf¶. Gs;GVInwgKYr[)armÖeTotRBHFemµaraCa)andwknaMkm<úCaRbkbedayyutþiFm’.RTg;)andMeLIgzan³ esnaEdlesµaHRtg;nwgRBHGgÁ[kan;muxgarsMxan;²kñúgRBHraCaNacRkrYc)ancat;[ksagsalaqTan edIm,IRTg;yagmkEckGMeNay[RbCara®sþRkIRk. enAqñaM1495 énRKisþskraC RTg;)anelIkElg min[ykBn§garBIRbCara®sþcMnYn 3qñaM. raCBgSavtar)anelIkGMBIRBHraCaGgÁenH faCakSRt]sSah_Büayam cUlcitþkarsikSa ehIy RTg;ecHcaMrt;mat;Km<IrRBHéRtbidkcab;BIedImrhUtdl;cb;. RBHGgÁ)anbric©aKraCRTBüCaeRcIndak;Tan[ RbCara®sþ ehIy)ansuMxmaeTasGMBIsMNak;sasnikCn. eKniyayfaRBHGgÁEfmTaMg)anGFib,ay GMBIRBHFmµcRkkb,vtþnsURt EckCUnm®nþIesnabtIrbs;RBHGgÁCaTIsNþab;eTotpg ehIyRTg;eQVg yl;fa RBHGgÁ KWCaRBHeBaFistVmYyGgÁ. eKniyayfa eRkayBIRTg;yl;subinmYyrYcmk RBHGgÁ)ancat;[ksagvihar nigectiy enAPñM snÞúk nig)ancat;[qøak;cmøak;rak;erobrab;GMBIRBHBuT§GgÁKg;Qr nigpÞúM rUbRKúD rUbRBhµ nigrUbsigð enAelI 46 enHKWCapøÚvBI)at;dMbgeTAGyuFüaBImun.
  • 206. PñMenHpgEdr. BIrqñaMeRkaymk eK)annaMykRBHsarIrikFaturbs;RBHBuT§ EdleKniyayfa RBHefag)anTTYl muneBlRBHGgÁyagecjBINÐamkkan;km<úCa ykmkbBa©úHenAkñúgRBHectiyenH. eK)anerobcMeFVIBiFI sem<aFRBHectiyenHcMnYn15éf¶kñúgedImExktþik qñaM148747 . kñúgBiFIenaHRBHraCa)ansagRBHpñÜs manRBHnamfaRBHmløiv½nbuKÁelasVami.enAeBllacaksikçabTmkvijRTg;)aneFVIGMeNaydl;vtþfµIenH nUvPUmicMnYn21ERscMnYn21´Rbús21nak;´RsI21nak;reTHeKa21eRKÓgreTHRkbI21eRKÓgesH 21k,al dMrI21k,al48 ]bkrN_t®nþImYysRmab; RBmTaMgBlCa´RbúsRsIsRmab;EfTaM RBHvihar RBHectiy nigcegáógsRmab;dutbMPøWeTotpg. eK)anrkeXIjGkSrcarwkenAelIsilamYyduMEdlkb;kñúgdImanesckþIfa³{TUlbgÁ¿Ca´sUmRbkUk Rbkasdl;Gs;bNþaeTvtaTaMgLayenAelIemX EdlRbkbeTAedaykmøaMgGPinihar sUmGs;elakeFVI CasakSIcMeBaHkarbric©aKTaMgGs; EdlTUlbgÁ¿Ca´)aneFVIcMeBaHRBHsarIrikFaturbs;RBHBuT§GgÁenH nig sUm[kuslplbuNü)anmkBITanenH sßitesßrGs;kal5Ban;qñaM eTAehag}49 . RBHraCaGgÁenH )anFøak;xøÜnRbQYn enAkñúgqñaM1504 rYcsuKteTA kñúgRBHCnµayu 57RBHvsSa eRkayBIesayraCsm,tþi)an37qñaM RKb;RKgenAelIRBHraCaNacRkkm<úCaTaMgmUl. eKniyayfa eK)anykRBHGdæiFaturbs;RBHGgÁeTAbBa©úHenAkñúgRBHectiyPñMsnÞúk Ek,rRBHsarIrikFaturbs;RBHBuT§. 204 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 47 raCBgSavtarniyayfa eK)anykRBHsarIrikFaturbs;RBHBuT§GgÁ mktmál;enAkñúgectiyenH edaydak;kñúgekadæ masmYy enAkñúgR)asaTeFVIGMBIs<an;Rkhm R)asaTenaHÉgenABIelITRmeFVIGMBIeQIxøwmcnÞn_. enABIelIR)asaTmanesVt cä½RtmasmYy EdlRBHraCaRTg;)anRbKl;máúd nigeRKÓgGlgáarepSg² [ykmkeFVI. enACuMvijR)asaTenH eKdak;rUb bdimaeFVIGMBImas nigR)ak; EdltMNagRBHGrhnþepSg²lutCgÁg;RbNmüEbreTArkRBHsarIrikFatu nigmanrUbbdima xøH eTot eFVIGMBImasEdr kan;fasdak;semøókbMBak;TaMgbItamCMenO cMNIGaharQ¶úyq¶aj; nigFUbRkGUb. RBHmhakSRtiy_ )anRbTaneRKÓgGlgáar Éna muWnsBVmuxm®nþI RsIsñM nigraCvgSanuvgSsuT§Et)anbric©aKRTBüFneTAtamsmtßPaB. RBHraCamanRBHbnÞÚlfa RBHsarIrikFaturbs;RBHBuT§enH )anmkBIRBHefag EdlRTg;naMykBIRbeTsNÐa mkkan; RBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa. 48 cMnYn21enHKWCaRBHCnµrbs;RBHraCa enAeBlEdlRBHGgÁTTYlkarGPieskCaRBHraCaenAraCFanIctumµúx. CaFmµta enAeBlEdlRBHraCamYyGgÁsuKteTAeKqøak;rUbstVenAelIekadæEdldak;RBHsBtamcMnYnRBHCnµrbs;RBHGgÁ. 49 raCBgSavtar)anelIkGMBIkarTak;)andMrIsmYyenAkñúgExRteBaFisat; enAqñaM1494. dMrIsenaHeK)anGPieskdak; eQµaHfa RBHesVtmgÁlraChb£T½yBiC½ycRttþ³.
  • 207. 205Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 1166-- RRBBHHRRssIIssuuKKnn§§bbTT ¬¬11550044--11551122¦¦ RBHraCbuRtc,grbs;RBHFemµaraCaRBHnamfadgçtþiyraCaEdlmanRBHCnµ32RBHvsSa)aneLIg esayraCübnþBIRBHbita edaymanRBHGPiesknamfa RBH)aTsemþcesþcRBHraC»gáarRBHRsIsuKn§bT RBhµRBwT§raCaFiraCramaFibtI RBHecAmhanKrkm<úCaFibtI. karelIkRBHsuKn§bT[eLIgesayraCüenH)aneFVI[RBHGnuCrbs;RBHGgÁRBHnamRBHc½nÞraCa min sb,ayRBHT½y k¾yagmkKg;enAÉctumµúx ekNÐT½BbHe)arRbqaMgeLIg50 . RBHc½nÞraCaenH RTg;RbsUt enAeBlEdlmanc®nÞRKas edayehtuenHehIyeTIb)anCaeKfVayRBHnamdUecñH. eRkayGPiesk)anbnþicesþcsuKn§bT)anyagcakecalraCFanIlEgVkmkKg;enATYl)asankñúg ExRtRsIsn§rvij CaTIkEnøgEdlRBHGyüekarbs;RBHGgÁ ecABjay:at )aneRCIserIsCaraCFanImun nwgyageTAKg;enAÉctumµúxb¤PñMeBj.raCBgSavtarniyayfaRBHGgÁsBVRBHT½ynwgTItaMgenHEdlgay RsYlkñúgkarkarBar BIeRBaHsßitenAcenøaHbwgFMmYyenAxagekIt nigTenøemKgÁenAxagGaeKñy_ nigéRB. enAeBlenaH51 manbursmñak;eQµaHfaBiC½ynaKnigRbBn§eQµaHfaEm:)anmanedImkMeNItCaBl 50 RBHc½nÞraCaRTg;RbsURtenAkñúgqñaM1486 CaraCbuRtmehsITI2manRBHnamfa RBHmeyaeTBbu)aö. RTg;)anRtÚv RKÜsarelakymraCykeTAciBa©wmbI)ac;EfrkSa tamemIleTARbEhledaysarRBHmataenaH CabuRtIelakymraC. cMENkRBHeromCaRBHraCavijRTg;manRBHCnµeRcInCag13RBHvsSaehIyCaraCbuRtRBHmehsITI1EdlCaRBHraCvgS EdrRBHnamfaRBHRBakvtIRsIFItaEdl)anerobGPieskCamYyRBHFemµaraCa.edayehtuenHRBHeromenHmansiT§ieBj eljnwgbnþraCüBIRBHbita. eyIgmindwgfa ehtuGVI)anCaRBHc½nÞraCabHRbqaMgeTAvij. 51 enAkñúgesovePARbvtþisa®sþkm<úCaEdl´sUmeFVIkarbkERbCUndUcteTAenH mancMNucmYyEdlelIkeLIgdUecñHfa ³ {LÚvenHeyIgsUmniyayGMBIRbvtþirbs; BiC½ynaK. erOgenHKµanenAkñúgraCBgSavtareT EtmanenAkñúgsavtarrbs; ExRt} b:ueNÑaH. tamemIleTAeK)anluberOgenHecjBIraCBgSavtartaMgBIyUrNas;mkehIyBIeRBaHKµanÉksarNamYyniyayGMBI erOgenHeT. enHRbEhledaysarRBHraCakm<úCayl;fa erOgenHminl¥. EtsemþcsgÇraCelakmin)anKitGMBIPaB GaRkk;l¥GVIeT elak)anRsg;ykmkcuHkñúgRbvtþisa®sþ edaymankarÉkPaBBIsmaCikKN³kmµkarerobcM eRBaHfa erOg enHenAmaneKniTant²KñaEtdUecñHrYcmkehIy. eyIg)aneXIjBIxagelIrYcmkehIyfa esþcneratþm EdlerobcMbegáIt KN³kmµkarenHeLIg)anykÉksarenHeTAcak;esaTukBIeRBaHEterOgRtg;enHÉgEdlRBHGgÁmanRBHbnÞÚlfaeFVI[l¥k; kkrdl;Rbvtþirbs;RBHraCvgSanuvgSkm<úCa.
  • 208. RBH52 )anykbuRtIrbs;xøÜnEdlmanrUbrags¥atRbwmRbIy_ mkfVayRBHraCa53 . RBHraCa )anEtgtaMg nagCasñMÉk eBalKWCasñMeqñImCageKbnÞab;BIRBHmehsI rYcelIkBiC½ynaKCam®nþI ÉEm:)an RtÚvEtgtaMg CanaKEm:)annigEtgtaMgb¥ÚnRbússñMÉkeQµaHnayknCamhatlik.eRkaymkBlRBHenH)anTTYl zan³Ca ]kj:amuWnesñhacmcitþ. RKÜsarenHdl;eBlmanRTBüFn)ankøayCaeTACaRKÜsarmYymanT§iBlenAkñúgRbeTsehIyman mnusSCaeRcIncUlmkrksuMRCkekan54 . KWenAeBlenaHehIyEdlRBHraCaseRmcRBHT½ycg;ls;la sñMÉk nigb¥ÚnRbús [rYccakBIzan³CaBlRBH BIeRBaHfatamFmµta GñkNaekItmkCaBlRBH enAEtCa BlRBHrhUtebIeTaHbICamankarelIktemáIgdUcemþckþI.RTg;)ansaksYreyabl;esnam®nþI²TUltbeTA vijfa RKÜsarBlRBHminGacnwgrYccakBIzan³enH)aneT BIeRBaHfaenAeBlEdleKRbKl;RKÜsarNamYy [eTACaBlRBH KWeKRbKl;sRmab;ry³eBl5Ban;qñaM eTaHCaRBHraCak¾minGacGnuvtþrMlgc,ab;enH cMeBaHmnusSEdlmineKarBsasnaRBHBuT§ nigrMlgEPñkRbCaCn)anEdr. mYyExeRkaymk enAeBlEdlRBHraCahak;dUcCaePøcbMNgcg;ls;;laenaHeTAehIy Rsab;Et sñMÉkFøak;xøÜnQW. edayRBHraCasBVRBHT½ynwgnagxøaMgeBk RTg;)anbn;Rsn;fasUm[nagCasHes,Iy vijcuHRBHGgÁnwgrkSazan³CaBlRBHrbs;nagedaysg;vtþmYysRmab;[nagmkbMeBjkatBVkic©cMeBaH RBHBuT§ CaRbcaM. sñMÉk)anCaBICMgWdUcRBHT½yEmn RBHraCaRTg;bBa¢a[sagsg;vtþmYytamkarbn;Rsn; edaye)aHsImaenARKb;RCúgdI. rYcehIyRTg;[)aMgRkNat;GmpøÚvedIrecjBIRBHraCvaMgeTAkan;vtþenaH edIm,IkuM[eKemIleXIjsñMÉkeFVIdMeNIreTAkan;vtþral;éf¶sIle)acesµACuMvijRBHvihardUcEdlBYkBlRBH EtgEteFVI. eRkaymkeTotRTg;)an[pøas;RkNat; edaydaMeQICarbgx<s;²vij ehIyvtþenaH k¾RtÚv eKehAfaCavtþéRB)aMgrhUtmk.RBHraCamanraCbuRtCamYysñMÉkenHmYyGgÁRBHnamfaBjays. RBHraCak¾cg;dMeLIgzan³[b¥ÚnRbúsrbs;sñMÉkeLIgCam®nþÍEdr EtRBHGgÁxøacmanBaküninÞaBInamuWn sBVmuxm®nþI EdlcgcaMminePøcnUvzan³CaBlRBHrbs;eK emø:aHehIy)anRtwmEtdMeLIg[eTACa XunhøÜg RBHesþcsmhesnaFibtI Edlmanm®nþI4rUbenAeRkambBa¢a RtÜtRtaelIBlRBHTaMgGs; nigCaGñkRtÜt 206 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 52 BlRBHrtnRt½y. 53 Tmøab;ykkUnRsIeTAfVayesþcenH BImunmanenAkñúgRbeTscam:,a LÚvenHeyIgeXIjfamanGnuvtþEdrenAkm<úCa. 54 enAsm½yenaHmankarsagsg;b¤CYsCulCafµIeLIgvijnUvvtþCaeRcIn.vtþnaKEm:)anRtÚvsagsg;eLIgEdredayRTBü rbs;Em:)an.
  • 209. 207Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa BinitüTMenomTmøab;b:ueNÑaH55 . RTg;k¾[TTYlbnÞúkpgEdrkñúgkardak;eTasBin½ycMeBaHGMeBIqÁaMqÁgTaMgLay mankarmineKarBGacarü GñkR)aCJ nigcas;RBwT§acarü CaedIm. )aneLIgCam®nþIFMmñak;ehIyRtÚvCab¥Únéførbs;RBHraCanigCa«Bukmarbs;RBHraCbuRtpgnaykn ePøckMeNItedImrbs;xøÜnCaBlRBH ehIycab;taMgmak;gaym®nþIÉeTot² eFVI[m®nþITaMgenaHnaMKñas¥b;KuM CaxøaMg cg;EtraykarN_fVayRBHraCa. éf¶mYykñúgExEcRtqñaM1508 enAeBlraRtIbnÞab;BIéf¶cUlqñaMTI1 RBHraCa)anyl;subineXIjfa RBHnKrmanekalahlRBHGgÁnigBlesnaTaMgLayRtÚvstVnaKFMmYyedjRBÜsBisnigePøIgdak;eFVI[ eqHqabraCFanIrYcnaKenaH)anmkqk;ykesVtcäRtBaMrt;eTATisxagekIt)at;eTA.RBHraCaPitP½ytkáma nwgsubinenH RTg;k¾yageTAkan;eragCMnuMEdlmanraCvgSanuvgS nigm®nþIGñkmuxGñkkarcaMKal;enATIenaH. eKnaMKñafVayRBHKgÁa fVayeTon nigmaladl;RBHGgÁ RBHGgÁk¾fVayRBHBrdl;GñkTaMgGs;Kña[)anesckþI suxsb,ay Rsab;EtRTg;EbrRBHP½®kþemIlcMXunhøÜgkneXIjmannaK2jIeQµalenABIelIk,al. q¶l; Nas; RTg;k¾sYreTAGñkEdlenACitRBHGgÁ etImanemIleXIjnaKTaMg2 dUcRBHGgÁEdreT eKeqøIyfa min eXIjeTCaehtueFVI[RBHGgÁrwtEtRBÜy)armÖxøaMgeLIg².enAeBlenaHecAhVayExRt)at;dMbg)anTUl RBHraCafaTwkeRCaHPñM)aNn;EdleKEtgEtRtgykmkfVayRBHraCaRsg;enaHRsab;EtLÚvenHERbCa manBN’RkhmdUcl½kþ. RBHraCaRTg;vitkáxøaMgNas; eBlyagcUlRkLabnÞM RTg;)an[eKehA RBHsI patmharaCRKÚCaemRkúm)arKUnigRBHeharaFibtIcUlKal;rYcRTg;GFib,ayGMBIsubinrbs;RBHGgÁnignaK EdlRBHGgÁTteXIjkñúgsalRbCuM. emRkúm)arKU TUlRBHraCafa kalBIRBwkenaH elak)anBinitüeXIj fa RBHx½nraCümanERcHTaMgenAkñúgeRsam EdlCaRbpñÚlminl¥eTcMeBaHRBHraCaNacRk. cMENkehara vij)anTUlRBHGgÁfaebItamk,ÜnelxGtþ³subinrbs;RBHraCanigkarTteXIjnaKrbs;RBHGgÁCasBaØa bBa¢ak;fa nwgmanmnusSekItqñaMeragmkdeNþImraCblø½gáBIRBHGgÁ ehIyeTAesayraCüenATisxagekIt. RBHraCaPitP½yxøaMgNas; eRBaHXunhøÜgknekItqñaMerag ehIykareqµIgke®nÞIgrbs; XunhøÜgkn 55 zan³enHBImunmkKµaneT esþcbegáIteLIgsRmab;Etb¥Únéføb:ueNÑaH. sBVéf¶zan³enHenAmanenAeLIy Et)andUreTACa ]kj:aRBHesþcGFibtI CacaghVagelI kic©karRBHsgÇraC TTYlbnÞúkRtÜtBinitüTMenomTmøab;saFarN³ nigkic©karsasna CaBiess. eyIg)aneXIjBIxagelIrYcmkehIyfa manRBHraCakm<úCa buraN k¾)anbegáItzan³mYyRbhak;RbEhlenH Edr.
  • 210. knøgmk EdleFVI[namuWnsBVmuxm®nþIxwgsm,as¥b;RKb;Kña k¾CasBaØamYybBa¢ak;fa GacnwgbgáeRKaH dl; RBHGgÁ)anEmn. em:øaHehIyRTg;k¾seRmcRBHT½yRtÚvEtkm©at;XunhøÜgknenHecj KWsmøab;enAéf¶Es¥k eBlRTg;ecjbg;sMNaj;. sñMÉkCabgnayknEdlBYnenABIxageRkayTVar )ansþab;B¤RBH»gÁarrbs;RBHraCaminsUvc,as;eT ehIyk¾minyl;TaMgGs;Edr Etkat;yl;fa RBHraCac,as;CaerobEpnkarGVImYyRbqaMgnwgb¥ÚnehIy. dl;Es¥keLIg nag)aneTAcUlrYmkñúgBiFIensaTRtIkMsanþrbs;RBHraCaCamYynwgRsIsñMÉeTot nigCMTav XunNagCaPriyam®nþITaMgLayEdredaynagKit)armÖBIb¥ÚnxøaMgNas;k¾sresrsMbuRtmYydak;bgáb;enA kñúg)ayBMnUt [PIelogGuMTUkykeTARbKl;[b¥ÚnRbús. XunhøÜgPJak;ep¥IlCaxøaMgenAeBleXIjbgRsIepJI )aymYyBMnUtmk[ k¾kat;yl;faR)akdCamanGVIsMxan;ehIy eTIbeKcxøÜneTAkM)aMgnwgKuem<atéRB ebIk )ayBMnUtemIleXIjlixitmYyEdlmanxøwmsarfa³{b¥ÚnRtÚvRby½tñxøÜneKcg;smøab;b¥ÚnehIy.ebIsin Ca RBHraCabBa¢a[b¥ÚnelatcUleTAkñúgTwk b¥ÚnminRtÚvRbEkkeT RtÚvelatcUltamRBHraCbBa¢a b:uEnþ RtÚv EhleKcxøÜnecj[q¶ayPøamBIkEnøgenaH ehIykuMvilRtlb;mkvij[esaH}. Gansarlixitcb; XunhøÜgPan;PaMgRsLaMgkaMg nigP½yj½rxøÜncMRbb; k¾elIklixitdak;elIk,al sMBHeLIg ehIyniyayeTAkan;eTvtafa {´m©as;CaPIelogEdlesµaHRtg; nigPkþIcMeBaHRBHraCaxøaMg Nas; ´min)andwgGVIeT sUmeTvtaTaMgLayelakCYykarBarxøÜn´pg ´KµanGñkNaeTotCYykarBar eRkABIRBHGgÁeLIy}. bn;Rsn;rYc XunhøÜg k¾Rtlb;mkCYbCuMCamYyBYkm®nþIvij. BiFIensaTRtIkmSanþk¾)ancab;epþIm RBHraCacab;bg;sMNaj;eTArkkEnøgEdleKcg¥úlbgðajfa manRtIeRcIn EdltamBitmansuT§Etb£seQI eFVIy:agNaedIm,I[sMNaj;Cab;. bnÞab;mk GVIEdleK)an eRKagTukk¾)anekItmaneLIg KWRBHraCa)anbBa¢a[XunhøÜgkn EdlBUEkEhlTwk elatcuHeTAedaH sMNaj;. knelatcUleTAkñúgTwktamRBHraCbBa¢a ehIyPøamenaHBYknamuWnsBVmuxm®nþIk¾cab;bg; sMNaj;eTAelIRBm²Kña edIm,I[fb;søab;kñúgTwkEtmþg. b:uEnþGtItBlRBH CamnusSqøat elatTwkPøam k¾ muCeTAeRCA eKcputBIsMNaj;TaMgLay rYcehIy)anEhlecjeTAq¶ayBITIkEnøgEdlmanGñkcg;smøab; xøÜn. Ehlq¶aybnþick¾eTAdl;kEnøgrak; GacedIr)ank¾bnøwmEtk,aledIm,IdkdegðIm. TIkEnøgEdl EhleTAdl;enaHKWbwgTTanayknk¾BYnsm¶Mlak;xøÜnenATIenaHeTA. enAeBlenaHenAÉkEnøgbg;sMNaj;ÉeNaHvijeK)ansegáteXIjfaKµansMNaj;NamYyEdl elIkmkCab;exµacnaykneLIy. RBHraCa)an[eKmuCTwkravrk k¾mineXIjexµac RTg;k¾RBHtRmiHfa {xøa 208 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 211. 209Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa rYcecjBIRTúgehIy éf¶NamYyvanwgvilRtlb;mksgKuNeyIgvijCaminxan}. RTg;)ancat;[esna TahantamrkEfmeTotEtrkmineXIj.naykn)aneKceTAdl;TIvtþGarammYyEdlxøÜnFøab;)anenAeron sURt ehIyRBHsgÇEdlFøab;ciBa©wmbI)ac; nigbgðat;beRgón )anRbedAfa[eKcxøÜneTATisxagekIt eTA rg;caMTTYlvasnarbs;xøÜn. nayknk¾eFVItambNþaMRKÚ eKclak;xøÜnGs;eBlCayUr rhUtdl;éf¶mYyk¾)anEpþpþaM[GñkbeRmIyk GavuFmk[enAkñúgéRBdarEdlxøÜnkMBugBYn rYck¾ecjdMeNIreTAkan;ExRt)aPñM. naykn)ansmøab; ecAhVayExRt)aPñM enAcMeBaHmuxBYkRkmkar edayelIkehtuplfaecAhVayExRt)aPñMenHk,t; cUléd CamYyRBHc½nÞraCa EdlRBHraCa)ancat;taMg[eFVICa]braC esayraCüenActumµúx Et)anRtÜtRtabNþa GaNaExRtPaKxaglicedIm,IEtplRbeyaCn_pÞal;rbs;xøÜnRBHGgÁ. bnÞab;mk k¾niyayeTAkan;BYkm®nþI EdlkMBugEtPitP½yfa xøÜnmkenHedIm,IGnuvtþbBa¢arbs;RBHraCa [eFVIXatecAhVayExRt rYcehIyekNÐ T½BmYykgenAkñúgExRt)aPñMenH. 2-3éf¶eRkaymk nayknk¾RbkasdMNwgfa T½BEdlxøÜnekNÐenH min EmnekNÐfVayRBHraCaeT KWekNÐpÞal;xøÜn edIm,IvaydeNþImykraCFanI)asan ehIyelIkkµÜyrbs;xøÜn ecABjays [eLIgRKgraCblø½gá. eK)anniyayfa {GñkNaEdlKµanbBaðaGVICamYyRBHraCa min)ac; cUlmkLÚkLMeT GaceFVIGVI)antamEtxøÜncg;beRmIRBHraCa. b:uEnþRtÚvdwgfa enAeBlEdl´deNþIm)anGM- Nac BlRBH TaMgGs;nwgTTYl)annUvesrIPaBCaGñkCa BYkGñkCaNaEdl)anbeRmI´nwgkøayeTACam®nþI ehIym®nþINaEdl)anbeRmI´nwgeLIgkan;EtFMeTot eTAtamkargarEdleK)aneFVI}. sunÞrkfaenH )anTak;Tajm®nþI nigGñkRsuk[mkcuHcUlCaeRcIn ehIyminyUrb:unµannayknk¾ mankgT½Bd¾rwgmaMmYyenAkñúgéd. naykn)anEckBlTahanecjCaeRcInkg ehIybBa¢a[ecjvay deNþImykbNþaExRtCitxag. RkúmbHe)arTTYlC½yCmñHy:agelOn rhUtTal;EtRBHraCaP½y)armÖCaxøaMg ehIyedaymankar fVayeyabl;BIelakymraCrdæm®nþIxagyutþiFm’pg RTg;)ancat;[GeBa¢IjRBHBiC½ynaKCa«Buknaykn mksresrGkçramYyc,ab; epJIeTAGeBa¢IjkUn[qab;cuHcUlmkvij. nagsñMÉkk¾)ansresrsMbuRtmYy c,ab;eTAEdr ehIy)anTaMgsnüafa RBHraCayl;RBmnwgelIknaykn[eLIgCam®nþICan;x<s;mñak;eTot pg.GanGkçrarbs;«BuknigbgRsIrYcnayknniyayR)ab;GñknaMsarrbs;RBHraCafaxøÜnnwgRtlb;cUl eTAkñúgraCFanIvij b:uEnþsUmrg;caMrMsaykgT½B nigbBa¢ÚnBYkem²[eTApÞHGs;sin. eBlBYkGñknaMsar ecjeTAputnaykn)anRbkasR)ab;RbCaCnfaRBHraCa)anEtgtaMgxøÜn[eLIgCaemT½BedIm,Ivaykm©at; ecABjac½nÞraCaEdleTIbEtcab;kan;GavuFRbqaMgnwgxøÜn nigfaebIGñkNasmøab;esþck,t;enH)an xøÜnnwg[
  • 212. mas100tmøwg RBmTaMgelIk[eFVICam®nþIFMeTotpg. manmnusSCaeRcIncg;eFVIkargarenH ehIykñúg ry³eBlmYyd¾xøI nayknmankmøaMgd¾eRcInenACuMvijxøÜn. dwgdMNwgenH sñMÉk)anbBa¢ÚnPIelogmñak;mkGgVrnaykn[e)aHbg;KMnitenHecalehIy Rtlb; cUlmkkñúgraCFanIlEgVk EdlRBHraCaeTIbEtyagmkKg;enAvijCabnÞan; sñMÉkFanafanwgsuM[RBHraCa ls;la RtaRbNIeTas[ ebIBuMenaHeTRBHraCanwgdwknaMT½Bmkcab;pÞal;RBHGgÁEtmþg eBlenaHbgRsI minGacCYy)aneT. naykneqøIytbmkvijfanwgRtlb;cUlmkkñúgraCFanIlEgVkvijPøam enAeBlNaEdlT½B rMsayeTARsukPUmivijGs; xøÜnGacnwgmkcUlKal;RBHraCaenAExeRkay bgRsImin)ac;RBÜy)armÖeT BIeRBaHxøÜnKµanbMNgbHe)arRbqaMgnwgRBHraCaeLIy. RBHraCaeCO RTg;k¾[rg;caMrhUtdl;putkMNt; minmaneFVIGVITaMgGs;. eqøót»kasenaHnaykn)anxitxMBRgIkkmøaMgT½Brbs;xøÜn hVwkhat;Tahan[bMbH bMe)ar ExRtepSg²eTot bBa©úHbBa©ÚlRbCaCnfaekNÐT½BenHKWedIm,ITb;Tl;nwgesþck,t;EdldeNþIm EbgEckTwkdICaraCaNacRkmYyeTot manraCFanIenActumµúx. BaküenHGñúkRsukxSwbexSóvt²KñaBImat; mYyeTAmat;mYyBaseBjRBHnKrehIyminmaneFVI[GñkNamñak;BiPal;eLIy.esþcBjac½nÞxøÜnRBHGgÁ k¾eCOfaRBHraCanignayknXubXitKñaRbqaMgnwgxøÜnRBHGgÁEdrTMnak;TMngEdlRbRBwtþeTAtamry³sñMÉk xøÜnRBHGgÁKWCakmµvtßúénkarXubXitenH.RBHGgÁmankarPitP½yNas;k¾lYceKcecjBIctumµúxeFVIdMeNIr kat;ExRteBaFisat; yageTAsuMRCkekanCamYyesþcesomeTA enAkñúgqñaM1508 EdlkalenaH RBHGgÁ manRBHCnµ 23RBHvsSa. enAeBlEdlBjac½nÞraCaeKcRBHkayeTAKg;enAÉRsukesom ehIyRBHraCakMBugEtrg;caMkar cuHcUlrbs;nayknenAÉlEgVk nayknk¾RbCuMTIRbwkSarbs;xøÜnedayniyayfa {BImun ´xøacEtmnusS mñak;b:ueNÑaH KWecABjac½nÞraCaenHÉg. LÚvRBHGgÁrt;eTAenARsukesomehIy ´KµanGVInwgP½y)armÖ eToteT dUecñH ebIsinCaeyIgcg; eyIgGacdeNþImykRBHraCaNacRk)an}. BYknamuWnsBVmuxm®nþITHéd GbGrnwgsmþIenHnayknk¾ekaHRbmUlkgT½BehIyEbgEckecjCa4kg³kgT½BRsYckgsøabxagsþaM kgsøabxageqVg nigkgT½BeRkay rYcehIykan;T½B1muWnnak;epSgeTotecjeTAe)aHCMrMenAEk,rExRt RsIsn§r. KWrhUtTal;Etdl;eBlenaH eTIbRBHraCaRbKl;T½B3Ban;nak;[ecABjaeyaFas®gÁamCaemT½B RsYcnig]kj:acRkICardæm®nþIxags®gÁamnigCaemGKÁbBa¢akarecjeTABinitüemIlnigTb;Tl;T½Bnaykn sin rg;caMT½BEdlekNÐfµI)an nigdak;eRkambBa¢akarrbs;ecABjac½nÞraCa mkdl;. eBlenaH m®nþImñak; 210 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 213. 211Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa TUlRBHGgÁfa Bjac½nÞraCa )an)at;xøÜnBIctumµúx2éf¶ehIy ehIykMBugEteFVIdMeNIreTARsukesomCamYy mnusS5nak;eTot. RBHraCaRBÜyRBHT½yNas;nwgdMNwgenH nigmanRBHbnÞÚlEtmYyGgÁÉgfa {»RBH GnuCeGIy RBHGgÁminKYre)aHbg;ecalRBHeromenAkñúgkal³eTs³EbbenHesaH}. bnÞab;mk RTg;k¾yag cUlRkLaRBHbnÞMTaMgGs;sgÇwm. eBlenaH T½BRBHraCak¾ecjdMeNIreTA RBwkmYyT½BRsYc)anmkCYbCamYyT½BEdlnaykndwknaM. nayknCiHdMrId¾l¥mYy )aMgkøs;enAkNþalcMeNamkgT½B. ecABjaeyaFas®gÁameXIjdUecñaH k¾cUleTA Cit ehIyniyayfa {ÉgminKYreFVIEbbenHtbeTAnwgkarsenþasRbNIEdlRBHraCamancMeBaHÉgenAÉ RBHbrmraCvaMgeT RBHGgÁsBVRBHT½ynwgÉgxøaMgNas;}. B¤smþIenH naykn brdMrImkmuxkgT½B ERsk sYrfa etIRBHraCacat;Bjas®gÁammkedIm,IedaHRsayerOgr:avCamYyxøÜnb¤GVI rYcehIyk¾yitFñÚ)aj;cM bMBg;kBjas®gÁam dYlsøab;nwgeCIgdMrIeTA edayminrg;caMcemøIyGVIeLIy. eXIjdUecñH BlTahan rbs; RBHraCak¾vaydkfy rt;mkCYbCamYykgT½BEdldwknaMeday]kj:acRkI eFVI[BYkenH)ak;rt;tamEdr rhUtTal;Etdl;eKakxan; eTIberobcMsNþab;Fñab;)anvij sRmake)aHCMrM rYcehIyeRtómbiTpøÚv min[T½B bHe)arEdledjtammkeFVIdMeNIrbnþeTAmux. ]kj:acRkI )ansresrsarlixitraykarN_GMBIbraC½yenHfVayRBHraCa ehIyesñIsuMT½BCMnYy. TTYldMNwgenHRBHraCak¾ekaHRbCuMesnabtIPøam.elakymraCraykarN_faLÚvenHnayknkMBugEt dwknaMT½BGbraC½yeFVIdMeNIrCitmkehIy kMENnTahanenAtambNþaExRtPaKxageCIgminTan;)anenA eLIyeT ehIyenAsl;T½BEt1muWnnak;b:ueNÑaHenAkñúgraCFanI T½BTaMgenaHCab;rvl;kñúgkaryamkam RtÜtBinitücracr nigyamTVarkMEpg. elak ymraC k¾fVayeyabl; sUm[RBHraCadkfyCamYyraC briBareTAKg;enAÉctumµúx edIm,IgayRsYlkñúgkarekNÐT½BtambNþaExRtxagt,Úg kalNa)aneRcIn ehIyswmRtlb;mkTb;Tl;nwgsRtÚvvij.rYcelakniyaybnþfa³{kñúgry³eBlenaHxøÜnTUlRBHbgÁ¿nig elakcRkI nwgsßitenABIxageRkay vayTb;kuM[naykncab;RBHGgÁ nigraCbriBar)an}. elakBiC½ynaKCa«BuknayknxwgnwgkUnxøaMgNas;)anesñIsuMT½BRBHraCa1Ban;nak;edIm,IecjeTA c,aMgCamYykUn ehIy)anTUlRBHraCafanwgfVayxøÜn RkúmRKÜsar nigjatikaTaMgGs; cMeBaHRBHraCa nig tambeRmIRBHGgÁRKb;TisTI. {ebIsinTUlRBHbgÁ¿Ca´EbrCak,t;eTAenACamYykUnvij sUm[TUlRBHbgÁ¿ søab;nwgmuxGavuFy:agevTnaexøacpSa ehIysUmRBHGgÁcat;[eKkab;smøab;RKÜsar nigjatikaTaMgGs; ecalcuH}. RBHraCaeCOsmþIBiC½ynaK k¾RbTanT½B1Ban;nak;[ rYcecjraCbBa¢a[bNþaRbCanura®sþ TaMgGs;cUlmkenAkñúgraCFanIlEgVkEdlmanTahankarBar2muWn5Ban;nak;cMENkRBHGgÁnigbriBark¾cuH
  • 214. TUkmkkan;ctumµúxmun. ]kj:aymraC nig]kj:acRkIrg;caMT½BkMENnfµImkCYyminecHeXIjmkesaH NamYynaykn naMT½B5muWnnak;mkdl;ehIy k¾vaydkfysMedAeTAkan;ctumµúxEdr. naykntamvayRbkit² smøab; ]kj:acRkI)an eFVI[kgT½B)ak;Ebkrt;x©at;x©ay rYcedjtamvayrhUteTAdl;TVarraCFanI. mkdl;Rtg; enH T½BnayknCYbRbTHT½B1Ban;nak;rbs;«BukxøÜn nayknk¾bBa¢afa {cUredjtamehIykab;smøab;[ Gs;TukEt«Bukrbs;eyIg)anehIy}.BiC½ynaK)ants‘URbyuT§y:agxøaMgkøab:uEnþmanKñaticeBkminGac Tb;Tl;nwgT½BmYykgFM)an k¾bBa¢a[vaydkfy eKcecjtampøÚvFMsMedAeTAkan;ctumµúx edayenAsl;T½B Et 5rynak;b:ueNÑaH. rt;mkdl;vtþRBHsuKn§bT CYbsemþcsgÇ k¾naMKñacUleTAtaMgTIenAkEnøgenaH ebþCJafa nwgts‘URbyuT§rhUtdl;GvsanCIvit. T½BBYkk,t;eLamB½T§vtþEdl)ankøayeTACabnÞaymYyCuMCitTaMgGs; rYcehIyk¾cab;eFVIkarvay Rbhar. karRbyuT§sahavNas; eFVI[søab;mnusSTaMgsgxag EtminmanGñkNaQñHGñkNacaj;eT. edayemIl eXIjPaBKYr[GaeNacGaF½mrbs;T½BTaMg2kg Edlkab;smøab;KñadUecñH RBHsuKn§bTelak k¾nimnþmkenAkNþal ehIymanBuT§dIkaGgVrsUm[TaMgsgxagdak;GavuFcuH. RBHGgÁ)anehAnaykn[ mksuMeTas«Buk rYcmanBuT§dIkaeTAkan;BiC½ynaKfa kUnrbs;elak)anRtÚvvasnakMNt;[mkesayraCü enAkm<úCaminGacRbqaMg)aneT RtÚvEtTTYltamy:agenH. BiC½ynaKeqøIyeTAvijfa ebIeFVIy:agenH eRbób)annwgeFVI[eKkab;smøab;RkúmRKÜsarjatikarbs;TUlRBHbgÁ¿ehIy rYcehIyk¾dkdavRbúgcg;kab; smøab;kUn b:uEnþ )anRtÚvkgkarBarcab;Cab; ehIyykeTAXuMTukenAkñúgvtþenaHeTA. enAkñúgTIXuMXaMg RBHsuKn§bT)anniyayBnül;CaeRcIn rhUtTl;EtBiC½ynaKyl;RBmsþab;tam eTIbelakehA«Buk nigkUn[eLIgelIKMnrGavuFmYykm<s;mYyCMhrmnusS s,fEs,enAcMeBaHmuxmhaCn fanwgRsuHRsYlCananwgKñavij. eBlenaH RBHsuKn§bT k¾cak;TwkmnþeRsacRsB[GñkTaMg2. cb;BiFIs,fEs, nayknbBa¢a[ykGavuFecjBIKMnr eTAksagpøÚvcUlvtþ. KWedayehtuenaH ehIyeTIb)anCavtþenaH)anRtÚveKehAfa vtþRBHfñl;²rhUtmk56 . esþckneBlenaH )anbnþeRCIserIskgT½BenAkñúgExRtxagekItEdlcuHcUlnwgxøÜn. erIs)an 212 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 56 PUmifñl;enHsßitenABIxagTisBay½BüPñMeBj cm¶ayRbEhl8KILÚEm:Rt. eKmansg;viharkatUlikmYyenAkEnøgenH enAstvtüTI17.
