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  • 1. capsicum Made by :Khloud A.Elbasetunder supervision of Prof. Dr. / MOHAMED ELSAYED
  • 2. IntroductionFamily : capsicum (the name it camefrom )Molecular Formula: C18H27NO3IUPAC Name : 8-Methyl-N-vanillyl-trans-6-nonenamide Molecular Mass :305.41 g/molAppearance : colorless crystalline orhydrophobic (waxy) compoundMelting point: 62 - 65 °C
  • 3. Chemical structure : Capsaicin and its analogues:
  • 4. Uses FoodBecause of the burning sensation causedby capsaicin when it comes in contact withhuman flesh, it is commonly used in foodproducts to give them added spice.Hot sauce is an example of a productcustomarily containing largeamounts of capsaicin and may contain chilipeppers
  • 5. Medical usesCapsaicin is currently used: 1.In ointments to relieve the pain ofperipheral neuropathy such as post-herpetic neuralgia caused by shingles. Itmay be used in concentrations of between0.025% and 0.075%2.It may also be used as a cream for thetemporary relief of minor aches and painsof muscles and joints associated witharthritis, simple backache.
  • 6. 3. may cause weight loss :Past researchsuggests that obesity can be reduced bypreventing immature fat cells (adipocytes) fromdeveloping into mature cells. 4. capsaicin is being explored as a cure fordiabetes by researchers in Toronto, Canada.Capsaicin was injected into pancreatic sensorynerves of mice with Type 1 diabetes because ofa suspected link between the nerves anddiabetes, & it is also has a role in controllingtype 11 diabetes …….5. The American Association for Cancer Researchreports studies suggesting capsaicin is able tokill prostate cancer cells by causing them to
  • 7. Mechanism of actionA. Feeling pain :Capsaicin, as a member of the vanilloid family,binds to a receptor called the vanilloidreceptor(VR1)By binding to the VR1, result in "depolarization"of the neuron stimulates it to release aneurotransmitter signal the brain ( feel pain orburn sensation )…
  • 8. B. DesensitizationWith chronic exposure to capsaicin, neurons aredepleted of neurotransmitters. This leads toreduction in sensation of pain and blockade ofneurogenic inflammation. If capsaicin isremoved, the neurons recover.
  • 9. Mech. Of diabetes control :In Type1 diabetes Scientists “Doctor Dosch” found that islet cellsin diabetics were surrounded by an "enormous"number of pain nerves that signaled the brainthat the pancreatic tissue was damaged ; thusthe pancreas fails to produce sufficient levels ofinsulin, causing inflammation and death ofinsulin-producing islet cells in the pancreas.To test their theory, they injected capsaicin intomice that had Type 1 diabetes, to kill theanimals pancreatic pain nerves. Theresearchers said they were stunned to discoverthat the injected mices islet cells beganproducing insulin normally almost immediately.
  • 10. N.B :Capsaicin "high“The "capsaicin high" is a euphoric: As It is theorized that the pain induced bycapsaicin causes the human body to releaseendorphins. Eventually, enough are releasedto create a sensation that is frequentlycompared to "runners high".
  • 11. Practical experimentTools :a. Capsaicin extraction: 1) Finely chop/grind the peppers2) Add solvent, allow capsaicin to dissolve in it.3) Filter, evaporate filtrate.b. 4 gps of 5 rats
  • 12. Method : 1. 4 gps of 5 rats ( control , 3 diabetic ). a. control  with normal BGL eats normally . b. gp2  diabetic rats with diet control . c. gp3 diabetic rats taking insulin treatment d. gp4  diabetic rats taking capsaicin.2. Insulin and capsaicin administration : Two injections daily of a mixture of insulin orcapsaicin 50mg/kg (before breakfast and themain evening meal) Injections by syringe are usually given into thedeep SC tissue through a two-finger pinch ofskin at a 45° angle
  • 13. Gp 1 gp2 gp3gp4Control diabetic diabeticdiabetic
  • 14. Tests : 1. blood glucose level : a.fasting blood glucose level b. postprandial glucose level2. HTRF® Insulin assay: The assay is asandwich immunoassay that uses twomonoclonal antibodies, one labeled with Eu3+-Cryptate and one labeled with XL665 thatrecognize distinct epitopes. The assay isperformed in a single step and only requires oneincubation
  • 15. Results Test Control gp2 gp3 gp4BGL: a. FBG 80mg/dl 180mg/dl 140mg/dl 90mg/dl b. PPGL 110mg/dl 200mg/dl 100mg/dl 115mg/dl + + + +ve -ve + +ve + + +ve Insulin test
  • 16. Graphs
  • 17. Conclusion :In case of diabetes type 1 ( insulindependent diabetes ) capsaicin is used fortreatment of pancreatic neuronsinflammation result in producing insulinnormally again .

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