AAE/AAVE/BEV/Ebonics “We need to define what we speak. We need to give a clear definition to our language...We know that ebony means black and that phonics refers to speech sounds or the science of sounds. Thus, we are really talking about the science of black speech sounds or language.” Robert Williams
Major VoicesWilliam LabovGeneva SmithermanJohn Ogbu
Features Phonological Patterns:For example, “There’s”, “It’s”, “That’s” are allpronounced as “das”. “There is the dog”, “It is a dog”,and “That is a dog” could all be said as “Das dawg.”
Syntactic features (Ball, 1999; p. 231) Many speakers do not use 3rd person singular, present tense inﬂection[s] as in “He say”. The [s] is frequently used with all persons. Forexample, “I walks, they walks” indicates present tense. “Doug be trying to tell. If this sentence is using the habitual“be”, then the meaning is “Doug is often trying to tell.” If thesentence is using the invariant “be”, then the meaning is“Dougbe intent on trying to tell.” The copula or inﬂected “be” verb is often implicit ; e.g., “Hetall.”Multiple negation is non-emphatic and required; e.g., “The man don’t do or say nothing.”
Semantic Patterns Broadened interpretive meanings: e.g., “dogging” can mean either todegenerate morally or physically or to have an unhappy or harassed existence(Ball, 1999; p. 233).In-group terms: “terms used that are appropriately used byAfrican American to refer to other African American . . . use ofsuch terms by most European American would be inappropriate andconsidered an act of over-familiarity” (Ball, 1999; p. 234).
Stylistic Patterns Boasting or bragging which would be negatively viewed if about personal abilities one doesn’t have, positively if one does have, or negatively if about personal possessions, social achievement of one’s children, regardless of their truth (Ball, 1999: p. 234-235). Balester (1993) notes that signifying, an indirect way to deal with a superior without directly challenging them, was a particularly important stylistic pattern used by her informants when speaking (p.157).
Modes of Discourse Performance mode: Using the techniques of rhythm, patterns of repetition and variation, expressive sounds, and phenomena encouraging participative sense-making like dialogue, tropes, hyperbole and call and response patterns within the text (Dyson, 1991). … Morgan (1998) identiﬁes “signifying or sounding”, “adolescent instigating”, adult conversational signifying”, “reading a person”, and “reading dialect” as “verbal and discourse genres” which “constitute the African-American speech community” (p. 251). ./,;
Organizational Patterns Topic associated: “ ‘Narrative fragments’ that may seem anecdotal in character, linked implicitly to a particular topical event or theme, but with no explicit statement of an overall theme or point’; shift foci often; leave relationships between foci unexplained; offer no recognizable ‘end’ and thus do not seem to have a point; and seem to go longer and not be concise” (Michaels, qtd in Taylor and Matsuda, 1988; 214). By way of contrast, the term “topic-centered” denotes narration which is tightly focused on a single event at one time or place. Rhapsodizing: A series of anecdotes identifying an underlying point rather than an explicit, analytical statement (Erikson, 1984). Ball (1992) has redeﬁned rhapsodizing and topic-associated patterns as “narrative interspersion”, “circumlocution patterns” and “the recursion pattern.”
Holistic KnowingFor example, parents of the children in Trackton (an African Americanworking class community) developed holistic “ways of viewing andoperating in the world” by not talking “about the bits and pieces of theworld” (p. 108). As a result, Trackton children never volunteer to list the attributeswhich are similar in two objects and add up to make one thing likeanother . They seem, instead, to have a gestalt, a highlycontextualized view, of objects which they compare without sortingout the particular single features of the object itself….if askedwhy or how one thing is like another, they do not answer; similarly,they do not respond appropriately to tasks in which they are askedto distinguish one thing as different from another. (p. 108)
Analytic Stylehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=etuPF1yJRzg Heath contrasted the development of language skills among Trackton inhabitants with those of the “townspeople”: [Parents in town] teach children how to decontexualize referents or labels [i.e., they are not linked to speciﬁc dated events or situations]. . . through focused language, adults make the potential stimuli in the child’s environment stand still for a cooperative examination and narration between parent and child. The child learns to focus attention on a pre-selected referent, masters the relationships between signiﬁer and the signiﬁed, develops turn-taking skills in a focused conversation on the referent, and is subsequently expected to listen to, beneﬁt from and eventually to create narratives placing the referent in different contextual situations (p. 351). http://www.educationanddemocracy.org/Emery/Emery_Ebonics.htm
Features of Hispanic American EnglishChicano English A variety of English spokenby many people of Hispanic descent in theSouthwestern United States and California. Itdiffers in systematic ways from StandardAmerican English. Chicano English is not justEnglish spoken by people who speak Spanishas a native language and who are stillacquiring English. Not all speakers of ChicanoEnglish speak Spanish
Chicano EnglishChicano English has some distinctive pronunciation patterns--someshared with African American English (AAE) and other vernaculardialects.the use of a “d” sound instead of a “th” sound: these and them areoften pronounced “dese”and “dem.”the loss of a consonant at the end of a word if that consonant is partof a consonant blend (also called a consonant cluster)For example, the word missed (which sounds the same as mist) willlikely be pronounced as “miss.” Thus, when Chicano English (or AAE)speakers say “I miss’ the bus,” it may sound like they are using thepresent tense of the verb.