  • 215. 213Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa ehIyEckkmøaMgCaBIr rYck¾dwknaMmYyRkúmmktaMgenAcMBImuxctumµúx. dwgdMNwgenH RBHraCa)anbBa¢a[ecjT½BmkTb;Tl; RbyuT§Kña3yb;3éf¶minQñHmincaj;. dl; yb;éf¶TI3 naykn)ancat;[TahanmYyRkúmeFVIdMeNIrvagBIxaglic cUlmkenABIxagt,ÚgT½BRBHraCa. dl;Es¥keLIg T½Bnaykncab;vayT½BRBHraCaBIxagmuxpg nigBIxageRkaypg eFVI[T½BenaHfyéd vaydkfytampøÚveTATisxageCIg rt;eKcrhUteTAdl;lEgVk. eBlenaHRBHraCa)annaMraCbriBareKcRBHGgÁeTAKg;enAÉExRtsnÞúk elImat;sÞwgEsnRtg;kEnøg mYyCitkMBg;FMsBVéf¶. RBHGgÁ)anecjbBa¢aBITIenaH[namuWnsBVmuxm®nþIecjekNÐRbmUlT½B. TTYl)anC½yCmñHelIkgT½BRBHraCa EdlxøÜn)anvaybM)ak;[rt;dkfyeTATisxageCIgGs;ehIy naykn )ancUlRKb;RKgraCFanIctumµúx rYck¾cab;cat;taMgecAhVayExRt namuWntUcFM ehIybBa¢ÚnGñkEdl esµaHRtg;[eTAbBa©úHbBa©ÚlbNþaGaNaExRtxaglic nigxagt,Úg[cuHcUlnwgxøÜn. bNþaExRtTaMgenaH manctumµúxsMeragTg)aTIRTaMgbnÞaymasBamkMBtkMBg;esam)asak;¬Rtavij¦RBHRtBaMgRkmYns GUm:al;TwkexµABamemsréRBnKr¬sayhÁn¦nig)araCdugNayKWPaKxagt,Úgkm<úCaTaMgGs;cab;taMgBI PñMeBjrhUtdl;mat;smuRTesom nigeTAdl;RBMRbTl;nKrcam:,a. GñkRsukTTYlGbGrrak;Tak;TTYl naykn Caesþc eRBaHCaGñkmanbuNü manb£T§iecsþa)armI. eKcab;niyay erOgr:avepSg²BInaykn dUcCafanayknekItecjBIépÞmþaymk Føak;eTAkñúgTwkTaMgenAkñúgsuk k¾RtÚv RtIeBaelb ehIy)anRtÚv RBHsgÇmYyGgÁRsg;ykeTAciBa©wmbI)ac;EfrkSaeRkayBIvHykecjBIeBaHRtImk. enAeBlEdlesþc bg;sMNaj;BIelI mannaKmkCYynaMEhlTwkeKcxøÜn rYcehIystVRBabTMBIelIk,alhak;bIdUcCaTMelIEmk eQI CYylak;kuM[TahanesþceXIj ehIyC½yCmñHTaMgGs;Edlnaykn)anTTYlenH KWGaRs½yeday kuslEdl)ansagBICatimun57 . enAkñúgExmiKsirqñaM1510 naykn)anbBa¢ÚnkgT½B5muWnnak; eTAhu‘¿B½T§lEgVkEdl)ankøayCa raCFanIeLIgvij ÉxøÜnÉg)anRtlb;eTAraCvaMgenATYl)asankñúgExRtRsIsn§r. b:unµanéf¶eRkaymk emT½BxagTenøkñúg¬Tenøsab¦)aneBIbRbyuT§CamYyT½BRBHraCaeBjmYyéf¶KµanQñHKµancaj;T½BRBHraCa k¾mindkfyeTANaEdr. emT½Bmñak;eTotEdlbBa¢akgT½BxagTenøFM )anerobcMelIkb:mkarBar rg;caMT½BEdleRCIserIsfµI 57 eKfaRBHsgÇ)andak;eQµaH[fa Ekv k¾b:uEnþ«BukmþayehAfa kn.
  • 216. bBa¢Únmkdl; ebIBuMenaHKWbBa¢amin[ecjdMeNIreT. eBlenaHecAhVayExRtkMBg;esom nigsÞwgRtg; min RBmTTYlsÁal;GMNacnaykneT Etdl;emIleXIjfa T½Bnayknratt,ateBjnKr eFVI[GñkRsuk man karxVl;xVayCaxøaMg k¾)anepJIsareTAsuMCMnYyBIRBHraCa. RBHraCak¾bBa¢ÚnT½Bmk[cMnYn8Ban;nak; bBa¢a edayecABjaysraCaCaRBHraCbuRt CaehtueFVI[kgrkSaRBHGgÁkan;EtcuHexSayEfmeTot kñúgkar RbyuT§tTl;CamYyT½BTenøkñúúg. eqøót»kasT½BRBHraCafykmøaMgenH emT½BRkúmbHe)ark¾cab;ebIkkarvayRbharmkelIT½B RBHraCa edayRbyuT§eBj4yb; 4éf¶ ehIybgç¿[T½BRBHraCadkfyrhUteTAdl;GRmwtbur³ KWbribUN_. dMNwgenH elcB¤eTAdl;ecABjaysraCaEdlkMBugEtdwknaMT½BeTAkan;ExRtkMBg;esom ecABjays raCak¾naMT½BvilRtlb;mkeRkayvijedIm,ICYyRBHbita.dwgfaecABjaysraCaRtlb;mkvijRBHraCa )anRbkasR)ab;kgBl[dwg rYcRTg;bBa¢a[vaybkmkelIT½BBYkk,t;vij RsbeBlEdlT½BraCbuRtmk dl;Edr.T½BRBHraCaTaMg2kgrYmkmøaMgvayRBm²KñaeTAelIBYkk,t;smøab;BYkenHGs;1Ban;nak;Pøam². emT½BsRtÚvGs;sgÇwm k¾naMT½Besssl;rt;eKcmkPñMeBjvij. rhUtdl;eBlenaH vahak;dUcCaGVI²RtÚvkat;pþac; naykn dUcCaGs;buNüehIy eRBaHTahan nig GñkKaMRT k¾cab;enOyNayGs;sgÇwm. RBHraCa )anRbKl;[ecAhVayExRteBaFisat; eTAe)aHT½BenAkñúgExRtrlaeb¥ór enABIxageCIg lEgVk edIm,IgayRsYlkñúgkarRtÜtBinitüRBHnKr rYc[ecABjaysraCadwknaMT½B5Ban;nak; eTARKb;RKg bNþaExRtxageCIgEdlcuHcUlCamYynayknBImunmk cMENkRBHGgÁyageTAKg;enAÉExRtsnÞúkvij. ecABjaysraCa)andeNþImykExRtxageCIgmkvij rYmTaMgkMBg;esom sÞwgRtg; eKakesH nig eCIgéRBpg58 edayerobcMcat;taMgecAhVayExRtEdlesµaHRtg;dwknaMrYcehIy RTg;k¾yageTAtam RBHbitaenAÉsnÞúk. enAeBlenaH nayknmanT½BsrubRbmaN10muWnnak;enA)asan rg;caMEtbBa¢anwgGalecj dMeNIr k¾b:uEnþnayknenAsÞak;esÞIr minTan;h‘anseRmcy:agNaenAeLIy. naykn )ancat;[eKerobcM eFVIBiFIRbk;RBMBl rYcehIy)anRbkan;ykzan³Camha]braCmaneQµaHfa RBHRsIeCdæaFiraC Cazan³ sRmab;Gñkcat;Ecgkic©kars®gÁamehIyminh‘anTTYlykzan³CaesþcdUcEdleKehACaTUeTArYcmkehIy enaHeT.kn)an[eKeFVITg;BN’RkhmmanCrCaynigrUbnaKk,al7enAkNþalEck[kgT½Bnig[eKeFVI 214 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 58 KWbNþaExRtTaMgGs;enAcenøaHTenøsabBIxaglic nigTenøemKgÁBIxagekIt RtwmExRtlEgVk EdlsßitenAelIeRtIyxag
  • 217. 215Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa esVtcäRtmYysRmab;xøÜnÉg. naykn)an[BiC½ynaKCa«Buk eFVICaembBa¢akarelIkgT½BkarBarbnÞay )asan rYck¾dwknaMT½BeFVIdMeNIrecjeTAkan;ExRtkMBg;esom. B¤dMNwgenH BYkm®nþI²k¾rt;eKceTARCkekan CamYyRBHraCa. esþcknk¾sresrlixitmYyc,ab; cat;[m®nþIrbs;xøÜnCaeRcInrUbnaMykeTAfVayRBHraCaEdr. mun nwgTTYlGñknaMsarTaMgGs;enaH RBHraCa)an[eKnaMykRkúmRKÜsarBiC½ynaKTaMgGs;mkTukmYykEnøg hak;bIdUcCaRTg;RbúgEtnwg[eKeFVITNÐkmµG‘Ícwg. sarlixitmanxøwmsardUcteTA ³ {TUlRBHbgÁ¿XunhøÜg RBHesþcFibtI sUmTUlfVayRBHraCaRTg;RBHsNþab;fa rhUtmkdl;eBlenH TUlRBHbgÁ¿KµanbMNgGVIeRkA EtGMBIkarBarCIvitTUlRBHbgÁ¿EdlRtÚvrgkarKMramkMEhgenaHeT ehIyminEdlmanKMnitcg;deNþImyk RBHraCaNacRkBIRBHGgÁmþgNaeLIy.TUlRBHbgÁ¿manbMNgEtmYyKt;KWtambeRmIRBHGgÁdUcBImunb:uEnþ TUlRBHbgÁ¿xøacEtRBHGgÁminRBmelIkeTasRtaRbNI. GaRs½yehtuenH TUlRBHbgÁ¿ sMNUmBrsUm[ RBHGgÁRBHemtþaedaHElgmþaynigsac;sarelahitTUlRBHbgÁ¿TaMgGs;edIm,I[TUlRBHbgÁ¿)aneXIjmux eLIgvijnigedIm,ICakarbBa¢ak;pgEdrfaRBHGgÁRTg;yl;RBmelIkElgeTasehIyGac[TUlRBHbgÁ¿eCO Tukcitþ)an. kalNaRkúmRKÜsarTUlRBHbgÁ¿)anRtlb;mkrs;enACitTUlRBHbgÁ¿vijehIy TUlRBHbgÁ¿nwg rMsaykgT½B [BYkeKvilRtlb;eTARsukvij}. RBHraCa)ansresrRBHsarlixitmYyeqøIytbeTAvijfa ebIsinCa naykn enAesµaHRtg;Emn naykn RtÚvEtcUlxøÜnmkfVaybg¿ÁKal;RBHraCa mincaM)ac;suM[RbKl;cMNab;xµaMgeTA[enaHeLIy eRBaH enHminEmnCaTmøab;eFVIdUecñHeT. ebIsinCa naykn sarPaBcuHcUl enaHnwgTTYl)annUvkarls;la RtaRbNIb:uEnþebIsinCaminRBmcUlxøÜnmkeTmþayRkúmRKÜsarnigjatikaTaMgGs;nwgRtÚvTTYlTaruNkm minxan. esþckn)anbBa¢ÚnsMbuRtenHeTA[«BukemIleFVI[BiC½ynaKmankarRBÜy)armÖy:agxøaMgk¾seRmc citþfaRtÚvEtraraMgnayknkuM[bnþs®gÁam ehIyRtÚvEtcUlsarPaB. Kat;rt;eTAkan;Bnøavijy:agelOn ehIyenAeBlEdlqøgputmat;TVar Kat;k¾rGileCIgdYlCg;nwgdavmYyEdldak;KgelITRmmYybNþal[ rbYsCaxøaMg rhUtdl;dYlelIdI snøb;)at;bg;sµartI. BYkBlesna)annaMKñaelIkKat;eLIg ehIyray karN_CUnnaykn naykn k¾Rbjab;Rbjal;rt;mk Et«Buk)ansøab;)at;eTAehIy enAeBlmkdl;. sþaMTenøsab. eKakesHminEmn CaExRteT CacMENkmYyénExRteCIgéRB.
  • 218. eBlenaH k¾manelcB¤BaküccamGar:amfa naykn)anGarksmøab;«Buk enAeBleQøaHCECkKña. edIm,ITukeBleFVIbuNü[«Buk naykn )anbBa¢a[dkT½BecjeTAvij. RBHraCak¾cat;[]kj:a eteCa cUlmkkan;kab;ExRtkMBg;esomvij rYcehIy[qøgTenøeTAkan;kab;ExRtt,ÚgXµMúEfmeTot. RTg; )ancat;[]kj:aRkLaeham rdæm®nþIxageCIgTwk ecjeTAvaydeNþImyklEgVk nigctumµúxmkvijpg Edr. b:unµanéf¶eRkaymk ecABjasYK’aelak59 ecAhVayExRteBaFisat; )annaMT½B mYycMnYnmkCYy RkLaeham vayykctumµúx ¬PñMeBj¦ )an. TTYl)andMNwgfaPñMeBjRtÚvrgkarKMram nayknEdleBlenaHmanT½B12muWnnak;kñúgéd )an RbKl;T½B1muWnnak;[«BukmaeQµaH ekA EdlRtÚvCab¥ÚnRbúsrbs; Em:)an nigmangarCaecABjaTlð³ [ ecjeTArg;caMTb;T½BRBHraCaEdldwknaMedayecABjasYK’aelakenAnwgTenøkñúg ¬KWTenøsab¦. rYc)an cat;[m®nþImñak; EdlxøÜn)andMeLIg[eTACa]kj:aRkLaeham dwknaMT½B1muWnnak;eTot ecjeTAsáat;pøÚv ecABjaeteCa. cMENkxøÜnÉg enAsl;T½B10muWnnak; ecjeTAttaMgCamYyT½BEdldwknaMeday]kj:a RkLaeham rbs;RBHraCa. T½Brbs;RBHraCaTTYlbraC½yenAkñúgsmrPUmiCaeRcIn rYcehIyk¾naMKñart;eKcmksnÞúk CakEnøg EdlRBHraCaKg;enA edayykelsfamksuMCMnYybEnßm. mankarecjekNÐT½BCafµIeTotenAkñúgExRtsÞwgRtg; eKakxan; surindgÁa60 rMdYlsñM xaccugkal; )aRtagdEgáTMnb;mgÁlburIb£sSIsajTwkQU)at;dMbgeBaFisat;RkKrexøajRkaMgnigbribUN_61 k¾b:uEnþ TaMg16ExRtenH )anRtwmEt5muWnnak;b:ueNÑaH eRBaHRbCara®sþmincg;eFVIs®gÁam k¾naMKñart;eKccUléRB 216 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 59 eyIg)aneXIjBIxagelIrYcmkehIyfamanRBHraCamYyGgÁRBHnamfaniBVanbTmann½yfaRTg;CaePJóvsßanniBVan/man RBHraCamYyRBHGgÁeTotRBHnamfa suKn§bT mann½yfaRTg;CaePJóvrbs;sßansYK’. LÚvenH eyIgeXIjmanecAhVay ExRtmñak;maneQµaHfa sYK’aelak Edlmann½ydUcKñaEdr ehIyeyIgnwgeXIjenAxageRkayeTotfa manecAhVayExRt mñak;eTot maneQµaHfa BisÑúelak mann½yfa CaePJóvrbs;RBHvisÑú. eQµaHTaMgGs;enH eFVI[eyIgnwkeXIjdl; RBHmrN namenAkm<úCasm½yburaN KWeQµaHEdleKfVaydl;RBHraCa eRkayBIRTg;suKteTA. CaerOgmYyKYr[q¶l;faehtuGVI )an Cadl;mkkm<úCasm½yfµI eKykeQµaHEbbenHmkdak;[mnusSrs;eTAvij. 60 tameQµaHEdlerobrab;enH eyIgeXIjfa enAedImstvtSr_TI16 TwkdIenAxageCIgPñMdgErk cenøaHExRt]b‘un nigkUr:at; enACarbs;ExµrenAeLIy. 61 bNþaExRtTaMgGs;enHsßitenAxageCIg nigxagekItbwgFM nigTenøsab rYmmanExRt)at;dMbgTaMgmUl nigTwkdId_FMmYyenA xageCIgPñMdgErk. bribUN_eBlenaHmaneQµaHfa GRmwtbur³.
  • 219. 217Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa Gs;. eBlenaHT½Besþckn)anmkdl;elImat;sÞwgEsn enAsl;Etb:unµanKILÚEm:Rtb:ueNÑaHBIsnÞúk. esþcknGacnwgcab;eFVIkarRbyuT§eTAelIkgT½Brbs;RBHraCa ehIyTTYleCaKC½y)an b:uEnþeKcg;lYceFVI KutRBHraCaCagk¾cat;[naKmuWnsUerncUlKal;RBHraCarYceFVIKutRBHGgÁeTAesþcknsnüafanwgelIk[eFVI Ca]kj:aeyamraC. naKmuWnsUernenHRtÚvCakUnecABjaeyaFas®gÁam Edlesþckn )an)aj;RBÜj smøab;enAnwgeCIgdMrI. maneKniyayR)ab;faRBHraCa)aneRbI«BukxøÜn[eTAtTl;CamYynwgesþckn edayRbKl;T½B[EtmYycMnYntUcb:ueNÑaH BIeRBaHRBHraCacg;[Kat;søab;dUecñH em:øaHehIy xøÜnmancitþs¥b; RBHraCa k¾cuHcUlCamYyBYkbHe)areTA. esþcknBUEkerIsmnusSNas; BIeRBaHfa naKmuWnsUern enH Ca mnusSqøatév rh½srhYn mansmtßPaBeFVIGVI²)anseRmcRKb;y:ag. dl;Es¥keLIg esþckneFVICaxwg )anecjbBa¢a[cab;naKmuWnsUernmkvay30rMBat;. eKnaM GñkeTasykmkdak;enAcenøaHkgT½BTaMg2ehobEtnwgeFVITaruNkmµeTAehIyRsab;Etesnarbs;naKmuWn RbmaNCa200nak;sÞúHcUlmkdeNþImykBIédTahan rYcnaMykmkcuHcUlCamYyT½BxagRBHraCavij. ecABjaeteCaCaGñkTTYlBYkenH ehIyeRkayBI)ansaksYrBt’manrYcehIy k¾naMnaKmuWnsUern cUlKal; RBHraCaEdlKg;enAÉvaMgsÞwgEsn elIsÞwgkMBg;FM. naKmuWnsUernTUlRBHraCafa xøÜn)anerobcMEpnkar k,t; RbqaMgnwgesþckn EtRtÚvesþckndwg k¾dak;eTas[eKvayxøÜnnwgrMBat;epþA[søab; Et)anBlTahan rbs;xøÜn200nak;CYyTan;. bnÞab;mknaKmuWnenHk¾eFVICayMEykrMGYyfa mindwgCaRkúmRKÜsarrbs;xøÜn EdlkMBugEtrs;enAkñúgbnÞayesþckn RtÚveKvayeFVI)aby:agNaeT. RBHraCaEdleCOsmþITaMgGs ;rbs;naKmuWnsUern )anelIkElgeTascMeBaHkarEdlnaKmuWnenHk,t;RBHGgÁeTAbeRmIesþckn rYck¾Etg taMg[TTYlzan³dUcEdlRBHGgÁ)anRbKl;BImun. enAeBlenaH esþcknk¾cab;ebIkkarvayRbharmkelIT½Brbs;eteCa. RbyuT§KñaeBjmYyéf¶ minQñHmincaj; EtTahansøab;TaMgsgxagBaseBjdI ehIyT½BRBHraCahak;dUcCacg;Qb;RbyuT§teTA eTot. ]kj:aeteCaP½y)armÖcMeBaHsuvtßiPaBrbs;RBHraCa k¾ecjbBa¢a[erobcMRBHTInaMgnavanaM RBHraCaykmkKg;enAÉExRteBaFisat;vij EdlenATIenaHeKGacerIsT½B)anCafµI. em:øaHehIyk¾vay dkfyecj lHbg;TwkdId¾FM[xµaMgsRtÚv b:uEnþedIm,Ise®gÁaHRBHraCa EdlCamUlehtuEtmYyKt;kñúgkar RbqaMgnwgCnk,t;. b:uEnþetICYyRBHraCadUcemþc)aneTA ebILÚvmannaKmuWnsUernEdlbnøMxøÜncUlmk edIm,IlYceFVIKutRBHGgÁeTAehIy. RBwkeLIg enAeBlEdlRBHraCaetInBIRkLabnÞM ehIykMBugehAehara [mkTsSn_TayGMBIRBHsubinBIyb;knøgeTA naKmuWnsUern nigBlTaMg200nak;)ansRmúkcUleTAkñúg dMNak;RBHGgÁedayERskfaxøÜnmankic©karsMxan;edIm,ITUlfVayRBHraCa ehIysmøab;eharaEdlcg;Xat;
  • 220. dMeNIrrbs;xøÜn rYcehIyeFVIKutRBHraCa suKteTA. ]RkidækmµenHekIteLIgenAéf¶15ekIt ExeCsæ qñaMvk RKisþskraC1512 RtÚvnwgmhaskraC1434 culøskraC874. rhUtdl;eBlenaHRBH)aT RsIsuKn§bT esayraCsm,tþi)an8qñaM KitTaMgry³kal3qñaMéns®gÁamsuIvilpg. RBHGgÁeLIg esayraCükñúgRBHCnµ 32RBHvsSa ehIyRtÚveKeFVIXatkñúgRBHCnµ 40RBHvsSa. mankarRbyuT§ekIteLIgbnÞab;BIRBHraCaRtÚveKeFVIXatenH rvagTahanTaMg200nak;rbs;naKmuWn sUern nigkgrkSaRBHGgÁ. ecABjays raCbuRtrbs;RBHraCa nigRtÚvCakµÜyrbs;esþckn )annaM TahanmYyRkúmtUcrt;mkdl;eRkayBI)anB¤sMeLgRbyuT§ kab;smøab;BYkk,t; 20nak; ehIycab; naKmuWnsUern )an. RTg;)anbBa¢a[naMnaKmuWnsUernenHykeTAkat;k,alenABImuxRBHraCvaMg. kñúgeBlenaHEdr karRbyuT§rvagT½BesþcknEdllYcQøbcUleTAmuxkñúgeBlyb; CamYynwgT½B RBHraCaEdlcab;vaydkfyeTAEdr. ecABjaysraCa edayBinitüeXIjfaT½BbHe)armancMnYneRcIn elIslb;elIT½Brbs;]kj:aeteCarYmCamYyT½BRBHGgÁ ehIyKitfaminGacttaMg)an k¾eLIgTUkcuHtam sÞwgEsn edIm,IeKcRBHGgÁeTARsukesom. BYk)arKUk¾eKcxøÜnEdr edaynaMykeTApgnUvRBHx½nraCü RBHGaTieTBTaMg5RBHGgÁEdlCatMNag suPmgÁlRBHraCaNacRkFñÚRBÜjniglMEBgraCü.eFVIdMeNIr)anBak;kNþalpøÚv)arKUCaemRBahµN_buera hit KiteXIjfa nKresomCasRtÚvrbs;RBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa ebIsinCaykektnPNÐTaMgGs;enHeTA muxCaesommin[ykRtlb;mkvijeT. )arKU nigGñkbeRmI k¾naMKñaeLIgeKakelIRcaMgsÞwgxageqVgvij rYceFVIdMeNIrkat;RBHraCaNacRk mkdl;ExRt)aTI eTIbykektnPNÐTaMgGs; dak;lak;TukkñúgrUgedIm cMbk;mYyedIm. eTAdl;Rsukesom ecABjaysraCa)ancUleTArs;enACamYyRBHBjac½nÞraCaCaRBHbitula Edl)aneKcRBHGgÁBIctumµúxmk kalBICag2qñaMmun. 1177-- eessþþcckknn eessþþccEERRCCkkrraaCCüü ¬¬11449988--11550055¦¦ eRkayBIvaybMEbkT½BTaMg2kgrbs;RBHraCarYcehIy ehIyecABjaysraCaeKcxøÜn)at;eTA esþcknKitfa manEtxøÜnmñak;b:ueNÑaH EdlenACam©as;RBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa ehIyk¾Rtlb;mkenAÉ RsIsn§rvij. esþckn)ancat;[ecAhV‘aEkv Ca«Bukma ecjb®gáabGaNaExRtEdlminTal;TTYlsÁal; GMNacrbs;xøÜn fVIebImanxøHminRbqaMgnwgxøÜnk¾eday. minyUrb:unµanbNþaGaNaExRtTaMgGs;TUTaMg RbeTsmanecAhVay nignamuWnRtÜtRta EdlEtgtaMgedayesþckn. b:uEnþesþcknKµanRBHx½nraCü 218 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 221. 219Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa EdlCanimitþsBaØaraCaniymeT k¾)anpSBVpSayfanwg[rgVan;Camas500tmøwg ¬RbEhl 18KILÚ Rkam¦ dl;CnNa EdlrkRBHx½nraCüeXIjykmkRbKl;[xøÜn. esþcknk¾)an[eKeFVIRBHx½nraCümYy eTot EdlxøÜnkan; enAeBlbgðajxøÜn enAmuxsaFarNCn. edayeRbIR)as;RBHx½nraCüEkøgkøayenH esþckn)ancat;[eKerobcMGPieskxøÜnCaRBHraCaén RBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa eRkamRBHnamfasemþcRBHRsIeCdæaFiraCramaFibtI CaRBHraCaesayraCsm,tþi enARkúgRsIsn§rbvr)asan. esþckn)anelIk«BukmaeQµaH Ekv Cab¥Únrbs;mþay [eLIgCaTIecAhV‘a KWrdæm®nþITI1 RtÜtRtaelI smaCikraCvgSnigBlRBHRsIrtnéRtTaMgGs;.GnuelameTAtamTmøab;enAkñúgRBHraCaNacRkesþckn )anelIkElg[RbCanura®sþTaMgGs;rYcBn§cMnYn1qñaM enAkñúg»kasGPieskxøÜnenH ehIyraCBgSavtar niyayfaRbCara®sþeBlenaH)ansuxsb,ayxøaMgNas;. bnÞab;mkesþckn)anseRmccitþpøas;raCFanI[raCaNacRkEdlxøÜndeNþIm)anedayeRCIserIs kEnøgmYysßitenAelIRBMRbTl;ExRtt,ÚgXµúMnig)aPñMRtg;kEnøgmYymaneQµaHfaRsLb;ehIymkKg;enA cab;BIqñaM1514rhUtmk. eKRtÚveRbIeBlGs;2qñaMedIm,Isagsg;raCvaMg kMEpgraCFanI b:msRmab; karBardMNak;raCmnÞIrnigRtELgEkgeragr)aMsYnc,ar.ehIyedayraCFanIxVHxatTwkesþckn)ancat; ]kj:aevogvaMglMBagnigsñl;[CIkRsHTwkFMmYyragkaer:ehIyRCúgmYy²maneQµaHtamGñkTaMgbYn. RsHTwkenHenAmanrhUtdl;sBVéf¶. niyayGMBIraCFanIfµI eK)andak;eQµaH[fa RkúgRsLb;éRBnKrbur³raCFanI62 . bIqñaMeRkaymk raCFanIenHmanmnusSrs;enAeRcInraCFanImun2dg ehIymanCnbreTsecjcUlCaeRcIn. RBHraCa- NacRk mansuxsnþiPaBdUcBImuneLIgvij ehIyRbCanura®sþ)ansuxsm,Úrsb,ayeRkamraCüesþckn enH Cagesþcmun²TaMgGs;. esþckn CaRBHraCakm<úCamuneKEdl)ancat;[e)aHBum<R)ak;sRmab;cayvay CaR)ak;søwgeFVIBI 62 raCFanIenHsßitenAcm¶ayRbEhlCa 22KILÚEm:Rt BIxagekItTItaMgExRtéRBEvgsBVéf¶ enAcMkNþalx<g;rabx<s;mYy B½T§CuMvijeTAedayTMnb; manRbEvgRCúgmYy² RbEhl2Ban;Em:Rt elIRCúgnImYy²manRckecjcUl3 ³ Rckmas Rtac nigetñat kl;BIxageCIg/ cEg¥k lagCIElg nigGnÞakBIxagekIt/ ram ccatxaM nigTMnb; tadIBIxagt,Úg/ cinEk eBaFiFM nigFøk BIxaglic. bnÞayéRBnKrenH elak éGm:UnIej )anehAfaCa {raCFanIrbs;km<úCaBIburaN} EttamBit enHKWCabnÞay rbs;esþckneT.
  • 222. masmanrUbnaKmçag. eBlenaHenAGyuFüaÉeNaHvijRBHGgÁm©as;c½nÞnigRBHGgÁm©as;ysmankarFujfb;CaxøaMg)an esñIsuMesþcesomRtlb;mkkm<úCavijEtmin)an.esþcesomxJal;rhUtdl;faQb;Elg[GñkTaMg2cUl Kal;. RBHGgÁm©as;c½nÞ Edlmkrs;enAGyuFüaenHcMnYn8qñaM eBlenaHmanRBHCnµ30 RBHvsSaehIy RTg;RBHtRmiHriHrkviFIeFVIy:agNa[esþcesomsBVRBHT½yeLIgvij. RTg;)anecjeTATak;)andMrIsmYy ykmkfVayesþcesom esþcesomk¾cab;rak;Tak;TTYlGñkTaMg2eLIgvij. dMrIsenaH eKdak;eQµaH[fa RBHKeC®nÞNaerOn]tþm mann½yfa {dMrIl¥}. éf¶mYy RBHGgÁm©as;c½nÞ)anesñIsuMkarGnuBaØatBIesþcesom vilRtlb;cUlmkRsukExµrvij edIm,I km©at;esþckn. esþcesomeqøIyfa sUm[rg;caMbnþic eBlNa»kasl¥mkdl; RTg;nwgcat;[eKEhhm RBHGgÁeTAkan;RsukExµr. RBHGgÁm©as;c½nÞminsb,aycitþ nigcemøIyenHeT RTg;)anseRmcRBHT½yfa RtÚvEtRtlb;mk km<úCavijPøam edaymin)ac;rg;caMkarGnuBaØatBIesþcesomeToteLIy. RTg;)ancat;´beRmIrbs;RBHGgÁ [ecjeTAbMpusbMpulbkSBYkEdlRBHGgÁmanenAkñúgExRtnagrg nagBak cugkal; TMnb;TEgá TwkCYs mgÁlburI nKrraC nig)at;dMbg [GñkTaMgGs;enaHedIrniyayR)ab;eKÉgfa BYkeKerobcMnaMKñaecjeTATak; dMrImYy mansm,úrsdUcsMLI. GñkbeRmIRBHGgÁm©as;c½nÞ)anpSBVpSaydMNwgdMrIsenH)any:agelOn rhUtTal;EtBYkecAemOg ecA)an ecAhVayRsuk nigemPUmiTaMgLayeCO ehIynaMKñaraykarN_fVayRBH raCaGMBIerOgdMrIsxusFmµtaenH. esþcesommanbMNgcg;)andMrIsenaHxøaMgNas; dl;eBlebIkGgÁ RbCuM RTg;k¾saksYrfa etImannrNasµ½RKcitþecjeTATak;dMrIenaH ykmkfVayRBHGgÁEdrb¤eT? ecABja c½nÞraC Edl)ancUlrYmRbCuMnwgeKEdr ehIyEdlFøab;Tak;)anRBHKeC®nÞNaerOn]tþm fVaymþgrYc mkehIy )ansuMxøÜnecjeTATak;ykmkfVaymþgeTot k¾b:uEnþ)anesñIsuMTahan500nak; dMrI50 RBmTaMg GavuFyuT§PNÐcaM)ac;epSg²sRmab;karTak;dMrIenH nigRBHraCbBa¢aBiess[BlesnaTaMgGs; sþab; bgÁab;RBHGgÁ minGacRbEkk)an. esþcesomyl;RBmtamRKb;l½kçx½NÐénsMeNIenH rYcfVaydavraC bBa¢amYy[pg ¬qñaM1515¦. ecABjac½nÞraCak¾eFVIdMeNIrecjmkkm<úCaCamYyRBHPaKienyüBjaysraCa ´beRmITaMgGs; nig BlTahan500nak;EdlesþcesomfVay[mktam. eFVIdMeNIr7éf¶ mkdl;RBMRbTl;Edn RTg;qøgcUl mkkñúgkm<úCa [BlTahane)aHCMrMsRmak rYcRTg;sresrlixitmYyeTAfVaydMNwgdl;esþcesomfa RBHGgÁ)aneFVIdMeNIrmkdl;RBMRbTl;EdnehIy ehIyRBHGgÁnwgbnþdMeNIrcUleTAkñúgRBHraCaNacRk 220 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 223. 221Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa teTAeTot. eBlTTYlsarlixitenH GñkGgÁm©as;BjaGugraCa CaraCbuRtrbs;RBHRsIramaFibtI Edl esþcesom)ansuMTukCakUnehIyelIk[eFVICaecAhVayExRtsuvNÑelak63 k¾enAkñúgsvnakarenaHEdr. BjaGugenH)anRbEkkminRBmRtlb;mkkm<úCavijtamkarbbYlBIBjac½nÞraCa Cabgb¥ÚnCIdUnmYyeT eRBaH)aneFVICaecAhVayExRtsuvNÑelakenaH vasuxRsYleTAehIy. eBlesþcesomsYrGMBIxøwmsar sarlixit RTg;k¾TUltbeTAvijfaGñkGgÁm©as;c½nÞCamnusSmanemaTnPaB qøatév skmµ mincg;)at;bg;nUv siT§iGMNacrbs;xøÜneT tamemIleTARBHGgÁyageTAdl;RBMRbTl;Edn edIm,IdeNþImykRBHraCaNacRk km<úCaBIesþckn EdlERCkraCümkvij. eBlenaHesþcesom)ancat;BlTahanesH30[ecjeTAtamBjac½nÞ edIm,IbBa©úHbBa©Úl[ lHbg;KMnitenHehIy Rtlb;mkGyuFüavij b¤ebIBuMenaHeTk¾RtÚvbBa¢ÚnTahan 500nak;EdlRBHGgÁ RbKl;[edIm,ItamTak;dMrIseTAvijEdr. eBlenaHecABjac½nÞ)aneFVIdMeNIrqøgkat;RBMEdn ehIy)anGUsTajGñksµ½RKcitþtamEhhm RBHGgÁ)an800nak; cMENkÉ´beRmIrbs;RBHGgÁ)anekNÐKña)an2Ban;nak;EfmeTot. CamYynwgKña cMnYn 3Ban;nak;enH ehIynigT½Besom5rynak;pg RTg;)aneFVIdMeNIryagmkdl;ExRtnKresomrab ¬GgÁrFM¦64 ehIydeNþImykTIRkúgenH)an. KWenATIenaHehIy EdlGñknaMsarrbs;esþcesom)an tam mkTan; ehIyedayyl;faminGacyagRBHGgÁRtlb;eTARsukesomvij)an k¾sakl,gbBa©úHbBa©ÚlT½B esomTaMg500nak;[Rtlb;eTAvij.eBlenaHGñkGgÁm©as;c½nÞk¾dkykRBHEsg¬dav¦GaCJaswkecj mkRKvIenABImuxBYkesomehIymanbnÞÚlfa{enHCasBaØaénGMNacrbs;eyIgEdlesþcrbs;BYkÉgRTg; )anRbTan[.ebIBYkÉgmineKarBtameyIgeTeyIgnwgkemÞcBYkÉgTaMgGs;enATIenH}.T½BesomxøacT½B eTIberIsfµI3Ban;nak; EdlenAQrB½T§CuMvijCuMCit k¾lutCgÁg;cuHsuMkareR)asRbNI. GñkGgÁm©as;c½nÞRTg;GaNitdl;T½BesomTaMgenaHk¾manbnÞÚleTAkan;fa{GñkÉgvilRtlb;eTARsuk esomvijcuH ehIysUmTUlfVayRBHraCapgfa eyIgsUmEføgGMNrKuNRBHGgÁ Edl)anciBa©wmbI)ac; EfrkSaeyIgGs;kal9qñaMrYcRTg;)an[T½B5rynak;CUneyIgrhUtmkdl;TIenH.eyIgminGacEføgGMNr 63 ExRtenHsßitenAelITenøemNam cm¶ayRbEhl 30KILÚEm:Rt BIxageCIgsuexaT½y. 64 enHKWCaelIkTI1ehIyEdleyIgRbTHeXIjBaküesomrabeRbIP¢ab;CamYyBakünKredIm,IehAExRtGgÁr.etIBaküenH mankMeNItmunraCüesþcknb¤k¾eRkay?´KitfaBaküenHekItmanenAeBleRkaymkeTk¾b:uEnþBYkGñksresrRbvtþisa®sþ enAstvtSr_TI19min)anKitl¥itl¥n; eRbIBaküenH dUcEdlxøÜnehAenAsm½yeRkayenaHG‘ÍcwgEdr.
  • 224. KuNdl;RBHGgÁenAeBlenH)an BIeRBaHeyIgenARk eyIgKµanGVInwgfVaydl;RBHGgÁCakartbsñgsg KuNeT. EtsUmRBHraCakuMbIxJal;nwgeyIgeFVIGVI sUmRBHGgÁRTg;emtþaRtaRbNIelIkElgeTas[eyIgpg kalNaeyIgTTYl)anC½yCmñH ehIy)aneLIgesayraCü eyIgnwgcat;bBa¢ÚnsYysarGakreTAfVay edIm,ICakartbsñgsgKuNnwgKuNUbkar³EdlRBHGgÁmancMeBaHeyIg kñúgeBlEdleyIgrs;enAkñúg raCFanIrbs;RBHGgÁ}. BYkesomRtlb;cUleTARsukesomvijeTA ÉBjac½nÞ k¾bnþRBHraCdMeNIrcUlmkkñúgkm<úCaCabnþ eTot. mkdl;ExRt)at;dMbg BjamenaemRtI CaecAhVayExRtenH )anmkTTYlRBHGgÁCamYynwgT½B 1muWnnak; EdlxøÜnRbKl;fVayRBHGgÁ. ecABjasYK’aelakecAhVayExRteBaFisat;EdlminGbGrnwgkaryagmkdl;rbs;Bjac½nÞ)an sresrsMbuRtepJIeTAR)ab;dMNwgdl;esþckn ehIy)anekNÐT½B4muWnnak;edIm,ITb;Tl; RBmTaMg)anerobcM kMEpgkarBarExRteTotpg. T½BGñkGgÁm©as;c½nÞ)aneBIbRbyuT§nwgT½BecAhVayExRtenHmþg k¾b:uEnþ eBl enaHmanCnRbqaMgmñak;eQµaHtaemOgEdlRbmUlRkúmRKÜsarnigmitþPkþi)an150nak;TaMgGs;KñasuT§Et beRmIenAkñúgCYrT½BExRt )aneqøót»kasEdlecAhVayExRtenAEtÉg k¾naMKñavayRbhar ehIysmøab; ecAhVayExRtenaHeTA. cb;XatkmµenH taemOg)anniyaybBa©úHbBa©ÚlRbCaCnkñúgExRt [cuHcUl rYb rYmKñatamdEgðGñkGgÁm©as;c½nÞEdlCab;BUCCamYyraCvgSesþckm<úCaBImunEdlesþcknmankMeNItedIm CaTaskr )anTmøak;ecjBIGMNac. eBlenaHRbCaCnTaMgGs;k¾naMKñaebIkTVarTIRkúg ehIyTHédGbGr saTrGñkGgÁm©as;c½nÞ EdlyagcUlmkkñúgTIRkúgCamYynwgkgT½BTaMgGs;. GñkGgÁm©as; k¾EtgtaMg taemOg [eFVICaecAhVayExRteBaFisat; ehIyRTBüsm,tþiTaMgGs;rbs;ecAhVayExRtmun k¾RtÚv)aneK ykmkEckrMElk[kgT½B. kUnRbústaemOgTaMg4nak;)anRtÚvEtgtaMg[dwknaMT½BCYrmuxmanKña 8Ban; nak; ehIyTTYlParkic©eTAvaydeNþImykExRtRkKr xøúg nigRkaMg. naeBlenaH esþckn eRkayBIgUtTwkeBléf¶Rtg;rYc )anecjedIrRbBatsYnc,arCamYyemnM emnagrYc)annaMnagmñak;mkkñúgRBHraCdMNak;pÞMRksalCamYysþab;ePøgnigceRmóg.eBlpÞMlg;lk;eTA RTg;subineXIjfaRBHraCvaMgRtÚvePøIgeqHeTaHCaRBHGgÁxMrt;eKcy:agNak¾minputehIyRBHGgÁRtÚvePøIg eqHsusxøÜn. PJak;BIdMeNkeLIg esþckn)anehAeharamkTsSn_Tay ehIy)ansmøab;eharamñak;eday kMhwg eRBaHTsSn_Tay[minl¥ rYck¾yagecjBIRBHraCdMNak;eTA. eBlenaH]kj:alMBag nayc,ar dMNaM )anTUldMNwgGMBIkarmkdl;énGñknaMsMbuRtrbs;ecAhVayExRteBaFisat;. esþc knPJak;xøÜneRBIt Etmin[xateBlyUr )anecjbBa¢a[]kj:acRkIecjekNÐT½BPøam edm,IeTATb;Tl;nwgGñkGgÁm©as;c½nÞ. 222 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 225. 223Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa ]kj:acRkI)anTUlesþcknfa sUmRTg;kuM)armÖfVI eRBaHfaebITUlRBHbgÁ¿minGacXat;xøa)an ehacNas; k¾TUlRBHbgÁ¿nwgeFVI[varbYsCaTm¶n;Edr. esþckneBjcitþnwgsmþIenHNas; RTg;Kitfa enHCaRbpñÚll¥ eTIbRTg;RbTankUnlMEBgmancgá¿masmYy[. ]kj:acRkIecjdMeNIreTAkan;lEgVkPøameRCIserIsTahanmYykg rIÉecAhV‘aekA RtÚvCama esþc knnigCaembBa¢akarFMk¾ecjeTAkMBg;esomEdrekNÐT½BmYykgeTotedIm,IeFVIskmµPaBrYmKña.esþckn )anRbTanRBHEsgGaCJaswk[ RBmTaMgfVaymasmYyfas sBaØasmÁal;zan³ nigsÁrC½y4. eBl RbmUlT½B)anecAhV‘aekA)anRbKl;T½BmYycMnYn[eTA]kj:aeteCadwknaMeTARbQmmuxCamYyT½BGñkGgÁ m©as;c½nÞ EdlkMBugEteFVIdMeNIrmk. enAeBlenaHBjacRkIRbmUlT½B)an4muWnnak;enAkñúgExRtlEgVknigExRtCitxagehIy)anecj bBa¢a[ecABja]T½yFiraCecAhVayExRtsMeragTg nig]kj:araCaemRtIecAhVayExRtctumµúx rYmKña begáItCakgT½BxageqVg [BjavgSaemRtIerobcMkgT½BxagsþaMCamYyTahanerIs)anmkBIExRt)aTI nig[ BjavranukUl kan;T½BxageRkay TaMgGs;KñadwknaMT½BeTAkan;ExRtRkaMg CaTIkEnøgEdlGñkGgÁm©as;c½nÞKg; enA. karRbyuT§ekItmaneLIgdMbUgrvagT½BtaemOgCamYyT½BelakcRkIrbs;esþckn.fVIebIT½Brbs;Kat; mankmøaMgticCagT½Brbs;sRtÚvk¾edayEttaemOgmanTMnukcitþmutmaMeTAelITahanrbs;Kat;EdlsuT§Et CaGñksµ½RKcitþ k¾seRmccitþRbyuT§. karRbyuT§cab;epþImCadMbUgrvagT½B2Ban;nak; rbs;kUnc,grbs; ta emOg CamYynwgT½BecAhVayExRtsMeragTg EdlRtÚvsmøab;)anPøam b:uEnþT½Brbs;kUntaemOg RtÚvvay dkfyeTArkT½Brbs;«BukvijEdr. edayyl;eXIjfaenHCaC½yCmñHmYy eRBaHfaecAhVay ExRt sMeragTg)ansøab;eTAehIy k¾naMT½BcUleTAkñúgExRteBaFisat;vij. T½Brbs;ecAhVayExRtsMeragTg rt;Rtlb;eTAeRkayvijCYbCamYyT½Brbs;BjacRkIk¾enACamYyKñaenaHeTA.BjacRkIehobEtnwgbBa¢a [T½BTaMgGs;ecjdMeNIredjtamT½BsRtÚvEdlxøÜnKitfakMBugEtrt;eKceTAehIyenaH TTYlmaneKR)ab; dMNwgfa T½B5muWnnak;rbs;esþckn)aneFVIdMeNIrmkCitdl;CMrMxøÜnehIy k¾Qb;rg;caMsin. mkdl;Pøam sþab;r)aykarN_rYc esþcknk¾EbgEckT½BecjCaeRcInkgtUc² rYcbBa¢a[ecjdM eNIredjtamT½BGñkGgÁm©as;c½nÞPøamnigfa[eLamB½T§RkúgeBaFisat;[Cab;ebIsRtÚvminRBmcuHcUleT. T½BesþckneLamB½T§eBaFisat;cab;BIéf¶xanEs¥keLIg ehIyTahanrbs;esþckncUlrhUtmkdl;eCIg kMEpgTIRkúg ERskeCredoltµHGñkRsuk. karRbyuT§CaTUeTAk¾cab;epþImeLIg k¾b:uEnþGñkRsukemaHmut karBarTIRkúg)any:agl¥ eRkambBa¢arbs;GñkGgÁm©as;c½nÞ eFVI[BYkTahanesþcknRtÚvdkfyecjq¶ay
  • 226. BIkMEpgbnþic edIm,IkuM[rgrbYsedaysarEpøRBÜj nigduMfµEdlKb;mkBIelIkMBUlkMEpg. esþckn manT½BeBlenaHsrubTaMgGs;10muWnnak; ÉGñkGgÁm©as;c½nÞmanEt2muWnnak;b:ueNÑaH k¾b:uEnþ RBHGgÁminrYjraeLIy. RTg;)anEbgEckT½BCa2kg kgTI1man5Ban;nak;RbKl;[BjasYK’a elakecAhVayExRteBaFisat;kan;cMENkRBHGgÁkan;T½B1muWnnak;BjamhaesnaecAhVayExRtbribUN_ kan;T½B 2Ban;nak;dwknaMmuxCaT½BRsYc ÉGñkGgÁm©as;ysraCa nig]kj:avaMgCaPIelogkan;T½B3Ban;nak; enAkarBarTIRkúg. EbgEckrYc T½BRsYcecjdMeNIrenAeBlyb;mkdl; bnÞab;mkkgTI1rbs;BjasYK’a elak ecjvayeTAelIkgT½Brbs;BjacRkI rYckgT½Brbs;GñkGgÁm©as;c½nÞecjvayeTAelIkgT½Besþc kn. manerOgniTanEdlniyayGMBImUlehtueFVI[T½Besþckn)ak;caj; KWmanBYkexµacEdlegIbecjBIpñÚr mkERskeh‘abnøac. EtGVIEdlR)akd KWT½BGñkGgÁm©as;c½nÞ)anebIkkarvayRbhareTAelIT½B BYkk,t; edaymin)an[dwgmun eFVI[BYkenH)at;m©as;kar rt;EbkExJkKñamindwgTistMbn;. BjacRkI RtÚveKsmøab; )an ehIykat;k,alykeTAfVayGñkGgÁm©as;c½nÞ GgÁm©as;c½nÞ)anbBa¢a[ykeTAedatnwgbegÁalrbg. T½BQñHRbmUl)anC½yPNÐCaeRcIn. GñkGgÁm©as;c½nÞ )andwknaMT½BbnþdMeNIreTAdl;RkKr ehIy)anbBa¢a[sg;bnÞay erIsT½BbEnßm nig RbmUles,ógsRmab;pÁt;pÁg;T½B. rYcehIyRTg;yagbnþeTARkaMg rhUtdl;xøúg b:uEnþmin)anCYbnwgBYkxµaMg eT.RBHGgÁbBa¢a[sg;bnÞayerIsT½BbEnßmnigRbmUles,ógdUcenARkKreTotrYcehIyRTg;bnþdMeNIreTA kan;ExRtGRmitbur³ enAeBlEdlecAhVayExRtenH CabkSBYkesþcknminGacekNÐT½BTb;Tl;nwgGñkGgÁ m©as;c½nÞ)an k¾rt;eKcxøÜn)at;eTA. GñkRsuk)annaMKñamkGbGrsaTrrak;Tak;TTYlGñkGgÁm©as;c½nÞ eday naMyktgVayCaeRcInmkfVaypg rYcnaMKñaksagbnÞayrwgmaMmYyfVay edayRbKl;[ecAhVayExRtmñak; EdlRTg;eTIbcat;taMgfµIenArkSakarBar. mkdl;valRsabGgáam GñkGgÁm©as;c½nÞ )anCYbCamYyT½Brbs;ecAhV‘aTlð³ Edl)ak;caj;éd rt;BIeBaFisat;mkkMBugRbEmRbmUlKña.RTg;ebIkkarvayRbhareTAelIeFVI[BYkenH)ak;Ebkrt;x©at;x©ay mþgeTot ehIyRBHGgÁedjtam smøab;)anecAhV‘aTlð³edaypÞal;édRBHGgÁ. bnÞab;BIC½yCmñHfµIenH kgT½BbnþdMeNIreTAmuxeTotehIy)anmke)aHCMrMsRmakenAxagekItrlaeb¥ór.eBlenaHecAhVayExRt EdlesþcknEtgtaMgeKcrt;)at;eTA RTg;k¾eRCIserIsemT½Bmñak;[eLIgCMnYsvij. eBlenaH C½yCmñH)anelcecjCarUbragbnþicehIycMeBaHGñkGgÁm©as;c½nÞ eFVI[GñkRsukERbman TMnukcitþmkelIRBHGgÁvij k¾naMKñamksVaKmn_RBHGgÁeRcInkuHkr. GñkRsuklEgVkmkmuneK bnÞab;mkKW GñkRsukCitxag naMyktgVayepSg²mkCamYy ÉBYkRbús²sµ½RKcUlT½BbeRmIRBHGgÁ. 224 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 227. 225Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa niyayBIesþcknvijRTg;)ancat;bBa¢ÚnPñak;gar[cuHtamExRtnanaCMruj[ecAhVayExRtnImYy² xitxMRbwgERbgeLIgkñúgkareRCIserIsT½B. kargarenH)annaMmknUvkgT½BfµIsRmab;esþckncMnYn 17muWn nak; EdlRTg;EbgEckecjCa2kg sßitenAeRkambBa¢akarrbs;RBHGgÁpÞal;. RTg;RbKl;raCFanI RsI sn§r [buRtaRBHGgÁ nigecAhV‘avaMgkarBar rYck¾ecjdMeNIrmkkan;ctumµúx mke)aHCMrMenARkaMgBénø65 . enARkaMgBénøenaHesþckn)anbBa¢a[elakymraCdwknaMT½B2muWn5Ban;nak;mkvaydeNþImyk lEgVkvij. TTYl)andMNwgenH GñkGgÁm©as;c½nÞ )andwknaMT½B4muWnnak;mkCYy. RTg;bBa¢a[T½BlEgVk ecjvaymun ehIy[eFVICacaj;édrt;eKcedIm,I[sRtÚvedjtam rhUtmkdl;kEnøgmYyEdlRBHGgÁ enAeRtómrg;caM swmEbrvaybks®gÁúbTaMgGs;Kñavij. RbtibtþikarenHeFVI[T½BsRtÚvxatbg;emT½BGs; 11nak;nigTahanRbEhlCa5Ban;nak;ehIyGñkenAsl;Føak;xøÜnCacMNab;xµaMgrbs;T½BGñkGgÁm©as;c½nÞ. eKkat;k,alemT½BTaMg11nak; rYccat;[emT½BenArs;5nak;eTot EdleKkat;søwkRtecok naMykk,al TaMgenaHeTAfVayesþckn CamYynwgBaküpþaMepJIfa {ebIRTg;manTahaneRcInehIy cg;bnþkarRbyuT§ sUm[ qab;cUlmk. k¾b:uEnþebIsinCacg;p¥aks®gÁam eRBaHfa Citdl;rdUvvsSaehIy NamYyCitcUlqñaMpg Tuk eBl[GñkRsukeRtómerobcMeFVIERscmáar RtÚvelIkeLIgtamEtcitþcg;eTAcuH}. emT½BesþcknTaMg5nak;ecjdMeNIrput GñkGgÁm©as;c½nÞ k¾naMT½BRtlb;mkrlaeb¥órvij EtRTg; )ancat;esnaqøatévmñak;[tamBinitüemIlsPaBT½BsRtÚvbnþeTot. esþcknTTYlyl;RBmtamsMeNIrbs;GñkGgÁm©as;c½nÞ ehIy)ansresrsarlixitmYyeqøIytb mkvij edaymane)aHRtapg rYccat;m®nþI3nak;[naMyksarlixitenaHeTA[KUsRtÚv CamYynwgsMBt; sURt cak;Crpáamas20duM sMBt;sURtrMelcBN’epSg²20duM nigkRmalRBM2pg. lixitenaHmanxøwmsardUcteTA ³ {eyIg semþcRBHRsIeCdæaFiraCramaFibtIbrmbBiRt esþcRkúg km<úCaFibtIsirIesaFnbvrnÞbtþ eyIgEdlRbCanura®sþ nigraCvgSanuvgS)anesñIsuM[eLIgesayraCü elIraCblø½gáRkúgRsLb;BiC½ynKrxagekIt sUmTUlfVayRBHGnuCaFiraCecABjac½nÞraCaRTg;RCabfa eyIgrIkrayNas;nwgeXIjGñkdwknaMT½BmkRbyuT§CamYynwgeyIg b:uEnþedayrdUvvsSaCitcUlmkdl; ehIyeyIgRtÚvTukeBl[GñkRsukbgábegáInplsindUecñHsUmp¥akkic©Rbtibtþikars®gÁammYyGenøIkñúgrdUv enH. eyIgyl;RBmtamsMeNIrbs;Gñk Etmanlkç½NÐfaeyIgTaMgsgxagminRtÚveqøót»kasenH edIm,IlYcdeNþImykGaNaExRtrbs;mçageTot bIdUcCaecarxµÜjenaHeT. karRbyuT§nwgcab;epþImeLIgvij 65 CasÞwgmYyenAelIRcaMgxagsþaMTenøsab hUrcak;mkkñúgTenøenHenARtg;xagelIkMBg;høÜgbnþic.
  • 228. EteBlNamankarRbkass®gÁamBiR)akd. eFVIy:agenHeTIbRtwmRtÚv smCaesþcEpndI}. GñkGgÁm©as;c½nÞRTg;xJal;xøaMgNas;nwg esþckn CaGtIt´mñak; EdlehARBHGgÁfaGnuCdUecñH. RTg;k¾manRBHbnÞÚleTAkan;GñknaMsarrbs;esþcknfa ³ {eyIgTTYlyl;RBmtamlkç½NÐrbs; naykn b:uEnþ GñkRtÚvR)ab;eTAeKvijfa eyIgmineBjcitþnwg[mnusSEdlmanedImkMeNItq¶aydac;RsLHBIeyIg mkcat;TukeyIgCaGnuCenaHeT} rYcehIyRTg;EckrgVan;Camas nigR)ak;xøHEdlRBHGgÁ)anykBIRsuk esommk[GñkTaMgenaH rYck¾edj[Rtlb;eTAvij. eBlenaH kgT½Brbs;GñkGgÁm©as;c½nÞmineBjcitþnwgkarp¥akkarRbyuT§eT. BYkemT½BnaMKñaniyay fa{etIeFVIs®gÁamdUcemþceBlEdleyIgkMBugEtmaneCaKC½yRBHGgÁEbreTACap¥akRbtibtþikarTuk[sRtÚv enArkSakan;kab;GaNaExRtmYycMnYn EdleyIgGacnwgdeNþImyk)aneTAvij}. BYkeKnaMKñacUlKal; GñkGgÁm©as;c½nÞ ehIyTUlRBHGgÁfa {nayknmanExRteRcInCageyIg10dg ebIcab;erIsT½BenAkñúgbNþa ExRtcMNuHTaMgGs;enaH cab;BImat;smuRTenAxagt,Úg eTAdl;RsuklavenAxageCIg rhUteTAdl;RBMRbTl; CamYynKrcam:,a nwg)anTahandl;eTArab;ryBan;nak;. cMENkxageyIgvij eyIgmanExRtEt 6-7 b:ueNÑaH. RBHGgÁRCabRsab;ehIy faeyIg)aneRCIserIsT½BeRcInNas; BIkñúgExRtTaMg6-7enH Edl Føab;rgeRKaHCadMNMedaysars®gÁam ehIyExRt)at;dMbg)anxatbg;RbCaCn CaeRcInedaysaresom ekorykeTA}. GñkGgÁm©as;c½nÞ manRBHbnÞÚltbeTAvijfa kgT½Brbs;eyIgenOyht;xøaMgNas;eTA ehIyminGacbnþkarRbyuT§teTAeTotkñúgeBlenH)aneTRBHGgÁcg;erIsT½BbEnßmeTotsin.RBHGgÁcrca CamYyesþckndUecñHBIeRBaHRBHGgÁmincg;RbyuT§CamYyT½BmkBIExRtkMBg;sVayEdlmanBak;suT§EtGav eRkaHEdkEdlT½BeyIgKµan NamYyT½BsRtÚvmankarcat;taMgc,as;las;CaT½BRBHraCa mankøs; Tg;C½y nigePøgPøat;l¥CagT½BeyIg.RBHGgÁCaraCvgS)anCaniyayrYceTAehIyminGacelbsmþIvij)aneT. manRBHbnÞÚlrYc GñkGgÁm©as;c½nÞ eFVIkarENnaMdl;ecAhVayExRtTaMgGs;EdlRbmUl)anmkvij rYcRTg;dwknaMT½BcUleTARkúgbribUN_eTA. cMENkÉesþcknvij RTg;k¾)anvilRtlb;eTAkan; RsIsn§r CaraCFanIraCaNacRkxagekIt ehIyKg;enAs¶b;esomEdr. munnwgmankarp¥akkarRbyuT§KñaenH eBlTTYldMNwgfaecAhVayExRtkMBg;sVayerobcMecj dMeNIrmkvayykRkKr RTg;)andwknaMT½BecjvayRbharmun smøab;ecAhVayExRtenaH)an RBmTaMg deNþImyk)anExRtsnÞúk sÞwgRtg; kMBg;esom )arayN_ eCIgéRB66 nigExRtmYycMnYneTot rYc)an 226 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 66 eyIg)aneXIjBIxagelIrYcmkehIyfa bNþaExRtTaMgGs;enHsßitenAcenøaHTenøsab nigTenøemKgÁ manry³TTwgCa
  • 229. 227Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa RbKl;[nayTahanrbs;RBHGgÁRKb;RKgkan;kab;. RbtibtþikarenHekItmaneLIgkñúgeBlkMBugcrcaKña em:øaHehIyesþckn)anecaTRbkan;faKWCakarbMBanelIkic©snüa.b:uEnþGñkGgÁm©as;c½nÞGHGagfaerOgva ekItmankñúgGMLúgeBlkMBugcrca munmankic©RBmeRBóg dUecñHminxuseT. 1188-- RRBBHHcc½½nnÞÞrraaCCaa ¬¬11551166--11555555¦¦ enAkñúgeBlEdlmankarp¥akkarRbyuT§KñaenaH nayTahanTaMgLayrYmCamYyRBHraCvgSanuvgS pg )anÉkPaBKñaesñIsuM[GñkGgÁm©as;c½nÞeLIgesayraCüCaRBHraCaénRBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa. RBHGgÁ )anyl;RBmTTYltam k¾b:uEnþRTg;)anseRmcRBHT½yfaRTg;nwgTTYlykkarGPieskluHNaEtRTg; deNþIm)anC½yCmñHelInayknk,t;rYcsin. eK)anerobcMsg;RBHBnøaepSg²sRmab;eFVIkarRbkas EtgtaMgRBHraCaenH rYmmanRBHraCblø½gá)aMgeTAedaykøs;rYt5Can; RBHGgÁ)an[sg;5Can;sin ¬min Tan;TTYlykkøs;9Can;PøameT¦/ eRKÓgRbdab;bMBak;[esHEdlGUsRBHraCrf/ eRKÓgRbdab;bMBak;[ dMrIeBlyagecjeFVIs®gÁam/eRKÓgRbdab;bMBak;[esHcm,aMgnigeRKÓgRbdab;lm¥RBHraCTInaMgnava. GñkGgÁm©as;c½nÞ )aneLIgKg;elIraCblø½gá)aMgedaykøs;enAkñúgRKisþskraC1516 RtÚvnwg mhaskraC1438/ culøskraC878 KWéf¶c½nÞ 15eraC ExplÁún qñaMCUt Gdæs½k edayRTg;TTYlRBH zan³CaRBHraCaminTan;GPieskfasemþcRBHbrmnafc½nÞraCaFiraCRsIC½yecsþamhaRksRtGgÁm©as; Rkúgkm<úCa. enAkñúgeBlRbkasenaH BYkRBahµN_buerahit)anpøúMs½gç nigmankarRbKMePøgkgrMBg ehIymanRbCara®sþeFVIdMeNIrBIRKb;ExRtx½NÐmUlmIr mksMEdgkarGbGrsaTr. RBHraCa)anEtgtaMgrdæm®nþIesnabtIRBHsgÇraCénRBHviharBuT§sasnaTaMg7nayRkúmRBHraC vgSanuvgS2GgÁ RBHsIpat CaemRkúm)arKUTTYlbnÞúkEfrkSaGavuFs½kþisiT§i nigerobcMBiFItamRBhµBaØ sasnaepSg² namuWntUcFM GaRs½yeTAtamKuNUbkar³EdlBYkeK)anbMeBjknøgmk. eK)anniyayfa RBHraCak¾)ancat;[eKsagsg;vtþmYy enAnwgkEnøgEdleKelIk[RBHGgÁesayraCüenaH. KWenAeBl enaHehIyEdlTIrYmExRtGRmitbur³)andUreQµaHmkCabribUN_vijrhUtmkdl;sBVéf¶enH67 . mYynwglEgVkEdr.enHKWCacMNucxagt,ÚgbMputénTwkdIEdleyIgehABImunfamFüeTs³mann½yfaRsukkNþalRbeTs. 67 eKehAdUecñHmkBITIenaHdIERsmanCICatixøaMgNas; eRkayBIRBHraCa)anbBa¢a[TahanbEgVrpøÚvTwksÞwg[hUrkat; edayelIkTMnb;mYy.
  • 230. kñúgGMLúgeBlenaH esþckn)anerobcMeRCIserIskgT½BenAtambNþaExRt EdlsßitenAeRkam GMNacrbs;RBHGgÁ ehIy)anRbmUlykmkdak;enARsIsn§r enAcugqñaM1516. PaBRbTUsr:ayrvagKñanwgKñacab;ekItmaneLIgvijCadMbUg edaysarT½BBYkbHe)arenAsMeragTg )anecjmkekNÐRbCaCnRbmaNCa100RKÜsarenAkñúgExRtlEgVk. eBlTTYl)andMNwgenH RBHBjac½nÞraCa )anbBa¢a[]kj:acRkIdwknaMT½B1muWnnak; eTARbedABYkenaH. ]kj:acRkI)anvayBYkenH [braC½yrYcedjtamvayrhUteTAxagt,ÚgdeNþIm)anExRt)aTIéRBkb,asRTaMgrYceTIbvilRtlb;mk ctumµúxvij. cUlmkkñúgqñaM1517 mankarRbyuT§CaeRcIn k¾b:uEnþkarRbyuT§TaMgGs;enaHmin)aneFVI[mankar ERbRbÜlGVIdl;sßanPaBrbs;KURbqaMgTaMg2b:unµaneT. karRbyuT§)anRtÚvbBaÄb;TaMgRsugenAedImqñaMfµI rYc)ancab;epþImvijy:agxøaMgkøaenAeBlcb;rdUvvsSa. T½BRBHraCa)anTTYleCaKC½yCasßaBrelIT½B esþcknenAkñúgExmaXFM CaExTI3énqñaM ehIyminRKan;EtdeNþImyk)anExRtRTaMgb:ueNÑaHeT KWEfmTaMg deNþImyk)anExRtkMBt nigkMBg;esameTotpg. b:uEnþkardeNþImykExRt)asak; nigRBHRtBaMg RtÚv braC½y. KWenAeBlenaHÉgEdlesþcknelIkKeRmagkarlYceFVIXatRBHc½nÞraCa dUcEdlxøÜnFøab;)aneFVI cMeBaHRBHraCamunrYcmkehIy.esþckn)aneRCIserIsTahansµ½RKcitþ100nak;edayRTg;)ansnüafa nwgelIkBYkeK[eFVICaecAhVayExRtelIExRtNaEdldeNþImyk)anBIRBHraCa enAeBlNaEdlBYkeK smøab;RBHGgÁ)an. BYkTahanTaMgenaH)aneFVICanaMKñart;mksuMRCkekanCamYykgT½BRBHraCa hak;bIdUc CaeKk,t;nwgemeKmunG‘Ícwg. RBHc½nÞraCa TTYlykBYkenaHedaybItiesamnsS nigmankarTukcitþCaxøaMg ehIy)an[dak;bBa©ÚlBYkenaHeTAkñúgkgrkSaRBHGgÁ. éf¶mYyRBHraCa)ancuHRsg;TwkkñúgsÞwgbribUN_ eday)anehA[TahanTaMgGs;cuHgUtTwkCamYyRBHGgÁEdr. BlTahanTaMgGs;)anGnuvtþtamRBHraC bBa¢aelIkElgEtBYkcuHcUlfµI100nak;min)ancuHgUtnwgeKeT eRBaHmankaMbitesñótlak;TukenAnwgePøA k¾mankarrMeCIbrMCYlkñúgcitþCaxøaMg.RBHraCaEdlBinitüemIleXIjehtukarN_enHk¾bBa¢a[BYkenaHRsat semøókbMBak;ecj. BYkenaHKitfaEpnkarrbs;BYkeKnwgRtÚvbraC½y ebIsinNaCaeKmincab;Gnuvtþ PøameT k¾naMKñaxitmkCitRBHraCaKitfa nwgcab;eFVIkarvayRbharmkelIRBHGgÁPøamEtmþg. RBHraCa k¾cab;epþImElgTukcitþelIBYkenaH )anerobcMRbúgeRbóbkarBarxøÜnRBHGgÁ edayERskehAkgkarBar [cUlmkCYyrYcRTg;rt;eTAykdavEdlRBHGgÁBüÜrenAnwgedImeQImYy.RTg;)anelIkGavuFRtómkarBar xøÜnRBHGgÁ rYckab;TaMgdavCab;enAkñúgeRsameTAelICnk,t;mñak;EdlcUlmkCitRBHGgÁCageK. RBHraC 228 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 231. 229Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa kayvikarenH )aneFVI[vaGak;skmµPaBbnþicEdr RBmCamYyeBlEdleRsamdavRtÚvrbUtecjeTA. Gak,t;enaH eBlBinitüeXIjfamanEtxøÜnmñak;ÉgenAcMeBaHmuxRBHraCa min)ancab;GarmµN_fa BYkxøÜn ÉeTot kMBugEtCab;édCamYykgrkSaRBHGgÁeT k¾ekItmankartk;søútCaxøaMg ehIyebIkmat;ERskehAKña [cUlmkCYyrYck¾RtÚvRBHraCacak;mYydavcUlkñúgmat;søab;eTA.kñúgBYkk,t;100nak;enaHman10nak; EdlRtÚv)aneKsmøab;enAnwgkEnøg 8nak;RtÚvcab;)anTaMgrs; esssl;b:unµan)aneKcrt;rYceTArkT½B esþcknvij. cMENkxagT½BRBHraCa manTahan15nak;rgrbYs nigsøab;mñak;. xµaMgEdlcab;rs;TaMg 8nak;)anRtÚveKsmøab;edaykat;k,al. enAcugqñaMenaH RBHraCa)anelIksñMÉkCaRBHCaya ehIyk¾)anRbKl;zan³epSg² eTA[BYkemnM emnag eTAtamzan³rbs;eKpgEdr. enAExmiKsirqñaM1519 esþcknEdlGñkRbvtþiviTUExµrehAfaCaRBHraCaénRBHraCaNacRkTisxag ekIt )anmkbgðajxøÜnRBHGgÁenAkñúgExRtkMBg;esom CamYykgT½B8muWnnak; EdlmkTaMgtampøÚveKakpg nigpøÚvTwkpg. RBHc½nÞraCa )anbBa¢ÚnRBHraCbriBarTaMgGs;[eTAenAÉraCvaMg ExRteBaFisat; rYcRBHGgÁ dwknaMT½BmancMnYnRbhak;RbEhlKñaqøgTenøecjeTAeFVIs®gÁamenAPUmiPaKbUB’aEtmþg.edaymankaryWt y:avbnþickñúgkarqøgTenø ExRtkMBg;esom)anFøak;cUleTAkñúgédrbs; esþckn mYyéf¶munRBHGgÁyageTA dl; k¾b:uEnþRBHGgÁminmanjejIteT RTg;)anbnþdMeNIrcUleTAebIkkarvayRbharelIT½B esþckn eFVI[BYkenHbraC½yTaMgRsug rkEtrt;cuHTUkeTAvijk¾minTan;pg. RBHGgÁcab;)anTahanxµaMgCaeRcInnak; CaeQøIy. b:unµanéf¶bnÞab;mk esþckn)anbBa¢ÚnT½BmYykgeTot [mkvaydeNþImykkMBg;esomvij k¾RtÚvbraC½yeTot b:uEnþenAGacrkSaTItaMg)anenAeLIy. eRkayBIbraC½ypÞÜn²enHmk esþckn )anseRmccitþfaRtÚveFVIkarcrcaCamYyecABjac½nÞraCa vij eTIbRTg;sresrraCsarmYy [namuWnmñak;naMykmkfVayRBHc½nÞraCa. namuWnenaH)anmkcuHTUk enARtg;xageRkamkMBg;esombnþic CYbnwgBYkTahankMBugedIryaml,at k¾RtÚvBYkenaHcab;ykmk fVayRBHraCa. RBHGgÁxJal;nwgTahanrbs;RBHGgÁNas; EdlGnuvtþpÞúynwgc,ab;s®gÁam eFVITukçeFVIeTas TUtrbs;sRtÚv bNþal[Føak;sarenaHCamYynwgkøgmas eTAkñúgTwksÞwg)at;. RTg;)an[eKeFVITaruNkmµ nayTahanEdlRbRBwtþxusedayvay25rMBat;epþA rYcdak;Xñagk. bnÞab;mk RBHGgÁ)anbBa¢a[ GñknaMsarrbs; esþckn sURtesckþIsMbuRtEdlxøÜn)anTenÞjcaMrt;mat;fVayRBHGgÁsNþab;. kñúgesckþIénsarlixitenaHesþcknRbkasesñIsuMsnþiPaBCamYyRBHGgÁc½nÞraCaedayEbgEckTwk dIKñaEdlmñak;²manFMsmKYrNas;eTAehIy.RBHraCa)aneqøIytbeTAGñknaMsarvijfaRBHraCaNacRk
  • 232. TaMgmUlCaekrþ×dMENl EdlbuBVbursRBHGgÁ)anbnSl;Tukmk[RBHGgÁ EdlCabcäajatirbs;RBHraCa BIburaNterogmk ehIyxøÜnRBHGgÁenHeTotesatk¾Cam©as;rbs;esþcknCaecark,t; ehIyEbrCacg;mk suMEckTwkdICamYyRBHGgÁeTAvij. RBHGgÁmanRBHbnÞÚlbEnßmR)ab;eTAGñknaMsarenaHfa {ebIsinCa ecAhVayrbs;GñkÉgcg;bBaÄb;s®gÁam RtÚv[eKdkfyecjeTA enaHeyIgk¾nwgdkfyecjEdr}. esþckn enAeBlTTYlcemøIyenH RTg;manRBHbnÞÚlfa kalBIcrcaKñaelIkmun ecABjac½nÞraCa )anRbRBwtþbMBandeNþImykGaNaExRtxaglicGs;mYycMnYndUecñHminGacTukcitþ)aneT. RTg;)anerobcM dak;BRgaykgT½BtamRBMRbTl;ExRtEdlRTg;cg;rkSaTuk rYcehIyk¾yagRtlb;cUleTAkñúgraCvaMgenA ÉRkúgRsLb;éRBnKrvijeTA. cMENk RBHc½nÞraCa vij )anyagRtlb;mkbribUN_ rYcyagbgðÜseTA eBaFisat; CaTIkEnøgEdlRBHraCbriBarTaMgGs;sßitenAkñúgGMLúgeBlénkarRbyuT§. RTg;)ancat;[ eKsagsg;dMNak;mYyRbk;s,Úv mansalsvnakarenAxagkñúgpg nigenAxageRkApg. eBlenaHCaeBlcUlqñaMfµI raCvaMgTaMg2 KWxaglic nigxagekIt )anerobcMBiFIbuNücUlqñaMdUcKña. eBlenaH]kj:acRkIxagRBHc½nÞraCamanKMnitcg;lYceFVIXatesþcknk¾eRCIserIs)anTahan4nak;sµ½RK citþcUleTARkúgRsLb;éRBnKr edIm,IlYceFVIXatesþckn. RbtibtþikarenHbraC½y Tahan 2nak;RtÚveK cab;smøab;ecal. erOgenHdwgdl;RBHraCa RTg;xJal;CaxøaMg. RBHGgÁ)anRBman]kj:acRkI EdlRbRBwtþ efakTabdUecñH ehIy)ancat;Tuk]kj:aenaHfaCa {ecars®gÁam}. cab;BIeBlenaHmk T½BRBHraCaekIncMnYnral;Ex. eBlcUlqñaMfµImþg² eKeXIjT½BRBHGgÁmannay TahanfµI²rhUt. cMnYndMrIk¾ekIneLIgEdr eRBaHeBlecjTak;mþg² EdlCYnkalRBHraCayagcUlrYm edaypÞal;RBHGgÁ eKTak;)andMrIBI20eTA30k,alykmkpSaMgbeRgónsRmab;ecjeFVIs®gÁam. RTg; )anEtgtaMgGñkNaEdlFøab;)anbYseronenAkñúgvtþGaramehIy)anRblgCab; [eFVICaRkmRsuk/ CaRkmkarRsuk nigCasuPa ¬ecARkm¦. enAkñúgqñaM1522 RBHGgÁ)ancat;[BYks®gÁay KWBYkGñkEfrkSaTMenomTmøab; RbmUlBYkGñkFøab; )anbYseronTaMgGs;EdlRtÚvcUlbeRmIkñúgkic©karraCkar [mkCYbCuMKñaenAbribUN_ eFVIkarRblgRbECg GMBIcMeNHPasa)alI nigkarbkERb. GñkNaEdl)anRblgCab;enAeBlenaHRtÚv)anRBHGgÁcat;taMg [TTYleFVIkargarsaFarN³Pøam smRsbeTAtamsmtßPaBrbs;eKmñak;². manbegáItRkúmelçan mantY RsIRbúsBUEkl,IxageRcógraM edIm,IeFVI[raCvaMgmanBnøWrsµIdUckalBIGtItkal. niyayGMBIesþcknvij kan;Etgb;gulnwgkarsb,ay ePøcGs;plRbeyaCn_RbeTsEdlRBHGgÁ dwknaM RBmTaMgkic©karyutþiFm’pg. RBHGakb,kiriyaenH)aneFVI[m®nþICaeRcInEdlFøab;EtedIrtamRBHGgÁ 230 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 233. 231Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa mankarxkcitþCaxøaMg mü:ageTotRkmRBhµTNÐfµIEdlRTg;)an[EkERbedIm,ITak;Tajcitþ RbCara®sþk¾man karb:HBal;dl;BYkm®nþI nigGñkesµaHRtg;l¥Edr. ecARkmkat;esckþI)anEtRtwm[bg;Bin½y ehIysMNg énkarxUcxat)anRtwmEt 1PaK3énc,ab;BImunb:ueNÑaH. RBHc½nÞraCa )anRbmafesþckn edaymanRBHbnÞÚlfa {nayknCamnusS]Rkidæ emø:aHehIy EtgGnueRKaH[Cn]RkidædUcKña}. edIm,IerobcMsNþab;Fñab;eLIgvij nigdak;eTasdl;BYkecar Edlman cMnYnkan;EteRcIneLIg²kñúgeBlRsukkMBugvwkvr RTg;)anseRmc[eKbegáInBn§darmYyPaKbIeLIgvij. enAsm½yenaHenAExRtRsIsn§rmanm®nþIfñak;Tabmñak;eQµaHecAhøÜgnÞkumar)anykkµÜyRsImñak; mkciBa©wmTukdUcCakUnbegáIt. eBlkµÜyRsIenaHFMceRmIneBjv½yehIy Kat;k¾erobcMTukdak;nageFVICa Priyabursmñak;eQµaH kMeBRC smRsmtamTMenomTmøab;RbéBNIRBHraCaNacRk. kar)an 1qñaM nay kMeBRCenHRcLMRbBn§xøÜnCamYynwg´RsIGñkbeRmIrbs;RbBn§xøÜnmñak; rYck¾naM´RsIenaHrt;eTA. ecAhøÜg nÞ kumar Ca«Bukekµk)anedjtamcab;naykMeBRC rhUtmkdl;kMBg;lEgVk b:uEnþmin)annaMykeTARBHraCa NacRkxagekItvijedIm,IeFVIkarCMnuMCRmHeT EbrCanaMcUlmkCYbecAhVayExRtrlaeb¥ór dak;bNþwg[rk yutþiFm’[vij.eBlsvnakarnaykMeBRCeqøIyfa«BukmaekµkenHtammkcab;xøÜnminEmnedIm,InaM[eTA CYbCuMCamYyPriyavijeT b:uEnþedIm,IXat;XaMgmin[xøÜn Edlmkdl;RBHraCaNacRkxagliceTAehIy )an cUlbeRmIRBHc½nÞraCa. eRkayBI)ansþab;cemøIyenHehIy ecARkmk¾eCO ehIykat;esckþI[ecAhøÜg nÞ kumar caj;kþIeTA. ecAhøÜgminsuxcitþ k¾bþwgeLIg]T§rN_ ecARkm)anbBa¢ÚnsMNuMerOgTaMgGs;eTAsala ]T§N_eTot. eRkayBI)anBinitüsMNuMerOgcb;sBVRKb; ecARkmsala]T§N_mindwgCakat;esckþIy:agNa k¾yksMNuMerOgenHeTATUlRBHraCa. RBHraCaBinitüemIlsMNuMerOgy:agl¥itl¥n; rYcmanRBHbnÞÚlfa naykMeBRCminRKan;EtmankMhuse)aHbg;ecalPriyab:ueNÑaHeT EtenAmankMhuseday)anlYcyk´ beRmIrbs;PriyaxøÜnEfmeTot dUecñHRtÚvTTYleTastamkMhuseRkayenH. eBlenaH BYkecARkm)an RbEkkminRBmRbkassalRkmtameyabl;RBHraCaeT eRBaHfa´enaHCa´rbs;RbBn§ ehIytaMgBI buraNkalmk eKminEdlTTYlsÁal;fabþIlYcRTBüRbBn§ b¤RbBn§lYcRTBürbs;bþIenaHeT. RBHraCa man RBHbnÞÚltbeTAvijfa {BImunmkvaG‘ÍcwgEmn EtLÚvenH vaminG‘ÍcwgteTAeToteT} rYcRBHGgÁk¾seRmc esckþIfa {naykMeBRCenHminRKan;EtminesµaHRtg;nwgPriya )ane)aHbg;nagecaleFVI[nagFøak;kñúgPaB GamasCaRsIemm:ayb:ueNÑaHeT EfmTaMglYcyk´beRmIrbs;Priyamñak; eFVI[nag)at;bg;xatRTBüGs; EfmeTot dUecñHnaykMeBRCRtÚvTTYlTNÐkmµEdlmaneQµaHfa eTasanueTas. TNÐkmµenH tRmÚv[eK beNþIrnaykMeBRCtampøÚvkñúgraCFanIcMnYn3éf¶elIk,almanTUlkeBa¢ÍEPñkexµacrYcehIyRtÚvvay100