Chicano EnglishG-dropping at the end of –ing verb forms, as in fishin’ and goin’. Buthere Chicano English differs from other vernacular varieties: Itsubstitutes an “ee” sound for the short “i” sound in these verbs. Sogoing may sound like “goween."Characterized by what linguists call the “non-reduction of unstressedvowels.” In English, if a syllable is not stressed, its vowel is often“reduced”—that is, pronounced “uh.” For example, most Englishspeakers pronounce the first syllables of because or together with an“uh”: “buh-cuz” and “tuh-gether.” But Chicano English speakers oftenuse “ee” and “oo” sounds even in unstressed syllables: They are likelyto say “bee-cuz” and “too-gether.” http://www.pbs.org/speak/about/guide/#Chicano_English
Midwestern Spanish and English “Reﬂects a long history of immigration, migration, segregation, discrimination, deportation, neglect, struggle, cultural renaissance and recontact.” Rodriguez- Mondenedo.
Caribbean Spanish in the MidwestChanging word and syllable ﬁnal -s to -hsound or deleting it altogetherchanging -n to velar nasal -ng at the end ofa syllable or a word
Narrative StylesYounger Puerto Rican speakers tell moredirect and less elaborated narrativesOlder speakers, with more contact withSpanish, construct more elaboratednarratives, with more evaluations, thehistorical present and more directly-reportedspeech.
Mexican Spanish in the Midwest Pronunciation of -r at end of syllable, resulting in sound like -sh in shut Full pronunciation of -y as in mayo Reduction or deletion of vowels that are not strongly stressed Full pronunciation of -s at end of syllables OR deletion, e.g., chicas sounds like chica
Archaisms and Nahuatlmande in place of comogüeroNahuatalisms: popote (drinking straw)colliquialisms: padre (super cool)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lqtgJLr_T40
While we’re 1 Juq (Juk, hoq)at it. . . 2 Iskay (iskai) 3 Kinsa (Kimsa) 4 Tawa 5 Pichqa (pisqa) 6 Soqta 7 Kanchis (qanchis) Counting in 8 Pusac (pusaq) 9 Isqon (iskun) Quechua 10 Chunka http://www.andes.org/audio/count.wav
Varieties of Spanishvariety in accentslexical: aguacate o paltaFoods: tacos and tortillas foreign foods tomany speakers. Tostada in Peru is toast. Rodriguez-Mondenedo, M. (2006). In The American Midwest: An interpretive encyclopedia, Eds. Sisson. R,, Zacher, C. and Cayton, A. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Cognatesedifício; problema; preocupado (often,changing -cion to -tion as in nacional)and FALSE COGNATES embarasada
Patois: Pidgins and CreolesPidgin: simpliﬁed language usually forbusiness transactionshttp://www.wolframalpha.com/entities/languages/tay_boi/bw/5k/az/Creole: A pidgin that survives a generation and becomes a languagecommunity (nativization)
Cajun French and Cajun Englishhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BRXcpBIteEMhttp://thecajunbayoudictionary.webs.com/
Linguistic RelativismAll languages and dialects arecomprehensible and must be studied assystems
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis “People of different cultures think and behave differenty because the languages they speak require them to do so” (Rowe and Levine, p. 222) “One might say that Hopi society understands our proverb ‘Well begun is half- done,’ but not our ‘Tomorrow is another day.’” B. Whorf
Chapter Eight Language AcquisitionHalliday (1975) identifies seven functions that language has for childrenin their early years. For Halliday, children are motivated to acquirelanguage because it serves certain purposes or functions for them. Thefirst four functions help the child to satisfy physical, emotional and socialneeds. Halliday calls them instrumental, regulatory, interactional, andpersonal functions.
■ Instrumental: This is when the child uses language to express their needs (e.g.Want juice)■ Regulatory: This is where language is used to tell others what to do (e.g. Go away)■ Interactional: Here language is used to make contact with others and form relationships (e.g. Love you, mummy)■ Personal: This is the use of language to express feelings, opinions, and individual identity (e.g. Me good girl)
The next three functions are heuristic, imaginative, and representational, all helping the child to come to terms with his or her environment.■ Heuristic: This is when language is used to gain knowledge about the environment (e.g. What the tractor doing?)■ Imaginative: Here language is used to tell stories and jokes, and to create an imaginary environment.■ Representational: The use of language to convey facts and information.