  • 234. rMBat;ExStI. bnÞab;mk RTg;)anecjRBHraCbBa¢a[RbKl;´RsIenaHeTA[nagCaPriyavij rYc[Rbkas pþac;sgVasBIKñateTA. karseRmckþIenaH k¾RtÚveKykmkGnuvtþtamrhUtmk cMeBaHerOgkþIRbhak; RbEhlKña. b:unµanqñaMeRkaymk RBHraCa)anecjRBHraCbBa¢a[BaNiC¢krTaMgLayeRbIR)as;sRmab;karTij dUrrbs;epSg²EtCamYyR)ak;kak;EdlRBHGgÁ[e)aHBum< maneQµaHfa halbIvab:ueNÑaH edIm,ITukCa GnusSavrIy_rMlwkdl;emedaH Edl)anbI)ac;EfrkSaRBHGgÁ. enAsm½yeBlenaHGñkRsukehARBHc½nÞraCafaRBHraCaTisxaglicehIyehAesþcknfaRBHraCa TisxagekItEtdUecñHrt;mat;eTAehIy b:uEnþRBHc½nÞraCa )anecjRBHraCbBa¢amYyhammin[ehAesþckn dUecñHeT ebIBuMenaHeTnwgRtÚvTTYleTasdl;CIvit. RTg;manRBHbnÞÚlfa {ebIsinCaeyIgc,aMgcaj; ehIy RtÚvsøab;kñúgkarRbyuT§ eBlenaHeTIbRbCanura®sþGacehAvafaCaRBHraCaCaGgÁm©as;CIvittmál;elIt,Úg )an b:uEnþcMeBaHmuxenHRtÚvehAvatamzan³EdlRBH)aTRsIsuKn§bT)andak;[ muneBlmankarbHe)ar KWXunhøÜgRBHesþckn. EtebIsinCavac,aMgcaj;RtÚvsmøab;)aneTAvijenaH zan³EtmYyEdlsmRsb cMeBaHvaKWBaküfa Gak,t;}. enAkñúgqñaMenaHEdr RBHraCaRTg;)an[dwknaMTMnijCaeRcInsMeBAeTAkan;nKrCVam:aLayU edIm,Ilk; rYc ehIyTijkaMePøIgFM1ryedIm nigkaMePøIgéd ¬kaMePøIgEvg¦ 1Ban;edImykmkvij. esþckn k¾)anbBa¢Ún sMeBA 2eRKÓgykTMnijeTAlk;Edr ehIynaMykmkvijnUvkaMePøIgFM150edIm nigkaMePøIgéd 3Ban;edIm k¾b:uEnþsMeBATaMg2enaH)anCYbBüúH k¾elIkkaMePøIgTaMgGs;enaHe)aHecaleTAkñúgTwkeTA sMeBATI1 e)aH kaMePøIgecalenABamkBa¢rsMeBATI2EdltUcCage)aHecalenABam.sMeBAtUceRkayenH)anRtÚvTahan rkSamUldæancab;)an ÉkaMePøIgFM50edIm nigkaMePøIgéd1Ban;edIm)anRtÚveKbBa¢ÚneTAkan;bribUN_. sMeBArbs; RBHc½nÞraCavilRtlb;mkkan;km<úCavijmanpÞúkkaMePøIgeBj minmanxUtxat)at;bg;GVIeT. TTYl)ankaMePøIgFM150edImnigkaMePøIgéd2Ban;edImbEnßmdUecñHRBHc½nÞraCa)aneRCIserIsTahan bEnßmcMnYn20muWnnak;eTot. RTg;cat;taMg]kj:amenaemRtI nig]kj:araCaemRtI[eFVICaembBa¢akarT½B eqVgsþaM rYc)anelIkRBHPaKienyüBjaysraCa[eFVICaGKÁesnaRbmuxelIkgT½BTaMgmUlkan;T½B 5muWn nak; edIm,IecjeTAeFVIs®gÁamenAéRBEvg. T½B5muWnnak;eTotRTg;dak;eRkambBa¢a]kj:asYK’aelak CabuRtarbs; taemOg. ]kj:a]T½yFiraC kan;T½BRsYc]kj:aeBRCeteCanigshkarIkan;T½BeqVgsþaM.T½BenHRtÚveFVIdMeNIrkat;ExRtkMBg;esomeTA e)aHTItaMgenAxagmuxraCFanIsMeragéRBnKredIm,IraraMgkuM[T½BecAhV‘aekAqøgmkCYyesþcknCakµÜy)an. 232 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 235. 233Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa RBHraCakan;T½BFM manKña10muWnnak;. T½BRsYcmanTahan2muWnnak; sßitenAeRkambBa¢akarrbs; ]kj:acRkIbuRtc,grbs;taemOgecjdMeNIrmun.]kj:aeyamraCbBa¢aT½BsøabeqVg]kj:aRkLaeham bBa¢aT½BsøabxagsþaM mñak;²cMnYn1muWnnak; ehIysemþcecABjabBa¢aT½BxageRkaycMnYn 1muWnnak;Edr. cMENkÉsemþcecAhV‘a RtÚvRBHGgÁcat;[kan;T½BenAkñúgraCFanI enAkarBarRBHraCvaMg. eFVIdMeNIrmkdl;]tþúgÁ T½BRBHraCaQb;sRmakCaelIkdMbUg ehIyRTg;yageLIgelIPñMRBHraCRTBü bn;Rsn;Gs;bNþaeTvtaEdlEfrkSaRBHraCaNacRk sUm[elakCYyRBHGgÁTTYlnUvC½yCmñH rYcRTg; yagtamTUksarayN_GENþtEdlRBHsgÇraCfVayeTAeBaFisat;.enAeBlRtlb;mkBIeBaFisat;vij RTg;)anbBa¢a[T½BTaMg 4kg ecjdMeNIreTAkan;raCvaMgesþckn. niyayBIesþcknvij EdlmanCMenOeCOCak;kñúgxøÜnfa RBHc½nÞraCa minh‘anelIkT½BmkvayRBHGgÁ k¾KitEtBIsb,ay edayKitfa mansuvtßiPaBehIy. dl;TTYlr)aykarN_fa T½BRBHraCacUlmkCitdl; ehIy k¾PJak;xøÜneRBIt PitP½yxøaMgNas; ecjbBa¢amindwgxusmindwgRtÚv RbmUlT½B)anEt 1muWnnak; b:ueNÑaH. RTg;k¾seRmcrt;ecalraCFanI)asan edaycab;bgç¿[RbCara®sþeTAtamRBHGgÁpg. eBlrt; enaHk¾mkCYbCamYyT½Brbs;]kj:asYK’aelakRbyuT§KñaeBj1éf¶rkEtdkédeKck¾minrYc.enAeBlenaH T½Brbs;]kj:acRkI nig]kj:aeteCa EdlxitxMeFVIdMeNIrtQb;QreRBaHcg;vayesþckn )anmkdl; lµmB½T§T½BesþcknCab;BIxageRkaynigBIxagcMehogT½B]kj:asYK’aelakenABIxagmuxk¾RBÜtKñavayy:ag eBjTMhwg. ecAhV‘aekACa«Bukmaesþckn eBl)anTTYldMNwgGMBIkarmkdl;sMeragéRBnKrrbs;kgT½B RBHraCapg nigdMNwgGMBIeRKaHfñak;EdlesþcknkMBugCYbRbTHpg k¾naMT½B5muWnnak; eLIgeTATisxageCIg EdlKµanT½BRBHraCa edIm,IeTApSarP¢ab;CamYyT½Besþckn EdlkMBugEtTb;Tl;sVitsVajenAeLIy enA kNþalkgT½Brbs;RBHraCab:uEnþ)anRtÚvT½Brbs;]kj:aeteCaEdldwgGMBIl,icenHCamuntamvaybMEbk BIeRkayCab;. esþcknmin)andwgfa«BukmamkCYyeT b:uEnþdl;eXIjT½B]kj:aeteCaeFVIclna k¾kat;yl;fa T½BenHmaneKvaymkelIehIy k¾EbrkmøaMgvayeTAxagenaH ehIyebIkpøÚvecjrYc EtRtÚvmkCYbCa mYyT½Brbs;semþcecABja nigT½Brbs;]kj:amham®nþI EdlkMBugEtlak;xøÜnrg;caMenAkñúgéRBlMbg; kñúgenaHmanTahan250nak;eRkambBa¢akarrbs;RBHsULat;mankaMePøIgkan;enAéd. manT½B 5Ban;nak; eTotenAeRkambBa¢akarrbs;]kj:amhaeTB QreCIgenAelIPñMBamCaMg mankan;kaMePøIg FñÚ nigsña. eBl enaH T½BBYkbHe)arTaMg1muWnnak;)anRtÚvsmøab; rgrbYs b¤k¾RtÚvcab;xøÜn)an ebIBuMenaHeT RtÚvrt;x©at;x©ay GñkenAsl;xøHEhlqøgTenøtUc rt;eTAtampøÚvsrRBHc½nÞsMedAeTArkT½BenAsMeragéRBnKr. RBHc½nÞraCa
  • 236. RTg;rg;caMBYk)ak;T½BenHenAkñúgvalsrRBHc½nÞenaHÉg. eBlenaHT½BRsYcrbs;RBHGgÁ b:HCamYysRtÚv muneK ehIyemT½BRsYcsemþcecABja)anRtÚv«Bukmarbs;esþcknbbYl[cUlmkRbyuT§KñaehIy smøab;)anb:uEnþT½BecAhV‘aekA)anRtÚvT½BRBHraCa3kgeTotedjtamRbkitk¾vaydkxøÜnfyrhUt)aneTA CYbCamYynwgT½Besþckn. )anCYbCuMKñama nigkµÜy esþckn nigecAhV‘aekAKitfaBYkeKmankmøaMgxøMaglµmehIy k¾naMKñaeFVIdMeNIr tampøÚveTAéRBlMbg;. eTAdl;TIenaHk¾CYbCamYyT½B]kj:amham®nþI1muWnnak; Edldac;xatraraMgpøÚvBYkeK min[eTAmux eFVI[esþcknEdlRtÚvvayRbharCaeRcInelIkeRcInsarYcmkehIy Føak;xøÜnGs;sgÇwm ehIyERskyM. ecAhV‘aekACamaeXIjdUecñHk¾niyaylYgelam rYccab;kµÜydak;elIxñgesHBIxageRkay bRmúgnaMeKcecjBIsmrPUmieTA edayniyayfa {KµanGVIxatbg;eTkalNaeyIgenArs;}. eBlenaH BYk Tahanrbs;RBHsULat;250nak;k¾cab;)aj;kaMePøIgsMedAmkelI eFVI[TahanBYkk,t;søab;Gs;CaeRcIn. k¾b:uEnþecAhV‘aekAenAEtERskkmøaTahan[bnþkarRbyuT§TaMgesþcknk¾manTwkcitþeLIgvijEdr.BYkeKenA sl;TahanRbEhlEt5Ban;nak;b:ueNÑaH k¾b:uEnþCamYyTahanb:unenH eKGacTb;Tl; ehIyeKcxøÜnrYcBI karvays®gÁúbtbg¥g;édBIRKb;TisTIrbs;T½B ]kj:amham®nþI 1mWunnak;. BYkeKeKcxøÜneTAdl;Rck enA cenøaHPñMBamCaMg nigPñMBanCBa¢aMg edayGs;kmøaMgenOyht;xøaMgeBk minGacbnþdMeNIreTAmuxeTot)an k¾naMKñaQb;sRmakdaM)ayhUbsin. b:uEnþ]kj:amhaeTBEdle)aHT½BenAelIkMBUlPñMmin)anTukeBl[eT k¾cab;RbemolduMfµTmøak;mkelI ehIy)aj;kaMePøIg RBÜjFñÚsñamkelIEfmeTot. enAeBls¶b;eTAesþckn nig«BukmamanenAsl;Tahanmindl;5rynak;pg GñkÉeTotsøab; b¤k¾rt;EbkExJkGs;eTA. b:uEnþ BYkeK enAEtGacrt;eKcxøÜnrYcy:agelOn rhUtTal;EtT½BRBHraCaemIlminTan; minh‘anedjtam. eBlenaHRBHc½nÞraCa)anecjbBa¢a[]kj:aymraC]kj:avaMg]kj:aRkLaehamnig]kj:acRkI naMTahaneTAe)aHT½BenABImuxraCFanIsMeragéRBnKr CakEnøgEdlnaykn nig«Bukmart;eTABYnlak;xøÜn sm¶MenAT½BTaMgGs;sßitenAeRkambBa¢arbs;semþcecABjaysraCaCaRBHGKÁembBa¢akar.T½BRBHraCa eLamB½T§raCFanIenHCab;3Ex b:uEnþminGacdeNþImykbnÞayrwgmaMEdlenAelIkMBUlPñM)aneT. eBlenaH ]kj:acRkIxagT½BRBHraCa k¾manKMnitcab;sg;kMEBg[)anx<s;esµInwgkMEBgraCFanI rYcdak;T½BkaMePøIg)aj; cUleTAkñúgGs;eBl 5éf¶ enAEtmin)anpl. b:uEnþ RBHraCa)anRbkas[dwgfa RBHGgÁnwgmin[dkfy karh‘umB½T§enHeT [bnþrhUtTal;EtTTYl)anC½yCmñH ehIyenAeBlenaH mnusSTaMgGs; EdlRBHGgÁ eXIjenAkñúgraCFanInwgRtÚvdak;[eTACa´TaMgGs;. B¤dUecñH BYkTahanenAkñúgkgT½BRBHraCa Edlmanbg b¥Únrs;enAkñúgraCFanIenaH k¾pSBVpSaydMNwgenHbnþ²Kña ehIy)anniyaybEnßmfa esþcesomnwgbBa¢Ún 234 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 237. 235Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa T½BmkCYyRBHc½nÞraCa CaehtueFVI[rwtEtRCÜlRcbl;xøaMgeLIgEfmeTot. yb;mYyRBHraCa)anbBa¢a[eKdutesµAEdlenACab;nwgGacm_bMNH PøWeRBagRBatCuMvijraCFanI eFVI[GñkEdlrs;enAxagkñúgeCOfaT½Besom)anmkdl;ehIy ePøIgTaMgGs;enaHCaePøIgEdlBYkeKdutbMPøW. eBlenaHRbCaCncab;PitP½yCaxøaMg k¾naMKñaebIkTVarraCFanIrt;ecjmkeRkA edIm,IeKc[putBIkarkab; smøab; nigkarFøak;xøÜnCa´RbsinebIRtÚveKcab;)an. Tahanesþcknk¾rt;ecjmkEdrTaMgrjIréj:Kµan sNþab;Fñab; naMKñasRmúkecjeTAeRkAExSeLamB½T§ EtRtÚvT½BRBHraCaEdlenAeRtómcaMkab;smøab;Gs;Ca eRcIn. dl;eXIjdUecñH BYkGñkRsukk¾cUlédcUleCIgCamYyT½BRBHraCa CYykab;smøab;BlTahan nig ]tþmesnIy_k,t;Edlrt;minrYc søab;Gs;Kµansl;. ecAhV‘aekA «Bukmarbs;esþckn )anRtÚv]kj:acRkI kab;nwgdavsøab;enAmat;TVarraCFanI. cMENkesþcknvij RtÚv]kj:avaMg rkeXIjkMBugGgÁúykNþal cMeNamRsI²enAkñúgdMNak; k¾ecallMEBgeFVI[rbYs rYccab;cg dak;[eKyamkamy:aghµt;ct;. Es¥k eLIgRBHc½nÞraCaRTg;)anbBa¢a[eKsmøab;esþcknecal nig[dak;bkSBYkTaMgGs;Ca´ rbs;RBHraCaNa cRk. b:unµanéf¶eRkaymk RBHraCa)ancat;taMg[RBHsULat;RtÜtRtaelIExRtt,ÚgXµúM nigemIlxusRtÚv bnÞay cMENkRBHGgÁk¾eLIgKg;elITUksarayN_GENþt yageTAkan;raCFanIbribUN_vij. eyaleTA tamkaresñIsuMrbs;RBHsgÇraC Edl)anfVayTUkenHdl;RBHGgÁ RBHGgÁRTg;)ancat;[ksagvtþmYy enAkñúgéRBgguyedkrYcehIy[ykTUkenaHeTAqøak;CaRBHBuT§rUbmYyGgÁFMnigRBHBuT§rUbtUc²CaeRcIneTot tamEdlGaceFVI)an. mYyqñaMeRkaymk KWenAkñúgqñaM1506 vtþenaHmaneQµaHfa RBHBuT§layl½kç68 ÉRBHecAGFikar )anTTYlzan³Ca RBHnÞeTBcRk. TIRkúgeBaFisat;)andUreQµaHeTACa bnÞaymanC½y ehIy)ankøayCaraCFanIrbs;RBHraCaNa- cRkGs;mYyry³. mYyqñaMmkeTot ecABjaysraCa CabuRtrbs;sñMÉk nigRtÚvCakµÜyesþckn )ansuKteTAkñúgRBH Cnµayu 18RBHvsSa. sBrbs;RBHGgÁ)anRtÚveKeFVIBiFIbUCaCamYysBRBHbita RBHsuKn§bTEdr. kñúgmYyry³eBlmans®gÁamenHrhUtdl;qñaM1525 esþcesomhak;dUcCamin)anykcitþTuk dak;cMeBaHRBwtþikarN_TaMgLay EdlekItmanenAkm<úCaeT b:uEnþeK)ancat;TukRBHraCaNacRkkm<úCafa 68 vtþenHmanenArhUtdl;sBVéf¶ ehIymanTaMgcmøak;rak; nigRBHbdimal¥² EfmeTotpg.
  • 238. enAcMNuHGFiraCPaBrbs;eKehIyeyaleTAtamTmøab;buraNEdlmanrvagnKrGFiraCnignKrsamnþraC esþcesom)anesñI[RBHc½nÞraCaykdMrIsd¾l¥mYyEdlRBHGgÁmanenAkñúgeRkaleTAfVay. RBHc½nÞraCa minyl;RBmbgðaj[eXIjfaRBHGgÁcMNuHesþcesomeT ehIymin)anepJIdMrIstamsMeNIeLIy. esþc esom)ancat;TukkarRbEkkminRBmfVaydMrIs[enHfaCakarmin)anbMeBjkatBVkic©kñúgPaBCanKrcMNuH ehIyedayRTg;Kitfa RBHraCaNacRkkm<úCaFøak;cuHdundabedays®gÁamrvagKñaÉgnigKñaÉgxøaMgNas; eTAehIy RTg;k¾dwknaMT½Bqøgkat;RBMRbTl;EdncUlmkQøanBanExRtGgÁr. RBHraCacat;[ekNÐT½BCa Rbjab; T½BenaHeBareBjeTAedayesckþIkøahan rYcRTg;)andwknaMpÞal;RBHGgÁ ecjeTAvayT½Besþc esom[braC½y cab;)aneQøIy 1muWnnak;naMykmkeBaFisat;69 . enAqñaM1528RbEhlCa4qñaMeRkayBIbraC½yrbs;T½BesomrYcmkRBHc½nÞraCamanRBHtRmiHfa raCFanIeBaFisat;enHsßitenACitRBMRbTl;EdnxøaMgNas; T½BsRtÚvgaynwgebIkkarvayRbharmkelI )any:agRsYl ebIsinCaeKedIrRsUtEtbnþic RTg;k¾seRmcepÞrraCFanImktaMgenAxagt,ÚgbnþicRtg; lEgVk. KWenAlEgVkenHÉg EdlRBHGgÁTTYlRBHBiFIraCaPieskeLIgesayraCüenAkñúgqñaM1529 enAeBlEdlRBHGgÁmanRBHCnµayu 53RBHvsSa. éf¶mYy eBlyagRbBatéRB RBHraCa)anRbTHeXIjduMfµmYyduMEdlRtÚvEmkKKIrmYyedImduHB½T§ esÞIrCuMCit RTg;k¾bBa¢a[eKkab;ykEmkKKIrenaHeTAqøak;CaRBHBuT§rUb4RBHGgÁTl;xñgKña EbrRBHP½kþeTArk TisTaMg4 ÉduMfµRTg;[qøak;eFVICaTRm. rYcRTg;)anbBa¢a[sg;vtþmYyenAlEgVk dak;RBHBuT§rUbenH enAkñúg RBHviharmNÐb70 sRmab;[BuT§sasnikeKarBbUCaenAkñúgqñaM1530énRKisþskraCRtÚvnwgmhaskraC 1452 culøskraC892. eKniyayfa RBHc½nÞraCa )anksagvtþmYyenA]tþúgÁEdlmanRBHBuT§rUbFMmYyGgÁ nigksagvihar tUcCageKenAelIPñMRBHraCRTBüEdlmanRBHBuT§rUbniBVanmYyGgÁ RBmTaMg[CIkRsHTwk3pg KWRsHFmµekrþ× enAxageCIgPñM RsHedImeBaFienAxaglic nigRtBaMgsMrwT§enAxageCIgEdr. RTg;k¾)anbBa¢a[eKe)aHcRmÚg y:agmaM rYccak;dICaeRcInbiTkEnøgmYyEdlTwkhUrecjBIkñúgdImkbegáIt)anCaRtBaMgmYyehAfa RtBaMg 236 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 69 ´eCOfa KWenAkñúg»kasenaHÉgEdlPUmienAelIsÞwgGgÁrTTYleQµaHfa esomrab. 70 sBVéf¶eKehAfa vtþRtELgEkg sßitenARtg;Bak;kNþalRCúgxagekItraCFanI enAmat;bwgFMmYy. RBHBuT§rUbRBHP®½kþ 4 )at;eTAehIy enAsl;EtTRmfµ mansñamRBH)aT8b:ueNÑaH RBH)aTnImYy²RbEvgRbEhl 1Em:Rt 40sg;TIEm:Rt.
  • 239. 237Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa pSarEdk71 . rYcRTg;)an[eKRtÜsranéRBenACuMvijPñMykdIeFVIERsRbmUlpl pÁt;pÁg;CIvPaBRBHsgÇEdl Kg;enAkñúgvtþeRBaHfavtþenaHenAq¶ayBIPUmiGñkRsuknig)anRbKl;BlRBHCaeRcIndak;enAeRkambBa¢akar emmñak; edIm,I[eFVIERsTaMgGs;enaH. RBHsgÇraCvtþenaH manRBHzan³Ca RBHmhaFatuefr. eBlenaH s®gÁamsuIvil)anpÞúHeLIg enAÉRsukesom kñúgqñaM1529. TTYl)andMNwgenH RBHc½nÞraCa )anekaHRbCuMraCvgSanuvgS nignamuWnsBVmuxm®nþIénRBHraCaNa cRk rYcRTg;manRBHbnÞÚlfa ³ {BYkesom)ancUlmklukluyRBHraCaNacRkkm<úCaeyIg2dgrYcmk ehIy ehIyral;eBlEdlecjeTAvij eK)anekorykGñkRsukrbs;eyIgeTACamYypg. edaysar ehtuenHehIy )anCaRBHbitarbs;eyIgRtÚvbgç¿citþe)aHbg;ecalnÞbtþburI dkfymkKg;enActumµúx vij. LÚvRsukesommanvibløas edayXunvrvgSaFiraC)aneFVIXatRBHraCadeNþImraCsm,tþi eyIg RtÚvEteqøótyk»kas}. manRBHbnÞÚlrYc RBHraCa)anbBa¢a[RBHGnuCrbs;RBHGgÁ yageTAExRt)aPñM ekNÐT½B[)an12muWnnak;ehIy[ekNÐesHdMrInigreTHsalIpgEdlcaM)ac;sRmab;eRtómeFVIs®gÁam. BIrbIéf¶eRkaymkRTg;)ancat;elakecAhV‘aTlð³KWnaykrdæm®nþI[kan;T½BRsYcÉRBHGgÁkan;T½BmYykg eTot yageTACamYyEdr tampøÚvBIctumµúxeTAeBaFisat; nig)at;dMbg. T½BRsYcrbs;ecAhV‘aTlð³TTYl)anC½yCmñHrhUt elIT½BGaCJaFrExRtrbs;esom taMgBIdMbUg rhUt dl;RBMRbTl;ExRtbs©im eFVI[BYkm®nþIesomrt;eKcxøÜn)at;Gs; ehIyExµreyIgcab;)anesom 4Ban;nak; CaeQøIy. mkdl;bs©imburI BlTahanGs;kmøaMgxøaMgNas;eTAehIy k¾sRmakrg;caMT½BRBHraCaRsIramaFibtI yagmkdl;. eBlT½BRBHraCamkdl; elak ecAhV‘aTlð³ k¾naMecAhVayExRt nigm®nþIesomEdlcab;)anykmk fVayRBHraCaPøam. BYkenaH)anTUlRBHraCafa eK)anerobcMsNþab;Fñab;enAGyuFüaeLIgvijehIy edayCnk,t;deNþImraCblø½gánigRbBn§eQµaHesamasuIsUdac½nÞ)anRtÚvXunKYneTBnigm®nþICaeRcInnak; eTotcab;)anehIysmøab;ecal. LÚvenH eK)anelIkRBHranraCa RtÚvCaRBHbitulaRBHraCa Edl esayTivgÁteTA[eLIgesayraCü RTg;RBHnamfaRBHecAmhacRkBRtaraCaFiraC RBHraCaénRbeTs esom. RBHc½nÞraCa xøacERkgBYkm®nþITaMgGs;enaHniyaykuhk RTg;k¾bBa¢a[T½BesHrbs;RBHGgÁ eFVI 71 muneBlEdlraCFanIRtÚvpøas;mkenAPñMeBjBYkkYyEtgykEdkEdlBYkeKcMraj;ecjBIEr:PñMEdkmklk;enAkEnøgenH.
  • 240. dMeNIreTAGyuFüamun edIm,IesuIbsYrBt’man. cMENkÉkgT½BRBHraCa enAEtbnþdMeNIreTAmux edayc,aMg vayykTwkdIesomCabnþbnÞab; nigcab;)aneQøIyswkCaeRcInykmk fVayRBHraCa. enAeBlEdlkgT½Be)aHCMrMrg;caMdMNwgBIraCFanIesomnigBIRBwtþikarN_Edl)anekIteLIgesþcnKr eb:háanenAeBlEdl)anTTYldMNwgGMBIbdivtþn_enAGyuFüak¾)anekNÐT½B3muWnnak;rYceFVIdMeNIrmkRbúg vayykraCFanIesomenH dUcCaRBHraCakm<úCaEdr. Etdl;RTg;RCabfaT½BExµr)anmke)aHCMrMenABIxag t,ÚgGyuFüaCitbegáIy ehIymanTahandl;eTA12muWnnak; eRcInelIslb;T½Beb:háan RBHGgÁminGac deNþImykC½yCmñH)an RTg;k¾bBa¢aT½B[dkfyeTAeRkayvij. enAqñaM1531 ecABjaGug CabuRtrbs;RBHRsIraCaEdlsuKteTAedayRtÚvFøak;xøÜnCacMNab;xµaMg rbs;esom ehIyEdlesþcesom)ansuMykmkeFVICakUnciBa©wm nigelIk[eFVICaecAhVayExRtsuvNÑ elak RTg;manRBHCnµ54RBHvsSaehIy. edaycg;[esþcExµrelIksYysarGakreTAfVayesþcesom )anRbKl;T½B 9muWnnak; [ecABjaGug cUlmklukluyratt,atkm<úCaBIxageCIg ehIy[T½BeCIgTwk 5muWnnak;eTot cUlmktammat;smuRT. RBHc½nÞraCa )ancat;[elakRkLaeham rdæm®nþIxagT½BeCIgTwk ecjmkRbyuT§CamYyT½BeCIgTwk esomÉRBHGgÁdwknaMT½BeCIgeKakeTACYbCamYyT½BBjaGug.karRbyuT§epþImeLIgenACiteBaFisat;ehIy ecABjaGug)anRtÚvRBÜjsøab;enAelIk,aldMrI emT½BesomCaeRcInRtÚvRbhar eFVI[T½Besom)ak;Ebk x©at;x©ayGs;eTA. kñúgeBlCamYyKñaenaHT½BeCIgTwkesomEdldwknaMedayPüaetCvgSak¾)anRtÚvvay [braC½y rYceLIgTUkecjeTAvij Gs;Edr. raCBgSavtarmin)anR)ab;[dwgfa esomcuHTUkenAÉNaeT k¾b:uEnþeKGacsµan)anfa enAkñúgExRtBam KWhaeTog sBVéf¶. RBHc½nÞraCa )ancat;[eKsg;vtþmYyedIm,IrMlwkdl;C½yCmñHrbs;RBHGgÁenH ehIy[ykmas R)ak;EdlRbmUl)anBIsRtÚveTArMlayeFVICaRBHBuT§rUbCaeRcInGgÁ dak;enAkñúgvtþenH. RBHGdæiFaturbs; ecABjaGug RTg;[dak;enAkñúgectiymYy Edlsg;enAkñúgbrievNvtþenH. vtþenHmaneQµaHfa vtþeBaFi manbuNü edaymkBImanedImeBaFi1edImEdlmansøwkx©IlVk; enAeBlEdlRBHraCayagkat;eTAeFVI s®gÁam. RBHRKÚecAGFikarvtþenHmanRBHzan³CaRBHeBaFivgS. enAkñúgqñaM1539 Cnmñak;eQµaHfa RkLaBassYs72 )anrkeXIjRBHx½nraCürbs;GtItmha 238 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 72 KYrrMlwkfaRBHsIpatman´beRmImñak;eQµaHfasYsk¾b:uEnþraCBgSavtarniyayfasYsenHminEmnCasYsEdltam beRmIRBHsI BImunenaHeT.
  • 241. 239Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa kSRtvrµ½n EdlRBahµN_RBHsIpat)anykeTAlak;enAExRt)aTIkñúgrC¢kalRBHsuKn§bT CamYynwg lMEBgrbs;tacay ehIynigektnPNÐepSg²eTotenAkñúgrn§edImcMbk;mYyedIm. eK)annaMykvtßúTaMg Gs;enaHmkraCFanIlEgVkvij. RBHmharaCaénRBHraCaNacRkkm<úCaenH TTYl)anC½yCmñHCanic© køahanehIyQøasév RTg; suKteTAenAkñúgqñaM1555énRKisþskraC RtÚvnwgmhaskraC1477 culøskraC917. eBlenaH RBHGgÁmanRBHCnµayu79RBHvsSa ehIyesayraCükñúgry³eBlelIsBI55qñaM73 . KWedayEbbenHehIyEdleFVI[eKePøcGs;erOgr:avesþckn Edl)anesayraCüGs;16-17 qñaMEdr. raCBgSavtarExµr eRkayBIelIksresIrxøHdl;Cnk,t;enH k¾EbrmkelIksresIrRBHraCa Edl TTYl)anC½yCmñHmþg. k¾b:uEnþvahak;dUcCafaRBHc½nÞraCaenHCaesþcRtwmRtÚvehIyl¥Emn. RTg;man CMenOxøaMgelIRBHBuT§sasnaehIysBVRBHT½ykñúgkareFVITanksagvtþnigRBHBuT§rUbCaeRcIn.edayehtu enaHehIy)anCaRBHGgÁRtÚvRbCara®sþeBlenaHRsLaj;xøaMgNas; rhUtdl;ePøcGs;sm½ysux sb,ay eRkamraCüesþckn. eK)annaMykRBHx½nraCü nigektnPNÐsmÁal;raCaniymepSg²eTot EdleKrkeXIjenAkñúgrn§ edImcMbk;enAkñúgExRt)aTI EdlRBHsIpat ykeTAlak;TukmkfVayRBHGgÁvij. vtßúTaMgGs;enHeK GacemIleXIjenAkñúgehaRBHénRBHraCvaMgesþcsuIsuvtßi enAPñMeBjsBVéf¶. 1199-- RRBBHHbbrrmmnnÞÞrraaCCaaTTII11 ¬¬11555566--11556677¦¦ RBHraCaEdlesayraCübnþBIRBHc½nÞraCa KWraCbuRtrbs;RBHGgÁRBHnamfa RBHbrmraCa man RBHCnµayu46RBHvsSa EdlRBHGgÁ)anelIkCaGñksñgraCütaMgEtBIb:unµanqñaMmunem:øH. RBHraCaGgÁ enH)anRtÚvGPieskeRkamRBHnamfa RBH)aTsemþcRBHbrmnÞraCaFiraCramaFibtI brmbBiRt. RBH mehsITI1 RBHnam Gñkmñag malI )anRtÚvelIkCaRBHGKÁmehsI eRkamzannþr³Ca semþcRBHPKvtIRsI rtn_ enAkñúgqñaM1556. mYyqñaMeRkayRBHraCBiFIGPieskrYcmkRBHraCa)anseRmcRBHT½yeqøótyk»kasesomcaj; 73 manerOgdMNalfa RBHGgÁmanRBHraCbuRtImYyGgÁ Edl)ankøayeTACaRBHmhakSRtIrbs;RBHraCaNacRklav eRkayBIRTg;)anerobGaBah_BiBah_ CamYyesþclavenAevogc½nÞ.
  • 242. édBYkeb:háan EdlvayykraCFanI)an edIm,IdeNþImykbNþaGaNaExRtExµr EdlesomykeTA mk vij. RTg;)an[ekNÐT½B 2muWnnak; EbgEckCa 2kg dak;eRkambBa¢a]tþmesnIy_ 2nak; KW]kj:amha esna nig]kj:aeyaFas®gÁam ehIybBa¢a[eTAdeNþImykExRtckeCIgesA ¬sasYgesA-sBVéf¶KW eb:RTIyU¦ nigExRtnagrg EdlenACitKñaenaHmkvij. kñúgeBlCamYyKñaenaH T½BeCIgTwkEdlRbmUlpþú¿KñaenAExRtBam ¬haeTog¦ )ancuHTUkeTAkan;mat; smuRT ExRtcnÞtab‘un nigry:g sßitenAxagt,ÚgExRtTaMg2xagelI. ExRtTaMg4enH )anRtÚvdeNþImykmkvij edaydutbMpøajexÞcxÞI ehIydak;[T½BExµrmYycMENk enAkan;kab;EfrkSa. T½BExµr)annaMeQøIyswkcMnYn7muWnnak; manRbúsRsI nigkumarpg ykmkbMeBj GaNaExRtPaKkNþal Edlesom)anekorRbCaCnykeTAGs;BImun. tamkarniyayt²Kñamkfa s®gÁameBlenaHsahavNas;ecAhVayExRtesomTaMg4nak;c,aMgkarBarrhUtdl;søab;xøÜnkñúgsmrPUmi ehIyExµreyIg k¾manxatbg;emT½BminticEdreT. enAkñúgqñaM1560 RBHraCakm<úCa )anyagmkKg;enAkñúgExRtGgÁr ¬esomrab¦ eRkayBIRTg;)an erobcMkgT½BsaCafµIrYcmkedIm,IbnþkarRbyuT§deNþImykTwkdIteTAeTot.RBHGgÁyagmkKg;enARtg;PUmi kMBg;RksaMg edIm,I[)anCitbnþic gayRsYlnwgeFVIRbtibtþikar rYcRTg;naMT½B2muWnnak; cUleTAlukluy ExRtnKrraC ¬kUr:at;¦ Edlesom)anpþac;ecjBIRBHraCaNacRk deNþImykmkvij. raCBgSavtar)anniyayfa enAkñúgqñaM1560dEdlenaH esþcnKrlav RBHecARkúgsuIstþnak- n³h‘ut EdlesayraCüenAevogc½nÞ )anbBa¢ÚndMrIcm,aMgFMmYykm<s;8htß mk[RBHecARkúgkm<úCa Edl kMBugKg;enA)asan CaTIRbCuMCnd¾FMmYy edIm,I[RTg;eRCIserIsrkdMrIykmkCl;Kña tamEtRBHT½y edayPñal;dak;RBHraCaNacRkTaMg2. karPñal;KñarebobenH ekItmanjwkjyNas;enAsm½yenaH ehIyKWCaTmøab;mYyenAkñúgbNþaRbeTsenAcugbUB’a k¾b:uEnþkarPñal;Kñadak;RbeTsedayCl;stVEbbenH CabBaðamYyKYr[)armÖ. eTaHCay:agNak¾eday raCBgSavtar)anniyayfaRBHraCakm<úCa )anyl; RBmtamsMeNIrbs;RBHraCalav ehIy)an[ykdMrImYyk,alkm<s;7htß BIlEgVkmkCl;CamYydMrI lav.dMrIlavCl;caj;RBHraCacab;dMrIenaHnigmnusS1Ban;nak;EdlEhhmmkTuk[Etm®nþIlav2nak; nigmnusS10nak;Rtlb;eTARsukvijb:ueNÑaH.manÉksarmYyenaHniyayfaRBHraCaRTg;cab;TukEtdMrI eT Ém®nþI nigmnusS1Ban;nak; RBmTaMgRTmak;pg RTg;[Rtlb;eTAvij. edayRTg;xJal;nwgbraC½ykñúgkarCl;dMrI ehIyRbEhledayRBHraCakm<úCacab;ykdMrIpg - enH CakarbBa¢ak;fa kmµvtßúénkarPñal;eBlenaHminEmnTwkdIRBHnKreT - dl;edImqñaMeRkaymk RBHraCaRkúg 240 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 243. 241Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa suIstþnakn³h‘ut¬evogc½nÞ¦)ancat;[mha]braCnaMT½B5muWnnak;cuHTUktamTenømkvaykm<úCaÉRBHraCa )anyagmktampøÚveKak CamYyT½B7muWnnak;. T½Bmha]braC)anmkCYbRbyuT§CamYyT½BRBHstßaraCbuRtrbs;RBHraCakm<úCaehIyRtÚvvay[ braC½yenAERBkRbsBV kñúgExRtRsIsn§r fVIebIRBHstßamanT½BEt2muWnnak;b:ueNÑaHkþI. cMENkÉT½B rbs;RBHraCalav EdlcuHmkrhUtdl;PñMsnÞúkkñúgdIkMBg;sVay k¾RtÚvT½BExµr2kgvay[braC½yEdr KWT½B mYykg CaT½Brbs;GñkGgÁm©as; RsIsurieyaBN’ EdlRTg;ekNÐenAkñúgExRtnKrvtþ nigkMBg;sVay/ nigT½B mYykgeTotCaT½Brbs;RBHraCa EdlekNÐmkBIExRtsMeragTg rlaeb¥ór nigeBaFisat;. T½BExµrRbmUl )anC½yPNÐ nigcab;eQøIy)anCaeRcIn. eQøIyTaMgGs;enaH)anRtÚvnaMykmkdak;enAExRt)arayN_ nigeCIgéRB eRkamkarRtÜtRtarbs;m®nþIlavmñak;eQµaHfa Esnxagh‘VaPasa ¬esomfa xagXYr¦. kñúgs®gÁamenaH manBYklavCaeRcInEdlrt;ecalCYr )anRtÚvGñkRsuksmøab;. RBHraCa nigmha]braC lav k¾vilRtlb;eTAnKrvijeTA. s®gÁamCamYylavminTan;cb;sBVRKb;pg BYkesomk¾taMgcab;epþImcUllukluyExRt4 EdlRBH raCakm<úCadeNþImykkñúgcenøaHqñaM1557dl;1560 edaybeNþjecAhVayExRt nigT½BExµrecj Gs;. RBHraCaExµr )annaMT½B7muWnnak; yageTAdeNþImykExRtcnÞtab‘unmkvij rYcbnþeTAdeNþImyk ExRtsuFnraCeBRCburIc½nÞburInigsuxnraCFanI74 EfmeTot.ecAhVayExRtesom)anRtÚvsmøab;enAkñúg eBlRbyuT§. k¾b:uEnþdl;mkqñaMeRkay T½BEdlenAkarBarExRtTaMgGs;enaH )anRtÚvT½Besomedj[rt; x©at;x©ayGs;. s®gÁamenAbnþmkCaeRcInqñaMeTot rhUtdl;esþcesomesñIsuM[mansnþiPaB EdlRBHraCaExµr )an yl;RBmenAkñúgqñaM1564. enAqñaM1566 esþclav)anekNÐT½B2muWnnak; [mha]braCnaMcuHTUkRbNaMgmkvaykm<úCa mþgeTot.RBHraCakm<úCa)annaMT½B5muWnnak;eTAkat;T½BlavCYbKñaenAelIekaHecAramTl;muxnwgrkaekag cm¶ay34KmBIxageCIgPñMeBj ehIyvayBYkenaH[braC½yenARtg;enaH. TUkBYklav )anRtÚvbMpøaj exÞcxÞI BYklavNaEdleKcxøÜnrYcBIkarkab;smøab;rgÁal RtÚvedIrCaRkúmtUc²Rtlb;eTAvij EtRtÚvGñk RsuktamedjvayteTAeTot. 74 eQµaHExRtTaMgGs;enHCaPasaesomKWePtsaburIePtcb‘unePtcburInigc½nÞtab‘un.
  • 244. RBHbrmnÞraCa )ansuKteTAenAkñúgqñaMbnÞab; KWqñaM1567 kñúgRBHCnµay u56RBHvsSa eRkayBI RTg;esayraCsm,tþi)an2qñaM. RBHraCbuRtarbs;RBHGgÁ RBHC½yecsþa eTIbnwgcuHsn§isBaØaCamYy esom EdlkMNt;RBMRbTl;TwkdIRBHraCaNacRkTaMg2edaye)aHbegÁalcMNaM begÁalmYye)aHenARtg; vtþRsHekt. 2200-- RRBBHHbbrrmmnnÞÞrraaCCaaTTII22 ¬¬11556677--11557755¦¦ RBHstßaCaraCbuRtarbs;RBHbrmnÞraCa)anRtÚvnamuWnsBVmuxm®nþInigRBHraCvgSanuvgSeRCIs erIs[eLIgesayraCsm,tþibnþBIRBHraCvrbita eRkamRBHnamfa RBH)aTsemþcRBHbrmnÞraCaFiraC ramaFibtIbrmbBiRt RBHraCaénRBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa kñúgRBHCnayu25RBHvsSa75 . RBHmehsITI1 rbs;RBHGgÁ GñkmñageBA )anRtÚvGPiesk[eLIgCaRBHmhakSRtI manRBHnamfa semþcRBHPKvtIRsI cRkeBaFiraC. RBHGnuCrbs;RBHGgÁ RBHRsIsuBN’ RBHCnµayu19RBHvsSa )anRtÚvEtgtaMg[eFVICa RBH]braC. eRkayBiFIraCaPieskRBHraCakm<úCa)anb:unµanEx mandMNwgelcB¤eLIgfa esþcnKrhgSavtI b¤eb:háan):aKU¬)arKU¦)ancUllukluyRBHraCaNacRkesommkdl;raCFanIGyuFüaCamYyT½BmYykg FM.edayEp¥kelIsn§isBaØaEdl)ancuHhtßelxaCamYyKñakalBIqñaMknøgeTACamYyRBHraCaExµrEdleTIb nwgsuKteTA esþcesom)anepJIraCTUtmksuMCMnYyBIRBHraCaekµg EdleTIbEteLIgesayraCü. RBHraCa GacnwgmineKarBsn§isBaØEdlRBHbita)ancuHhtßelxa k¾b:uEnþ RBHGgÁ)anseRmcbBa¢ÚnT½B2muWnnak; eTA CYyRkúgGyuFüa. T½Beb:háan k¾caj; ehIyRtÚvvilRtlb;eTAnKrvij. enAeBlEdlT½Besom nigT½BExµrvilRtlb;mkBIs®gÁamvijRbkbedayeCaKC½y ehIye)aHCMrM sRmakenACitKñaRtg;edImeBaFieCIgbI esþcesomRBHnernsUr ¬RBHNaert¦ )ansegáteXIjfa mha ]braCExµrEdlGgÁúyenAmuxRBHGgÁ min)anRkabbgÁ¿dUcCanamuWnsBVmuxm®nþIÉeToteT. RTg; )anmanRBH bnÞÚleFVIkarkt;smÁal;elIbBaðaenHCasaFarN³ enAcMeBaHesnabtITaMgLay. eBlenaH RBHmha ]braC manbnÞÚltbeTAvijfa {TUlbgÁ¿mkenHkñúgnamRBHraCakm<úCa ehIyk¾CaGKÁembBa¢akarelIkgT½B ExµrTaMgmUl EdlRBHraCa)anRbKl;[naMmkpgEdr. mü:ageTot TUlRBHbgÁ¿CaraCvgS ehIyCamha ]braCeTotpg TUlRBHbgÁ¿KYrEtRtÚv)anRBHraCaesom[témø ehIyTTYlsÁal; cat;Tukkñúgzan³Caem 242 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 75 RBHGgÁRTg;RbsURtenAkñúgqñaM1543 CabuRtrbs;GñkmñagmalI.
  • 245. 243Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa bBa¢akarkgT½B dUcCaRBHGgÁEdr}. esþcesomenAes¶ómmintbtGVIeT k¾b:uEnþedIm,Ibgðaj[eXIjfa RBHGgÁCaemEtmñak;Kt;enATIenH RTg;)anbBa¢a[eKnaMykeQøIyswkmñak; EdlRBHmha]braCExµrcab; )anykmkkat;k,al rYc[ykeTAedatelIcugb£sSIenAnwgmuxsMeBARBHmha]braC. RBHmha]braC xJal;xøaMgNas; k¾ecjsMeBARtlb;mkkm<úCavijPøam. eBlyagmkdl;lEgVkvij RBHGgÁ)anray karN_GMBIkarRbmafrbs;esþcesomfVayRBHraCa RBmTaMg)ansMNUmBr[lubsn§isBaØa Edl)ancuH htßelxaenAGyuFüaecal enAeBlcb;rdUvvsSaxagmux. dl;eBlBYkeb:háancUlmklukluyRsukesommþgeTot BYkemT½BExµr)anTTYlkarGnuBaØatBIRBH raCa[ecjeTAeFVIs®gÁamCamYyesomCYyesþcnKrhgSavtIdeNþImykRsukesom.BlTahan1muWn nak; EdlsßitenAeRkambBa¢akarrbs;elak ecAhV‘aTlð³ )anecjdMeNIreTAtampøÚvlMEBghVay eTAvay deNþImykExRtbs©imburInignKrnaykb:uEnþT½BenHeFVIdMeNIreTAmuxelOneBkk¾dac;enAEtÉg.eBl)an CYbCamYyT½Besom2kg dwknaMedayBja suIsayNar:ug nigBja suIraCeteCa T½BnImYy² manKña1muWn nak; ecAhV‘aTlð³ RtÚvvay[dkfycUlmkkñúgkm<úCavij. enAqñaM157576 edIm,IFanafaraCsm,tþisßitenAkñúgédRBHraCbuRtrbs;RBHGgÁRBHraCa)anelIk RBHGnuC]braC [eLIgeTACaTI]PeyaraC edIm,I[RTg;)at;bg;siT§iCaGñksñgraCü BIeRBaHfa tamFmµta RBHGnuCEdlCa]braCEtgEteLIgesayraCübnþBIRBHeromCanic©rYcehIyRBHGgÁ)anelIkRBHraCbuRt b¥ÚnRBHnamecABjatn;EdleTIbEtmanRBHCnµ6RBHvsSab:ueNÑaH[eFVICa]braCvij.bnÞab;mkRBHGgÁ k¾dak;raCsm,tþi[RBHraCbuRtc,gRBHnamfa RBHC½yeCdæa EdleTIbEtmanRBHCnµ 10RBHvsSa b:ueNÑaH. 2211-- RRBBHHCC½½yyeeCCddææaaTTII11 ¬¬11557766--11558877¦¦ RBHC½yeCdæa )anTTYlRBHraCBiFIraCaPieskenAkñúgqñaM1570 eRkamRBHnamfa RBHC½yeCdæa FiraC brmbBiRt b:uEnþkic©karRKb;RKgRBHnKrsßitenAelIRBHbitaenAeLIy. 76 elakka)atug)anniyayfakalbriecäTenHminRtwmRtÚv.Et´KitfaminxuseTBIeRBaHRBHC½yeCdæaRTg;RbsURtenA kñúgqñaM1564ehIyBjatn;RbsURtenAkñúgqñaM1568.ebIsinCaRBHstßaelIkraCbuRtTaMg2mYy[eLIgesayraCü kñúgRBHCnµ10qñaM mYy[eFVICa]braCkñúgRBHCnµ6qñaM eBlenaHvaRtÚvnwgqñaM1575 enHÉg elIkElgEtqñaMkMeNItenaH vaxus.
  • 246. karEdlRBHraCadak;raCsm,tþi ehIyelIkRBHraCbuRtC½yeCdæa[eLIgesayraCsm,tþi y:ag enH)aneFVI[RBH]PeyaraC nignamuWnsBVmuxm®nþICaeRcInmankarGak;Gn;RsBn;citþCaxøaMg BIeRBaH ebItam TMenomBIburaN KWBYkeKenHÉg EdlCaGñkmansiT§ikñúgkareRCIstaMgRBHraCa. BYkeKminh‘an RbqaMgtv:a edaycMheTk¾b:uEnþ)ancab;RBegIykenþIyminykcitþTukdak;dl;kic©karraCkarcab;taMgEtBIeBlenaHmk CaehtueFVI[ekItmanGnaFibetyüTUTaMgRbeTs ehIyRBHraCadak;raCüRtÚvbgç¿RBHT½ylHbg;ExRt c½nÞburI nignKrraCsIma EdleTIbEtdeNþIm)an [eTAesomvij. RBHraCaRkúgGyuFüa enAeBlEdlTTYldMNwgfa RBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa ekItmankarRcbUkRcbl; ehIy namuWnsBVmuxm®nþIminsUvsþab;bBa¢arbs;RBHraCa rdæm®nþITaMgLayk¾køayeTACaGskmµ k¾cat;[ ekNÐT½B10muWnnak; esH1850k,al dMrI800k,al naMmkvaykm<úCa. T½BRsYc manBl5Ban;nak; bBa¢aeday]tþmesnIy_xøaMgBUEkmñak;eQµaHfa RBHraCanU. tbteTAnwgT½BesomenH RBHraCanusiT§i )anerobcMT½B 3muWn5Ban;nak; enAkñúgExRt)at;dMbg kñúg enaHmanT½B1muWnnak;ekNÐmkBIExRt)arayN_ nigeCIgéRB nig1muWnnak;eTotCaT½B EdlecAhVayExRt BjasYK’aelakeRCIserIs)ankñúgExRteBaFisat;. BjaeteCa ecAhVayExRtkMBg;sVay manT½B 3muWn nak;enAnwgGtItraCFanI/ T½B2muWnnak;eRCIserIsenAkñúgExRtkMBg;sVay nigT½B 1muWnnak;eTot eRCIserIs enAnwgGgÁrvtþ77 . ÉRBH]PeyaraC kan;T½BEdleRCIserIsmkBIrlaeb¥ór 2muWnnak; nigmkBIbribUN_ 1muWnnak;. RBHraCaC½yeCdæa )anyageTAkan;ExRtsMeragTg )aTI nigExRtenAxagt,ÚgPñMeBj edIm,IeRCIs erIsT½BEdr. enAeBlEdlExµrkMBugEteRCIserIs nigerobcMT½BdUecñH esþcesom)ancUlmkdeNþImykExRt eBaFisat;)an rYchYsmke)aHCMrMenABImuxbribUN_ eLamB½T§T½BRBH]PeyaraCCab; ehIybnþmk vayyk lEgVkeTot.esomB½T§TIRkúglEgVkenH3ExeTIbRBHraCaC½yeCdæaBjaGnehIynigm®nþI10nak;eTot EdlecjeTAeRCIserIsT½BenAkñúgbNþaExRtxagt,Úg xagekIt nigxageCIg naMT½Bmkdl; k¾vays®gÁúbeTA elIT½Besom[braC½y dkfyeTARsukvijeTA. s®gÁamenH )anekNÐmnusSEdlmankaysm,Tal¥ esÞIrEtGs;rlIgBIkñúgRBHraCaNacRk xøH[cUleFVITahan xøHeTot[brreTHdwkes,óg manEttictYc 244 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 77 ExRtenHCYnkaleKehAfaGgÁr CYnkalfanKresomrabfa GgÁvtþ nigCYnkaleTotehAfa esomrab.
  • 247. 245Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa b:ueNÑaHEdleKcrt;cUlBYnkñúgéRB. cb;s®gÁam RbeTsCYbRbTHnwgeRKaHTurÖikSy:agxøaMg ehIyEfmTaMg manekItCMgWGasnñeraKeTotpg. RbeTseBlenaHCYbeRKaHcéRgkan;EtxøaMgEfmeTot edayRBHraCadak;raCü)anFøak;xøÜn eTACaqáÜt ehIyrkerOgEtCamYyRBHBuT§rUb. enAlEgVk RBHGgÁ)anbBa¢a[eKykRBHBuT§rUbCaeRcInRBHGgÁ e)aHcUleTAkñúgTwk. manRBHsgÇesom2GgÁ RBHnamTikçN³beBaØa nigsur³beBaØa )anemIlCMgWRBHraCa [sHCamkvij k¾b:uEnþRbCanura®sþ)anecaTRBHsgÇTaMg2GgÁenaH faCaGñkeFVIGMeBI[RBHraCaqáÜt nigeFVI[RBHnKrekItvibløas k¾naMKñabeNþjRBHsgÇTaMg2GgÁenaHeTAvij. RbCara®sþekItmankarRBÜy)armÖRcbUkRcbl;CaxøaMg ehIyvibtþpøÚvsµartIeFVI[eKKitfanwg ekItmanPynþrayCaminxan.y:agNamijeKniyayfaTwkeRCaHs½kþisiT§ienAPñM)aNn;kñúgExRt)at;dMbg rIgxH ElghUr GagEdlFøab;EtTTYlTwkeRCaHenaHeBj²Rsab;EtEbrCarIgsܶtGs;. RBHx½nraCürbs; GtItkSRtvgSvrµ½nEdleK)anrkeXIjenAkñúgrn§edImcMbk; enAkñúgExRt)aTIehIynaMykmklEgVkvij ecjERcH BYk)arKUEdlEfrkSadusxat;y:agNak¾minRCH ehIymanQamhUrecjBIedImRTÚgeRbHRsaM rbs;RBHBuT§rUbmYyGgÁenAviharsYK’. nimitþsBaØaTaMgGs;enHbBa¢ak;faRsukekItTurÖikS manCMgWGasnñeraK eFVI[mnusSsøab;Gs;s¶at;RsukehIyRbCara®sþekItmankMhwgQWcab;kan;EtxøaMgeLIg²eFVI[)ak;Twkcitþ nigsµartIGs;rlIg. enAeBlenaH enAkñúgraCFanImanBYkeGs,aj:úl nigB½rTuyehÁ78 EdlmanTMnak;TMngCitsñiT§CamYy RBHstßa. RBHraCakarBar ehIyTukcitþBYkenaHNas; rhUtTal;EtRTg;RbTanb¥ÚnRsICIdUnmYy mYyGgÁ[ CnB½rTuyehÁ eQµaH DIyuWehÁaEbLÚsU eFVICaPriya. BYknamuWnsBVmuxm®nþI mineBjcitþnwgBYkenHeT eRBaHeKxøacBYkenH eRbITi§BlmkelIRBHraCa NamYyBYkenHCaBYkEs,kspg. 78 BYkGWr:ubEdlmkkan;km<úCamuneK KWBYksasnTUtlVIkardUsU nigcavm:aedr:U mkdl;kñúgqñaM1553. bnÞab;mk KWGñkpSBV pSaysasnadUmInIkaMgsBa¢atieGs,aj:úleQµaH hÁas:,ada®KUs )anmkdl;kñúgqñaM1560. elak«Buk CnhÁúgsaeLs dWm:g;dUhSÚ )anniyayenAkñúglixitmYyEdleKe)aHBum<enATIRkúgr:UmkñúgqñaM1585 fa manGñkpSBVpSaysasna dUmInIkaMg sBa¢atiB½rTuyehÁmYyrUbeQµaHbgRbússuIlev:s manT§iBlmkelIraCvaMgesþckm<úCasm½yenaHxøaMgNas;. tamBit ebskkmµpSBVpsaysasnakatUlikmkkñúgkm<úCa manenAqñaM1581eT k¾b:uEnþGacnwgmanBYkGWr:ubxøH)anmkdl;mun dUcEdlelakka)atug)anniyayfamkBIm:aLakab¤mkBIRsukesommuneBlEdlBYk{GñkrukrkEdleKarBbUCasasna} mkdl;.
  • 248. )anCaRBHraCaRsLaj; nigKaMRT eRBaHBYkenHdwgerOgr:avkic©karRBHnKreRcIn CaBiessKWdwgfa esþcesom EdlbraC½ykñúgkarvayykkm<úCamþgehIyenAqñaM1581 ehIynwgerobcMRbúgeFVIs®gÁam saCafµI ehIyfas®gÁamelIkenHFMCagelIkmun mü:ageTotBYkenH manKMnitcg;dak;RBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa enAeRkamGaNaBüa)alrbs;nKreGs:,aj EdleTIbEtdeNþImykB½rTuyháal;)an enAkñúgqñaM1578 BYkB½rTuyehÁTaMgGs;enaH )anfVayeyabl;dl;RBHraCa [RBHGgÁcat; DIyuWehÁaEbLÚsU eFVIdMeNIreTA TIRkúgm:anIl CamYyBYkeGs,aj:úleQµaH )øarVIdWEhNn; hÁúgsaeLs/ Gg;tUnIj:Úm:asadU nigb:g;taeL Gugkarénr:U edIm,IsuMCMnYyBIGPi)alRbeTshVIlIBIn mkTb;Tl;CamYynwgBYkesom Edlb:unb:gvayRBHra CaNacRk ¬1590¦. RBHraCsarlixitEdlRBHraCakm<úCa )anRbKl;[BYkenaHkan;ykeTA manxøwm sarGYtGagfa RBHraCaNacRkkm<úCaCamhaGMNacmYy RBHraCasBVRBHT½ynwgsasnakatUlikNas; sUm[elakGPi)al ehÁaem:eBer:dasm:arIj:a bBa¢ÚnRBHsgÇkatUlikmYycMnYn edIm,IpSBVpSaysasna dl;GñkRsuknigsuM[pþl;TahanmkCamYy[)aneRcInpgedIm,ICYykarBar.raCTUtrbs;RBHstßa)aneTA dl;TIRkúgm:anIl enAkñúgqñaM1590 k¾b:uEnþ min)anGVIykmkvijeT BIeRBaHGPi)alhVIlIBIn kMBugerobcM ecjeFVIRbtibtþikarvayykRbCuMekaHm:Uluk RbtibtþikarEdleFVI[GPi)alenaH nigBlTahansøab;)at; bg;Gs;79 . BYkDIyuWehÁaEbLÚsU kMBugEtenAhVIlIBInenAeLIyeT dl;mkqñaM1593 enAeBlEdlesþc esomRBHNaertehAesþcexµA)andwknaMT½B10muWnnak;mandMrI8ryesH1Ban;5ryEckecjCaeRcIn kg dwknaMeday]tþmesnIy_d¾Gg;Gac mkvayykkm<úCa. etIBt’mansþIGMBIGriPaBenH )anpSBVpSayeTAdl;TIRkúgm:anIl ehIyCMruj[GPi)alRkúgenH seRmccitþpþl;CMnYy[km<úCa Edlmin)anpþl;Pøam²tamkarsnüa b¤dUcemþc? eKmin)andwgfa karBit y:agNaeT k¾b:uEnþeKdwgfa DIyuWehÁaEbLÚsU )anTTYllixitrbs;elakGPi)alRkúgm:anIl mYyc,ab; cuH éf¶TI27 ExkBaØa qñaM1593 TUlRBHraCakm<úCafa xøÜnsUmeFVICaGaCJakNþalenAkñúgCemøaHCamYyRsuk esom. enAeBlEdlDIyuWehÁaEbLÚsU nigmitþPkþirbs;eKRtlb;mkdl;km<úCavij raCFanIlEgVk )an Føak;eTAkñúgkNþab;édesomCaeRcIns)þah_rYceTAehIy. 246 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 79 elakGPi)alRsukhVIlIBIn ehÁaem:eBer:dasm:arIj:a )andwknaMRbtibtþikarenaHedaypÞal; k¾b:uEnþ RtÚvBYkcinEdleK cab;bgçM[mkEcvTUk[bHe)arRbqaMgeLIgenAkNþalsmuRT edaykab;smøab;TaMgelakGPi)al nayTahan nigBYk eGs,aj:úlecalGs; rYcehIynaMyksMeBAmkcUlctenAGaNÑamvij.
  • 249. 247Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa etImanehtukarN_GVIekIteLIgxøH? teTAenH KWCaerOgr:avEdlÉksarkm<úCa Edl´man)anerob rab;. mundMbUg T½BesomdeNþImykExRtkUr:at; rYcehIyenAsRmakenATIenaHcMnYnBIrbIéf¶ erIsT½BenATI enaH)an1muWnnak; EfmeTot. bnÞab;mk eKecjdMeNIrtampøÚvs<anTiBV mkedIrelIs<aneFVIGMBIfµmYy qøg sÞwgeQµaHfa s<anERtg rYccUlmkdl;GgÁrvtþ ¬esomrab¦ eTIbcuHsMeBAcMnYn250 qøgbwgTenøsab mk deNþImykExRtkMBg;sVay. manT½BeCIgTwk2rysMeBAeTot EdleKekNÐenAkñúgExRtnKrRsIFmµraC BateqøagsaGagxøanigqayapÞúkBlTahan2muWnnak;)anmkeLIgenAExRt)asak;¬sBVéf¶KWmNÐlsuk RtaMgenAkUsaMgsuIn¦.T½BmYykgeTotmanBYkcamRbEhl¬CaBYkm:aeLeTeTIbsm¦1muWnnak;eRkam bBa¢arbs;]tþmesnIy_esomeQµaH BjaraCvgSa cuHsMeBA150 mkdeNþImykExRtbnÞaymas. T½BTaMgGs;enHcab;eFVIskmµPaBRBm²Kña enAkñúgExFñÚ. RBHraCadak;raCü )anseRmcecjTb;Tl;CamYyT½Besom EdldwknaMedayRBHNaert ehIy)an cat;[RBH]PeyaraCyageTAtaMgT½BenAGmraTi¬bribUN_¦EdlmankMEBgdI80 maMTaMRKan;ebI.BjaGnnig BjaCincan;tuk dwknaMT½BeTAkan;ExRtbnÞaymas ÉRBHraCaC½yeCdæayageTA)aPñM bMbHbMe)arRbCaCn RbqaMgnwgsRtÚv. BjabvrnaykeTAtaMgT½BenAkñúgExRt)at;dMbg. mYycMENkeTot elakRkLaehamdwknaMT½BeCIgTwkmYykg enArkSaédTenøFMxagekIt ehIyelak vibulraCenArkSaédTenøFMxaglic.kgTI1manTUk250ekNÐmkBIbNþaExRtxagt,ÚgÉkgTI2manTUk 200 ekNÐmkBIExRtnKrRsIFmµraC Bateqøag saGagxøa nigqayaEdr. elIsBIenaH enAmanreTHdwk es,ógT½BcMnYn 2Ban;eRKÓg EfmeTot. eKniyayfaT½BeCIgTwk BYkGuMTUk nigBYkbrreTH manKñaTaMgGs; 2muWnnak;. b:uEnþ ebIeTaHCaxitxMRbwgBRgayT½By:agenHkþI k¾T½BExµrRtÚvTTYlbraC½yenARKb;smrPUmi. ]tþmesnIy_ Cincintuk )anRtÚvxµaMgsmøab;)anenAbnÞaymas ehIyCMnYsedayGñkGgÁm©as;Gn. Et Rtg;cMNucenH T½BsRtÚv)anRtÚvrujRcan[fyeRkayrhUtdl;ExRtRsIsn§r enAelITenøFM enABIxag |sanPñMeBj.ÉExRtRTaMg)asak;bnÞaymasnigKykMBg;RkbIesomdeNþImyk)an.enAxageCIg ÉeNaHvij esomdeNþImyk)anExRt)at;dMbg nigGgÁrvtþ ehIyeLamB½T§GmraTi ¬bribUN_¦ Edl 80 enaHKWCakMEBgrbs;raCFanIcas; EdleK)ane)aHbg;ecalenAkñúgqñaM1526.
  • 250. manRBH]PeyaraCKg;enA. RBH]PeyaraC mincg;e)aHbg;TItaMgenH[sRtÚveT b:uEnþdl;)anTTYl dMNwgfa RBHraCa nigRBHraCbriBar )aneKcxøÜnecjBIraCFanIehIy RTg;k¾vayebIkpøÚvqøgkat;T½Besom ecjeTACYylEgVk. RTg;manRBHtRmiHfa ebIcg;QñH KWRtÚvQñHenAkñúgraCFanI eRBaHraCFanICasñÚlén karTb;Tl;TUTaMgRbeTs. RTg;)anyagcUlmkKg;enAkñúgraCFanI erobcMBRgwgkic©karBary:agmWugm:at; nig buinRbsb;. T½BesomedjtamRBHGgÁRbkit² rYce)aHT½BenABImuxraCFanIlEgVk. b:uEnþedayRBHraCa nigraCbriBareKcecj)at;eTA ehIyGñkRsukk¾eTACaGs;sgÇwm KitEtRBÜynwgkarvaylukrbs;sRtÚv )aneFVI[kic©karBarCab;KaMg ehIyenATIbBa©b; k¾RBElgraCFanI[sRtÚvEtmþg enAcugqñaM1593. RBH ]PeyaraC nigRKÜsarRtÚvesomcab;)an naMykeTARsukeKCamYyRbCaCnraCFanI nigTICitxagcMnYn 9 muWnnak;81 . 248 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 81 raCBgSavtarExµr raCBgSavtaresom nigkardMNalt²KñaRBmTaMgerOgniTanTaMgLaysþIGMBIkar)at;bg;bnÞaylEgVk )anÉkPaBKñakMNt;kalbriecäTénRBwtþikarN_enHkñúgqñaM1583.k¾b:uEnþelakéGm:UnIej)anrkeXIjGkSrcarwkelIeQI mYyenAGnøk; kñúgExRtéRBkb,as Edlniyayfa ehtukarN_enHekIteLIgenAkñúgqñaMkur culøskraC949 BuT§skraC 2129 EdlRtÚvnwgRKisþskraC1587 eTAvij. eyIgBi)aknwgbdiesFkalbriecäTEdlmankarbBa¢ak;c,as;las; EbbenHNas;k¾b:uEnþeyIgk¾Bi)aknwgbdiesFkalbriecäTEdlraCBgSavtaresomnigraCBgSavtarExµr)ankMNt;[Edr. cMENkÉelakRhVg;suIhÁanIejvij Kat;kMNt;ykqñaM1585 edaymin)anbBa¢ak;GMBImUlehtueT k¾b:uEnþ)anniyayEdrfa ÉksarGWr:ubkMNt;ykqñaM1593.enAqñaM1909elakka)atug)anelIkGMBIÉksareGs,aj:úlmYyEdleKe)aHBum< pSaytaMgBIqñaM1604 enAv:aLadUlId ehIyEdlmanerobrab;GMBIRBwtþikarN_ EdlekIteLIgenAkm<úCa k¾)anTTYlsÁal;fa bnÞaylEgVkFøak;eTAkñúgédesomenAkñúgqñaM1593 enHEdr. dUecñH eyIgeXIjfamankalbriecäTbI KWqñaM1583/ 1587 nig1593 EdlsuT§EtsMGageTAelIÉksarBiess² kalbriecäTTI1sMGageTAelIraCBgSavtarExµr nigesom kalbriecäTTI2sMGageTAelIcarwkelIeQImYy nigkalbriecäTTI3 sMGageTAelIÉksarGWr:ub. ebIBinitü[ditdl;eTA raCBgSavtarExµr nigraCBgSavtaresom GacnwgmankarxusqÁg eday mkBIÉksarenH eKcmøgt²KñaCaeRcInelIkeRcInsa. TI1 karxusqÁgenaHGacnwgbNþalmkBIÉksaredImminRtwmRtÚv xøÜnÉg Etk¾GacmkBIGñkcmøgEdlminbuinRbsb; min)anyl;c,as;GMBIskraCTaMgbIEdleKniymeRbIRBm²Kña b¤k¾KitEt RbTaj[skraCTaMgbIRtÚvKñaePøcKitdl;RBwtþikarN_Bit.TI2eQµaHnigs½kqñaMnImYy²CaktþasRmab;bBa¢ak;edIm,IkuM[eK RcLMqñaMNaCaqñaMNa k¾b:uEnþCYnkalvaeTACamUlehtueFVI[mankarRcLMeTAvij k¾man. cMENkÉcarwkenAelIeQIenAGnøk; KµancMNucRtg;NaEdlbBa¢ak;fa ÉksarenHeKsresrenAkñúgqñaMNa etIÉksarenHekIteLIgkñúgeBlEbklEgVk b¤y:ag NaEdreT. Et´Kitfa eKKµanmUlehtuGVImuWgm:at; edIm,IbdiesFkalbriecäTEdlelak ka)atug dkRsg;ecjBIÉksar eGs,aj:úlNas;. dUecñHeKRtÚvkMNt;ykkarEbkbnÞaylEgVkRtwmqñaM1593.
  • 251. 249Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa RbEhlKWenAeBlenaHehIy EdlDIyuWehÁaEbLÚsU nigmitþPkþirbs;eKeFVIdMeNIrRtlb;mkdl; km<úCavijTTYldMNwgfaesomdeNþImykraCFanIlEgVk)anehIyehIyRBHstßanigRBHraCaCaRBHraC buRt)anePosRBHkayeTAKg;enAÉRsIsn§r b¤k¾)anyageTAdl;sÞwgERtgpgk¾mindwg EdlCaTwkdIkm<úCa Edr enACMnan;enaH. RbeTskm<úCaeBlenaH )anFøak;cUlkñúgPaBvinashinehacCaxøaMg bnÞab;BIesomdeNþImyk)an raCFanIlEgVkRBHraCaePosRBHkay)at;ehIyBYkesomRKb;RKgdwknaMRbeTsy:agtwgruwgbMput.eKruk erIkkayraCFanI rYcdutexÞcxÞI. RbCaCnRtÚveKekorTaMghVÚg² ykeTAdak;enATIkEnøgepSg² kñúgTwkdI esom ehIymanmnusSsøab;CaeRcIntampøÚv eBleFVIdMeNIreTA. RTBüsm,tþiepSg² sa®sþaraCBgSav tar nigKm<Irc,ab;)anRtÚveKbMpøajecal b¤RtÚvRBHNaertnaMykeTAkan;raCFanIGyuFüa. mhaNacRk km<úCa EdlFøab;EtrugerOg )anFøak;cuHGab;»nedaysarEtexSaHGs;RbCaCn. PaBexSaHGs;RbCaCn enH ebskCncinelak QavtakVan; )ansegáteXIjtaMgEtBIstvtSr_TI13mkem:øH kñúgqñaM1296 ehIyelak)anniyayeTotfa KWCaplvi)akéns®gÁamEdlesombgáeLIg eFVI[km<úCacuHexSay eday kat;bnßynUvmeFüa)ay EdlRBHraCaExµreRbIR)as;edIm,IkarBaxøÜn fVIebIRbeTsenHenAEtmanGtßiPaB RbkbedayvisalPaB nigeKalCMhrrwgmaMk¾eday. KWCamhanKr EdlenAmankitþinaml,Il,ajrnÞW BaseBjbUB’aRbeTs Et)at;bg;karKaMRTdl;GnutþrPaB nigmanEtkarTTYlsÁal;BIbNþakSRtRbeTs tUc² enARsuklavb:ueNÑaH. PaBvwkvrEdleFVI[km<úCaenAÉeka/ karRbkYtRbECgdeNþImGMNacKña/ s®gÁamEdlkm<úCaRtÚv EteFVICamYyesom nignKrsamnþraC/ karFøak;cuHénsnþtivgSvrµ½nkan;RBhµBaØsasna enAedImstvtSr_ TI14 ehIyCMnYsvijedaysnþtivgSkan;RBHBuT§sasna EdlnaM[manbdivtþn_sasnaneya)ay nig RbCaFibetyü TaMgGs;enH)aneFVI[RBHraCaNacRkcuHexSay edayRBHraCaRtÚv)at;bg;GMNacbnþic mþg².RBwtþikarN_TaMgGs;enH)aneFVI[BYklaverIbRmHTamTaresrIPaBehIycuHmkenAkan;EtCiteLIg² rhUtmkdl;l,ak;exan taMgEtBIstvtSr_TI14 EdlCaehtueFVI[GnutþrPaBExµrkan;EtcuHexSayCabnþ bnÞab;. PaBGab;»nkan;EtF¶n;eLIgEfmeTot enAeBlEdlBYkesomekorRbCaCnTaMghVÚg² CaeQøIy ykeTARsukeK. kare)aHbg;ecalraCFanInKrFM enAstvtSr_TI14 ehIyRBHraCamkKg;enA)asan rYcmkenA ctumµúx¬PñMeBj¦Kg;kñúgvaMgeQIRbk;søwkminEmnRbk;ek,ÓgenHCaPsþútagbBa¢ak;c,as;GMBIPaBcuHGab;»n EdlminGackM)aMgBIEPñkBYkGñkEdl)aneXIj)andwg EdleyIgRtÚvEtelIkykmkniyayenAeBl
  • 252. enH. eyIg)aneXIjBIxagelIrYcmkehIy faRbCaCnkm<úCaeBlenaH eCOfamanelcsBaØaminl¥rYceTA ehIyenAkñúgskmµPaBepSg²rbs;Cn]RkidæEdleFVI[BYkeKmankarPitP½yehIyRBÜy)armÖfaBYkeKnwg TTYlrgnUvmhnþrayd¾F¶n;F¶rCaminxan. etImhnþrayd¾FM EdlmkKMramkMEhgBYkeKenaHCaGVI? ehIyetI GVIeTACamUlehtuénTukçRBÜy EdleFVI[BYkeKvegVgvgVan; køayeTACaRbCaCnmYy ElgTukcitþelIxøÜnÉg ehIyecaTRbkan;eTAelIsasnaTaMg2fa )anTmøak;vasnaminl¥[RBHraCa dak;bNþasa[ekItCMgW GasnñeraK CMgWXøg; enATUTaMgRBHnKr minEtb:ueNÑaH)anTaMg[BYkesomdeNþImykraCFanI)an eRkayBI eLamB½T§Cab;CaeRcInqñaM. TukçRBÜyRkhl;Rkhayrbs;RbCaCnenH KWCasBaØamYyeTot bBa¢ak;GMBIkar Gab;»n karP½yxøac nigkarcuHexSay. k¾b:uEnþedayRbCaCnkm<úCanasm½yenaH k¾dUcCasm½yRBHraCavgSvrµ½nEdr CaCatisasn_mYy køahan CaBUCGñkcm,aMg eRtómxøÜnCanic©nwgeFVIs®gÁam/ edayeKmanembBa¢akarCa]tþmesnIy_d¾buin Rbsb;/ edayeKFøab;)anrujRcanBYkcam[dkfyecjeTAvij minticCag20dg Føab;vaykSRtnKr cMNuH[braC½yelIsBI100dg Føab;)anecjeFVIs®gÁameTAeRkATwkdICag 10dg Føab;vayBYkesom [braC½y20dgkñúgeBlCag4stvtSr_/ edayGñkRsukeTACamankarRbúgRby½tñxøÜnCanic© eRBaHEtkar cUllukluymkBITisBay½Bü nig]tþrrbs;T½Besom niglav/ edayGñkRsukmansµartICaGñkcm,aMg TaMg RBHraCadak;raCüTaMgRBHraCaEtgtaMgfµI EdlenAekµgminTan;smlµmkñúgkardwknaM TaMgBYk]tþmesnIy_ rdæm®nþInamuWnsBVmuxm®nþITaMgGs;manTMnukcitþehIy)anlHbg;Gs;BIkmøaMgkaynigkmøaMgcitþedIm,IbeRmI Cati. eKseRmceRCIserIsT½B)any:agrh½s RbqaMgnwgT½Besom )an4kgenAkñúgqñaM1582 vay bMEbkkareLamB½T§raCFanIlEgVkkñúgqñaM1583 EfmTaMg)anrujRcanBYkesomrhUtdl;Tl;EdneTotpg CaehtueFVI[eKmansgÇwmfa GaRs½yedayviFankard¾buinRbsb; Tb;Tl;RbqaMgnwgEpnkarvayRbhar hµt;ct;rbs;sRtÚv km<úCanwgGacbeNþjsRtÚvQøanBansYBUC )any:agehacNas;mþgeTotEdr enAkñúgqñaM1593. k¾b:uEnþkarBitEbrCapÞúyRsLH KWT½BExµr)anRtÚvvay[braC½yenAelIRKb;smrPUmi ehIyesom deNþImykraCFanIlEgVk)an. RBH]PeyaraC nigRKÜsarRtÚvesomcab;)anCaeQøIy cMENkÉ RBHraCadak;raCü nigRBHraCaekµgvij RtÚveKcRBHkayeTAKg;enAÉxageCIgbMputénRBHraCaNacRk edIm,IkuM[esomcab;)anehIynaMykeTARsukesom dUcCaRBHraCamunmYyGgÁ KWRBH)aTRsIraCa enAkñúg qñaM1473. dl;eBlenH minRKan;EtCakarGab;»ncuHb:ueNÑaHeT KWCamrNPaB CacugbBa©b;énRBHraCa NacRkmYyEtmþg. RbCaCn)at;m©as;karePøcGs;GVI² mindwgfaxøÜnCanrNa. eKRtÚv)at;bg;Gs;nUv 250 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 253. 251Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa témørbs;xøÜn )at;bg;TaMgGanuPaB nigfamBl ehIyKµansl;GVIbnþiceLIy. eRkayBIvibtþid¾FMeFgenH enAeBlEdlmanraCvgSq¶aymYyGgÁ KWRBHramaeCIgéRB EdlCasRtÚv rbs;RBHraCadak;raCüeRBaHTMnas;deNþImRBHCayaKña ehIyk¾CasRtÚvrbs;RBHraCafµIpgEdr eRkayBI )anBinitüeXIjfaGVI²rlMrlaydl;dIGs;ehIy TaMgraCvgSTaMgraCbriBar nigm®nþIFM²k¾)at;bg;Gs;BI RBHraCaNacRkraCFanIRtÚvRtÜtRtaeday]tþmesnIy_esommñak;eRkayBIRBHGgÁ)anbeNþjT½Besom nig]tþmesnIy_CatMNagesþcesomecjBIlEgVkenAkñúgqñaM1594puteTA Kµansl;GVIeToteTenAkñúg RBHraCaNacRk ³ citþKMnitcas;RtÚvrlub)at;Gs; mnusSmñakøayeTACaTn;RCay kMsak nrNak¾dUcCa nrNa manEtkþIGs;sgÇwm. bnÞab;mk eRkayBIRBHraCadak;raCüesayTivgÁteTA RBHraCafµIk¾suKt)at;eTAEdr eRkayBIBYk eGs,aj:úl nigB½rTuyehÁeFVIKutRBHramaeCIgéRBenARsIsn§r kñúgqñaM1595 rYcehIyBYkcam nigm:aeL eFVIKutBjatn;kñúgqñaM1596 RbeTskm<úCamanRBHraCa13RBHGgÁ esayraCükñúgeBlEt1stvtSr_ ehIyenAcgcaMtePøcGnusSavrIy_énmhavinaskmµknøgmk k¾b:uEnþeKKµanesckþIkøahannwgeFVIkarsg swktbtnwgBYkesomvijeT. esovePAk,Ünxñatc,ab; Km<Irsa®sþa )anRtÚveKlYcykeTA)at; b¤dut bMpøajexÞcxÞI. enAkñúgRKisþskraC1692 edIm,I)anecHdwgGMBITMenomTmøab;BIburaN EdleKePøc)at;Gs;eTA ehIytamkarENnaMrbs;RBHmatucäamYyRBHGgÁ RBH)aTC½yeCdæaRtÚveFVIsMeNIsuMKm<Irsa®sþa RkaMg c,ab;rdæb,evNI nigc,ab;sasnasresredayéd eTARbeTsesom Edl)anlYcykeTABImun. enAkñúgkarcgcaMrbs;RbCaCnExµrkar)at;bg;raCFanIlEgVkKWCadMNak;kalGaRkk;mYyEdlBImun enaH RBHraCaNacRkmanTwkdIFM ehIysm,Úrsb,ay RbCara®sþ)ansuxekSmkSanþ RbeTsxøaMgBUEk. tamBit km<úCa)anFøak;cuH»nfytaMgBImunenaHyUryarmkehIy ebIBuMenaHeT karRKan;Et)at;bg; kemÞc kmÞI nigRtÜtRtalEgVkkñúgeBl2-3qñaMb:ueNÑaH nwgminGaceFVI[RbeTsRtÚvrlay)at;bg; exSaHkmøaMg ehIyRbCaCnFøak;cUlkñúgdMeNIrfyeRkaydUecñHeT.cab;BIeBl)at;bg;lEgVkmkkm<úCaRtÚv)at;eQµaH BIcugbUB’a hak;bIdUcCarlt;rlay)at;BIelIBiPBelakenHeTA ElgmannrNasÁal;eTotehIy. enAeBlEdl BYkGWr:ub)anmkdl;kalBI1stvtSr_munenH edaycuHctenAnwgeqñrsmuRTRbeTsNÐa Rtg;Gva Gar:akan; EmrKuy etNas;esrIm m:ata)an mkdl;PUma eb:hÁÚ CVa m:aLaka rhUtmkdl;Rsuk esom ehIyFøayrhUtdl; tugkwg GaNÑam kUsaMgsuIn BYkenaHmin)andwgGMBIGtßiPaBrbs;RBHraCa NacRkkm<úCaeT. raCTUt rbs;esþclVITI14 KWBYkelak«BukessVItTaMg6nak; )andwgGMBIRbeTskm<úCa
  • 254. enAÉraCvaMgGyuFüa enAqñaM1695 eBlEdlBYkKat;)anCYbGñkGgÁm©as;ExµrmYyGgÁ Edlhak;bIdUcCa yagmkBIRbeTsq¶aydac;sEgVgmYy KµanGarüFm’ ehIycMNuHRsukesom. 252 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 255. 253Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa CMBUkTI2 GMBIRbCaCnEdlmanTMnak;TMngCamYykm<úCa enAstvtSr_TI14/ 15 nig16 mkdl;eBlEdlesomvayykbnÞaylEgVk)anenHeBalKWenAcugstvtSr_TI16eyIgKYrBinitü emIl GMBIsßanPaBneya)ayrbs;bNþaRbeTs EdlmanTMnak;TMngCamYykm<úCabnþic. 11-- RRbbeeTTssllaavv enAeBlEdlmhaGaNacRkkm<úCaRtÚv)ak;EbkeTA vahak;dUcCafabNþakSRtRbeTslavtUc² enAxageCIgPñMdgErk Edlknøgmk Føab;TTYlsÁal;GnutþrPaBrbs;RBHraCaExµredaybgç¿citþ )anTTYlnUv esrIPaBeBjelj ehIyRtÚvFøak;cUleTAkñúgGMNac nigkardwknaMd¾twgruwgfµImYyBIesþckñúgRsukEdleTIb EtdeNþImGMNac)an. RbEhlCamankSRtRbeTsCaeRcIn EdlRtÚvFøak;eTAkñúgkardwknaMrbs;BYkecAéf taMgEtBIeBlenaHmkemø:H BIeRBaHmanerOgdMNalfamanBYkviRbCalavxøH )aneKcxøÜnecjBIBYkGñk deNþImGMNacfµI ehIyrt;eTArs;enAq¶aykñúgéRBPñMRkMfµ edIm,I[)ans¶b;s¶at;ehIymansuvtßiPaBCag. BYklavhak;dUcCa)anpþac;xøÜnputRsLHBIkm<úCaehIy taMgEtBIedImstvtSr_TI14 enAeBlEdl manGgÁm©as;lavmYyGgÁ1 Edl)anerobGaBah_BiBah_CamYybuRtIesþckm<úCa)andwknaMT½BcRmúHlavExµr eTAvaydeNþImykRsuklavmkRKb;RKgvij.GñkGgÁm©as;enaHmanRBHnamfaegamRTg;RbsUtkñúgrvag qñaM1316 eKehAfaecAh‘Vaegam h‘Vaegam b¤hVaegam2 manRBHCnµ21RBHvsSa. RBHGgÁ)andeNþIm yk)anTwkdIlavTaMgmUl ehIy)anrkSakSRtRbeTs EdlmanBImunmkTaMgGs;TukenAdEdlRKan;EtRTg; )anEtgtaMgemdwknaMfµI rYcehIyEbgEckecjCaRsukrdæ)alepSg² nigerobcM[manc,ab;Tmøab;eLIg b:ueNÑaH. RTg;k¾)andeNþImyknKrLanqag CaRsukkMeNItrbs;RBHbita mkvijpgEdr. eQµaHrbs; 1 RTg;RtÚvCaRBHntþarbs; PüakMpug esþchøÜgR)a)ag CabuRtrbs; Püavtþ Edl)anlYcBRgt;RBHCayamYyGgÁrbs; RBHbita ehIyeKcRBHGgÁmkKg;enAÉRsukExµr. manÉksarmYyenaHniyayfaPüavtþ)anb:unb:gdeNþImraCsm,tþiBI RBHbitaPüakMpug. 2 Rtg;enH eyIgeXIjfaBakühV‘a b¤hVamann½yfaGñkGgÁm©as; cMENkÉsmasBaküecAhV‘a dUceTAnwgBaküecABjaEdr mann½yfa GñkGgÁm©as;CaFM. PasaPUma b¤eb:háan ehAfa ecAv:a EdlBYkGg;eKøssresrfa culv:a nigcUv:a.
  • 256. RBHraCaNacRkenHkøayecjBIeQµaHPUmi2 KWesogdug nigesogtug3 EdlmanenArhUtdl;sBVéf¶Ca eQµaHsgáat;2 énraCFanIhøÜgR)a)ag EdlBImunqñaM1501maneQµaHfa r:at;sa tar:anI suIsutaNa CaeQµaHEdleKehA ekaHCVa BImun. GñkRsukmansBa¢atiCaLav b¤éf. enAeBlRtlb;mkBIvayykhøÜgR)a)agdak;CacMNuHrYcehIy h‘Vaegam)anCYbCamYyBYkxaxav BYkenHdUcCaBYkéfkalBIb:unµanstvtSr_munEdr )ancakecjBIRsukedImrbs;xøÜnmkrs;enAkñúgx<g;rab x<s;² nigkñúgéRBPñM. BYkenH]sSah_c,aMgKñaNas; h‘Vaegam)anyl;RBmTTYlykBYkenHdak;eRkam GaNaBüa)al Et)anbgç¿[Qb;c,aMgKñacMnYn5éf¶kñúg1s)þah_ ehIy[Qb;lYceKaRkbIKñakñúgeBlc,aMg edIm,IeCosvagkuM[mans®gÁamteTAeTot. manmþgenaH RTg;)anyagecjBIhøÜgR)a)ag eTAvayykevogc½nÞ EdlminRBmTTYlsÁal;GMNac rbs;RBHGgÁmkdak;CacMNuH.evogc½nÞeBlenaHeKehAfaNaxnéfmann½yfaraCFanIBYkéf4 .RTg;)an CYbCamYykgT½BRbqaMgeBlyageTACitdl; ehIy)anvay[braC½yy:aggay rYcyagcUleTAkñúgraC FanI esÞIrEtKµankarxUcxatkmøaMgGVIbnþicesaH. eKniyayfa enAeBlEdlBYkéfenAkñúgGagTenøemNamkan;eCIgevogc½nÞ RTg;)anseRmcRBHT½y ecjeFVIs®gÁamCamYy eday)andwknaMT½BeTAdl;RBMRbTl;EdneTAehIy Rsab;EtRBHraCasuexaT½y bBa¢ÚnTUtmksuMsnþiPaB nigcgs<anemRtIedayelIkraCbuRtIRBHnamfanagEkvyupaCamehsITI2. RTg; )anyl;RBmtamsMeNI k¾b:uEnþ)an[suexaT½ybB¢aÚnsYysarGakreTAfVaymancMnYneRcInelIslb; Caerogral;qñaM. GnuelameTAtamsMNUmBrrbs;namuWnsBVmuxm®nþIkñúgRBHraCaNacRk egam )anyl;RBm[ eKGPieskCaRBHraCalavenAkñúgqñaM1353? enAkñúgbrievNvtþ)asak; Edlmanesssl;sMNl; )ak;EbkrhUtmkdl;sBVéf¶. enAkñúg»kasenaH RTg;)anEføgRBHraC»gáarGMBIeKalkarN_yutþiFm’ Edl KYr[kt;smÁal; eTAkan;namuWnTaMgLay enAcMeBaHmuxBlerh_ nigRbCara®sþfa {nayecAhVayminRtÚv vayeFVI)abb¤kab;smøab;´kMdreT.emekayEdlrgnUvkarRbmafeTaHCamkelIrUbxøÜnpÞal;kþImkelIRkúm RKÜsarxøÜnkþIminRtÚvkat;esckþIedayxøÜnÉgeTRtÚvRbKl;erOgenaH[ecARkmkat;vij.CnelµIsRtÚvkat; 254 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 3 esog Exµrfa eQog/ suI mkBIBakü)alIfa sirI sM®swátfa RsI. 4 eQµaH Bisidæ KWRsIc½nÞnKr mann½yfa raCFanIénedImcnÞn_Rkwsñad_mansirI.
  • 257. 255Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa eTasRtwmRtÚveTAtamkMhusEdleK)anRbRBwtþ ehIyTNÐitRtÚvedaHElg[manesrIPaBvij enAéf¶Edl TNÐkmµRtÚvbBa©b;. ExRtnImYy²RtÚveFVIr)aykarN_RbcaMExGMBIsßanPaBTUeTAfVayRBHraCa ehIyecA hVayExRtRtÚvcUlmkKal;RBHraCaenAhøÜgR)a)ag3qñaMmþg edaynaMykBn§GakrmkCamYypg. RtÚv ecjdMeNIrenAExTI1edImqñaMedIm,I[)aneTAdl;emOgsVa¬høÜgR)a)ag¦enAExTI3.minRtÚvdak;RbCara®sþ [eTACaTaskreT.minRtÚvsmøab;XatkreTeRBaHvanwgeFVI[mansøab;kan;EteRcInkarsmøab;mnusSmñak; eTot KWCakMhus. emT½BminRtÚvTTYlsMNUkBICnNaEdlmincg;ecjeFVIs®gÁameT ebIBuMenaHnwgRtÚv Tmøak;buNüskþi[mkrs;enACaRbCaCnFmµta}. ebIsinCaraCBgSavtarlavminniyaybMepøIseT RBHecAh‘VaegamenH EdlRtÚvCaRBHraCbuRt suNisa rbs;RBHraCakm<úCa CamharaCaxøaMgBUEkmYyGgÁ Edl)anbRgÜbbRgÜmkSRtRbeTslav TaMgGs; dak;mkkñúgGMNacrbs;RBHGgÁEtkñúgry³eBl 2 eTA 3qñaM b:ueNÑaH kSRtRbeTsTaMgGs;enaH BImun sßitenAeRkamkarRKb;RKgrbs;RBHraCanÞbtþ ehIyeTIbEtrMedaHxøÜnecjrYc. GñkmñagEkv mehsIrbs;RBHGgÁ CaBuT§sasnikd¾RCHføamñak;. {RBHnagRTg;manRBHT½yGam:as; xøaMgNas;EdlBinitüeXIjfa RbCaCnlavmin)anGnuvtþtamRBHBueT§avaT mineKarBc,ab; BYkTahan nig embBa¢akareXareXA eFVIGVI²tamEtGMeBIcitþ EtminEdlTTYleTaskMhusesaH}. RBHnag )anyageTA CYbRBHraCaCaRBHsVamI rYcTUlRBHGgÁfa {enARsuklavenH GñkxøaMgeRbIGMNacelIGñkTn;exSay eRbóbbI dUcfaenHCac,ab;FmµCati.kareFVIEbbenHminl¥eTehIyTUlRBHbgÁ¿Ca´m©as;minGacRTaMemIldUecñHteTA eTot)aneT TUlRBHbgÁ¿sUmkarGnuBaØatBIRBHGgÁ vilRtlb;eTAnKrRBHbita´m©as;vijehIy}. B¤RBH bnÞÚlmehsIEbbenH RBHraCa )anmanbnÞÚllYgelamRBHnag ehIysnüafa RTg;nwgerobcM[eKeKarB RBHBuT§sasnaenAkñúgRBHraCaNacRkrbs;RBHGgÁ rYc)ancat;raCTUteTAnÞbtþ suM[RBHbitaekµkbBa¢Ún Km<IrBuT§sasna nigRBHsgÇmkpg edIm,Ibgðat;bgðajsasnafµIenHdl;RbCaCn. RBHraCanÞbtþ )ancat;bBa¢ÚnRBHsgÇ4GgÁCamYynwgKm<IrepSg² nigRBHBuT§rUbmYyGgÁ man RBHnamfaRBH)ag5 EdlykmkBIRsIlgáa ksageLIgBIeRKÓgGlgáarrMlaybBa©ÚlKña EdlnarI²Rsuk enaHbric©aKeTAkan;Rsuklav. RBHBuT§rUbenH RBHraCakm<úCa)anTTYlBIRBHraCaRsIlgáaCamitþPkþi. 5 eKniyayfa eQµaHraCFanIhøÜgR)a)ag køaymkBIRBHnamRBHBuT§rUbenHÉg EdlRBHraCakm<úCaRTg;)aneFVIGMeNay [eTARBHraCalav.
  • 258. RBHBuT§sasna RtÚv)anpSBVpSaycUleTAkñúgRbeTslavy:agenHÉg. h‘Vaegam manRBHCnµ 21RBHvsSa enAeBlEdlRBHGgÁyagecjBInÞbtþnKrmk. RTg;man RBHCnµ 266 RBHvsSa enAeBlEdlRTg;TTYlkarGPieskmanRBHnamfa PüaLak;satar:anIsuIsutn³ kn³h‘ut ehIymanRBHCnµ40RBHvsSa enAeBlEdlRTg;)at;bg;RBHGKÁmehsInagEkv EdlCabuRtI RBHraCakm<úCa. mrNPaBrbs;RBHmhakSRtI CasBaØabBa¢ak;GMBIkar)ak;RsutcuHénRBHraCaNacRk. eKniyay fa RBHmehsI)annaMykeTACamYynUvfamBl nigKuNFm’rbs;RBHraCa. RTg;)anlHbg;kic©karRBHnKr [eTAGñkEdlCitsñiT§nwgRBHGgÁ ehIyRTg;køayeTACatwgEtgcMeBaHGñkÉeTot eFVI[ekItmankarmin sb,aycitþkan;EtxøaMgeLIg² RbCara®sþrgTukçevTna enATIbBa©b;k¾seRmcedjRBHGgÁecjBIraCblø½gá eTA. RBHraCa)at;bg;raCsm,tþienH EdlBImunRTg;Gg;Gackøahan GacdeNþImykRsuklavTaMgmUl mk dak;eRkamGMNac)an k¾RtÚvePosxøÜnRBHGgÁeTAKg;enA fatNam b¤emOgNam rs;enATIenaH)anb:unµanqñaM eTot ehIysuKteTAenAkñúgqñaM1360 kñúgRBHCnµayu44RBHvsSa7 . dUcCaRBHraCavrµ½nÉeTot²Edr RTg;)anTTYlRBHmrNnamfa PüahVaPüaNn;8 . RBHraCbuRtac,grbs;RBHGgÁRBHnamfahYnrum)anRtÚvKN³rdæm®nþI¬esnamatüa¦nigsemþcRBH sgÇraC eRCIstaMg[eLIgesayraCsm,tþibnþBIRBHGgÁ. vtþRBHBuT§sasnadMbUgeKEdlRBHsgÇExµr nimnþmkBInÞbtþ )anksageLIgenAevogc½nÞ taMgBI rC¢kalmunemø:H maneQµaHfa vtþRBHEkv BIeRBaHeK)anykfµEkv Edl)anBI nÞbtþ mkbBa©úHRtg;p©it RBHBuT§bdimaEdltaMgenAelIblø½gá. RBHraCa)anpþl;siT§iRCkekandl;vtþenH )anesckþIfa vtþenHGac TTYlral;BiruT§CnNaEdl)anRbRBwtþbTelµIs ehIyrt;mkcUlkñúgvtþenH [sñak;enAcakputTukçeTas 256 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 6 ÉksarmYyeTotniyayfa RTg;manRBHCnµ37RBvsSa. 7 ÉksarmYyeTotfa enAkñúgqñaM1374 kñúgRBHCnµayu 59RBHvsSa. 8 tamemIleTARBHnamenHRbEhlRtÚvCaRBHecAhVaRBHnrinÞeT. manRBHBuT§rUbmYyGgÁ manrUbragdUcesþcneratþm )anRtÚveKeFVIBiFIGPieskeLIgenAPñMeBj kñúgExkumÖ³ qñaM1909 enAeBlEdleKbBa©úHGdæiFaturbs;RBHGgÁ eTAkñúgRBHectiymYy sg;eLIgenAkñúgbrievNvtþRBHEkvmrkt ehIyRBHGgÁ RTg;TTYlRBHmrNnamfa RBHGgÁm©as;suvNÑekadæ. eyIgeXIjfaTMenomTmøab;enH eKenAEtEfrkSaterogrhUtmk enAkm<úCa.
  • 259. 257Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa )an9 . bnÞab;mk RBHraCa nigRBHmehsI )anyksøabRBamasdYsTwkmnþcak;eTAelIdI edIm,I[RBHnag FrNIeFVICasakSIelIkarbBa©úHsImavtþenH nigRBHBuT§bdima pgEdr. RBHraCahYnrum esayraCü)anyUrNas; ehIyRTg;suKteTAenAkñúgqñaM1406 kñúgRBHCnµayu 79RBHvsSa. RBHraCbuRtac,grbs;RBHecAhYnrum RBHnamLaMkMEdg )aneLIgesayraCsm,tþibnþ ehIysuKt eTAkñúgRBHCnµayu64RBHvsSa. ecARBhµkumar)aneLIgesayraCübnþ ¬1425¦ ehIyRtÚvRBHnag EkvBim<arCaRBHmatanigCaRBHmehsI¬mhaeTvI¦rbs;RBHraCamuneFVIKut3qñaMeRkaymkkñúgqñaM1428 rYcelIkRBHraCntþa ecAkaybu‘NÑa)an [eLIgRKgraCblø½gávij. RBHmhaeTvIenH)an[eKeFVIKutRBHraCaGgÁenH nigRBHraCabnþbnÞab;3RBHGgÁEfmeTot eRkayBI elIk[esayraCürYc. enATIbBa©b; RBHnag)anykbuRtarbs;bitaciBa©wmCasVamI ehIyelIksVamIenH[ esayraCsm,tþi. b:uEnþeBlenaHRbCara®sþElgTb;citþ)aneTotehIy k¾naMKñabHe)areLIg smøab;TaMg RBHmhaeTvI EdlmanRBHCnµ95RBHvsSa nigRBHsVamIekµgpgEdr10 . manÉksarmYyniyayfaeBlenaHKWRKisþskraC1428 RtÚvnwgmhaskraC1350 culø skraC790. bnÞab;BIenaH nKrRtÚvKµanesþcesayraCüGs;ry³eBl3qñaM rhUtdl;eBlEdlPüapug11 b¤):an xav):asak;EdlRBHmhaeTvIFøab;)anelIk[eLIgesayraCüEdrEtRbEkkeRBaHxøacRtÚvRBHnageFVIXat )anyl;RBmeLIgRKgraCblø½gávij kñúgqñaM1438 ehIyTTYlRBHGPiesknamfa RBHecAsBa©³cká ):aTIEb:neBA. enAkñúgrC¢kalesþcGgÁenH PüasaymYyEdlCaRBHecArbs;evogc½nÞ manbMNgcg;bMEbkxøÜn k¾ RtÚvRBHGgÁcat;[eKsmøab; rYcelIkGñkGgÁm©as;ePOkecAgak;edg RBHCnµayu35RBHvsSa [kan;GMNac 9 dl;mkqñaM1491 eK)anBRgIkbuBVsiT§ienHeTA[vtþmnuram nigbsSram pgEdr. 10 dMeNIrerOgr:avenH dUcKñaebHbiTeTAnwgerOgesomenAstvtSr_TI16 EdlRBHmatasuIsudac½nÞ)an[eKeFVIKutRBHraC buRtEdlCaRBHraCa edIm,IelIkshay[eLIgRKgraCblø½gá EtRtÚvshayenaHeFVIXatvij enAeBleRkaymk. manerOgdUc²KñaeRcInNas;enAkñúgRbvtþisa®sþNÐÚcin Cak;EsþgdUcCaerOgnayRtsk;Ep¥msmøab;esþcenAkm<úCa enA Rsukesomk¾manRbhak;RbEhlKñaEdr. erOgesþcRkúgc®gágk¾dUcKña RKan;EtfatYGgÁCaesþcesomminEmnesþcExµreT. 11 pugkñúgPasalavRtÚvnwgBaküvgSkñúgPasaExµr. Püapug KW RBHvgS )ann½yfa CaRBHraCvgS.
  • 260. CMnYsvij. eBlenaHGMNacrbs;RBHGgÁvatenAelITenøemKgÁ cab;BINamhugenAxagt,Úg rhUteTAdl; RBMRbTl;emOgsayenAxageCIg. enAeBlenaHRBHraCamandMrImYyk,alkm<s;9htßmansm,úretñat.edIm,IbgðajfaRBHGgÁman GFiraCPaBmkelInKrlavesþcGaNÑam)anTamTar[ykdMrIenaHeTAfVayRBHGgÁ12 .RBHcká):aTIRbEkk minRBmRbKl;dMrI[eT edIm,IbgðajfaRTg;minTTYlsÁal;falavCanKrsamnþraCrbs;GaNÑameLIy. esþcGaNÑamk¾bBa¢ÚnT½B[mkdak;TNÐkmµesþclav edaycat;TukfaCaesþcbHe)ar EtT½BenaHRtÚvvay[ braC½yminq¶ayb:unµanBIhøÜgR)a)ag kñúgsmrPUmiCaeRcInenABUngemOg kñúgqñaM1479. elak m:arInI niyayfa braC½yrbs;T½BGaNÑam KWbNþalmkBImanCMgWqøgmYy edaysarBYklavbMBulTwk. enAeBlenaH RBHraCaRTg;)andak;raCsm,tþifVayRBHraCbuRta ecALaEsnéx EdleLIgesay raCüeRkamRBHnamfaRBHecATunLaLaesnéxenAkñúgqñaM1491énRKisþskraC.ehIyecAvisunkumarén evogc½nÞ )anRtÚvelIk[eFVICaecAenAhøÜgR)a)agvij rYcehIy[eLIgCaEsnesOgtamsMNUmBrrbs; RBHsgÇ zan³enHesµInwgzan³mha]braCenAkm<úCa. mYyqñaMeRkayBIdak;raCsm,tþimk13 RBHraCasuKteTAkñúgRBHCnµayu 81RBHvsSa. eBlenaH esþcGyuFüa)anepJImQUsmYy manlabRm½kSN_ nigeRsabmas ehIynigRkNat;sURt 500htß sRmab;ruMRBHsB14 smRsbeTAtamTMenomhiNÐÚburaN. ehtukarN_enH naM[mansnþiPaBd¾yUrGEgVg rvagRBHraCaNacRkéf nigRBHraCaNacRklav enAeBleRkaymk. RBHecATunLaLaEsnxay )ansuKtenAkñúgqñaM1501. RBHraCbuRtarbs;RBHGgÁRBHnamfa RBHecACMBURBHCnµ25RBHvsSamanRBHenRtxVak;mçagb:uEnþRBHkayRss;l¥Nas;)aneLIgesayraCü bnþ)an3qñaM k¾suKteTAeTot. GñkGgÁm©as;vIsYnCamha]braCenAhøÜgR)a)ag )aneLIgesayraCübnþkñúgqñaMbnÞab;mk. RTg; 258 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 12 eyIgnwg)aneXIjenAxageRkay faesþcesommYyGgÁk¾cg;eRbIsiT§idUcKñaenHEdr EtRBHraCaExµrRbEkk. 13 manÉksarmYyeTotniyayfa19qñaM ehIy)anbEnßmfaRTg;eLIgesayraCükñúgqñaM1501 rYcRtÚveKdeNþImyk raCsm,tþibnÞab;BIesayraCü)an 3qñaM. 14 siT§irbs;RbeTsGFiraCkñúgkarTamTarykdMrIsEdlRbeTssamnþraCman KWCasiT§ipþac;kar b:uEnþeRcInEtCYbnwg karRbEkk. k¾b:uEnþkarbBa¢ÚnmQUseRsabmas nigRkNat;sURtmYycMnYnsRmab;ruMsBRBHraCacMNuH KWCakatBVkic©mYy rbs;RbeTsGFiraC EdlbBa¢ak;GMBIGFiraCPaB dUckarTamTardMrIpgEdr.
  • 261. 259Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa esayraCü)an30qñaM rYc)ansuKtenAkñúgRBHCnµayu 77RBHvsSa RbEhlkñúgqñaM1530. RBHecAeBaFisaraCü RBHCnµ17RBHvsSa k¾eLIgesayraCübnþBIRBHbita. RbEhlKWRBHraCa GgÁenHehIy Edl)anbþÚrraCFanIlavmkevogc½nÞvij edaydUreQµaHeTACa suIsutanaxaNah‘utsuI ¬Lansag b¤Lanqan¦ ehamxav15 CaeQµaHEdleKdak;[høÜgR)a)agBImun. mkdl;eBlenH s®gÁam)anpÞúHeLIgrvagesþcGyuFüa nigesþclav edaymanGñkGgÁm©as;esom mYyGgÁrt;mkRCkekanenAkñúgraCvaMgevogc½nÞehIyRBHraCalavminRBmbBa¢ÚneTAfVayesþcesomvij. enAkñúgs®gÁamenaH esþcesom PüaGaTitü RtÚvrgrbYsedayRKab;kaMePøIg rYcehIyk¾Rtlb;eTAsuKtenA ÉRsukesomvij. raCBgSavtaresommin)anniyayGMBIs®gÁamenHeT ehIyk¾ minmanerobrab;GMBI esþcesomNa EdlRtÚvsuKtedaysareFVIs®gÁamCamYylavEdr16 . eKniyayEfmeTotfa enAsm½yenaH RbeTslavCaRbeTsmYysm,Úrsb,ay ¬esþcecA¦ én ¬bNþaRsukemOg¦cMNuHTaMgLayEtgEtelIksYysarGakrmkfVayRBHraCatmanGak;xaneLIy. db;qñaMeRkayBIeFVIs®gÁamCamYyesomrYcmk ecAeBaFisa )anyageTAkan;eQogém: Edlman RBHraCa RBHraCbuRtaTaMg2rbs;RBHGgÁ nignaykrdæm®nþIEdlkan;GMNacbnþBIRBHraCa RtÚveKeFVIXat Gs;. RBHecAeBaFisa )anykraCaNacRkenaHdak;mkkñúgGMNacRBHGgÁ rYcRbKl;eTA[RBH raCbuRta c,g EdlCa]braCRKb;RKg edayfVayRBHnamfa RBHG‘Uv:ajÚ17 . 15 RBHraCaNacRksm,Úrsb,ay sm,ÚreTAedaysirBs; nigdMrIesVtcäRts. Lanqag CaBakücin mann½yfa dMrIrab;lan. manÉksarmYyniyayfakarbþÚrTItaMgraCFanIenHekItmaneLIgenAkñúgqñaM1565eRkamrC¢kalesþcestak;CabuRt esþceBaFisa eLIgesayraCübnþkñúgqñaM1548. 16 manesþcesommYyGgÁEdlRtÚvsuKtenAkñúgcm,aMgmYy b:uEnþcm,aMgenaHminEmneFVICamYynwgBYklaveT KWeFVICamYy nwg BYkeb:háaneTAvij. RBHGnuCrbs;RBHraCa RBHnamfa ÉkTsSrtñ )aneLIgesayraCübnþ)an 6qñaM. sm½yenaH esomKµans®gÁamCamYynwglaveT.mü:ageTotKµanesþcesomNaEdlmanRBHnamfaPüaGaTitüenaHEdr.Gñksresr BgSavtarlavRbEhlCamin)anbBa¢ak;rkkarBiteT eRBaHsUm,IEteQµaHesþck¾minRtwmRtÚvpg ebIdUecñH Gacniyayfa Kat;min)andwgGMBIerOgr:avEdlekItenAeRkARsuklavc,as;eLIyTaMgkare)aHbg;GgÁrFMenAkñúgstvtSr_TI14ehIynigkar EbkraCFanIlEgVkenAcugstvtSr_TI16. 17 Rtg;enHk¾Kµanerobrab;enAkñúgraCBgSavtaresomEdr NamYyeQogém:enHCaraCFanId_l¥mYy EdlesomxøÜnÉg man karlM)akxøaMgNas;nwgdeNþImykmkdak;kñúgGMNac. eyIg)aneXIjrYcmkehIyfa esþcesom)anvayeQogém:
  • 262. RBHecAeBaFisaesayraCüCaeRcInqñaMbnþmkeTot rYcRtÚvsuKtedayFøak;BIelIkdMrI enAkñúgeBl EdlRTg;cg;bgðajfVIRBHhsþdl;esþcbreTsmYyGgÁedayCiHdMrIpSaMghVÚgdMrIEdleTIbEtTak;)an. RBHecAestak;CaRBHraCbuRta)aneLIgesayraCübnþBIRBHGgÁenAkñúgqñaM1548. kñúgrC¢kal enH RBHraCaRtÚvecjb®gáabkarbHe)armYyrbs;BYkfaj;g:U Edl)anelIkecAemXUCaesþc rYcmin)an b:unµanpg k¾mancitþcg;deNþImykeQogém:. elak «BukhSg;m:arILWrIy:a niyayfa C½yCmñHenH )anmkBIkarbMBulTwkdUcmunEdr. ecAestak;)anyagmkKg;enAraCFanIevogc½nÞ.esþcesom)anbBa¢ÚnbuRtImYyGgÁmkfVayedIm,I [RTg;TTYlykCaRBHCaya b:uEnþecAestak;)anbBa¢ÚnRBHnagRtlb;eTAvij edaymineBjRBHT½y. esþcesom k¾bBa¢ÚnRBHraCbuRtIc,gmkfVaymþgeTot ecAestak;eBjcitþ k¾RBmTTYl. bYnqñaMeRkaymk esþcesom mhacRkBRtraCaFiraC)anesñIsuMCMnYyBIesþclavTb;Tl;nwgesþc eb:hÁÚ EdlelIkT½BcUlmkQøanBan edayesþcesomRbEkkBuMRBmbBa¢ÚndMrIs7k,aleTAfVay. ecAes tak; )anekNÐT½BPøam rYcecjvayBYkeb:háan bgç¿[dkfyecjBIGyuFüaeTAkan;RsukvijeTA raCBgSav taresomniyayfaenAkñúgqñaM1544. )anb:unµanqñaMeRkaymk BYkeb:háan)anelIkKñamkvaymþgeTot eFVI[esþcesomRBHmhi®nÞaFiraCEdlCabuRtrbs;RBHmhacRkBRtraCaFiraCbraC½yrt;eKcecjBIraC FanIeTA enAkñúgqñaM155518 . ecAh‘Vam:g;ta esþceb:háan vayykGyuFüa)an dutkemÞcexÞcxÞI rYcehIymanbMNgcg;bnþmk vayykevogc½nÞeTot Etvayykmin)an ehIy)ancab;yk]braCCaeQøIy naMykeTAkan;raCFanIGv:a rbs;BYkeK)at;eTA. RBHecAestak;RTg;suKtedayCMgWqøgmYy EdleFVI[kgBlrbs;RBHGgÁCaeRcInsøab;CamYyKña pgEdr enAeBlEdlyagRtlb;mkBIeFVIcm,aMgvij. 260 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa CaeRcInelIkeRcInsaenAkñúgqñaM1380rYc1383bnÞab;mk1384/1428deNþImkan;kab;raCFanIenH)anenAkñúgqñaM 1430 ehIyrhUtTal;Etdl;qñaM1526eTIbcat;Tukfaykmkdak;bBa©ÚlkñúgRBHraCaNacRk)an. ebItamRBwtþikarN_ enH karEdlniyayfa lavyk)aneQogém:mkRKb;RKg KWBitCaesþcesomminÉkPaBb:unµaneT NamYyesþc estak; )anRbEkkBuMRBmTTYlykraCbuRtIEdl)anbBa¢ÚnmkfVayCaRBHCayapgeTeRBaHminRslaj;Tal;EtbBa¢ÚnmYyGgÁeTot mkfVayeTIbyl;RBmTTYl. 18 esomecaTfa manm®nþIk,t;mñak;CaGñkeFVI[raCFanIFøak;eTAkñúgédsRtÚv.
  • 263. 261Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa PüaGaEsn EdlRbEhlKWCa]braCenAeBlenaH )andeNþImykraCblø½gáenAkñúgqñaM1572. esþceb:háan RBHnamfaecAh‘VaeGm:aeL )annaMT½BcUlmkvayykraCFanIevogc½nÞ)anmþgeTot rYcehIy )anelIk]braC mindwgfaKW]braCrbs;PüaGaEsn ¬b¤Ca]braCEdleK)ancab;ykeTAGv:a BImun¦ [eLIgRKgraCblø½gávij. mYyqñaMeRkaymk manemT½BPUma4rUb)anecjmkeFVIs®gÁamenAlav RbqaMgnwgBYkeb:háan CMnYs NUemOg EdlRtÚvCabuRtrbs;estak;. eBlenaHmanCnkMhUcmñak;bHe)areLIgenAGatUBW ehIy)anRbkasxøÜnfaCaRBHecAestak;. esþclav EdlBYkeb:háan )anelIk[eLIgesayraCü )anbBa¢ÚnT½B[eTAvayRbhar ehIyRtÚvsuKt enAkñúgqñaM1579. PüaGaEsn)anRtlb;mkesayraCsm,tþuvijenAkñúgqñaM1580ehIysuKtenAkñúgqñaM1582. ¬rdæm®nþITaMg 4ctusþmÖ¦ )aneRCIstaMgecANUemOg CaraCbuRtrbs;ecAestak; [eLIgesayraCsm,tþi enAkñúgqñaM1584k¾b:uEnþmin)anb:unµanpgecANUemOgRtÚvrt;eKcePosxøÜnCamYyecAeQogém:eRkamkar Kabsgát;BIBYkeb:háan.enAeBlenaHecAh‘VaCaesþcrbs;eb:háan)aneLIgesayraCüelIraCblø½gálav enAkñúgqñaM1590. esþcenHesayraCü)an9qñaM rhUtdl;qñaM1599 GñkRsukevogc½nÞk¾bHe)areLIg beNþjesþc breTsenHecjBIRsukeTA)at;. GñkEdleLIgRKgraCblø½gábnþmkCakumarBencrmñak; eQµaHfa RBHfanI manGayueTIbEt)an 14qñaMb:ueNÑaH. BYklavniyayfa esþcekµgenH Cab;Gm,ÚrbuBVbursEdlCaesþcéftaMgEtBI1Ban;qñaMmunemø:H. buBV bursenHCaesþclavTI1Edl)anRtÚveKelIk[esayraCübnþBIRbePTsaFarNrdæmYyEbbeRkayBIeK )anbeNþjBYkcinecjeTA enAstvtSr_TI6énRKisþskraC. saFarNrdæEbbenHminGacbnþman GtßiPaB)an edaysarBYkGñkdwknaMminRsuHRsYlKñakñúgkareRCIserIsemmñak;kñúgcMeNamKñaÉg k¾seRmc eRCIserIsykesþcecjBIraCvgSéfmkvij. enAstvtSr_TI17esþclavmanGMNacpþac;karTaMgxagGaNacRknigBuT§cRk.dIFøITaMgGs;enAkñúg RBHraCaNacRk RBmTaMgRTBüsm,tþiTaMgLayrbs;RbCara®sþ Carbs;RBHraCa dUcCaenARbeTsNÐa Edr. sm½yenaHminTan;manRsTab;GPiCnenAeLIyeT muxgar nigzan³epSg²GaRs½yeTAtamEtRBH T½yrbs;RBHraCa eRBaHRBHGgÁCaGñkbegáItm®nþI. GVI²EdlRBHraCa )anRbTan[nrNamñak;nwgRtÚv Rtlb;mkCarbs;RBHraCavij enAeBlEdlGñkenaHsøab;eTA dUcCaenAkm<úCa NÐasm½yBYkm:ugehÁal
  • 264. nigenARbeTsCaeRcIneTotenAGasuIEdr. manm®nþIFM8nak;CYykñúgkic©karRKb;RKgRBHraCaNacRk ³ EsnemOg KW]braC Edlelak v:an;vUsUhV ehAfa etvInIj:akM):an b¤etvInIj:aEsn19 ehIyEdleyIg)aneXIjBIxagelIrYcmkehIy KWmanzan³CaecA. EsnemOg TTYlbnÞúkkic©karRBHnKrmYycMENk CYyRBHraCaenAkñúgkarRKb;RKg RBHraCaNacRk ehIyeFVIkarekaHRbCuMnamuWnsBVmuxm®nþI enAeBlEdlRBHraCasuKteTA edIm,IeRCIserIs RBHraCamYyGgÁeTot. kñúgeBlrg;caMlT§plénkareRCIserIsRBHraCafµIenH EsnemOg dwknaMRbeTs ehIymanGMNacbI dUcCaRBHraCaEdr. BYkhuløg;)anbBa¢ak;fa siT§iTaMgGs;enHrbs; EsnemOg manBitEmn ehIy)an niyaybEnßmGMBIEbbbTbnþraCüfa {enAkñúgstvtSr_TI17 siT§ieLIgesayraCü bnþenH Gnuvtþ)anEtcMeBaHraCbuRt EdlRbsURtecjBIRBHmehsImanxan;søa} b:ueNÑaH. ehIy edayRBHraCaNacRkRtÚvEbgEckecjCaExRtFM² ¬emOg¦ 7 ebIsinNaRbeTssux sb,ayCaFmµta manm®nþIFM²7nak;eTot manGMNacmincaj;mha]braCb:unµaneT EdlRKb;RKgelI emOgnImYy²enaHtamry³GnuesnIy_rbs;xøÜn b:uEnþxøÜnÉgrs;enAkñúgraCFanICamYynwgRBHraCa. m®nþI FM²TaMgGs;enHeRbób)aneTAnwgBYkkMNan;ExRtenAkm<úCa Edlmanzan³Cardæm®nþI eFVIkarenAGmRBHraCa ehIycab;BIeBlminyUrb:unµan TTYlxusRtÚvelIExRtmYy EdlmanecAhVayRsukRtÜtRtaepSg ecAhVay RsukenaH )anRtÚvRBHraCaEtgtaMgeLIgtamEtsMNUmBrrbs;kMNan;ExRt edayRTg;min)anRtÜtBinitü BIelIeToteT. m®nþIFMRbcaMemOgTaMg7nak;enH CaTIRbwkSarbs;RBHraCa20 . enABIeRkamm®nþIFM²TaMg8rUbenH manm®nþItUcFMCaeRcIneTot EdlcMNuH[elakm®nþIFMmñak;² emø:aHehIyeKarBRbNib½tn_m®nþIFMenaH. 262 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 19 vInIj:a KWBja. et RbEhlRtÚvnwgBaküExµrfa eTB/ eTv³. cMENkÉBaküEsn RbEhlmkBIBaküfaesna. kM):an RbEhlRtÚvnwgBaküfa kMEpg. 20 karerobcMkarRKb;RKgRbeTsEbbenH minEmnmanenAkñúgRBHraCaNacRkevogc½nÞEtmYynaHeT. enAkm<úCa eKeXIj manBYkkMNan;ExRt EdlCardæm®nþI ehIyeKeXIjmanRbEhl²KñaEdrenAkñúgBYksuIbsag):aNa Edlmanm®nþI 4nak; Ca ecAhVayelIRsuksMxan;²TaMg4/ ehIynigsuIbsagkaNaEdlCaecAhVayelIRsukTaMg12. enAesogtug karRKb;RKg manrUbPaBFMeFgCagbnþic edaymanRkúmRbwkSamYyenACab;CamYynwgRBHraCa mansmaCikdl;eTA32nak; EdleRCIs taMgeLIgedayRBHraCa CatMNagRsukTaMg32enAkñúgRBHraCaNacRk. emIleTA kalBImunmankarerobcMGMNacEbbenH enATUTaMgNÐÚcin.
  • 265. 263Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa ExRtnImYy²kñúgbNþaExRtTaMg7manT½BeCIgeKak T½BesH nigemT½BpÞal;rbs;xøÜn Edlsþab;bBa¢a rbs;elak]tþmm®nþIRbcaMExRt EdlenACab;CamYyRBHraCa ebIsinCaRbeTsmansuxsnþiPaBFmµta. eBlmanswks®gÁam T½BTaMgGs;enaHGacnwgsþab;bBa¢arbs;mha]braCvijk¾man. T½BTaMgGs;TTYl karpÁt;pÁg;pÞal;BIExRtedImrbs;xøÜn. raCvaMgrbs;RBHraCal¥Nas;manPIelogCaeRcInnak;.RBHraCamanRBHCayarab;rynak;RBHCa yaTaMgenaHman®sþIbeRmIrab;Ban;nak;.eKsÁal;zan³m®nþIeTAtamRTBüsm,tþiEdlmaneTAtamTMhMRbGb; dak;søamøÚeTAtamsBaØasmÁal;epSg²eFVIGMBImasb¤R)ak;EdlBak;nigeTAtamsRms;yanCMniHEdleKCiH dUcCaenAkm<úCab¤enAesomG‘ÍcwgEdr.manEtmha]braCeTEdlmansiT§iCiHdMrIdUcCaRBHraCaenAkñúgk,Ün EhRBHGgÁ. m®nþIÉeTot² EhCiHERKEsñgtUcFMeTAtamzan³rbs;xøÜn lm¥eTAedayRBMBN’mas. RBHraCakRmnwgbgðajRBHP½®kþCasaFarN³Nas; RTg;yagecjCYbRbCaCnEt2dgb:ueNÑaH kñúg mYyqñaM²b:uEnþcenøaHeBlrvageBlTaMg2enHmanEt1éf¶b:ueNÑaHdUcCaRBHraCavrµ½nesþceb:háanb¤esþc esomEdr21 . enAeBlenaH RTg;RKgRBHP®sþa):ak;masKg;elIdMrI enAelIRBHeksmankMNat;bUrmas B½T§CuMvij edIm,Icgsk;EdlEvgGnøay RBHkaN’manBak;TMh‘UFM² EdleFVI[RtbkRtecokyarEvgdl; sµa. RTg;yageTAkan;R)asaTedIm,IfVaytgVaydl;sasnikCn22 . enABIxagmuxRBHraCamannamuWn sBVmuxm®nþIedIrEhtamzan³erog²xøÜn nigt®nþIkrCaeRcIn. enAkñúgqñaM1642 elak ehSr:av:an;vUsUhV EdleFVIdMeNIrecjBIkm<úCaeTAkan;evogc½nÞEdlKat;ehA fa {evogc½nÞénRbeTslUEvn} )aneTAdl;TIenaHenAéf¶TI8 Exvicäika ehIy)anniyaybBa¢ak;famanBl Tahan 300nak; édkan;lMEBg b¤kaMePøIg edIrBIxagmuxRBHraCa. bnÞab;mk KWT½BdMrImanGñkCiHkan;GavuF RKb;édrYcehIyKWT½BePøgcMnYn200nak;enAcugbBa©b;KWRsIsñMrbs;RBHraCaCiHelIdMrI16k,al.RBHraCa manRBHCnµ23RBHvsSaRTg;esayraCsm,tþi3qñaMrYcmkehIy¬1642¦bnþBIRBHeromEdlsuKteTA eRkayBIesayraCü)an10qñaM EtKµanbuRtsñg. RBHraCaRTg;RbkbeTAedayFm’xøaMgNas; nigmanm®nþI CaTIRbwkSad¾buinRbsb; ehAfaBYkeTvInIj:a. dMrIRBHraCa CadMrIEdlFM nigl¥CageK manBak;kRmalRBMd¾FM ehordl;dI rMelceTAedayeRKÓgGlgáarCaeRcIn elak hSg;m:arILWrIy:a niyayBenøIsfa ¬lm¥eTAeday 21 sUmGanTMnak;TMngkarTUtrbs;esþclVI TI14 CamYyesþcesom nigGankMNt;Rtarbs; CavtakVan; sþIGMBIkm<úCa. 22 enAkm<úCa KWbuNükfin.
  • 266. RTBüsm,tþiTaMgGs;rbs;RBHraCaNacRk¦. enAéf¶EdlRBHraCayagecjeRkA narI²minRtÚvecjBIpÞH eT b:uEnþGacemIlRBHraCaeFVIdMeNIrBImat;bg¥Üc)an. RBHsgÇRtÚvnimnþmkTTYlRBHraCa[)anq¶ay bnþicBIvtþ. TUtbreTs EtgTTYl)annUvkarTTYlrak;Tak;xøaMgNas; ehIyRBHraCasBVRBHT½ycg;[BYkenH cUl rYmTsSnaEl,gekItecjBIkarpSaMgdMrIekµg² eTIbEtTak;)an EdleKerobcMeLIgedIm,I[RbCara®sþ nig esvkamatü)ansb,ay23 TsSnar)aMrbs;BYkRsIPIelognigTsSnakar)aj;kaMRCÜc.RBHraCaTTYlBYk raCTUt breTsenAkñúgbnÞb;mYyFM edayRTg;Kg;enAelIblø½gáy:agx<s; RBHB½®sþs¥at² nigeFVITMnak;TMngCa mYybNþaraCTUtTaMgenaHtamry³naykrdæm®nþIrbs;RBHGgÁRTg;minniyaytTl;pÞal;EtmþgeTdUcCaenA Rsukesomkm<úCaeb:hÁÚnigGar:akan;EdrEdlRBHraCaRTg;bgðajRBHGgÁEttammat;bg¥ÜcEtb:ueNÑaH24 . elakehSr:av:an;vUsUhV)anerobrab;fasarlixitEdl]tþmesnIy_rbs;Rkúmh‘unKat;enA)atavIy:a [Kat;kan;mk)anRtÚvm®nþIFMEdlKat;ehAfa eTvInIj:a TTYlyk dak;elIeCIgBanmas man)aMgkøs;mas y:agx<s; km<s;esµInwgdgekþagrbs;sMeBAFMmanGñkGuM40nak; EdleKbBa¢Ún[eTATTYlKat;enAcm¶ay RbEhlCagmYyKILÚEm:RtBIraCFanI. karnaMsartaMgmkfVayRBHraCaRbRBwtþeTAEbbenH. BiFIGFik GFmdUcKñaenH manerobrab;eLIgEdr edaysmaCikraCTUtEdlesþclVITI14 )anbBa¢ÚneTAKal;esþc Rsukesom ehIymanerobrab;Rbhak;RbEhlKñaedayvresnIy_RtI suIm nigGnuesnIy_Ék h‘Ír:amkuk CaTUtEdlRkúmh‘unGg;eKøsenANÐa bBa¢ÚneTAPUmaenAkñúgqñaM1795 nig1796. elak«Bukm:arInI)anniyayfaenAeBlEdlT½BGv:aRKb;RKgExRtmYyrbs;lavEdlmincg;elIk sYysarGakreTA[enAkñúgstvtSr_TI16 esþcGv:a)ancUllukluyRsuklav deNþImykraCFanI)an rYcnaMRbCaCnCaeRcInykeTACamYy.ehtukarN_enHminmanerobrab;enAkñúgerOgEdl´)anelIkxagelI 264 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 23 eyIg)aneXIjBIxagelIehIyfa El,genHminEmnsuT§EtKµaneRKaHfñak;enaHeT eRBaHRBHeBaFisaraC )ansuKtkñúgBiFI enHkñúgqñaM1548 enAmuxbNþaTUt EdlRTg;cg;eFVI[sb,ay. 24 enAsm½ydMNalKñaenaH BYkesþcm:ugehÁalEdlesayraCüenAraCFanIEdløI b¤GaRka )anTTYlBYkraCTUtenAkñúgbnÞb;d_ s¥atmYyehAfaDIv:g;tGaMehIyRTg;bgðajxøÜnenAkñúgLÚsuIy:amYydak;enAelItueFVIGMBIeføImfµFMmYyEdlmanbNþardæm®nþITaMg LayGgÁúyCuMvij. RTg;minTTYlyksartaMgedaypÞal;RBHhsþeT vIesor rbs;RBHGgÁCaGñkTTYl k¾b:uEnþ RTg;man RBHbnÞÚleTAkan;BYkTUtTaMgenaH saksYrsMNYrpSg² ehIyBYkTUtTaMgenaHGacsaksYrsMNYrmkRBHGgÁvij)an. esþc EBkS k¾erobcMkarTTYlraCTUtbreTsEbbdUcKñaenHEdr.
  • 267. 265Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa eT ehIyk¾minmanenAkñúgerOgCabnþeTAeTotEdr. BYklavEdlCab;CaeQøIyenAeb:hÁÚ minsb,aycitþnwg BYkGñkRtÜtRtaelIxøÜneT éf¶mYyk¾cab;kan;GavuFbHe)areLIg. b:uEnþBYkeKmin)anvaydeNþImyk eb:hÁÚeT eTaHbIfaeBlenaHCakargayNas;k¾eday KWRKan;EtvaysRtÚv[braC½y rYcnaMKñavilRtlb;mkRsuk vij vayBYksRtÚvenAnwgRsuklav beNþj[BYkenaHvilRtlb;eTARsukvijb:ueNÑaH. mkdl;evogc½nÞ EdlT½Beb:hÁÚRtÜtRtaGs;eBlb:unµanqñaMmkehIy BYklavTaMgGs;enaH k¾dak;GavuFTTYlsÁal;GMNacrbs; esþceKvij. RBwtþikarN_sMxan;TaMgGs;enHekItmaneLIg enAedImstvtSr_TI17 b¤cugstvtSr_TI16. elak«Buk m:arInI )anniyaybEnßmfa enAeBlenaHesþcGv:a RbúgnwgelIkT½BmkvaylukRsuklav mþgeTot k¾b:uEnþEpnkarenHRtÚvbBa©ab;eTAedayRBHGgÁRtÚvsuKt. esþcGv:aEdlesaybnþ)anRbkan;ykeKalneya)ayepSg edayRTg;RKan;Etcg;[esþclav elIksYysarGakrmkfVayerogral;qñaMnigbBa¢ÚndMrIl¥mYyk,almkfVayb:ueNÑaH.RBHraCalav)ancat; TuksMeNIenHfa CakarRbmafmYy EdlnwgnaM[lavkøayxøÜneTACanKrcMNuHesþcGv:a RTg;eRkaFCaxøaMg ehIy)an[Xat;TUteb:háanEdlnaMsarmkTukenAnwgevogc½nÞ rYc)an[kgT½Brbs;RBHGgÁdkhUtyk GavuFyuT§PNÐTaMgGs; EdlesþcGv:a mun)anykmkKrTukenAnwgTl;Edn. elak«Buk m:arInI nigBYkBaNiC¢krhuløg;)anerobrab;eTotfa enAstvtSr_TI17 eK)aneFVIdMeNIrBI km<úCa nigesom mkkan;raCFanIevogc½nÞrbs;lav edIm,IeronFm’RBHBuT§ nigsþab;Fm’eTsna25 . BaNiC¢kmµminsUvCamankarGPivDÆn_b:unµaneT k¾b:uEnþmankarCYjdUrCaeTogTat; RbkbedayPaB gayRsYl nigsuvtßiPaBEdlminKYreCO ³ BYklaveFVIdMeNIreTARsukesomtamreTH ehIyt¥ÚjEt¥rfa min RtÚv)anesomTTYlrak;Tak;eTeRBaHeKcat;TukfalavCamnusSéRBKµanGarüFm’dUceK.BYkcinmk2qñaMmþg edIm,ICYjdUrTMnijenAkñúgTIRkúgmYysßitenAelIédTenøemKgÁxagsþaMmaneQµaHfa emkuk nigenAesogéh EdlBYkhuløg;ehAfaemOghVak;.cMENkÉBYkesomvijmanmkeRcInral;EtqñaMedayykRkNat;qñÚt² mkedaHdUrykmaseTAvij RkNat;enaHGñkRsukcUlcitþNas; CaBiess RsI². maneFVIBaNiC¢kmµ CamYykm<úCapgEdr tamBYkhuløg;niyayfaecosminrYc ehIykm<úCaTijykvtßúFatuedImeTACaeRcIn 25 c,ab;sþIBIbraCikrbs;bBVCitEdlRtÚvGabtþi ehIybeNþjecjBIvtþGaram EdleKGnuvtþenAkm<úCasBVéf¶ Edl´)an sresrenAkñúgesovePA {c,ab;Rkmkm<úCa}Rtg;CMBUk {c,ab;TMenomBIburaN})anRtÚveroberogeLIgtaMgBIstvtSr_TI17 edayKN³kmµkarsasnamYy kñúgenaHmanRBHsgÇlav2GgÁEdleKnimnþmkBILan eQog b¤evogc½nÞ cUlrYmEdr.
  • 268. CaBiess KWkb,as. BYkhuløg;niyayfaGñkRsukGatUBW EdleFVIEr:masenAkñúgsÞwg )anbg;Bn§CamasEtmþg KWmas ¬hµt;dUcemSA¦ eRBaHeKykmas)anrhUtdl;eTA2hab KW120KILÚRkamkñúgmYyqñaM². RBHraCaNacRklaveBlenaHmanTMnak;TMngCamYybreTsCaeRcInminenAÉekaeTKWEtgTTYlraC TUtrbs;esþcRbeTsCitxag manGv:a CaedIm EdlmanTMnak;TMngminsUvCal¥b:unµaneTCamYylav cab;BI s®gÁamcugeRkayenAedImstvtSr_TI17mk/ CamYytugkwg fVIebIBYkGaNÑamFøab;)aneFVIs®gÁamCamYy esþcevogc½nÞ bNþal[lavsøab;Gs;CaeRcInkþI26 / CamYyesomEdlEtgEtRsémcg;yklavdak;Ca cMNuH b:uEnþcMeBaHmuxRtÚvcgs<anemRtIedIm,IykkmøaMgRbqaMgnwgBYleb:háan nigPUmasin EdlRBÜtKñavay mkelI27 / ehIyCamYykm<úCa EdllavrkSacMNgTak;TgxagBaNiC¢kmµ nigsasnaCab;CaRbcaM ebIeTaH Camankarpulrmas;xøHtaMgBI3qñaMmunmkk¾edayenAeBlEdlelakehSr:av:an;vUsUhVRtÚv)an]braCevog c½nÞcat;taMg[pSarP¢ab;cMNgemRtIPaBrvagesþcTaMg2eLIgvijBIeRBaHfabuBVbursrbs;eK)ans,fEs, CamYyKñaenAelIekaH saEsnhM fa nwgcgcMNgemRtIPaBnwgKñaCaerogrhUttdl;kUnecA. RbeTslaveBlenaHCaraCaNacRkmhaGMNacmYy fVIebIRbeTsenHKµanRckecjeTAsmuRT k¾eday. RBMRbTl;xageCIgTl;nwgyunNan rIÉRBMRbTl;xagt,Úg BYkhuløg;énebskkmµv:an;vUsUhV)an bBa¢ak;fa {)asak;CaRBMEdncugputrbs;RbeTslUEvn}. KYrbBa¢ak;faTwkdITaMgGs;EdlenAxageRkam )asak; b¤cM):asak; CaTwkdIrbs;km<úCaeT28 . BYklav)anerIbRmHecjBIkarRKb;RKgrbs;cinenAstvtSr_TI6 rYcehIy)anbgábegáItCakSRtRb eTstUc²CaeRcInenAxageCIgevogc½nÞ EdlTTYlsÁal;GFiraCPaBrbs;esþckm<úCa EtenArkSa)an ÉkraCürbs;xøÜn. KWCacRkPBmYyFM sßitenAeRkamkarRtÜtRtarbs;raCaFibetyümYy EdlmanRBH 266 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 26 TUtGaNÑam)anmkdl;evogc½nÞenAéf¶TI10 ExmIna qñaM1642 Etmin)ankarTTYlrak;Tak;eT ehIyRtÚvvilRtlb;eTA vij CabnÞan;. 27 raCTUtesomEdlmkdl;evogc½nÞéf¶TI2 Ex]sPa qñaM1642 min)ansVaKmn_karTTYlrak;Tak;eT ehIy)anRtÚvesþc lavbBa¢amin[eTAvijeTotebIKµankarGnuBaØatBIRBHGgÁ ehIyRTg;)an[b:UlistamdanCab;. BYkhuløg;niyayfa raCTUt lav k¾min)anTTYlkarsVaKmn_rak;Tak;EdrenARsukesom GñkTaMg2nak;enHecHEtRcENnKña. 28 kñúgkrNIenH enAeBlEdlRBHraCalEgVkRtÚv)aneKbeNþjecjBIraCFanIeTA ehIyyageTAKg;enAÉsÞwgERtg KWRBHGgÁsßitenAkñúgTwkdIkm<úCaenAeLIy minEmnenAkñúgTwkdIlaveT.
  • 269. 267Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa raCaesayraCüt²KñaGs;eBlCaeRcInstvtSr_EteyIgmin)ansÁal;Gs;.eKminRtÚvePøceTfa)asak; EdlCaExRtmYyrbs;lavkalBIstvtSr_TI16 nig17 )ankøayeTACaraCaNacRkmYycMNuHesom eRkayBIBYkesomvaydeNþImykraCFanIevogc½nÞ)an ehIydutbMpøajexÞcxÞIenAkñúgqñaM1828. enA eBlenaHhøÜgR)a)agEdlCaraCFanIrbs;lavmunevogc½nÞkalBImunstvtSr_TI16k¾)anERbkøayeTACa raCaNacRkmYyepSgeTot ehIyk¾RbEhlCamanrdætUc²eRcIneTot Edl)anTamTarykÉkraCüpg EdredayrMlwkBIGtItkalyUrlg;mkehIyehIyEdlemIleTAKWmanenAtamTIRkúgEdlmankSRt¬ecA¦ RKb;RKgsYBUCt²Kña erogrhUtmk. enAstvtSr_TI17 RBHraCaNacRklavmanRBHraCamYyGgÁesayraCü EdlCab;sac;sarela hitCamYyRBHraCalavBImun b¤k¾Cab;sac;sarelahitéf. RBHraCaNacRkenHrYmmankSRtRbeTs TaMgLay EdleTIbEt)anrYcputBIGnutþrPaBrbs;Exµr bnÞab;BIekItmanRBwtþikarN_EdlnaM[mankarpøas; bþÚrraCvgS nigsasnaenAkm<úCa. RbCaCnKWBYklav manlayéfxøH EtKWCaraCaNacRkmYyÉkraCü. ehtukarN_dUcKña)anekItmaneLIgenAnKrcam:,a ¬GaNÑamsBVéf¶¦. enAeBlEdlBYkGaNÑam deNþImykTwkdI)an ehIycUlmktaMgTIlMenArs;enA RbCaCncammYycMnYnmin)anrt;ecalRsukeT. eBlenaHRBHraCaNacRkcas; RtÚv)anerobcMeLIgvij edaymanesþcCaGgÁm©as;GaNÑammñak; EdlCa ]braCenAtugkwgBImun EtbnÞab;mk)anpþac;xøÜnÉkraCBItugkwg edaymankarKaMRTBIBYkcamEdlFøab; Etrs;manesrIPaBy:agenH. mancMNucmYyeTotEdlRtÚvkt;smÁal;GMBIehtukarN_xagelI KWfaRKwHénCatisasn_lav b:uEnþBYk éfEdlmkdl;eRkayGaceFVI[lavTTYlyknUvPasa GarüFm’ kaysm,Ta nigcritlkçN³rbs;xøÜn )an. RbeTslavmanTItaMgenACab;nwgkm<úCa ehIyTTYl)anÉkraCütaMgBIstvtSr_TI13 b:uEnþrkSa)an nUvTMnak;TMngl¥CamYyRbeTsCitxag. RbeTslavnasm½yenaHKWCardæd¾sMxan;mYy manTwkdIFMeFg nigmanGarüFm’RtcHRtcg;. ´sUmpþl;karyl;dwgxøHGMBIRbeTsCitxagrbs;km<úCaedaybBa¢ak;BIkar lUtlas;rbs;eKy:agdUecñH munnwgCRmabCUnGMBInKrcam:,a EdlElgCamhaGMNacmYyeTotehIy. 22-- nnKKrrccaamm::,,aa BYkcam EdlCasRtÚvsYBUCrbs;BYkGaNÑam CYnkal)ancgsm<½n§emRtIPaBCamYyExµr EtCYn kaleTotCasRtÚvnwgExµr.BYkcamenHFøab;)ancUllukluyGaNaExRtrbs;GaNÑamnigkm<úCaCajwk
  • 270. jyehIy)anebIkkic©Rbtibtþikarqk;bøn;tameqñrsmuRTtQb;QreRkayBIbNþaExRtxageCIgcMnYn5 rbs;eK )anRtÚvpþac;eTA[GaNÑam. BYkcamenHElgmanGtßiPaBeTotehIy enAcugstvtSr_TI16. BYkenH)anpøas;bþÚrcUlkan;sasnamham:at;vijenAstvtSr_TI14tamry³GñkpSBVpSaysasnamkBI ekaHCVataMgBI2ryqñaMmun. BYkcameTIbEt)an)at;bg;ExRtmYycMnYn kñúgenaHmanTIRkúgev: Edlman eComcamCaraCFanIrbs;xøÜntaMgenA nig faj;v:a EdlmanTYr:anenAkñúgenaHpg. cam)anvaymkelIeqñrsmuRTGaNÑammþgenAkñúgqñaM1361 vayTIrYmExRtLamb‘íjenAkñúgqñaM 1365 vay[T½BGaNÑambraC½y b:uEnþenATIbMputk¾RtÚvBYkGaNÑamrujRcan[dkfyeTAvij minEt b:ueNÑaH RtÚvGaNÑamtamvayrhUtdl;RsukeTotpg enAkñúgqñaM1366 nig1367. enAkñúgqñaM1371cam)ancUlvaydutbMpøajTIRkúgédGanEdlsßitenAelImat;BamsÞwgev:tamkar júHjg;rbs;RBHmataesþcERCkraCüGaNÑammñak;. dl;mkqñaM1373 cam)ancUllukdl;TIRkúgev: k¾b:uEnþRtÚvvay[braC½y ehIyBYkGaNÑam)anedjtamkab;smøab;rhUtmkdl;raCFanIca)anEtmþg. navacm,aMgrbs;cam )anRtÚvbMpøajedayxül;BüúHmYyenAkñúgqñaM1377. eday)anRbkasCaesþcGaNÑam nUvGñkGgÁm©as;GaNÑamCaeQøIymñak; Edl)anerobkarCamYy kSRtIcammYyGgÁCaPriya ehIytaMgenAeg:Gan EdlkalBIedImCaextþmYyrbs;cam BYkGaNÑam)an tammkvayCaeRcInelIkeRcInsa rYcvaycUldl;kñúgraCFanIeg:GankñúgqñaM1382 eFVI[RBHraCaenaH suKteTAenAkñúgkarRbyuT§tameCIgTwk. T½BGaNÑam)anvayT½Bcam[braC½yeTotTaMgtampøÚveKak TaMgtampøÚvTwk enAkñúgqñaM1383 nig1384. mkdl;qñaM1385 BYkcam)ancUlmkvaymþgeTot vaycUldl;mkmat;TVarraCFanIhaNUyEtmþg ehIylukluyratt,atBaseBjGaNaExRttugkwg PaKxagt,Úg Gs;ry³eBl 6Ex. eRkayBIRtÚvvay[dkfyeTA BYkcamenH)anRtlb;mkvay ExRtfaj;v:amþgeTot enAkñúgqñaM1390 EtRtÚvGaNÑamvaybeNþjecjvij eFVI[søab;Gs;esþccam mYyGgÁEfmeTot. cam k¾elIk]tþmesnIy_EdlCYyse®gÁaHkgT½BxøÜn[rYcBIsøab;eFVICaesþc. kñúgqñaM1393 BYkcam)anvayeTAelIT½BGaNÑam EdlecjmkesuIbkarN_enAnwgTl;Edn. manekItPaBRcbUkRcbl;xøH CamYyesþcEdleLIgesayraCübnþBI]tþmesnIy_emT½B eFVI[BYk GaNÑam eqøót»kaselIkT½BcUlmkvayenAkñúgqñaM1403 k¾b:uEnþ T½BGaNÑamRtÚvbraC½yeTot. kñúgqñaM 1404GaNÑam)anvaycUlCafµIehIyeLamB½T§raCFanIca)anCab;bMpøicbMpøajexÞcxÞIEtminGacdeNþIm yk)an k¾dkfyecjeTAvijGs;eTA. edayBYkcamenAEtbnþvaymkelIeqñrsmuRTGaNÑam nigebIkkic©RbtibtþikarecjmkeRkATwkdI 268 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 271. 269Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa rbs;xøÜntQb;Qr eRBaHmankarKaMRTBIRbCaCncam Edlrs;enAkñúgExRtEdlFøak;cUlkñúgkarRKb; RKgrbs;GaNÑam enATIbBa©b;esþcGaNÑam eLj:an;tug )anseRmcbMpøajBYkenH[dac;BUCEtmþg. 33-- GGaaNNÑÑaamm--ttuuggkkwwgg GaNÑam )anerIbRmHxøÜnecjBInwmRtÜtRtarbs;cin enAkñúgqñaM1428 enAeBlEdlsnþtivgSmij eTIbEtpþÜlrMlMdeNþImGMNac)anBIBYktaktarm:ugehÁalenAÉraCFanIeb:kaMg.knøgmkGaNÑam)anTTYl rgnUvkarKabsgát;xøaMgNas; eRBaHRtÚvkgT½BcinrukranbMpøicbMpøajpg RtÚvBYkm®nþIEbgEckGMNacKñapg minEtb:ueNÑaHRtÚvBYkBaNiC¢krcinEdlmktamkgT½BekgRbv½Ba©pg. eRkayBI)aneFVIkarRbyuT§ RbqaMgnwgcinmin)aneCaKC½yrYcmk BYkGñkbHe)arRbqaMgnwgcin )anelIkraCvgS2nak;epSg²Kña [eLIgesayraCü mñak;KWCabuRtaeBArbs;esþcRtan;eg:tugEdlCaRBHraCaTI8énsnþtivgSRtan; man eQµaHfag:y¬y:aDij¦RtÚvRkúmKaMRTRbkaselIkCaesþcenAkñúgqñaM1407mñak;eToteQµaHRtan;KVIxag ¬eRTÓgkVaged¦ RtÚvCakµÜyrbs;g:y nigCaecArbs;Rtan;eg:tug )anRtÚvbkSBYkRbkaselIkCaesþc enAkñúgqñaM1410. eRkaymkRtan;KVIxag)anRtÚveKcab;RbKl;[cin ehIyk¾eFVIGtþXatenAtampøÚv eFVIdMeNIreTARsukcin. erOgeRCIstaMgesþcTaMg2GgÁenHCaerOgvasnaRbeTsCatiTaMgmUl k¾b:uEnþtaMgEtBIeBlEdleK )ancUlédcUleCIgKaMRTBYkERCkraCüfKVIlI nighUhaneFOg mk RbCaCnERbhak;dUcCaesaHGegÁIy CamYynwgraCvgSRtan; ebIeTaHbIfa BYkhU RtÚv)at;bg;Gs;eTAehIykþI. karCiHCan;Kabsgát; karerobcMEbgEckdIPUmiCafµI nigraCbBa¢aqñaM1414 EdltRmÚv[burs² GaNÑamTuksk;EvgdUccin29 ehIyhamXat;narI²min[sak;xøÜn nig[esøókEtsemøókbMBak;xøI² manéd Evg)annaM[mankarbHe)arRbqaMgnwgGaCJaFrcineLIg.enAsm½yenaHvahak;dUcCafaemT½BcinEdlCa GPi)alelIGaNÑam cg;eqøótyk»kasEdlRbCaCnminsb,aycitþedIm,ITajykplRbeyaCn_ pÞal;xøÜnehIyvayykGaNÑamTaMgmUlEtmþg eRkayBIbBa¢ÚnkgT½Bcin[Rtlb;eTAvijrYcehIy. KMnit k,t;enH ebIsinCamanEmn )anRtÚvEbkkarN_ ehIyemT½Bcink¾RtÚveKekaHehA[vilRtlb;eTAvij. GVIEdlemT½BcinenaHeFVImin)anseRmc )anRtÚvGñkdéTeFVI)anseRmc enAeBlEdlKµanrUbKat;. 29 RbCaCnGaNÑamenATuksk;Evgb:RbHsµa Føak;mkelIxñg rhUtmkdl;stvtSTI17.
  • 272. manm®nþIFMrbs;raCvaMgmunmñak;maneQµaHfaeLLWyb¤eLlIEdlminEdlcuHcUlCamYynrNa)anRbEm RbmUlBYkGñkEdlRbqaMgnwgkarRKb;RKgrbs;cinmkCaRkúmEtmYy rYccab;ebIkkarvayqµk;eTAelIBYkcin enAkñúgqñaM1417eFVI[BYkenHmankarPJak;ep¥Ilnig)at;bg;kgBlGs;CaeRcIn.eLLWyvaycinCYnQñH CYncaj;. RKÜsarrbs;Kat;RtÚvcincab;)an ehIyGarksmøab;TaMgGs; eFVI[Kat;Gs;sgÇwm Tn;édTn;eCIg Gs;mYyry³ b:uEnþbnÞab;mkKat;k¾manesckþIkøahaneLIgvij cab;eFVIkarRbyuT§ eBareBjeTAedaykMhwg QWcab; eBareBjeTAedayPaBsahav eFVI[sRtÚvbraC½y EteRkaymkKat; k¾RtÚvbraC½yvijmþg. s®gÁamrMedaHRsukenHmanry³eBl10qñaM enATIbBa©b;eLLWyk¾rujRcanT½B cin[cakecjBITwkdI GaNÑam)an eFVI[RsukTTYl)anesrIPaBenAkñúgqñaM1428. eLLWy k¾eLIgesayraCü begáIt)anCa snþtivgS eL fµI Edlmanesþc 25GgÁ esayraCüGs;kal364qñaM BI1428 dl;1791. eLLWyTTYlraCaGPieskenAraCFanIdugdU EdlmaneQµaHmü:ageTotfa ekCWy RTg;)anbþÚreQµaH [ehAfadugKIjvijmann½yfaraCFanITisbUB’araCFanIenHeRkaymkKWhaNUyenaHÉgehIyRTg;)an bþÚrRBHnamfaeLFYnFan. edaybBa¢ak;fa snþtivgSRtan; minmanraCbuRtsñgRtkUlteTAeTot RTg;)an sMNUmBr[RBHecAGFiraCcinTTYlsÁal;RBHGgÁ faCaesþcrbs;GaNÑam. eRkayBI)aneLIgesayraCürYcmk eLFYnFan)ancab;epþImeFVIs®gÁamCamYykulsm<½n§éRBPñMmYy cMnYnenAPaKxageCIg vayBYkenaH[braC½y rYcehIyRTg;cab;erobcMRbeTseLIgvijtamKMrUrbs;cin edayeFVIkarEkTRmg;xøHEdlBYkcinFøab;)andwknaMeFVIEdr EtseRmc)anEtbnþicbnþÜcb:ueNÑaH. RTg;)an bBa©úHzan³raCbuRtmYyGgÁ Edl)anRbRBwtþxusqÁg minRtwmRtÚvtamKnøgFm’. RBHraCaEdlesayraCübnþbnÞab;BIesþc eLFYnFan )anyktRmab;tamRBHGgÁ KWeFVIs®gÁamCa mYyBYkcamEdlEtgEtcab;kan;GavuFlYcqµk;cUlvaytammat;smuRTfVIebI)anbBa¢ÚnraCTUtmkeKarBRBH GgÁrYcehIykþI. mYycMENkeTot bNþaExRtenAPaKxagt,ÚgRtÚveFVIkarRbyuT§Tb;Tl;nwgrdætUc² minTan; suIvil½ycMnYn10 EdlenAB½T§CuMvijGaNÑam ehIyEtgEtRtÚvrujRcancUlmkkñúgRBHraCaNacRk bgávinaskmµepSg² mindwgedaymUlehtuGVI Rbvtþisa®sþk¾min)ankt;RtaGMBImUlehtuenHEdr. enAeRkamrC¢kalesþceLRbeTsmanrebobrbbRtwmRtÚvGaNaExRtmansNþab;Fñab;ehIykar ENnaMBIfñak;kNþal)anRtÚvpSBVpSayecj. eKCIkERBkbgðÚrTwk dITMenr)anRtÚvKas;ranrYcehIyRbKl; eTA[ksikr. mansMeBACMnYjbreTsmkBIcin m:aeL ecjcUlkMBg;Epkan;EteRcIneLIg² BImYyéf¶ eTAmYyéf¶. C½yCmñHeTAelIBYkcam )anGnuBaØat[GaNÑam RsUbykbNþaExRténraCaNacRksRtÚv mYymþg² esÞIrEtTaMgGs;. 270 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 273. 271Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa GaNÑam)ankøayeTACaCatiFMmYyEdlRbeTsCitxag)ak;bbxøbxøac mankgT½BBUEkkøahanGac Fana)annUvGnaKtl¥ Rsab;Etmin)an100qñaMpgeRkayBIkarksagsnþtivgSrYcmk enAkñúgrC¢kal RBHraCaTI7 GVI²RtÚvrlay)at;Gs;eTAvij edaysarEtesþcenaHGaRkk;. RbCaCn)anbHe)areLIg dwknaMeday]tþmesnIy_mñak; ehIydeNþImykraCFanI)an eFVI[RBHraCaenaHQWcitþ pwkfñaMsmøab;xøÜnÉg eTA enAkñúgqñaM1509. ]tþmesnIy_G‘UGuIgenaHk¾RbkasxøÜnÉgCaesþc k¾b:uEnþmin)anTTYlkarKaMRTBIRbCaCnTUTaMgRbeTs eT.cab;BIqñaM1510dl;1516mankarbHe)ar7elIkbnþbnÞab;KñaenATIbBa©b;]tþmesnIy_G‘UGuIgk¾RtÚv embHe)armñak; smøab;)an enAkñúgqñaM1517. esþcEdleLIgRKgraCblø½gáfµIesayraCümin)anRsYlb:unµaneT eRBaHmankarbHe)arRbqaMgCa eRcIn EdlRtÚvCmñH. enATIbBa©b;RTg;Gacb®gáabkarbHe)arTaMgGs;[rabTab)an b:uEnþRBHraCaEdl eLIgesayraCübnþBIRBHGgÁRtÚvRbQmmuxnwgkarbHe)areLIgvij ehIyRtÚvbgç¿citþrt;eKcecjBIraC FanI. enAeBlEdlyagRtlb;cUlmkkñúgraCFanIvijenAkñúgqñaM1517 RTg;RtÚvTTYlrgnUvkarKMram kMEhgBIBYkemT½B EdlElgeKarBsþab;bBa¢aRBHGgÁeTAehIy. enATIbBa©b;manemT½Bmñak;eQµaH m:ak;dag dug EdlRBHraCaeLCavtugTukRBHT½yCageK Gacvayb®gáabemT½BÉeTot²EdlRbkasfa xøÜnenAEt esµaHRtg;nwgRBHraCaCanic©enaH [dkfyecjBIraCFanIhaNUyeTA. CakartbsñgsgKuNRBHraCa )anRbKl;nUvzan³d¾x<g;x<s;bMput nigGMNacTaMgGs;[eTA m:ak;dagdug Edl)ankøayxøÜneTACam©as;elI RBHraCaNacRkTaMgmUlnigelIRBHraCaeTotpg.eRkayBIRTg;)anRbKl;GVI²[eTAm:ak;dagdugrYcehIy RBHraCa)ancab;mankarP½y)armÖnwgmhicätarbs;emT½BenH rYccab;nwkxøac k¾rt;eKcecjBIraCFanIeTA enAkñúgqñaM1522. m:ak;dagdug k¾edjtam ehIycab;RBHGgÁ)anenAkñúgqñaM1523 nignaMRtlb;mk haNUyvij bBa¢a[eKXuMxøÜnRBHGgÁ rYcelIkrC¢TayaTeLKYghVag[eLIgesayraCüvij. tamBit KW m:ak;dagdugenHÉg EdldwknaMRbeTsCati nigecjbBa¢aepSg²RBmTaMgGnuvtþsiT§iGMNacTaMgGs;CMnYs RBHraCa. k¾b:uEnþ dUcCahUKVIlIEdleyIg)aneXIjBIxagelIrYcmkehIyEdr m:ak;dagdug minTan;h‘an RbkaselIkxøÜnCaesþcPøameT. Tal;Et)anbBa¢a[eKRc)ac;k eFVIXatesþcmunenAkñúgKukrYc eTIb m:ak;da dug cUleTACYbesþcekµgeLKYghVag bgç¿[cuHhtßelxadak;raCsm,tþi[xøÜn. m:ak;dagdug begáIt)anCa snþtivgSmYyfµI manesþc4GgÁdwknaMRBHraCaNacRkGaNÑam)an20qñaM ehIy)anbgákarlM)akdl; cRkBRtcintamry³karTamTarepSg²KµanQb;Qr nigtamry³bkSBYkrbs;xøÜn rhUtTal;Et)at; GMNaceTA enAkñúgqñaM1592.
  • 274. enAeBlenaHman]tþmesnIy_mñak; eQµaHfa egVógKIm )anegIbeLIgedIm,IelIkbcäajatimYyGgÁ rbs;snþtivgSeL[eLIgesayraCüvij.egVógKIm)aneTACYbrC¢TayaTenaHenAfaj;v:aEdlkalenaH eKehAfa étKij ekNÐT½BrYcRbkaselIkRBHGgÁCaesþc eTIbyagRBHGgÁmkkan;raCFanIhaNUy ehIy beNþjesþc m:ak; cugeRkayecjeTA. egVógKIm)anTTYlzan³CaCU mann½yfaCam®nþIFM CaemdwknaMrdæaPi)al. Kat;manGMNacxøaMg dUcCa hUKVIlI nigm:ak;dagdug enAmuneBlEdldeNþImraCblø½gáG‘ÍcwgEdr. cab;BIRtwmKat;enHeTA GñkEdlsñg RtkUlegVóg nigCijteTA minRKan;EtdwknaMRBHraCaNacRkb:ueNÑaHeT KWdwknaMTaMgRBHraCa EfmeTot. EtGMNacd¾x<g;x<s;EbbenH EdlmaneLIgenAeRkamesþcmin)ankar manvtþmanedIm,IRKan;EtCatMNag GMNacRBHraCa sRmab;kareKarBbUCab:ueNÑaH b:uEnþGMNacBitR)akdsßitenAkñúgédrbs; CU eTAvijeT GMNacEbbenHCYbRbTHkarRcENnQñanIsCaeRcIn ehIymansRtÚvRbqaMgbþÚrpþac;. fVIebIeKminGaceFVI karvayRbharRbqaMgcMeBaHmux)an eRBaHKat;manGMNacFMNas; k¾b:uEnþegVógKIm)anRtÚveKdak;fñaMbMBul dl;søab; enAkñúgqñaM1546. kUnRbsarbs; egVógKIm )aneLIgkan;GMNacbnþBI«Bukekµk edayTTYl zan³Ca CU ehIy)anbnþeFVIkarRbyuT§RbqaMgnwgBYkm:ak; Edl)anbegáItCakSRtRbeTsmYyenAtMbn; kav )ag Rtg;kEnøgEdlkalBImunBYknug)anbegáItraCaNacRktUcmYy. TwkdIRtg;enH minFøab;cMNuHRbeTs NaeT ÉRbCaCnEdlminEmnCaBYkGaNÑam )anrkSax¢ab;nUvGnusSavrIy_raCaNacRkBIGtItkal ehIyFøab;)anykkVagsuInigkVagtugdak;CacMNuHpg.eKTTYlykkarRtÜtRtarbs;esþcGaNÑamesay raCüenAhaNUyedaylM)akehIycUlcitþmanemdwknaMedayELk.BYkm:ak;)anmktaMgGMNacenATIenH cab;BIqñaM1592 rhUtdl;qñaM1660 edaysgÇwmkñúgcitþfa nwgGacdeNþImykRBHraCaNacRkTaMgmUl )anmkvij BIédesþceL eRkamkardwknaMRKb;RKgrbs;BYkCU. enAeBlEdl Rtaj;eKom CakUnRbsarbs; egVógKIm )anRbkan;ykzan³Ca CU enAhaNUy kar Rbkan;ykzan³enH hak;dUcCaminsUvRsbc,ab; kUnrbs; egVógKIm eQµaHfa egVóghYg k¾)anRbkan;yk tMENgCa CY enHEdr edaysMGagfaTTYlekrþ×tBI«Buk Etk¾minRtwmRtÚvEdreRBaHminmankarEtgtaMgBI esþc.egVóghYgminsb,aycitþeTeRBaHBImun«BukxøÜnCaCUEtmñak;ÉgLÚvmanCUdl;eTA2nak;k¾eFVIkar TamTareTARBHraCaEdlyl;RBmelIkegVóghYg[eTACaevOgmann½yfaCaGñkGgÁm©as;EdlCazan³x<s; Cagbgéfø. eBlenaH esþcenAhaNUyCaesþcmin)ankar GMNacBitR)akdsßitenAkñúgédBYkCU RtkUlCij EdlCaGñkdwknaMRBHraCaNacRkBitR)akd nigdwknaMRBHraCapg. BYkCU RtkUlevOg b¤egVóg mankar 272 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 275. 273Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa RcENnCaxøaMg dl;minGacdwknaM)anenAtugkwg k¾EbrmkemIlTwkdIcam:,a EdlGaNÑameTIbEtdeNþImyk )anvijmþg. BYkenH)anEckGMNacKñaenATIenaH rYcehIyk¾Rbkass®gÁamRbqaMgnwgBYkCij Edlkan; GMNacenAÉtugkwg. edayehtuenH nKrcam:,a )anRtÚverobryeLIgvij eRkamraCvgSEdlminEmnCa cam eBalKW CaGaNÑam k¾b:uEnþbnÞab;mkEbrmkvayGaNÑamvij. RbCaCnnKrcam:,aeBlenaH rYmman BYkcam EdlminRBmrt;ecalRsuk ehIysuxcitþRTaMrs;enAbgábegáInplelIdIERscmáarrbs;xøÜn nigBYk GaNÑam EdleTIbcUlmkrs;enAelITwkdIenATMenr Edlm©as;)anrt;eKcecalRsukeRBaHmincg;cMNuHBYk QøanBan. RbCaCnTaMg2RbePTenH)anRsuHRsYlrYbrYmKñaCuMvijemdwknaMfµI edIm,IeFVIkarRbyuT§tTl;nwg esþcenAhaNUy. 44-- RRbbeeTTssNNÐÐaa GMeNIHGs;BIhSg;hSúIxan;eTA manGñksñgRtkUltamExSxag®sþICaRbBn§mñak; eQµaHfa TImYreLg ¬taEmrLg;¦ RbmUlekNÐ)ankgT½BcRmúHCatisasn_mYyFM kñúgenaHPaKeRcInCaBYktaktar m:ugehÁal nigeTork_ )anvaydeNþImyk)annKrEBkSTaMgmUlrhUtdl;TenøGW®hVat TwkdIeKorDIsßan eh‘SG‘½rhSIú nig GaemnIpg.GñkdwknaMfµIenH)ancab;vayykRbeTsNÐaenAkñúgqñaM1398dwknaMT½BqøgPñMkan;kab;TIRkúg Edl)anqøgkat; cuHTUksMeBAqøgsÞwgTenø ehIycab;RbCaCnCaeQøIy)an10muWnnak;naMykeTAGark smøab;ecalenAmuxraCFanIEdløI edayxøacBYkenHbHe)arRbqaMgkñúgeBlRbyuT§ rt;eTAcUlédcUleCIgCa mYysRtÚv.deNþImykEdløI)anehIytaEmrLg;)ancUllukluybwgháal;EfmeTotrYceTIbnaMT½BRt- lb;cUlnKrvij edaynaMykC½yPNÐmkCaeRcIn sáb;sál;nwg)anvatTwkdIq¶ayCagGFiraCGaLichSg; eTAeTot. BYkhiNÐÚenAcgcaMfa taEmrLg; enH eRbób)andUcCaykS ehIy)andak;eQµaH[fa Caesþc bMpøicbMpøaj. bnÞab;BItaEmrLg; mhaemd):atg;EdlCatSarenAEdløI)aneLIgesayraCü rYcsuKteTAenAkñúg qñaM1413. mansnþtivgSfµImYyeTotdeNþImykGMNac)an KWBYkekSóésy:at; EdlrkSaGMNac)an rhUtdl;qñaM1451. snþtivgS):atg;)anrkSaGMNacenALÚDI)an60qñaM bnÞab;BIenaHmk RbeTsNÐa PaKxageCIg RtÚvFøak;enAeRkamnwmRtÜtRtarbs;BYkm:ugehÁal EdleRkaymk)anvatGMNacesÞIrBas eBjNÐaTaMgmUl cab;bgç¿[NÐaPaKxagt,ÚgTTYlsÁal;GFiraCPaBrbs;xøÜn. enATIbBa©b; eRkayBI)an sabeRBaHGarüFm’d¾l¥RtcHRtcg;rYcmk snþtivgSm:ugehÁalk¾rlt;rlay)at;eTA eRkamT§iBlénkar rMelaPbMBanRKb;Ebby:ag rYmmankarRbRBwtþbT]RkidæepSg² karbHe)ar karEbk)ak;RKÜsar karkab;
  • 276. smøab; «BukxøÜnÉgdeNþImGMNac.l. EdlCaehtueFVI[BYkGg;eKøscUlmkdeNþImkan;kab;)an ehIy edIrtYCaGñkkarBarraCvgSrhUtmkdl;sBVéf¶. enAstvtSr_TI16 esþcGak;)aesayraCüenAraCFanIEdløI. RTg;)anerobcMcRkPBrbs;RBHGgÁ RbkbeTAedayyutþiFm’ RKb;RKgedayKtibNÐit GñkpgemIlmkeXIjfaRTg;CaesþcRtwmRtÚv mansnþan citþTUlaycUlcitþGMeBIl¥s¥atehIyEtgEtKitdl;RbCara®sþEdlRTg;dwknaMCanic©.RTg;)an[eKsg;pøÚv s¥atl¥ mandaMedImeQImanEpøenAsgxagsRmab;pþl;møb;dl;GñkdMeNIr RTg;)an[eKCIkERBkRbLay edIm,IbgðÚrykTwkBITenøKgÁaeTAeRsacRsBERscmáar RTg;)an[eKCIkRsHTwkFMedIm,Itmál;TwkTukbgáarkar raMgsܶt nigCIkRsHtUc²sRmab;kareRbIR)as;tamPUminImYy². esþcm:ugehÁalenaH-EdlCaesþcl,I l,ajCageKBIeRBaHRBHGgÁRTg;CaesþcBUEkeFVIs®gÁamBRgIkTwkdIpgEtRTg;k¾BUEkxagk,Ünc,ab;CaTsSn viTURbkbeTAedaykarsenþasRbNIpgEdr EdlCaRbkarminsUvmansRmab;esþckan;sasnamham:at; ehIyk¾kRmNas;EdrsRmab;esþckan;RKisþsasna- RBHGgÁ)ansuKteTAenAkñúgqñaM1605. bnÞab;BI enaHmkmanekItesþcl¥EbbenHmYyGgÁeTotenAÉGaRkaraCFanIEdlRTg;)anbegáIteLIgenAkñúgraCvaMg sg;GMBIeføImfµBN’sykmkBI Cybur³ enAkNþalbnÞayBN’Rkhm EdlsßitenAelImat;TenøCmna. RTg;)anvayykraCaBUtn³/bwgháal;/KUhSar:aTI/sindð/kaesµórnigkg;dahadak;CacMNuH.ebIeTaHbIfa RBHGgÁ)anbgðÚrQam nigTwkEPñkrbs;GñkRsuky:agNakþI k¾manGñkRsukCaeRcInEdlRBHGgÁFøab;vay[ braC½yrYcdak;mkkñúgkarRtÜtRtarbs;RBHGgÁ nigBlTahan EdlRBHGgÁFøab;dwknaMeTAeFVIkarkab;smøab; rgÁal nigdutbMpøajexÞcxÞI naMKñayMesaksþayRBHGgÁRKb;Kña. enAstvtSr_TI16RbeTsNÐaKµanTMnak;TMngGVICab;lab;CamYyNÐÚcineTxusBIeBlmunEdlman niKmCnNÐaenABaseBj ehIyKWNÐaenHÉgEdl)annaMGarüFm’mk[NÐÚcin. CaBiessKW km<úCa EdleRkayBITTYl)annUvGarüFm’GarüagBINÐaehIy )anCMrujGarüFm’enH[eLIgdl;kMBUlx<s;bMput dl;mkeBlenH km<úCa)ane)aHbg;RBhµBaØsasnaEdlenAbnþrIklUtlas;enANÐaTaMgPaKxageCIg TaMg PaKxagt,ÚgenAeLIy ehIypþac;cMNgTak;TgTaMgGs;CamYy edkg; CaRKÚ)aGacarü EdlFøab;)anbgðat; beRgónPasasM®sáwt nigpþl;TRmg;GkSr[. eBlenaHBYkbcäajatirbs;niKmCnNÐa )anrlay Rcbl;cUlsBVsac;CamYyBYkGñkrdævasIGs;ehIy. ehIyedayKµanTMnak;TMngCamYyNÐa EdlRtlb; eTAkan;RBhµBaØsasnavij nigKµanTMnak;TMngCamYyekaHCVa Edl)anERbeTAkan;sasnaGuIsøamenaH RbeTskm<úCa)ankøayeTACaRbeTsmYyÉeka dUcCardætUc²ÉeTotenANÐÚcin Edl)anTTYlGarüFm’ GarüagEdr eRBaHfa eKmanRcksRmab;emIleXIjelakxageRkAEttamry³ekaHsirIlgáamYyb:ueNÑaH 274 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 277. 275Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa CaTIkEnøgEdlRBHBuT§sasnae)aHTItaMgrIklUtlas;xøaMgEmnETneTAehIy. s®gÁameQøaHRbEkkKñadeNþImdIFøI nigRbCaCn EdlekItmantdac;enANÐÚcin BIstvtSr_TI13 rhUtdl;stvtSr_TI17 minGnuBaØat[eKEfrkSa ehIyGPivDÆn_cMNg;cMNUlcitþxagGkSrsa®sþ viTüa sa®sþ nigsil,³ )andUckalBIeBlEdleKmancMNgTak;TgCamYynwgNÐaeT. TaMgNÐÚcin TaMgkm<úCa EdlFøab;CaCatisasn_d¾FMmYy KWElgmanTMnak;TMngCamYyRbeTsNÐa EdlCaRKÚbgðat;bgðajeTot ehIy. edayehtuenH RbeTskm<úCaEdlkan;RBHBuT§sasnaRtÚvcuHGab;»neTA² xagR)aCJa sµartI. 55-- BBYYkkGGWWrr::uubb manRBwtþikarN_d¾FMmYyEdleKGaccat;Tuk)anfaCaRBwtþikarN_d¾FMeFg KWFMCagkar)ak;RsutcuHén GaNacRkkm<úCa b¤k¾karrlt;rlayénRBHraCaNacRkcam:,aeTAeTot eRBaHvamanT§iBlEdlminEdl manedaypÞal; b¤edayRbeyal mkelIbNþardæTaMgLayenANÐa GaMgs‘ULaMg NÐÚcin nigcugbUB’a RbeTspgEdr edayCHplvi)akmkelIneya)ayRbcaMéf¶rbs;rdæTaMgenaH k¾dUcCamkelIplRb- eyaCn_ xagCatisasn_ nigGarüFm’enaH KWkareFVIdMeNIrmkdl;rbs;BYkGWr:ub EdlGg;Gackøahan h‘an eFVI[GVI²ERbRkLas;RcbUkRcbl;Gs; ehIykþab;GVI²TaMgGs;bnþicmþg². cab;taMgBIeBlEdlmans®gÁamFM²bgáeLIgedayBYkm:ugehÁal nigtaktarrbs;hSg;hSúIxan;rYc mk enAÉcugbUB’aRbeTs CaBiess KWenARsukcin eKFøab;RbTHeXIjmanBYkGñkbs©imRbeTseFVIdMeNIr pSgeRBgmkdl;cugxagekItbMputénEpndIenHEdr EtBYkenHmkCacMnYntictYc minEdlmkCaRkúmeT emø:aHehIy eRcInEtnaMplRbeyaCn_mk[esþckñúgRsukEdlBYkeKmkdl; minEdlnaMykkarP½yxøac mk[eT. GñkTaMgGs;enaHrYmmanTaMgGñkeFVIdMeNIrpSgeRBgcab;taMgBIstvtSr_TI12mk dUcCaCn CatievnIseQµaHm:akUb:ULÚ/elaksgÇkatUlik®hVg;suIsáaMgeQµaHGUdWricdWB½rdWNUn/CnCatiGuItalIeQµaH nIkULÚDIkugTI/ CnCatirusSúIeQµaH GafaNak;nIKITIn/ CnCatiehSn½reQµaH huIeyr:UnIm:UDIsg;tUesþhVaNU CaedIm EdlmkehIy)ansresrkMNt;RtaepSg² b¤)anniyayerOgr:avR)ab;eKÉg. enAmanGñk pSgeRBgCaeRcIneTotEdleKmin)andwg eRBaHminmansresrGVITuk. BYkGWr:ubd¾hankøaTaMgGs;enaH)anmkdl;RbeTsNÐaedayeFVIdMeNIrqøgkat;):aeLsÞIn nigEBkS b¤k¾mktam):aeLsÞIn rYcqøgkat;smuRTRkhm b¤mkdl;Rsukcintamkugsþg;TINUb EBkSb¤m:UsáÚvI taktarI b¤m:ugehÁalI. kareFVIdMeNIrd¾Evgq¶ayBIGWr:ubmkcugbUB’aeBlenaHCYbRbTHkarlM)ak nigeRKaHfñak;CaeRcIn KW
  • 278. edayehtuenaHehIy)anCaminsUvmanGñkNacg;mk. k¾b:uEnþ6qñaMeRkayBIelakRKIsþÚhVkULúm)anrkeXIjTVIbGaemrik¬1492¦EdleKeCOfaCamat; smuRTxagekItrbs;RbeTsNÐa KWenAeBlEdlCnCatiB½rTuyehÁmñak;eQµaH v:asáÚdWhÁam:a )anrkeXIj pøÚvfµImYyeTotsRmab;eFVIdMeNIrmkkan;NÐaenAkñúgqñaM1498 pøÚvenaHKWeFVIdMeNIrtamsmuRTB½T§CuMvijTVIb Ga®hVikqøgkat;eRCayxül;BüúH ¬sBVéf¶eKehAfaeRCayénesckþIsgÇwm¦ rYcmkcuHctenAnwgkalIKutna mat;eqñrm:aLa)a skraCfµImYy)ancab;epþImeLIgsRmab;BiPBelak. Catisasn_epSg² EdlminFøab; EdlsÁal;KñaBImunmk )ancab;epþImCYbKñay:agKMhuk CamYynwgplRbeyaCn_ KuNPaB cMNg;cMNUlcitþ xagneya)ay sasna nigKMnitekgRbvBa©½BaNiC¢kmµEbøk²BIKña. eKRbTHeXIjmanBYkB½rTuyehÁ huløg; Gg;eKøs )araMg nigdaNWm:akkan;EteRcIneLIg² enAtam mat;smuRTNÐa eTobekaHm:aLaka ekaHCVa b½reNGU Gar:akan; PUma esom rhUtdl;mat;smuRTRbeTs Cb:un nigcin EdlmanTMnak;TMngCamYyBYkGñkRsukGaykan;EtxøaMgeLIg². BYkGñkmkBIGWr:ubTaMgenaH)anmkCYbKñaenAcugbUB’a eFVIs®gÁamnwgKña nigCamYyesþcRsukGaypg Edr. CYnkal manBYkTahanEdlrt;ecalCYr b¤k¾BYknavikEdlRtÚvcab;)anehIyedaHElgeTAvij )an pøas;bþÚrbeRmIkargarBIRbeTsmYyeTA[RbeTsmYyeTot b¤k¾sµ½RKcUlxøÜnbeRmIesþcRsukGay ehIy bgðat;bgðaj[ecHeRbIsil,³s®gÁamrbs;elakxaglic. GñkpSBVpSaysasnakatUlik Edlmkdl; cugbUB’aedayxøÜnÉgtampøÚveKak b¤EdlRbeTsnImYy²naMykmktamk):al; edIm,IbeRmIplRbeyaCn_ smaKmsasnarbs;eK k¾skmµkñúgkarpSBVpSaysasna mincaj;BYkTahan b¤BYkQµÜjb:unµanEdreT. BYkenaHGg;Gackøahan cUllukeRCAeTAkñúgraCaNacRknImYy² ehIyerobeCIgRBÜlCYydl;karQøan BanykraCaNacRkenaHdak;CacMNuH. b:uEnþBYkGWr:ubEdlmankarRbfuyRbfanCageK KWBYkGñkEdl rt;ecalCYr CaBiessKWBYkGñkpSgeRBgB½rTuyehÁ nigeGs,aj:úl EdleFVIdMeNIrKµanTisedA CYnkalEt ÉkÉg CYnkalCaRkúm. naeBlenaHkMBg;EpEdlFMCageKenANÐÚcinKWkMBg;EpetNas;esrIm EdlbeRmIplRbeyaCn_ CaBiess[RbeTsesom edayebIkTVarEbreTArkQUgsmuRTbwgháal;. eRkayBI v:asáÚdWhÁam:a eFVIdMeNIrB½T§CuMvijTVIbGa®hVik qøgkat;eRCayxül;BüúH rYcmkcuHctenAkalIKutelIeqñrsmuRTm:aLa)a minTan;TaMg)an3Expg Rsab;EtBYkB½rTuyehÁmktaMgTIlMenA enABaseBjetNas;esrIm. ehtukarN_ TaMgGs;enH elak GaemrIehÁaevs<ÚsuI )anerobrab;enAkñúgqñaM1501 ehIyeyIgenAmanr)aykarN_Ca eRcIneTotEdlbBa¢ak;fa kMBg;EpetNas;esrImenH manBYkGWr:ubmkcUlcteRcInCageK dUcCar)ay 276 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 279. 277Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa karN_rbs;CnCatir:UmuaMgeQµaH lUdUvIkUdWv:aefm:a kñúgqñaM1503 nigr)aykarN_rbs;CnCatiB½rTuyehÁ eQµaH RTIsþg;dWGaKUj:a kñúgqñaM1506 CaedIm. 3qñaMeRkaymkmanCnCatiB½rTuyehÁmñak;eTot eQµaH DIeyehÁaLÚeb:esEj:r:a)aneFVIdMeNIrpSgeRBgenAkñúgsmuRTm:aLakamkdl;raCaNacRkGuIsøamm:aLaka kat;BImuxsigðburIrYccUlmkkñúgQUgsmuRTesom.bnÞab;BIenaHKWelakGal;b‘uyEKkEdlyl;c,as;GMBI sarsMxan;xagEpñkBaNiC¢kmµ nigyuT§sa®sþrbs;m:aLaka k¾taMgcab;eFVIs®gÁamdeNþImykmþgenAkñúgqñaM 1509 TIbBa©b;k¾deNþImyk)anEmn enAéf¶TI24 ExkumÖ³ qñaM1511. elak Gal;b‘uyEKk enH Ca]braCesþcB½rTuyehÁ RbcaMenAcugbUB’a kalenaHeKehAfa {RbeTs NÐaxagekIt}.Kat;)anbBa¢ÚnGnuesnIy_Ékrbs;Kat;mñak;eQµaHDuyGatEh‘VNg;Eds[eFVIdMeNIreTA Rsukesom eLIgtamTenøemNamrhUtdl;GyuFüa muneBlEdlraCFanIRtÚvePøIgeqH ¬raCBgSavtar esom nigkarniTant²Kñamkniyayfa xUcxatGs;pÞH10muWnxñg30 ¦ kñúgraCüRBH)aTC½yraCaFiraC. Gnu esnIy_enaHvilRtlb;mkvijtameCIgeKakedaynaMykraCTUtEdlRBHraCabBa¢Ún[mkCYbesþc]braC RbeTsNÐaxagekItpg eFVIdMeNIrtampøÚvEdlesomEtgcuHmkvayraCaNacRk m:aLaka rhUteTAdl; etNas;esrIm. enAkñúgqñaM1517 manGnuesnIy_rbs;]braCRbeTsNÐaxagekItmñak;eTot eQµaHfa Eh‘VNa GUeb:erdWGg;Rdat )anmkdl;kUsaMgsuIn ¬KWGaNÑamsBVéf¶¦. CnCatievnIseQµaH m:akUb:ULÚ k¾Føab;)an mkdl;TIenHEdrkalBIstvtSr_TI14 kalenaHKWCaRbeTscam:,a eRkayBYkGar:ab;EdlehATIenaHfa EhSnhV_. enAkñúgqñaM1539elakEh‘VNg;edm:g;edBIntU)aneFVIdMeNIrCuMvijekaHCVas‘uym:aRta)ataeTob- ekaHm:aLaka ehIy)ancuHTsSnalIhÁ½r nig):atanI. Kat;)anecjBITIenaHenAkñúgEx]sPa qñaM1540 CamYynwgGg;tUnIj:ÚdahVarIy:aeTABinitüemIleqñrsmuRTPaKxagt,ÚgRbeTscam:,a.Kat;)anmkcuHctenA BULÚkugD½r EdlKat;kMNt;faenA8/20GgSaBIxageCIgExSbnÞat; Rtwmkm<s;mat;BamTenøkm<úCa. Kat;)an ¬bnþeLIgtamTenøenHcm¶ay6Kavut RbEhlCa24Km¦ mkdl;ekaHmYy EdlKat;ehAfa kaMbUhSa Rtg; kEnøgmYyEdlmaneQµaHfa R)aLaBIsan Et´mindwgfaCakEnøgNasBVéf¶. Kat;fa Kat;)aneTA 30 tYelxenHhak;dUcCaeRcInhYseBk eBlenaHGyuFüamanRbCaCnRbEhlRtwmEt 400 eTA 500Ban; RKÜsar b:ueNÑaH. ´KitfaRbEhlCa 1muWnxñgpÞHeT.
  • 280. dl;sÞwgmYyEdlx½NÐEckkm<úCaBIcam:,a rYcehIy)anbnþdMeNIrtameqñrsmuRTcam:,aeTAdl;sÞwgmYyeTot EdlKat;ehAfa TU)asUy enAcm¶ay17Kavut ¬RbEhl68Km¦ BIRBMRbTl;Ednkm<úCa KWenAkñúg b‘íj Fn;. Kat;)anbnþdMeNIreTATisxageCIgeTot ehIy)aneTAdl;eRCaymYyEdlKat;niyayfa GñkRsuk ehAfa TINakUerI31 ehIyEdlBYkB½rTuyehÁsÁal;c,as;ehIydak;eQµaH[fa v:aErLa. eRkayenaHbnþic elak Gg;tUnIj:ÚdaEh‘VrIy:a )aneTAdl;ekaHéhNaM ehIy)anRbyuT§CamYyk):al; cm,aMgrbs;cin. enA TIbBa©b; eRkayBI)aneFVIdMeNIrpSgeRBgd¾Kµanxøacsøab;cMnYn20dg Kat;k¾RtÚveKcab;)anCamYy nwgbkS BYkenANan;Kin ehIynaMykeTAeb:kaMg rYcnaMmkkVagsuIvij. BIrqñaMeRkaymk eRkayBI)ansikSanUvGVIEdlBYkeKeXIjenARsukcin nigbNþaRsukEdl)an qøgkat; Gg;tUnIj:ÚdaEh‘VrIy:a nigm:g;edBIntU nigbkSBYkmYycMnYneTot )anTTYlnUvesrIPaBeLIgvij ehIymkCYbCuMKñaenAÉ m:ata)an EdlmanecABjamYyGgÁesayraCü cMeBlEdlBYkPUmavaycUldut bMpøajexÞcxÞI32 . yUrbnþiceRkaymk eKRbTHeXIj m:g;edBIntU enAÉCb:unÉeNaH. dUecñH eyIgeXIjfa BYkB½rTuyehÁ )anRKb;RKgelITIpSarTaMgGs;enAcugbUB’aRbeTs. sMeBA B½r- TuyehÁ eFVIdMeNIreTAmkkñúgsmuRT cab;BIeRCayxül;BüúH b¤eRCayénesckþIsgÇwmrhUtdl;ekaHén RbeTsCb:un.BYkeKsÁal;RbeTsTaMgGs;enAkñúgtMbn;enHBIRtwmBak;kNþalstvtSr_TI16mk.BYkB½r- TuyehÁ Edl)anmkdl;RbeTskm<úCaman elak«Buk hÁas,aEdLaRKúy enAkñúgqñaM1550 elak«Buk lUGuIsK½rdUhSÚ nigCn;m:aEdr:a enAkñúgqñaM1553 GñkTaMgGs;enHeFVIdMeNIrkBI háÚGa mkkñúgraCüRBHramac½nÞ raCa rYcmanelak«Buk LÚeb: nigGaehSv:adU kñúgqñaM1558. eRkayBIGvtþmanGs;eBlb:unµanEx GñkTI1 )anvilRtlb;mkvijenAkñúgqñaM1560 kñúgrC¢kalRBHbrm®nÞaraCaEdlesayraCüenAlEgVk. BYk sasnTUtkatUlikB½rTuyehÁ Edlmkkan;km<úCaenHminEmnmkEtmñak;ÉgeT EtgEtmanBYkBaNiC¢kr BYk GñkedIrk):al; BYkGñkpSgeRBg nigBYkGñkrt;ecalCYrmkCamYyCanic© ehIyBYkenHminxøacnwgeFVIGVI²eT edIm,Irs;. manGñkxøHecHksag)annUvsßanPaBd¾sMxan; deNþIm)antYnaTIenAkñúgneya)ay ehIyERb køayeTACam®nþIFMeTot. eyIgnwg)aneXIjenAxageRkamenHnUvtYnaTId¾sMxan;rbs; lUGuIsebLÚsU enA 278 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa 31 tamemIleTA KWCaBaküm:aeLfa taNah_ ERbfa dIBYkkUerI. 32 mhakSRtIEdlRtÚvCabuRtIrbs;esþc eb:hÁÚ )anRtÚvPUmacab;)an CamYynwgraCbuRtTaMg4GgÁ.
  • 281. 279Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa km<úCakñúgqñaM1594 eBlmankareFVIXatesþcramaeCIgéRB edIm,IelIkrC¢TayaTrbs;esþcmun[eLIg esayraCüvij EdlbnÞab;mk)aneFVI[bkSBYkKat;TTYl)annUvbuNüskþiFM kñúgenaHmanBYkeGs,aj:úl eQµaH hÁúgsaels nig)øarVIkasþILÚ nigCnB½rTuyehÁeQµaH dugDIyWehÁa CaedIm. sßanPaBrbs;BYkB½rTuyehÁenAcugbUB’aRbeTskan;EtrwgmaMeLIg²ral;éf¶ ehIyedIm,IrkSa)annUv sßanPaBenH eKRtÚvRbyuT§tTl;nwgBYkGWr:ubepSg²eTot Edl)anebIknavakat;eRCayénesckþIsgÇwm Edr ehIycUlmkeQøaHdeNþImykGaNacRkmhasmuRT nigTIpSarFM²enAcugbUB’aRbeTsenH. BYkB½r TuyehÁmin)anTTYlsVaKmn_karmkdl;rbs;elak«BukdWLam:utCasasnTUtsBa¢ati)araMgeTCaBiess KWBYkdUmInIkaMg eGs,aj:úl 2nak; KWelak«Buk m:al;DUGat nig dWLa)asÞId EdlRtÚv)anbeNþjecjmin [cUl.elak«BukdWLa)asÞId)anRtÚveKsmøab;ecalenAeBlEdlcuHctkñúgTwkdIkm<úCaehIymrNPaB enaHminEmnCa {TukárPaBénCMenOxøÜnÉgTImYy} dUcEdleKfaenaHeT b:uEnþKWCaGñkrgeRKaH edaysarkar EdlBYkB½rTuyehÁs¥b;ex<ImBYkeGs,aj:úl CaBiess KWBYkdUmInIkaMg EdlCaecARkmkñúgsalakat;kþI katUlikenARbeTseGs:,ajenHEtmþg. BYkB½rTuyehÁs¥b;BYkhuløg;CageK. enAkñúgqñaM1601 BYkB½rTuyehÁ)ankab;smøab;rgÁalRkúm navikhuløg;rbs;k):al;eQµaH hakLwm nigElydW EdlesþcExµr)ansVaKmn_TTYly:agRtwmRtÚv eday mankarcUlédcUleCIgBIBYkmUsøImm:aeL EdlrbrrksuIlk;dUrrbs;eK RtÚv)anrMxanedayBYkhuløg; EdleTIbnwgmkdl;enH. BYkhuløg;RtÚvBYkB½rTuyehÁs¥b;CageKbMput eRBaHRtÚvCasm<½n§miRtrbs;BYkGg;eKøspg )anebIk karvayRbyuT§mkvijenARKb;TIkEnøg eFVI[BYkB½rTuyehÁRbyuT§tbty:agsahavCaTIbMput eRBaHKµan nrNaKaMRT. RbeTseGs:,ajk¾k,t;ehIy)andeNþImykRbeTsB½rTuyehÁdak;CacMNuH mü:ageTot BYk eGs:,ajenH kMBugsb,ayrIkraynwgkarrkeXIjTVIbGaemrik ehIynavaeGs:,ajRtlb;mkBIGaemrik vij dwkmasmkCaeRcIn eFVI[eKk¾cab;RBegIykenþIye)aHbg;TItaMgenANÐaxagekItecal. eRkaymk kar)at;bg;vin½y )aneFVI[BYkB½rTuyehÁEbkExJkKña eTArs;enACamYyBYkGñkRsukedImkñúgnamCaGñksuI QñÜleFVIs®gÁam[esþc. manBYkenHCag1Ban;nak;enAkarBaresþcPUmakñúgqñaM1548/ 360nak;enACa mYyesþcesomkñúgqñaM1550. niyayedayxøI enATINaEdlesþcRsukGaymanluy KWmanvtþmanBYk GñksuIQñÜleFVIs®gÁamB½rTuyehÁehIy. k¾b:uEnþminEmnEtBYkB½rTuyehÁenHeT Edle)aHbg;plRbeyaCn_RbeTsCatirbs;xøÜn eTAbeRmI esþcRsukGay. manBYkGWr:ubepSg²eTotCaeRcInnak;Edr)aneFVIdUecñH CafñÚrnwgplRbeyaCn_ EdlCYn
  • 282. kalmanvisalPaBFMeFg.ehtukarN_enH)annaM[ekItmankarb:HTgÁickarRcENnBIBYkm®nþIGMeBIhigSa BIBYkGWr:ub Edlyl;fa xøÜncMNayeBltRbeyaCn_ RtÚveKe)akbeBaäat emIlgayemIlefak rYcman karbMBanGMNacrbs;RBHraCa karbHe)arrbs;GñkRsuk karTamTarsMNgxUcxat enATIbBa©b;KW ekItman s®gÁamrvagBYkGWr:ub nigGñkRsukGayeLIg BYkenHKµanGavuFGVIRKb;RKan;dUcBYkGWr:ubeT. eyIgnwg)an eXIjenAxageRkamenH nUvs®gÁammYyenAPñMeBjrvagBYkhuløg; CamYynwgT½Brbs;RBHraCa. Rkúmh‘unBaNiC¢kmµrbs;GWr:ub )anbMeBjtYnaTIsMxan;mYyenAcugbUB’aRbeTs enaHKWkareFVI[GaNa cRkFM²Ebk)ak;eTACardætUc². cMeBaHbBaðaenH mundMbUgmanEtBYkB½rTuyehÁmñak;b:ueNÑaH enAedImst vtSr_TI17. ]braCGal;b‘uyEKk )andeNþImyksUs ekaHTIsVúIy:arIn ¬ekaHPUmi30¦ háÚGa nigraCFanI kñúgqñaM1510 EdlGnuBaØat[eKGaceFVIBaNiC¢kmµenAtammat;eqñrsmuRTTaMgGs;. rYcKat;)anvay deNþImykTIRkúgm:aLaka EdlCaehtueFVI[esþcTaMgLayenAekaHCVa s‘Um:aRta nigNÐÚcin naMKñart;mkrk Kat;. Kat;)anvayykTIRkúgGarmUh_SenAelIeqñrsmuRTEBkS EdleFVI[Kat;mansiT§ipþac;muxelIcracrenA kñúgQUgsmuRTEBkS nigenAkñúgsmuRTGam:g;. eRkaymk Kat;)anvayykekaHDIyU enAelIeqñrKUesr:aTI ehIy)ane)aHédeTARtÜtRtaeqñrsmuRThiNÐÚxaglic. enAeBlenaHBYkB½rTuyehÁ manTIPñak;garBaNiC¢ kmµ b¤ePaKniKmBaseBj cab;BInKrEBkSrhUtdl;cugxagt,ÚgRbeTsNÐa eTAdl;eRCaykUm:UruaMg kñúgenaHrYmman)ar:aCI/ s‘Ur:at;/ RkúmekaH)aEsm EdlmanpgEdrnUvbuméb nigsal;EstEdlTijykBI KuhSWr:at/G‘r½n½r/kaNaG‘r½/kalIKUtCaEpEdlv:asáÚdWhÁam:a)ancuHctmundMbUg/kUsaMg/KULan.enAelIeqñr kUr:Um:g;EdlBYkB½rTuyehÁmanNahÁa):ataNamKWCaPUmimYyEdleK)anEkERb[eTACaTIRkúgRbkbeday rbgkarBarrwgmaM sanFum EdlCa m:aRdas sBVéf¶/ ehIynigeqñrrbs;sirIlgáapgEdr. BYkB½rTuyehÁ eBlenaH KWCaesþcenABaseBjGasuI k¾b:uEnþesþcTaMgenaHmansRtÚvCaeRcIn EdlCaGñkmk BIGWr:ubdUc Kña. BYksasn TUtrbs;B½rTuyehÁ )anbBa©úHbBa©ÚlGñkRsuk[ERbmkkan;sasnakatUlikenAeRcInkEnøg kEnøgxøHq¶ay²BITItaMgrbs;eK Cak;EsþgKWeKRbTHeXIjman rhUtdl;sBVéf¶nUvsMNg;)ak;Ebkénvihar katUlik EdleK)ansagsg;. kic©Rbtibtþikarrbs;B½rTuyehÁ minEmnmanenARtwmEtEBkS nigNÐa b:ueNÑaHeT. cab;taMgBIstvtSr_TI16mk BYkenH)aneTAdl;ekaHTaMgLayrbs;Cb:un/ eqñrsmuRTcin/ CVa/ s‘Um:aRta/ éhNaM/ NÐÚcin/ m:ata)an/ etNaesrIm/ PUma/ esom nigkm<úCa pgEdr. eKeXIjmanBYk B½rTuyehÁeFVIdMeNIreTAdl;eQogém:EfmeTot. KitRtwmqñaM1600 BYkenHRtÜtRtaelIBaNiC¢kmµTaMg Gs;rvagcugbUB’aRbeTsCamYyGWr:ubCam©as;elITIRkúgRbkbeTAedayrbgnigkmøaMgkarBarrwgmaMcMnYn30 EdleFVI[esþchiNÐÚ nigNÐÚeNsuI )ak;bbxøbxøacCaxøaMg eFVI[eKkøayeTACamanGMNacCaGñkman ehIy 280 Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa
  • 283. 281Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa naMykPaBsm,Úrsb,ayeTA[RbeTseK. enAeBlenaH cab;epþImmankarbegáItRkúmh‘unBaNiC¢kmµGWr:ubepSg²eTotCaeRcIn KWRkúmh‘unrbs; Gg;eKøsenAkñúgqñaM1601/ huløg;kñúgqñaM1602/ )araMgkñúgqñaM1604/ daNWm:akkñúgqñaM1612 nigman BYkGWr:ubepSgeTot )aneFVIdMeNIrmkdl;TIkEnøgNa EdlBYkB½rTuyehÁ)anmkdl; nigeTAdl;RsukxøHeTot EdlB½rTuyehÁminEdleTAdl;eTotpg. eyIgnwgBinitüemIlehtukarN_enHCabnþeTAeTot enAkñúgst vtSr_TI17.
  • 284. 283Rbvtþisa®sþRbeTskm<úCa CMBUkTI3 BIkarEbk)ak;bnÞaylEgVkenAkñúgqñaM1585 rhUtmkdl;sBVéf¶enH 11-- RRBBHH))aaTTrraammaaeeCCIIggééRRBB ¬¬11559944--11559955¦¦ eyIg)aneXIjrYcehIyBIxagelIfaRBHraCakm<úCaRBHbrmnÞraCa¬RBHstßa¦)anePosRBHGgÁ ecjBIbnÞaylEgVk taMgEtBImuneBlEdlesomvaylukcUlmk edayTuk[RBH]PeyaraC1 RsIsuri eyaBN’ EdleTIbvayesomQñHenAGRmitbUr ¬bribUN’¦ enAkarBarraCFanI. RTg;)anyagCamYynwg RBHraCvgSTaMgGs;kat;eTArkRBHraCbuRtc,g RBHC½yeCdæa EdlrgkarKabsgát;BIT½BesommkBITis xagt,ÚgehIy)anvaydkfyeTAkan;RsIsQr2 CamYynwgRBHGnuCecABjatn;nigBYkGWr:ub2nak;pg. Kg;enARsIsQr)anbnþuic RBHraCvgSanuvgSyl;eXIjfa suvtßiPaBenATIenHminl¥ k¾naMKña eFVIdMeNIreTAsÞwgERtg3 .TIkEnøgRtg;enHRbEhlminEmnCaTwkdIrbs;laveTemIleTAnasm½yenaHb:uEnþ k¾RbEhlCaKµanTMnak;TMngGVIFMdMuCamYykm<úCaEdreRBaHenAq¶ayKWenABIxageCIgCYrsm,úksm,ÚrnigRBHta Bag ¬):atag¦ eTAeTot mü:ageTot GñkRsukPaKeRcInCaCnCatilavpg4 . raCBgSavtar)anelIkmUlehtuepSgcMeBaHkareFVIdMeNIreTAsÞwgERtgenH edayelIkeLIgfa 1 BaküenHmanRbPBecjBIPasasM®sáwt eRbIsRmab;smÁal;raCvgSEdlminGacTTYlraCsm,tþi)an ebIeTaHbICaRBH raCbuRtab¤ntþarbs;esþcRKgraCük¾eday.niyay